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Sample records for support demethylating activity

  1. Gadd45a promotes DNA demethylation through TDG

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zheng; Gu, Tian-Peng; Weber, Alain R.; Shen, Jia-Zhen; Li, Bin-Zhong; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Ruichuan; Guo, Fan; Liu, Xiaomeng; Tang, Fuchou; Wang, Hailin; Sch?r, Primo; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 (Gadd45) family members have been implicated in DNA demethylation in vertebrates. However, it remained unclear how they contribute to the demethylation process. Here, we demonstrate that Gadd45a promotes active DNA demethylation through thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) which has recently been shown to excise 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated in Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet)?initiated oxidative demethylation. The conn...

  2. IL-2 and GM-CSF are regulated by DNA demethylation during activation of T cells, B cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Ohms, Stephen J.; Shannon, Frances M.; Sun, Chao; Fan, Jun Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DNA methylation is dynamic and flexible and changes rapidly upon cell activation. ► DNA methylation controls the inducible gene expression in a given cell type. ► Some enzymes are involved in maintaining the methylation profile of immune cells. -- Abstract: DNA demethylation has been found to occur at the promoters of a number of actively expressed cytokines and is believed to play a critical role in transcriptional regulation. While many DNA demethylation studies have focused on T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, changes in DNA methylation in other types of immune cells are less well studied. We found that the expression of two cytokines (IL-2 and GM-CSF) responded differently to activation in three types of immune cells: EL4, A20 and RAW264.7 cells. Using the McrBC and MeDIP approaches, we observed decreases in DNA methylation at a genome-wide level and at the promoters of the genes of these cytokines. The expression of several potential enzymes/co-enzymes involved in the DNA demethylation pathways seemed to be associated with immune cell activation.

  3. Demethylation of arsenic limits its volatilization in fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shiming; Zeng, Xibai; Feng, Qiufen; Bai, Lingyu; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Sheng; Li, Aiguo; Duan, Ran; Wang, Xiurong; Wu, Cuixia; Wang, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) biomethylation is increasingly being regarded as a promising method to volatize As from the environment; however, the As volatilization efficiency of most microorganisms is low. Here, the speciation transformation of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) as an important methylation intermediate in the cells of Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1 were investigated. These fungal strains have been certified to volatilize As from As-loaded environment. In situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicated that demethylation of DMA with methylarsonic acid (MMA), arsenate [As(V)], and arsenite [As(III)] as intermediates or products occurred in fungal cells after exposure to DMA for 15 days. 36.7–55.7% of the original DMA could lose one or two methyl groups and be changed into MMA or inorganic As. Chromatographic separation of the cell lysates also supported these findings. Thus it comes that demethylation might be a remarkable internal factor limiting As volatilization efficiency. - Highlights: • XAS and chromatographic separation were used to study the speciation change of DMA. • DMA demethylation with MMA, As(V), and As(III) as products occurred in fungal cells. • Demethylation might be responsible for the limited volatilization efficiency of As. - Demethylation might be responsible for the limited methylation efficiency of As

  4. Gender Differences in Global but Not Targeted Demethylation in iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Milagre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global DNA demethylation is an integral part of reprogramming processes in vivo and in vitro, but whether it occurs in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is not known. Here, we show that iPSC reprogramming involves both global and targeted demethylation, which are separable mechanistically and by their biological outcomes. Cells at intermediate-late stages of reprogramming undergo transient genome-wide demethylation, which is more pronounced in female cells. Global demethylation requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-mediated downregulation of UHRF1 protein, and abolishing demethylation leaves thousands of hypermethylated regions in the iPSC genome. Independently of AID and global demethylation, regulatory regions, particularly ESC enhancers and super-enhancers, are specifically targeted for hypomethylation in association with transcription of the pluripotency network. Our results show that global and targeted DNA demethylation are conserved and distinct reprogramming processes, presumably because of their respective roles in epigenetic memory erasure and in the establishment of cell identity.

  5. IL-2 and GM-CSF are regulated by DNA demethylation during activation of T cells, B cells and macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); Ohms, Stephen J. [ACRF Biomolecular Resource Facility, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); Shannon, Frances M. [Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia); The University of Canberra, ACT 2602 (Australia); Sun, Chao, E-mail: sunchao2775@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Fan, Jun Y., E-mail: jun.fan@anu.edu.au [Department of Genome Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation is dynamic and flexible and changes rapidly upon cell activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation controls the inducible gene expression in a given cell type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some enzymes are involved in maintaining the methylation profile of immune cells. -- Abstract: DNA demethylation has been found to occur at the promoters of a number of actively expressed cytokines and is believed to play a critical role in transcriptional regulation. While many DNA demethylation studies have focused on T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, changes in DNA methylation in other types of immune cells are less well studied. We found that the expression of two cytokines (IL-2 and GM-CSF) responded differently to activation in three types of immune cells: EL4, A20 and RAW264.7 cells. Using the McrBC and MeDIP approaches, we observed decreases in DNA methylation at a genome-wide level and at the promoters of the genes of these cytokines. The expression of several potential enzymes/co-enzymes involved in the DNA demethylation pathways seemed to be associated with immune cell activation.

  6. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  7. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  8. Demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, reverses differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji-Takayama, Kazue; Inoue, Toshiya; Ijiri, Yoshihiro; Otani, Takeshi; Motoda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shuji; Orita, Kunzo

    2004-01-01

    The de novo methylation activity is essential for embryonic development as well as embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, where the intensive and extensive DNA methylation was detected. In this study, we investigated the effects of a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), on differentiated ES cells in order to study the possibility of reversing the differentiation process. We first induced differentiation of ES cells by forming embryoid bodies, and then the cells were treated with 5-AzaC. The cells showed some undifferentiated features such as stem cell-like morphology with unclear cell-to-cell boundary and proliferative responsiveness to LIF. Moreover, 5-AzaC increased the expressions of ES specific markers, SSEA-1, and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as ES specific genes, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We also found that 5-AzaC demethylated the promoter region of H19 gene, a typical methylated gene during embryonic differentiation. These results indicate that 5-AzaC reverses differentiation state of ES cells through its DNA demethylating activity to differentiation related genes

  9. A New Synthetic Route to Dihydrobenzopyran Via Tandem Demethylation Cyclisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A tandem demethylation-cyclisation reaction resulting in the formation of pyran rings using AlCl3/EtSH reagent under mild reaction conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction studies on the intermediate support the suggested mechanism.

  10. Promoter demethylation of Keap1 gene in human diabetic cataractous lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsamy, Periyasamy [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Ayaki, Masahiko [Shizuoka National Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Elanchezhian, Rajan [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Shinohara, Toshimichi, E-mail: tshinohara@unmc.edu [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant Keap1 promoter demethylation in diabetic cataractous lenses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demethylation of Keap1 gene upregulated the expression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated levels of Keap1 are known to decrease the levels of Nrf2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thereby, the levels of antioxidant enzymes are suppressed by decreased Nrf2 level. -- Abstract: Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are the major cause of visual impairments worldwide, and diabetic adults tend to have an earlier onset of ARCs. Although age is the strongest risk factor for cataracts, little is known how age plays a role in the development of ARCs. It is known that oxidative stress in the lens increases with age and more so in the lenses of diabetics. One of the central adaptive responses against the oxidative stresses is the activation of the nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which then activates more than 20 different antioxidative enzymes. Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) targets and binds to Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia will lead to a dysfunction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative protection in the lens of diabetics. We studied the methylation status of the CpG islands in 15 clear and 21 diabetic cataractous lenses. Our results showed significant levels of demethylated DNA in the Keap1 promoter in the cataractous lenses from diabetic patients. In contrast, highly methylated DNA was found in the clear lens and tumorized human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines (SRA01/04). HLECs treated with a demethylation agent, 5-aza-2 Prime deoxycytidine (5-Aza), had a 10-fold higher levels of Keap1 mRNA, 3-fold increased levels of Keap1 protein, produced higher levels of ROS, and increased cell death. Our results indicated that demethylation of the CpG islands in the Keap1 promoter will activate the expression of Keap1 protein, which

  11. Promoter demethylation of Keap1 gene in human diabetic cataractous lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsamy, Periyasamy; Ayaki, Masahiko; Elanchezhian, Rajan; Shinohara, Toshimichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found significant Keap1 promoter demethylation in diabetic cataractous lenses. ► Demethylation of Keap1 gene upregulated the expression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. ► Elevated levels of Keap1 are known to decrease the levels of Nrf2. ► Thereby, the levels of antioxidant enzymes are suppressed by decreased Nrf2 level. -- Abstract: Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are the major cause of visual impairments worldwide, and diabetic adults tend to have an earlier onset of ARCs. Although age is the strongest risk factor for cataracts, little is known how age plays a role in the development of ARCs. It is known that oxidative stress in the lens increases with age and more so in the lenses of diabetics. One of the central adaptive responses against the oxidative stresses is the activation of the nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which then activates more than 20 different antioxidative enzymes. Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) targets and binds to Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia will lead to a dysfunction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative protection in the lens of diabetics. We studied the methylation status of the CpG islands in 15 clear and 21 diabetic cataractous lenses. Our results showed significant levels of demethylated DNA in the Keap1 promoter in the cataractous lenses from diabetic patients. In contrast, highly methylated DNA was found in the clear lens and tumorized human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines (SRA01/04). HLECs treated with a demethylation agent, 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-Aza), had a 10-fold higher levels of Keap1 mRNA, 3-fold increased levels of Keap1 protein, produced higher levels of ROS, and increased cell death. Our results indicated that demethylation of the CpG islands in the Keap1 promoter will activate the expression of Keap1 protein, which then increases the targeting of Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. Decreased Nrf2 activity represses the

  12. Stereoselectivity of the demethylation of nicotine piperidine homologues by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Trixie Ann; Molinié, Roland; Roscher, Albrecht; Felpin, François-Xavier; Gillet, Françoise; Lebreton, Jacques; Mesnard, François; Robins, Richard J

    2005-08-01

    The metabolism of (R,S)-N-methylanabasine and (R,S)-N-methylanatabine has been studied in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Both substrates are effectively demethylated, anabasine or anatabine, respectively, accumulating in the medium. Similarly, there is strong stereoselectivity for the (R)-isomers of both substrates. The kinetics of metabolism of (R,S)-N-methylanabasine differ significantly from those of nicotine in that no further degradation of the initial demethylation product occurs. (R,S)-N-Methylanatabine, however, shows kinetics closer to those of nicotine, with loss of alkaloid from the system. Further more, (R,S)-N-methylanabasine does not diminish (S)-nicotine demethylation, indicating a lack of competition. However, the metabolism of (S)-nicotine is affected by the presence of (R,S)-N-methylanabasine. Hence, the demethylation of the piperidine homologues of nicotine is seen to be similar but not identical to that of the pyridine analogues. The implications of these different metabolic profiles in relation to the demethylation activity are discussed.

  13. Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Pallavi; Pandey, Vijaya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied Pol II transcription factor Sp1 has not been investigated for its regulatory role in rDNA transcription. Here, we show that Sp1 bound to specific sites on rDNA and localized into the nucleoli during the G1 phase of cell cycle to activate rDNA transcription. It facilitated the recruitment of Pol I pre-initiation complex and impeded the binding of nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC) to rDNA resulting in the formation of euchromatin active state. More importantly, Sp1 also orchestrated the site-specific binding of Gadd45a-nucleotide excision repair (NER) complex resulting in active demethylation and transcriptional activation of rDNA. Interestingly, knockdown of Sp1 impaired rDNA transcription due to reduced engagement of the Gadd45a-NER complex and hypermethylation of rDNA. Thus, the present study unveils a novel role of Sp1 in rDNA transcription involving promoter demethylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ligand Binding Affinities of Arctigenin and Its Demethylated Metabolites to Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Hattori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (−-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (−-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL by Eubacterium (E. sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (−-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (−-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC50 value of (2R,3R-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10−4 M.

  15. Enhanced photo(geno)toxicity of demethylated chlorpromazine metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Fabrizio [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Lainez, Guillermo [Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) La Fe, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Avenida de Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Limones-Herrero, Daniel [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Coloma, M. Dolores; Escobar, Javier [Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) La Fe, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Avenida de Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Jiménez, M. Consuelo [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Miranda, Miguel A., E-mail: mmiranda@qim.upv.es [Instituto de Tecnología Química UPV-CSIC/Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); and others

    2016-12-15

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression. Unfortunately, CPZ exhibits undesirable side effects such as phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in humans. In general, the influence of drug metabolism on this type of reactions has not been previously considered in photosafety testing. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the possible photo(geno)toxic potential of drug metabolites, using CPZ as an established reference compound. In this case, the metabolites selected for the study are demethylchlorpromazine (DMCPZ), didemethylchlorpromazine (DDMCPZ) and chlorpromazine sulfoxide (CPZSO). The demethylated CPZ metabolites DMCPZ and DDMCPZ maintain identical chromophore to the parent drug. In this work, it has been found that the nature of the aminoalkyl side chain modulates the hydrophobicity and the photochemical properties (for instance, the excited state lifetimes), but it does not change the photoreactivity pattern, which is characterized by reductive photodehalogenation, triggered by homolytic carbon-chlorine bond cleavage with formation of highly reactive aryl radical intermediates. Accordingly, these metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the 3T3 NRU assay; their photo-irritation factors are even higher than that of CPZ. The same trend is observed in photogenotoxicity studies, both with isolated and with cellular DNA, where DMCPZ and DDMCPZ are more active than CPZ itself. In summary, side-chain demethylation of CPZ, as a consequence of Phase I biotransformation, does not result a photodetoxification. Instead, it leads to metabolites that exhibit in an even enhanced photo(geno)toxicity. - Highlights: • Demethylated CPZ metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the NRU assay. • Single cell electrophoresis (Comet Assay) confirms the photodamage to cellular DNA. • DNA single strand breaks formation is observed on agarose gel electrophoresis.

  16. Enhanced photo(geno)toxicity of demethylated chlorpromazine metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, Fabrizio; Garcia-Lainez, Guillermo; Limones-Herrero, Daniel; Coloma, M. Dolores; Escobar, Javier; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression. Unfortunately, CPZ exhibits undesirable side effects such as phototoxic and photoallergic reactions in humans. In general, the influence of drug metabolism on this type of reactions has not been previously considered in photosafety testing. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the possible photo(geno)toxic potential of drug metabolites, using CPZ as an established reference compound. In this case, the metabolites selected for the study are demethylchlorpromazine (DMCPZ), didemethylchlorpromazine (DDMCPZ) and chlorpromazine sulfoxide (CPZSO). The demethylated CPZ metabolites DMCPZ and DDMCPZ maintain identical chromophore to the parent drug. In this work, it has been found that the nature of the aminoalkyl side chain modulates the hydrophobicity and the photochemical properties (for instance, the excited state lifetimes), but it does not change the photoreactivity pattern, which is characterized by reductive photodehalogenation, triggered by homolytic carbon-chlorine bond cleavage with formation of highly reactive aryl radical intermediates. Accordingly, these metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the 3T3 NRU assay; their photo-irritation factors are even higher than that of CPZ. The same trend is observed in photogenotoxicity studies, both with isolated and with cellular DNA, where DMCPZ and DDMCPZ are more active than CPZ itself. In summary, side-chain demethylation of CPZ, as a consequence of Phase I biotransformation, does not result a photodetoxification. Instead, it leads to metabolites that exhibit in an even enhanced photo(geno)toxicity. - Highlights: • Demethylated CPZ metabolites are phototoxic to cells, as revealed by the NRU assay. • Single cell electrophoresis (Comet Assay) confirms the photodamage to cellular DNA. • DNA single strand breaks formation is observed on agarose gel electrophoresis.

  17. Spatial control of protein phosphatase 2A (de)methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longin, Sari; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Martens, Ellen; Louis, Justin V.; Rondelez, Evelien; Goris, Jozef; Janssens, Veerle

    2008-01-01

    Reversible methylation of the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A C ) is an important regulatory mechanism playing a crucial role in the selective recruitment of regulatory B subunits. Here, we investigated the subcellular localization of leucine carboxyl methyltransferase (LCMT1) and protein phosphatase methylesterase (PME-1), the two enzymes catalyzing this process. The results show that PME-1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus and harbors a functional nuclear localization signal, whereas LCMT1 is underrepresented in the nucleus and mainly localizes to the cytoplasm, Golgi region and late endosomes. Indirect immunofluorescence with methylation-sensitive anti-PP2A C antibodies revealed a good correlation with the methylation status of PP2A C , demethylated PP2A C being substantially nuclear. Throughout mitosis, demethylated PP2A C is associated with the mitotic spindle and during cytokinesis with the cleavage furrow. Overexpression of PME-1, but not of an inactive mutant, results in increased demethylation of PP2A C in the nucleus, whereas overexpression of a cytoplasmic PME-1 mutant lacking the NLS results in increased demethylation in the cytoplasm-in all cases, however, without any obvious functional consequences. PME-1 associates with an inactive PP2A population, regardless of its esterase activity or localization. We propose that stabilization of this inactive, nuclear PP2A pool is a major in vivo function of PME-1

  18. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers

  19. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2014-03-15

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers.

  20. ERRα induces H3K9 demethylation by LSD1 to promote cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Forcet, Christelle; Zhang, Ling; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Boudra, Rafik; Cerutti, Catherine; Billas, Isabelle M. L.; Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Carroll, Jason S.; Beaudoin, Claude; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) removes mono- and dimethyl groups from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) or H3K9, resulting in repressive or activating (respectively) transcriptional histone marks. The mechanisms that control the balance between these two antagonist activities are not understood. We here show that LSD1 and the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) display commonly activated genes. Transcriptional activation by LSD1 and ERRα involves H3K9 demethylation at the transcriptional start site (TSS). Strikingly, ERRα is sufficient to induce LSD1 to demethylate H3K9 in vitro. The relevance of this mechanism is highlighted by functional data. LSD1 and ERRα coregulate several target genes involved in cell migration, including the MMP1 matrix metallo-protease, also activated through H3K9 demethylation at the TSS. Depletion of LSD1 or ERRα reduces the cellular capacity to invade the extracellular matrix, a phenomenon that is rescued by MMP1 reexpression. Altogether our results identify a regulatory network involving a direct switch in the biochemical activities of a histone demethylase, leading to increased cell invasion. PMID:28348226

  1. ERRα induces H3K9 demethylation by LSD1 to promote cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Forcet, Christelle; Zhang, Ling; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Boudra, Rafik; Cerutti, Catherine; Billas, Isabelle M L; Sérandour, Aurélien A; Carroll, Jason S; Beaudoin, Claude; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2017-04-11

    Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) removes mono- and dimethyl groups from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) or H3K9, resulting in repressive or activating (respectively) transcriptional histone marks. The mechanisms that control the balance between these two antagonist activities are not understood. We here show that LSD1 and the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) display commonly activated genes. Transcriptional activation by LSD1 and ERRα involves H3K9 demethylation at the transcriptional start site (TSS). Strikingly, ERRα is sufficient to induce LSD1 to demethylate H3K9 in vitro. The relevance of this mechanism is highlighted by functional data. LSD1 and ERRα coregulate several target genes involved in cell migration, including the MMP1 matrix metallo-protease, also activated through H3K9 demethylation at the TSS. Depletion of LSD1 or ERRα reduces the cellular capacity to invade the extracellular matrix, a phenomenon that is rescued by MMP1 reexpression. Altogether our results identify a regulatory network involving a direct switch in the biochemical activities of a histone demethylase, leading to increased cell invasion.

  2. Fast Curing Bio-Based Phenolic Resins via Lignin Demethylated under Mild Reaction Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Jiongjiong Li; Jizhi Zhang; Shifeng Zhang; Qiang Gao; Jianzhang Li; Wei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Demethylation technique has been used to enhance lignin reactivity for preparation of phenolic resins. However, the demethylation efficiency and the demethylated lignin (DL) reactivity were still unsatisfactory. To improve the demethylation efficiency, alkali lignin was demethylated under different mild conditions using sodium sulfite as a catalyst. Lignin and DL were characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to determine the deme...

  3. Oxidative demethylation of monomethylmercury in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oremland, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that demethylation of monomethylmercury proceeds in nature by a simple organo-mercury lyase reaction resulting in the production of CH 4 and Hg 2+ , which is further reduced to Hg 0 . Addition of 14 CH 3 HgI to sediments resulted in the production of mainly 14 CO 2 and some 14 CH 4 . In the case of estuarine sediments, production of both these gases was only observed under anaerobiosis, and was totally inhibited by MoO 4 2- , which indicated the involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the case of anaerobic freshwater sediments, results with inhibitors indicated that both methanogens and sulfate reducers were involved in this oxidative demethylation. Aerobic incubation of estuarine sediments resulted in the production of only 14 CH 4 , indicating the importance of the organo-mercurial lyase reaction under this condition. However, in freshwater sediments, this reaction was not observed, and the oxidative demethylation reaction was predominant either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A methylotrophic methanogen (GS-16) was able to form traces of 14 CH 4 and 14 CO 2 from 14 CH 3 HgI, and some strains of sulfate-reducers formed traces of 14 CH 4 . Addition of methanol to anaerobic freshwater sediments partially inhibited production of 14 CH 4 and 14 CO 2 , but not CH 4 . These results suggest that oxidative demethylation proceeds by an established pathway for C-1 metabolism

  4. EG-13GENOME-WIDE METHYLATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES GENOMIC DNA DEMETHYLATION DURING MALIGNANT PROGRESSION OF GLIOMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kuniaki; Mukasa, Akitake; Nagae, Genta; Aihara, Koki; Otani, Ryohei; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Omata, Mayu; Tanaka, Shota; Shibahara, Junji; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Shimamura, Teppei; Miyano, Satoru; Narita, Yoshitaka; Ueki, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Ryo; Nagane, Motoo; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Saito, Nobuhito

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas often undergo malignant progression, and these transformations are a leading cause of death in patients with low-grade gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant tumor progression are still not well understood. Recent evidence indicates that epigenetic deregulation is an important cause of gliomagenesis; therefore, we examined the impact of epigenetic changes during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas. Specifically, we used the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 120 gliomas and four normal brains. This study sample included 25 matched-pairs of initial low-grade gliomas and recurrent tumors (temporal heterogeneity) and 20 of the 25 recurring tumors recurred as malignant progressions, and one matched-pair of newly emerging malignant lesions and pre-existing lesions (spatial heterogeneity). Analyses of methylation profiles demonstrated that most low-grade gliomas in our sample (43/51; 84%) had a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). Remarkably, approximately 50% of secondary glioblastomas that had progressed from low-grade tumors with the G-CIMP status exhibited a characteristic partial demethylation of genomic DNA during malignant progression, but other recurrent gliomas showed no apparent change in DNA methylation pattern. Interestingly, we found that most loci that were demethylated during malignant progression were located outside of CpG islands. The information of histone modifications patterns in normal human astrocytes and embryonal stem cells also showed that the ratio of active marks at the site corresponding to DNA demethylated loci in G-CIMP-demethylated tumors was significantly lower; this finding indicated that most demethylated loci in G-CIMP-demethylated tumors were likely transcriptionally inactive. A small number of the genes that were upregulated and had demethylated CpG islands were associated with cell cycle-related pathway. In

  5. Methylmercury decomposition in sediments and bacterial cultures: Involvement of methanogens and sulfate reducers in oxidative demethylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oremland, R.S.; Culbertson, C.W.; Winfrey, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of mercury has received considerable attention because of the toxicity of methylmercury, its bioaccumulation in biota, and its biomagnification in aquatic food chains. The formation of methylmercury is mediated primarily by microorganisms. Demethylation of monomethylmercury in freshwater and estuarine sediments and in bacterial cultures was investigated with 14 CH 3 HgI. Under anaerobiosis, results with inhibitors indicated partial involvement of both sulfate reducers and methanogens, the former dominated estuarine sediments, while both were active in freshwaters. Aerobes were the most significant demethylators in estuarine sediments, but were unimportant in freshwater sediments. Products of anaerobic demthylation were mainly 14 CO 2 as well as lesser amounts of 14 CH 4 . Acetogenic activity resulted in fixation of some 14 CO 2 produced from 14 CH 3 HgI into acetate. Aerobic demethylation in estuarine sediments produced only 14 CH 4 , while aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments produced small amounts of both 14 CH 4 and 14 CO 2 . Two species of Desulfovibrio produced only traces of 14 CH 4 from 14 CH 3 HgI, while a culture of a methylotrophic methanogen formed traces of 14 CO 2 and 14 CH 4 when grown on trimethylamine in the presence of the 14 CH 3 HgI. These results indicate that both aerobes and anaerobes demethylate mercury in sediments, but that either group may dominate in a particular sediment type. Aerobic demethylation in the estuarine sediments appeared to proceed by the previously characterized organomercurial-lyase pathway, because methane was the sole product. This indicates the presence of an oxidative pathway, possibly one in which methylmercury serves as an analog of one-carbon substrates

  6. Global DNA hypermethylation-associated cancer chemotherapy resistance and its reversion with the demethylating agent hydralazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez-Bribiesca Luis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. It has been shown that cells exposed to toxic concentrations of commonly used cancer chemotherapy agents develop DNA hypermetylation. Hence, demethylating agents could play a role in overcoming drug resistance. Methods MCF-7 cells were rendered adriamycin-resistant by weekly treatment with adriamycin. Wild-type and the resulting MCF-7/Adr cells were analyzed for global DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase activity and DNA methyltransferase (dnmt gene expression were also determined. MCF-7/Adr cells were then subjected to antisense targeting of dnmt1, -3a, and -b genes and to treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine to investigate whether DNA demethylation restores sensitivity to adriamycin. Results MCF-7/Adr cells exhibited the multi-drug resistant phenotype as demonstrated by adriamycin resistance, mdr1 gene over-expression, decreased intracellular accumulation of adriamycin, and cross-resistance to paclitaxel. The mdr phenotype was accompanied by global DNA hypermetylation, over-expression of dnmt genes, and increased DNA methyltransferase activity as compared with wild-type MCF-7 cells. DNA demethylation through antisense targeting of dnmts or hydralazine restored adriamycin sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr cells to a greater extent than verapamil, a known inhibitor of mdr protein, suggesting that DNA demethylation interferes with the epigenetic reprogramming that participates in the drug-resistant phenotype. Conclusion We provide evidence that DNA hypermethylation is at least partly responsible for development of the multidrug-resistant phenotype in the MCF-7/Adr model and that hydralazine, a known DNA demethylating agent, can revert the resistant phenotype.

  7. Theoretical study on the N-demethylation mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Kang, Yuan; Xue, Zhiyu; Wang, Yongting; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Qiu; Chen, Zeqin; Xue, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Theobromine, a widely consumed pharmacological active substance, can cause undesirable muscle stiffness, nausea and anorexia in high doses ingestion. The main N-demethylation metabolic mechanism of theobromine catalyzed by P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) has been explored in this work using the unrestricted hybrid density functional method UB3LYP in conjunction with the LACVP(Fe)/6-31G (H, C, N, O, S, Cl) basis set. Single-point calculations including empirical dispersion corrections were carried out at the higher 6-311++G** basis set. Two N-demethylation pathways were characterized, i.e., 3-N and 7-N demethylations, which involve the initial N-methyl hydroxylation to form carbinolamines and the subsequent carbinolamines decomposition to yield monomethylxanthines and formaldehydes. Our results have shown that the rate-limiting N-methyl hydroxylation occurs via a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, which proceeds in a spin-selective mechanism (SSM) in the gas phase. The carbinolamines generated are prone to decomposition via the contiguous heteroatom-assisted proton-transfer. Strikingly, 3-N demethylation is more favorable than 7-N demethylation due to its lower free energy barrier and 7-methylxanthine therefore is the optimum product reported for the demethylation of theobromine catalyzed by CYP1A2, which are in good agreement with the experimental observation. This work has first revealed the detail N-demethylation mechanisms of theobromine at the theoretical level. It can offer more significant information for the metabolism of purine alkaloid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fast Curing Bio-Based Phenolic Resins via Lignin Demethylated under Mild Reaction Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongjiong Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Demethylation technique has been used to enhance lignin reactivity for preparation of phenolic resins. However, the demethylation efficiency and the demethylated lignin (DL reactivity were still unsatisfactory. To improve the demethylation efficiency, alkali lignin was demethylated under different mild conditions using sodium sulfite as a catalyst. Lignin and DL were characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy to determine the demethylation mechanism. With the demethylation of lignin, the methoxyl group content decreased from 1.93 m mol/g to 1.09 m mol/g, and the phenolic hydroxyl group content increased from 0.56 m mol/g to 0.82 m mol/g. These results revealed that methoxyl groups were attacked by SO32−, and some methoxyl groups were converted to phenolic hydroxyl groups by a nucleophilic substitution reaction, generating DL with high reactivity. The chemical properties of lignin-based phenolic resins were studied by 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, and their physical properties were also investigated. The results indicated that lignin-based phenolic resins exhibited faster curing rate and shorter gel time. In addition, the bonding strength increased from 0.92 MPa to 1.07 MPa, and the formaldehyde emission decreased from 0.58 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L after lignin demethylated at the optimum condition.

  9. Arsenic Demethylation by a C·As Lyase in Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Ye, Jun; Xue, Xi-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Arsenic, a ubiquitous toxic substance, exists mainly as inorganic forms in the environment. It is perceived that organoarsenicals can be demethylated and degraded into inorganic arsenic by microorganisms. Few studies have focused on the mechanism of arsenic demethylation in bacteria. Here, we investigated arsenic demethylation in a typical freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. This bacterium was able to demethylate monomethylarsenite [MAs(III)] rapidly to arsenite [As(III)] and also had the ability to demethylate monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] to As(III). The NsarsI encoding a C·As lyase responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was cloned from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and heterologously expressed in an As-hypersensitive strain Escherichia coli AW3110 (ΔarsRBC). Expression of NsarsI was shown to confer MAs(III) resistance through arsenic demethylation. The purified NsArsI was further identified and functionally characterized in vitro. NsArsI existed mainly as the trimeric state, and the kinetic data were well-fit to the Hill equation with K0.5 = 7.55 ± 0.33 μM for MAs(III), Vmax = 0.79 ± 0.02 μM min(-1), and h = 2.7. Both of the NsArsI truncated derivatives lacking the C-terminal 10 residues (ArsI10) or 23 residues (ArsI23) had a reduced ability of MAs(III) demethylation. These results provide new insights for understanding the important role of cyanobacteria in arsenic biogeochemical cycling in the environment.

  10. Biochemistry and occurrence of O-demethylation in plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Hagel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism.

  11. Adoptive cancer immunotherapy using DNA-demethylated T helper cells as antigen-presenting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkin, Alexei F.; Dzhandzhugazyan, Karine N.; Guldberg, Per

    2018-01-01

    In cancer cells, cancer/testis (CT) antigens become epigenetically derepressed through DNA demethylation and constitute attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Here we report that activated CD4+ T helper cells treated with a DNA-demethylating agent express a broad repertoire of endogenous CT...... antigens and can be used as antigen-presenting cells to generate autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells. In vitro, activated CTLs induce HLA-restricted lysis of tumor cells of different histological types, as well as cells expressing single CT antigens. In a phase 1 trial of 25...... patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, cytotoxic lymphocytes homed to the tumor, with tumor regression ongoing in three patients for 14, 22, and 27 months, respectively. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed. This proof-of-principle study shows that tumor-reactive effector cells can...

  12. Oxidative demethylation of lanosterol in cholesterol biosynthesis: accumulation of sterol intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, A.; Trzaskos, J.M.; Paik, Y.K.; Gaylor, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    With [ 3 H-24,25]-dihydrolanosterol as substrate, large-scale metabolic formation of intermediates of lanosterol demethylation was carried out to identify all compounds in the metabolic process. Utilizing knowledge of electron transport of lanosterol demethylation, we interrupted the demethylation reaction allowing accumulation and confirmation of the structure of the oxygenated intermediates lanost-8-en-3 beta,32-diol and 3 beta-hydroxylanost-8-en-32-al, as well as the demethylation product 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-8,14-dien-3 beta-ol. Further metabolism of the delta 8.14-diene intermediate to a single product 4,4-dimethyl-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol occurs under interruption conditions in the presence of 0.5 mM CN-1. With authentic compounds, each intermediate has been rigorously characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography plus mass spectral analysis of isolated and derivatized sterols. Intermediates that accumulated in greater abundance were further characterized by ultraviolet, 1 H-NMR, and infrared spectroscopy of the isolated sterols

  13. JMJD1B Demethylates H4R3me2s and H3K9me2 to Facilitate Gene Expression for Development of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The arginine methylation status of histones dynamically changes during many cellular processes, including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC development. The arginine methyltransferases and the readers that transduce the histone codes have been defined. However, whether arginine demethylation actively occurs in cells and what enzyme demethylates the methylarginine residues during various cellular processes are unknown. We report that JMJD1B, previously identified as a lysine demethylase for H3K9me2, mediates arginine demethylation of H4R3me2s and its intermediate, H4R3me1. We show that demethylation of H4R3me2s and H3K9me2s in promoter regions is correlated with active gene expression. Furthermore, knockout of JMJD1B blocks demethylation of H4R3me2s and/or H3K9me2 at distinct clusters of genes and impairs the activation of genes important for HSPC differentiation and development. Consequently, JMJD1B−/− mice show defects in hematopoiesis. Altogether, our study demonstrates that demethylase-mediated active arginine demethylation process exists in eukaryotes and that JMJD1B demethylates both H4R3me2s and H3K9me2 for epigenetic programming during hematopoiesis. : Li et al. identify the arginine demethylase (RDM activity of JMJD1B, a known lysine demethylase (KDM. They reveal that JMJD1B actively mediates demethylation of histone markers H4R3me2s and H3K9me2 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. Keywords: JMJD1B, KDM3B, PRMT5, arginine demethylase, histone, epigenetic programming, gene expression, hematopoiesis

  14. Chemical groups and structural characterization of lignin via thiol-mediated demethylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihong Hu; Hui Pan; Yonghong Zhou; Chung-Yun Hse; Chengguo Liu; Baofang Zhang; Bin Xu

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to increase the reactivity of lignin by thiol-mediated demethylation was investigated in this study. Demethylated lignin was characterized by the changes in its hydroxyl and methoxyl groups, molecular weight, and other properties using titration and spectroscopy methods including FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV,and GPC. The total...

  15. Demethylation of methylated arsenic species during generation of arsanes with tetrahydridoborate(1−) in acidic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 12 (2016), s. 6366-6373 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23532S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : arsenic speciation analysis * hydride generation * demethylation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  16. CNS germinomas are characterized by global demethylation, chromosomal instability and mutational activation of the Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt-pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Simone Laura; Waha, Andreas; Steiger, Barbara; Denkhaus, Dorota; Dörner, Evelyn; Calaminus, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    CNS germinomas represent a unique germ cell tumor entity characterized by undifferentiated tumor cells and a high response rate to current treatment protocols. Limited information is available on their underlying genomic, epigenetic and biological alterations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of genomic copy number alterations in 49 CNS germinomas by molecular inversion profiling. In addition, CpG dinucleotide methylation was studied by immunohistochemistry for methylated cytosine residues. Mutational analysis was performed by resequencing of candidate genes including KIT and RAS family members. Ras/Erk and Akt pathway activation was analyzed by immunostaining with antibodies against phospho-Erk, phosho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6. All germinomas coexpressed Oct4 and Kit but showed an extensive global DNA demethylation compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Molecular inversion profiling showed predominant genomic instability in all tumors with a high frequency of regional gains and losses including high level gene amplifications. Activating mutations of KIT exons 11, 13, and 17 as well as a case with genomic KIT amplification and activating mutations or amplifications of RAS gene family members including KRAS, NRAS and RRAS2 indicated mutational activation of crucial signaling pathways. Co-activation of Ras/Erk and Akt pathways was present in 83% of germinomas. These data suggest that CNS germinoma cells display a demethylated nuclear DNA similar to primordial germ cells in early development. This finding has a striking coincidence with extensive genomic instability. In addition, mutational activation of Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt- pathways indicate the biological importance of these pathways and their components as potential targets for therapy. PMID:27391150

  17. Targeted DNA demethylation of the Arabidopsis genome using the human TET1 catalytic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Bartolomé, Javier; Gardiner, Jason; Liu, Wanlu; Papikian, Ashot; Ghoshal, Basudev; Kuo, Hsuan Yu; Zhao, Jenny Miao-Chi; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in gene regulation and transposable element silencing. Changes in DNA methylation can be heritable and, thus, can lead to the formation of stable epialleles. A well-characterized example of a stable epiallele in plants is fwa, which consists of the loss of DNA cytosine methylation (5mC) in the promoter of the FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA) gene, causing up-regulation of FWA and a heritable late-flowering phenotype. Here we demonstrate that a fusion between the catalytic domain of the human demethylase TEN-ELEVEN TRANSLOCATION1 (TET1cd) and an artificial zinc finger (ZF) designed to target the FWA promoter can cause highly efficient targeted demethylation, FWA up-regulation, and a heritable late-flowering phenotype. Additional ZF–TET1cd fusions designed to target methylated regions of the CACTA1 transposon also caused targeted demethylation and changes in expression. Finally, we have developed a CRISPR/dCas9-based targeted demethylation system using the TET1cd and a modified SunTag system. Similar to the ZF–TET1cd fusions, the SunTag–TET1cd system is able to target demethylation and activate gene expression when directed to the FWA or CACTA1 loci. Our study provides tools for targeted removal of 5mC at specific loci in the genome with high specificity and minimal off-target effects. These tools provide the opportunity to develop new epialleles for traits of interest, and to reactivate expression of previously silenced genes, transgenes, or transposons. PMID:29444862

  18. Vitamin C induces specific demethylation of H3K9me2 in mouse embryonic stem cells via Kdm3a/b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Kevin T; Mesh, Kathryn; Liu, Shichong; Bilenky, Misha; Fekete, Alexander; Acker, Michael G; Hirst, Martin; Garcia, Benjamin A; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Histone methylation patterns regulate gene expression and are highly dynamic during development. The erasure of histone methylation is carried out by histone demethylase enzymes. We had previously shown that vitamin C enhances the activity of Tet enzymes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, leading to DNA demethylation and activation of germline genes. We report here that vitamin C induces a remarkably specific demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in naïve ES cells. Vitamin C treatment reduces global levels of H3K9me2, but not other histone methylation marks analyzed, as measured by western blot, immunofluorescence and mass spectrometry. Vitamin C leads to widespread loss of H3K9me2 at large chromosomal domains as well as gene promoters and repeat elements. Vitamin C-induced loss of H3K9me2 occurs rapidly within 24 h and is reversible. Importantly, we found that the histone demethylases Kdm3a and Kdm3b are required for vitamin C-induced demethylation of H3K9me2. Moreover, we show that vitamin C-induced Kdm3a/b-mediated H3K9me2 demethylation and Tet-mediated DNA demethylation are independent processes at specific loci. Lastly, we document Kdm3a/b are partially required for the upregulation of germline genes by vitamin C. These results reveal a specific role for vitamin C in histone demethylation in ES cells and document that DNA methylation and H3K9me2 cooperate to silence germline genes in pluripotent cells.

  19. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Results:DNA from micro-dissected CIS...... cells contained very low levels of 5hmC produced by ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. CIS cells and fetal germ cells expressed the suggested initiator of active demethylation, APOBEC1, and the base excision repair proteins MBD4, APEX1 and PARP1, whereas TETs - the alternative initiators were...

  20. Demethylation of methylmercury in growing rice plants: An evidence of self-detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhu, Nali; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that poses a serious threat to human and the environment. Rice was found as an important source for human exposure to Hg in some areas. In this study, the transportation and transformation of IHg and MeHg in rice plants exposed to IHg or MeHg were investigated. The IHg and MeHg concentrations in rice roots and shoots collected every five days were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS and SR-XANES. When exposed to MeHg, the percent of IHg in rice roots and shoots increased while MeHg decreased significantly, suggesting prominent demethylation of MeHg occurred. However no notable MeHg was found in both roots and shoots of rice plant when exposed to IHg. SR-XANES analysis further confirmed the demethylation of MeHg with rice. This study provides a new finding that demethylation of MeHg could occur in growing rice, which may be a self-defense process of rice plant. - Graphical abstract: Inorganic mercury in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to methylmercury was detected: An evidence of rice plant against methylmercury phytotoxicity. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Demethylation of MeHg in rice plant was found in rice root. • Hg in rice roots mainly present as MeHg-SR or RS-Hg-SR form. • MeHg-SR in roots can be gradually transformed to RS-Hg-SR with rice growth. - Demethylation of MeHg in growing rice.

  1. TET1 promotes cisplatin-resistance via demethylating the vimentin promoter in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Zhou, Yuanyuan; You, Yuanyi; Lu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lijie; Hou, Huilian; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    The development of chemo-resistance impairs the outcome of the first line platinum-based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. Deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation provides a critical mechanism for the occurrence of chemo-resistance. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases including TET1/2/3 plays an important part in DNA demethylation, but their roles in cisplatin resistance have not been elucidated. Using cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell models, we found that TET1 was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells compared with that in cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. Ectopic expression of TET1 in A2780 cells promoted cisplatin resistance and decreased cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, while inhibition of TET1 by siRNA transfection in CP70 cells attenuated cisplatin resistance and enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Increased TET1 induced re-expression of vimentin through active DNA demethylation, and cause partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) in A2780 cells. Contrarily, knocking down of TET1 in CP70 cells reduced vimentin expression and reversed EMT process. Immunohistochemical analysis of TET1 in human ovarian cancer tissues revealed that TET1 existed in nucleus and cytoplasm in ovarian cancer tissues. And the expression of nuclear TET1 was positively correlated with residual tumor and chemotherapeutic response. Thus, TET1 expression causes resistance to cisplatin and one of the targets of TET1 action is vimentin in ovarian cancer. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. DNA demethylation activates genes in seed maternal integument development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Tong, Xiaohong; Hou, Yuxuan; Chang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates various plant developmental processes. Rice seed integument determines the seed size. However, the role of DNA methylation in its development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the first dynamic DNA methylomic profiling of rice maternal integument before and after pollination by using a whole-genome bisulfite deep sequencing approach. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns identified 4238 differentially methylated regions underpin 4112 differentially methylated genes, including GW2, DEP1, RGB1 and numerous other regulators participated in maternal integument development. Bisulfite sanger sequencing and qRT-PCR of six differentially methylated genes revealed extensive occurrence of DNA hypomethylation triggered by double fertilization at IAP compared with IBP, suggesting that DNA demethylation might be a key mechanism to activate numerous maternal controlling genes. These results presented here not only greatly expanded the rice methylome dataset, but also shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in rice seed maternal integument development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A non-heme iron-mediated chemical demethylation in DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengqi; Yang, Cai-Guang; He, Chuan

    2009-04-21

    DNA methylation is arguably one of the most important chemical signals in biology. However, aberrant DNA methylation can lead to cytotoxic or mutagenic consequences. A DNA repair protein in Escherichia coli, AlkB, corrects some of the unwanted methylations of DNA bases by a unique oxidative demethylation in which the methyl carbon is liberated as formaldehyde. The enzyme also repairs exocyclic DNA lesions--that is, derivatives in which the base is augmented with an additional heterocyclic subunit--by a similar mechanism. Two proteins in humans that are homologous to AlkB, ABH2 and ABH3, repair the same spectrum of lesions; another human homologue of AlkB, FTO, is linked to obesity. In this Account, we describe our studies of AlkB, ABH2, and ABH3, including our development of a general strategy to trap homogeneous protein-DNA complexes through active-site disulfide cross-linking. AlkB uses a non-heme mononuclear iron(II) and the cofactors 2-ketoglutarate (2KG) and dioxygen to effect oxidative demethylation of the DNA base lesions 1-methyladenine (1-meA), 3-methylcytosine (3-meC), 1-methylguanine (1-meG), and 3-methylthymine (3-meT). ABH3, like AlkB, works better on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is capable of repairing damaged bases in RNA. Conversely, ABH2 primarily repairs lesions in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA); it is the main housekeeping enzyme that protects the mammalian genome from 1-meA base damage. The AlkB-family proteins have moderate affinities for their substrates and bind DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Knowing that these proteins flip the damaged base out from the duplex DNA and insert it into the active site for further processing, we first engineered a disulfide cross-link in the active site to stabilize the Michaelis complex. Based on the detailed structural information afforded by the active-site cross-linked structures, we can readily install a cross-link away from the active site to obtain the native-like structures of these complexes

  4. ERRα induces H3K9 demethylation by LSD1 to promote cell invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Forcet, Christelle; Zhang, Ling; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Boudra, Rafik; Cerutti, Catherine; Billas, Isabelle M. L.; Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Carroll, Jason S.; Beaudoin, Claude; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic demethylation of histone residues plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) can remove both transcriptionally permissive and repressive histone marks. How these activities are controlled is not clearly understood. Here, we show that the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) induces LSD1 to erase repressive marks in vitro. Through such a mechanism, LSD1 and ERRα commonly activate a set of transcriptional targets that include genes invo...

  5. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sudo, Katsuko; Sato, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. → GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. → GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. → A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. → We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  6. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmatsukura.epi@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun [Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masaaki [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Sudo, Katsuko [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Animal Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Sato, Noriko, E-mail: nsato.epi@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  7. Position of coordination of the lithium ion determines the regioselectivity of demethylations of 3,4-dimethoxymorphinans with L-selectride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifang; Thatcher, Linn N; Bernard, Denzil; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Rice, Kenner C; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] L-Selectride is an efficient agent for the 3-O-demethylation of opioids and is known to cleave the least hindered methoxyl group in a molecule. The treatment of a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan containing a 6-ketal with L-Selectride gave selective 4-O-demethylation, rather than cleavage of the less hindered 3-methoxyl. In contrast, a 3,4-dimethoxymorphinan lacking a 6-ketal gave selective 3-O-demethylation, suggesting that the regiochemistry of L-Selectride-mediated O-demethylation can be manipulated through altering the position of coordination of the lithium ion.

  8. Uptake and Metabolism of Antibiotics Roseoflavin and 8-Demethyl-8-Aminoriboflavin in Riboflavin-Auxotrophic Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, Andreas; Pedrolli, Danielle; Großhennig, Stephanie; Johansson, Jörgen; Mack, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are produced by the bacteria Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus Riboflavin analogs have the potential to be used as broad-spectrum antibiotics, and we therefore studied the metabolism of riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ), RoF, and AF in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which is a riboflavin auxotroph. We show that the L. monocytogenes protein Lmo1945 is responsible for the uptake of riboflavin, RoF, and AF. Following import, these flavins are phosphorylated/adenylylated by the bifunctional flavokinase/flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase Lmo1329 and adenylylated by the unique FAD synthetase Lmo0728, the first monofunctional FAD synthetase to be described in bacteria. Lmo1329 generates the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, whereas Lmo0728 produces FAD only. The combined activities of Lmo1329 and Lmo0728 are responsible for the intracellular formation of the toxic cofactor analogs roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN), roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD), 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). In vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro transcription/translation experiments show that the L. monocytogenes FMN riboswitch Rli96, which controls expression of the riboflavin transport gene lmo1945, is negatively affected by riboflavin/FMN and RoF/RoFMN but not by AF/AFMN. Treatment of L. monocytogenes with RoF or AF leads to drastically reduced FMN/FAD levels. We suggest that the reduced flavin cofactor levels in combination with concomitant synthesis of inactive cofactor analogs (RoFMN, RoFAD, AFMN, and AFAD) explain why RoF and AF contribute to antibiotic activity in L. monocytogenes IMPORTANCE: The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are small molecules which are produced by Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus

  9. Early de novo DNA methylation and prolonged demethylation in the muscle lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumagari, Koji; Baribault, Carl; Terragni, Jolyon; Varley, Katherine E; Gertz, Jason; Pradhan, Sirharsa; Badoo, Melody; Crain, Charlene M; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Myers, Richard M; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    Myogenic cell cultures derived from muscle biopsies are excellent models for human cell differentiation. We report the first comprehensive analysis of myogenesis-specific DNA hyper- and hypo-methylation throughout the genome for human muscle progenitor cells (both myoblasts and myotubes) and skeletal muscle tissue vs. 30 non-muscle samples using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We also focused on four genes with extensive hyper- or hypo-methylation in the muscle lineage (PAX3, TBX1, MYH7B/MIR499 and OBSCN) to compare DNA methylation, DNaseI hypersensitivity, histone modification, and CTCF binding profiles. We found that myogenic hypermethylation was strongly associated with homeobox or T-box genes and muscle hypomethylation with contractile fiber genes. Nonetheless, there was no simple relationship between differential gene expression and myogenic differential methylation, rather only for subsets of these genes, such as contractile fiber genes. Skeletal muscle retained ~30% of the hypomethylated sites but only ~3% of hypermethylated sites seen in myogenic progenitor cells. By enzymatic assays, skeletal muscle was 2-fold enriched globally in genomic 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) vs. myoblasts or myotubes and was the only sample type enriched in 5-hmC at tested myogenic hypermethylated sites in PAX3/CCDC140 andTBX1. TET1 and TET2 RNAs, which are involved in generation of 5-hmC and DNA demethylation, were strongly upregulated in myoblasts and myotubes. Our findings implicate de novo methylation predominantly before the myoblast stage and demethylation before and after the myotube stage in control of transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing. They also suggest that, in muscle, TET1 or TET2 are involved in active demethylation and in formation of stable 5-hmC residues.

  10. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnik, Milica, E-mail: milica.putnik@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyan.zhao@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Science and Engineering Research Center Bldg, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Dahlman-Wright, Karin, E-mail: karin.dahlman-wright@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge S-14183 (Sweden)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 137 genes are influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of

  11. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, Milica; Zhao, Chunyan; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. ► Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ► 137 genes are influenced by both 17β-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. ► A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. ► There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17β-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of these genes in MCF-7 cells. In a further analysis of the potential interplay between estrogen signaling and DNA methylation, E2 treatment

  12. Synthesis and characterization of N-demethylated metabolites of malachite green and leucomalachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bongsup P; Yang, Tianle; Blankenship, Lonnie R; Moody, Joanna D; Churchwell, Mona; Beland, Frederick A; Culp, Sandra J

    2003-03-01

    Malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye used to treat fungal and protozoan infections in fish, undergoes sequential oxidation to produce various N-demethylated derivatives (monodes-, dides(sym)-, dides(unsym)-, trides-, and tetrades-) both before and after reduction to leucomalachite green (LMG). The close structure resemblance of the metabolites with aromatic amine carcinogens implicates a potential genotoxicity from exposure to MG. The availability of the synthetic standards is important for metabolic and DNA adduct studies of MG. This paper describes a simple and versatile method for the synthesis of MG, LMG, and their N-demethylated metabolites. The synthesis involves a coupling of 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone or 4-nitrobenzophenone with the aryllithium reagents derived from appropriately substituted 4-bromoaniline derivatives, followed by treatment with HCl in methanol. The resulting cationic MG and their leuco analogues showed systematic UV/vis spectral and tandem mass fragmentation patterns consistent with sequential N-demethylation. The extensive (1)H and (13)C spectral assignments of the metabolites were aided by the availability of (13)C(7)-labeled MG and LMG. The results indicate the existence of a resonance structure with the cationic charge located in the central methane carbon (C(7)). The synthetic procedure is general in scope so that it can be extended to the preparation of N-demethylated metabolites of other structurally related N-methylated triphenylmethane dyes.

  13. Green synthesis of low-toxicity graphene-fulvic acid with an open band gap enhances demethylation of methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Mu, Li; Lu, Kaicheng; Kang, Jia; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-06-25

    The demethylation of methylmercury has received substantial attention. Here, a novel chemical method for the demethylation of methylmercury is proposed. The low-toxicity graphene-fulvic acid (FA, a ubiquitous material in the environment) was synthesized without the use of a chemical reagent. The hybridized graphene-FA presented an indirect open band gap of 2.25-2.87 eV as well as adequate aqueous dispersion. More importantly, the hybridized graphene-FA exhibited 6- and 10-fold higher photocatalytic efficiencies for the demethylation of methylmercury than FA and free FA with graphene, respectively. This result implies that immobilized, rather than free, FA accelerated the catalysis. Furthermore, inorganic mercuric ion, elemental mercury, and mercuric oxide were identified as the primary demethylation products. For free FA with graphene, graphene quenches the excited-state FA, inhibiting the demethylation by electron transfer. In contrast, the graphene of the self-assembled graphene-FA serves as an electron reservoir, causing electron-hole pair separation. Graphene-FA showed a negligible toxicity toward microalgae compared to graphene. The above results reveal that the green synthesis of graphene and organic molecules is a convenient strategy for obtaining effective cocatalysts.

  14. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Kee D.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF 4 ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers

  15. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Soo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee D. [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers.

  16. Dynamic changes in DNA demethylation in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu; Hua, Hai-Rong; Chen, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Li, Shu-Qing; Li, Fan; Li, Jia-Li

    2017-03-18

    Brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including DNA methylation and demethylation patterns. Here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated active DNA demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis ). The levels of 5hmC in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase throughout postnatal development, whereas a significant decrease in 5hmC was found in several brain regions in aged tree shrews, including in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. Active changes in Tet mRNA levels indicated that TET2 and TET3 predominantly contributed to the changes in 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in tree shrew brains during postnatal development and aging processes.

  17. Base-oxidant promoted metal-free N-demethylation of arylamines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A metal-free oxidative N-demethylation of arylamines with triethylamine as a base and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant is reported in this paper. The reaction is general, practical, inexpensive, non-toxic, and the method followed is environmentally benign, with moderate to good yields.

  18. Cell-based DNA demethylation detection system for screening of epigenetic drugs in 2D, 3D and xenograft models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agrawal, K.; Das, V.; Otmar, Miroslav; Krečmerová, Marcela; Džubák, P.; Hajdúch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, Suppl 2 (2015), B72 ISSN 1535-7163. [AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference: Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics. 05.11.2015-09.11.2015, Boston] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/625; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : demethylation * epigenetic drugs * fluorescence detection system Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  19. Inhibition of CYP2D6-mediated tramadol O-demethylation in methadone but not buprenorphine maintenance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Janet K; Michalakas, Jennifer R; James, Heather M; Farquharson, Aaron L; Colvill, Joel; White, Jason M; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2012-11-01

    Management of pain in opioid dependent individuals is problematic due to numerous issues including cross-tolerance to opioids. Hence there is a need to find alternative analgesics to classical opioids and tramadol is potentially one such alternative. Methadone inhibits CYP2D6 in vivo and in vitro. We aimed to investigate the effect of methadone on the pathways of tramadol metabolism: O-demethylation (CYP2D6) to the opioid-active metabolite M1 and N-demethylation (CYP3A4) to M2 in subjects maintained on methadone or buprenorphine as a control. Compared with subjects on buprenorphine, methadone reduced the clearance of tramadol to active O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1) but had no effect on N-desmethyltramadol (M2) formation. Similar to other analgesics whose active metabolites are formed by CYP2D6 such as codeine, reduced formation of O-desmethyltramadol (M1) is likely to result in reduced analgesia for subjects maintained on methadone. Hence alternative analgesics whose metabolism is independent of CYP2D6 should be utilized in this patient population. To compare the O- (CYP2D6 mediated) and N- (CYP3A4 mediated) demethylation metabolism of tramadol between methadone and buprenorphine maintained CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects. METHODS Nine methadone and seven buprenorphine maintained subjects received a single 100 mg dose of tramadol hydrochloride. Blood was collected at 4 h and assayed for tramadol, methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (where appropriate) and all urine over 4 h was assayed for tramadol and its M1 and M2 metabolites. The urinary metabolic ratio [median (range)] for O-demethylation (M1) was significantly lower (P= 0.0002, probability score 1.0) in the subjects taking methadone [0.071 (0.012-0.103)] compared with those taking buprenorphine [0.192 (0.108-0.392)], but there was no significant difference (P= 0.21, probability score 0.69) in N-demethylation (M2). The percentage of dose [median (range)] recovered as M1 was significantly lower

  20. (/sup 125/I) 7-iodo-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline HCl: its use in the study of bone mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeck, L W; Bowen, B M; Garnett, E S [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Porter, J K; Teare, F W

    1979-06-01

    /sup 125/I 7-iodo-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline can be used in a non-invasive method to indicate sites of active bone mineralization. Sequential doses of this agent have been used to follow bone repair in a fractured femur of a dog without resorting to bone biopsy. Metabolic problems that involve bone may also be studied with this potentially useful radiopharmaceutical.

  1. Cell-based DNA demethylation detection system for screening of epigenetic drugs in 2D, 3D, and xenograft models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agrawal, K.; Das, V.; Otmar, Miroslav; Krečmerová, Marcela; Džubák, P.; Hajdúch, M.

    91A, č. 2 (2017), s. 133-143 ISSN 1552-4922 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-31984A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA methylation * DNA methylation inhibitors * demethylation detection system * epigenetic drugs * high content screening Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.222, year: 2016

  2. Genome-wide CpG island methylation and intergenic demethylation propensities vary among different tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2016-02-18

    The epigenetic landscape of cancer includes both focal hypermethylation and broader hypomethylation in a genome-wide manner. By means of a comprehensive genomic analysis on 6637 tissues of 21 tumor types, we here show that the degrees of overall methylation in CpG island (CGI) and demethylation in intergenic regions, defined as 'backbone', largely vary among different tumors. Depending on tumor type, both CGI methylation and backbone demethylation are often associated with clinical, epidemiological and biological features such as age, sex, smoking history, anatomic location, histological type and grade, stage, molecular subtype and biological pathways. We found connections between CGI methylation and hypermutability, microsatellite instability, IDH1 mutation, 19p gain and polycomb features, and backbone demethylation with chromosomal instability, NSD1 and TP53 mutations, 5q and 19p loss and long repressive domains. These broad epigenetic patterns add a new dimension to our understanding of tumor biology and its clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Sensory rhodopsins I and II modulate a methylation/demethylation system in Halobacterium halobium phototaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudich, E.N.; Takahashi, T.; Spudich, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This work demonstrates that phototaxis stimuli in the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium control a methylation/demethylation system in vivo through photoactivation of sensory rhodopsin I (SR-I) in either its attractant or repellent signaling form as well as through the repellent receptor sensory rhodopsin II (SR-II, also called phoborhodopsin). The effects of positive stimuli that suppress swimming reversals (i.e., an increase in attractant or decrease in repellent light) and negative stimuli that induce swimming reversals (i.e., a decrease in attractant or increase in repellent light) through each photoreceptor were monitored by assaying release of volatile [3H]methyl groups. This assay has been used to measure [3H]methanol produced during the process of adaptation to chemotactic stimuli in eubacteria. In H. halobium positive photostimuli produce a transient increase in the rate of demethylation followed by a decrease below the unstimulated value, whereas negative photostimuli cause an increase followed by a rate similar to that of the unstimulated value. Photoactivation of the SR-I attractant and simultaneous photoactivation of the SR-II repellent receptors cancel in their effects on demethylation, demonstrating the methylation system is regulated by an integrated signal. Analysis of mutants indicates that the source for the volatile methyl groups is intrinsic membrane proteins distinct from the chromoproteins that share the membrane. A methyl-accepting protein (94 kDa) previously correlated in amount with the SR-I chromoprotein (25 kDa) is shown here to be missing in a recently isolated SR-I-SR-II+ mutant (Flx3b), thus confirming the association of this protein with SR-I. Photoactivated SR-II in mutant Flx3b controls demethylation, predicting the existence of a photomodulated methyl-accepting component distinct from the 94-kDa protein of SR-I

  4. Resolution, configurational assignment, and enantiopharmacology at glutamate receptors of 2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) and demethyl-ACPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Stensbøl, T B; Nielsen, B

    2001-01-01

    We have previously described (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) as a potent agonist at the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subtype of (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) receptors. We now report the chromatographic resolution...... of ACPA and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (demethyl-ACPA) using a Sumichiral OA-5000 column. The configuration of the enantiomers of both compounds have been assigned based on X-ray crystallographic analyses, supported by circular dichroism spectra and elution orders on chiral HPLC...... columns. Furthermore, the enantiopharmacology of ACPA and demethyl-ACPA was investigated using radioligand binding and cortical wedge electrophysiological assay systems and cloned metabotropic Glu receptors. (S)-ACPA showed high affinity in AMPA binding (IC(50) = 0.025 microM), low affinity in kainic acid...

  5. Demethylation of host-cell DNA at the site of avian retrovirus integration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejnar, Jiří; Elleder, Daniel; Hájková, P.; Walter, J.; Blažková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 311 (2003), s. 641-648 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : DNA methylation and demethylation * integration of retroviruses * gene silencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2003

  6. ERRα protein is stabilized by LSD1 in a demethylation-independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carnesecchi

    Full Text Available The LSD1 histone demethylase is highly expressed in breast tumors where it constitutes a factor of poor prognosis and promotes traits of cancer aggressiveness such as cell invasiveness. Recent work has shown that the Estrogen-Related Receptor α (ERRα induces LSD1 to demethylate the Lys 9 of histone H3. This results in the transcriptional activation of a number of common target genes, several of which being involved in cellular invasion. High expression of ERRα protein is also a factor of poor prognosis in breast tumors. Here we show that, independently of its demethylase activities, LSD1 protects ERRα from ubiquitination, resulting in overexpression of the latter protein. Our data also suggests that the elevation of LSD1 mRNA and protein in breast cancer (as compared to normal tissue may be a key event to increase ERRα protein, independently of its corresponding mRNA.

  7. ERRα protein is stabilized by LSD1 in a demethylation-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Cerutti, Catherine; Vanacker, Jean-Marc; Forcet, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    The LSD1 histone demethylase is highly expressed in breast tumors where it constitutes a factor of poor prognosis and promotes traits of cancer aggressiveness such as cell invasiveness. Recent work has shown that the Estrogen-Related Receptor α (ERRα) induces LSD1 to demethylate the Lys 9 of histone H3. This results in the transcriptional activation of a number of common target genes, several of which being involved in cellular invasion. High expression of ERRα protein is also a factor of poor prognosis in breast tumors. Here we show that, independently of its demethylase activities, LSD1 protects ERRα from ubiquitination, resulting in overexpression of the latter protein. Our data also suggests that the elevation of LSD1 mRNA and protein in breast cancer (as compared to normal tissue) may be a key event to increase ERRα protein, independently of its corresponding mRNA.

  8. Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of L-Asparaginase Combined with Decitabine as a Demethylating Agent in Pediatric T-ALL, with Specific Epigenetic Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Serravalle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL remains a subgroup of pediatric ALL, with a lower response to standard chemotherapy. Some recent studies established the fundamental role of epigenetic aberrations such as DNA hypermethylation, to influence patients’ outcome and response to chemotherapy. Moreover, L-asparaginase is an important chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of ALL and resistance to this drug has been linked to ASNS expression, which can be silenced through methylation. Therefore, we tested whether the sensitivity of T-ALL cell lines towards L-asparaginase is correlated to the epigenetic status of ASNS gene and whether the sensitivity can be modified by concurrent demethylating treatment. Hence we treated different T-ALL cell lines with L-asparaginase and correlated different responses to the treatment with ASNS expression. Then we demonstrated that the ASNS expression was dependent on the methylation status of the promoter. Finally we showed that, despite the demethylating effect on the ASNS gene expression, the combined treatment with the demethylating agent Decitabine could synergistically improve the L-asparaginase sensitivity in those T-ALL cell lines characterized by hypermethylation of the ASNS gene. In conclusion, this preclinical study identified an unexpected synergistic activity of L-asparaginase and Decitabine in the subgroup of T-ALL with low ASNS expression due to hypermethylation of the ASNS promoter, while it did not restore sensitivity in the resistant cell lines characterized by higher ASNS expression.

  9. DNA demethylation upregulated Nrf2 expression in Alzheimer's disease cellular model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin eCao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is an important transcription factor in the defense against oxidative stress. Cumulative evidence has shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous animal and clinical studies had observed decreased expression of Nrf2 in AD. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms of Nrf2 in AD remain unclear. Here, we used the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza to test whether Nrf2 expression was regulated by methylation in N2a cells characterizing by expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (N2a/APPswe. We found 5-Aza treatment increased Nrf2 at both mRNA and protein levels via down-regulating the expression of Dnmts and DNA demethylation. In addition, 5-Aza mediated upregulation of Nrf2 expression was concomitant with increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and higher expression of Nrf2 downstream target gene NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductas (NQO1. Our study showed that DNA demethylation promoted the Nrf2 cell signaling pathway, which may enhance the antioxidant system against AD development.

  10. Stable knockdown of PASG enhances DNA demethylation but does not accelerate cellular senescence in TIG-7 human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu; Farrar, Jason E; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Zahed, Muhammed; Suzuki, Nobuo; Arceci, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Demethylation of 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA is believed to be one of the mechanisms underlying replicative life-span of mammalian cells. Both proliferation associated SNF2-like gene (PASG, also termed Lsh) and DNA methyltransferase 3B (Dnmt3b) knockout mice result in embryonic genomic hypomethylation and a replicative senescent phenotype. However, it is unclear whether gradual demethylation of DNA during somatic cell division is directly involved in senescence. In this study, we retrovirally transduced TIG-7 human fibroblasts with a shRNA against PASG and compared the rate of change in DNA methylation as well as the replicative life-span to control cells under low (3%) and ambient (20%) oxygen. Expression of PASG protein was decreased by approximately 80% compared to control cells following transduction of PASG shRNA gene. The rate of cell growth was the same in both control and PASG-suppressed cells. The rate of demethylation of DNA was significantly increased in PASG-suppressed cells as compared control cells. However, decreased PASG expression did not shorten the replicative life-span of TIG-7 cells. Culture under low oxygen extended the life-span of TIG-7 cells but did not alter the rate of DNA demethylation. While knockout of PASG during development results in genomic hypomethylation and premature senescence, our results show that while downregulation of PASG expression in a somatic cell also leads to DNA hypomethylation, there is no associated senescent phenotype. These results suggest differences in cellular consequences of hypomethylation mediated by PASG during development compared to that in somatic cells.

  11. Epigenetic Changes during Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Götze

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cells (HSC, which can participate in liver regeneration and fibrogenesis, have recently been identified as liver-resident mesenchymal stem cells. During their activation HSC adopt a myofibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound changes in the gene expression profile. DNA methylation changes at single genes have been reported during HSC activation and may participate in the regulation of this process, but comprehensive DNA methylation analyses are still missing. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of DNA methylation during in vitro activation of HSC.The analysis of DNA methylation changes by antibody-based assays revealed a strong decrease in the global DNA methylation level during culture-induced activation of HSC. To identify genes which may be regulated by DNA methylation, we performed a genome-wide Methyl-MiniSeq EpiQuest sequencing comparing quiescent and early culture-activated HSC. Approximately 400 differentially methylated regions with a methylation change of at least 20% were identified, showing either hypo- or hypermethylation during activation. Further analysis of selected genes for DNA methylation and expression were performed revealing a good correlation between DNA methylation changes and gene expression. Furthermore, global DNA demethylation during HSC activation was investigated by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine assay and L-mimosine treatment showing that demethylation was independent of DNA synthesis and thereby excluding a passive DNA demethylation mechanism.In summary, in vitro activation of HSC initiated strong DNA methylation changes, which were associated with gene regulation. These results indicate that epigenetic mechanisms are important for the control of early HSC activation. Furthermore, the data show that global DNA demethylation during activation is based on an active DNA demethylation mechanism.

  12. Quaternary ammonium oxidative demethylation: X-ray crystallographic, resonance Raman, and UV-visible spectroscopic analysis of a Rieske-type demethylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, Kelly D; Xiao, Youli; Stoner-Ma, Deborah; Cho, Eunsun; Orville, Allen M; Liu, Pinghua; Allen, Karen N

    2012-02-08

    Herein, the structure resulting from in situ turnover in a chemically challenging quaternary ammonium oxidative demethylation reaction was captured via crystallographic analysis and analyzed via single-crystal spectroscopy. Crystal structures were determined for the Rieske-type monooxygenase, stachydrine demethylase, in the unliganded state (at 1.6 Å resolution) and in the product complex (at 2.2 Å resolution). The ligand complex was obtained from enzyme aerobically cocrystallized with the substrate stachydrine (N,N-dimethylproline). The ligand electron density in the complex was interpreted as proline, generated within the active site at 100 K by the absorption of X-ray photon energy and two consecutive demethylation cycles. The oxidation state of the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy throughout X-ray data collection in conjunction with resonance Raman spectra collected before and after diffraction data. Shifts in the absorption band wavelength and intensity as a function of absorbed X-ray dose demonstrated that the Rieske center was reduced by solvated electrons generated by X-ray photons; the kinetics of the reduction process differed dramatically for the liganded complex compared to unliganded demethylase, which may correspond to the observed turnover in the crystal.

  13. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-ζ, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  14. Nicotine demethylation in Nicotiana cell suspension cultures: N'-formylnornicotine is not involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Trixie Ann; Bhogal, Ramneek K; Molinié, Roland; Felpin, François-Xavier; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Meier, Anna-Carolin; Dräger, Birgit; Lebreton, Jacques; Roscher, Albrecht; Robins, Richard J; Mesnard, François

    2005-10-01

    Nicotine or nornicotine enriched with stable isotopes in either the N'-methyl group or the pyrrolidine-N were fed to Nicotiana plumbaginifolia suspension cell cultures that do not form endogenous nicotine. The metabolism of these compounds was investigated by analysing the incorporation of isotope into other alkaloids using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Nicotine metabolism primarily resulted in the accumulation of nornicotine, the N'-demethylation product. In addition, six minor metabolites appeared during the course of nicotine metabolism, four of which were identified as cotinine, myosmine, N'-formylnornicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine. While cotinine was formed from [(13)C,(2)H(3)-methyl]nicotine without dilution of label, N'-formylnornicotine was labelled at only about 6% of the level of nicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine was unlabelled. Feeding with [1'-(15)N]nornicotine resulted in incorporation without dilution of label into both N'-formylnornicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine. This pattern strongly indicates that, while nornicotine and cotinine are derived directly from nicotine, N'-formylnornicotine and N'-carboethoxynornicotine are metabolites of nornicotine. Thus, it is directly demonstrated that N'-formylnornicotine is not an intermediate in nicotine demethylation.

  15. Lidocaine and ropivacaine, but not bupivacaine, demethylate deoxyribonucleic acid in breast cancer cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Hollmann, M. W.; Fleischer, M.; Weber, N. C.; Fiegl, H.

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine demethylates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in breast cancer cells. This modification of epigenetic information may be of therapeutic relevance in the perioperative period, because a decrease in methylation can reactivate tumour suppressor genes and inhibit tumour growth. The objectives of

  16. O2 -independent demethylation of trimethylamine N-oxide by Tdm of Methylocella silvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yijun; Ksibe, Amira Z; Schäfer, Hendrik; Blindauer, Claudia A; Bugg, Timothy D H; Chen, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) demethylase, Tdm, carries out an unusual oxygen-independent demethylation reaction, resulting in the formation of dimethylamine and formaldehyde. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modelling and metal analyses by inorganic mass spectrometry have been applied to gain insight into metal stoichiometry and underlying catalytic mechanism of Tdm of Methylocella silvestris BL2. Herein, we demonstrate that active Tdm has 1 molar equivalent of Zn 2+ and 1 molar equivalent of non-haem Fe 2+ . We further investigated Zn 2+ - and Fe 2+ -binding sites through homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and found that Zn 2+ is coordinated by a 3-sulfur-1-O motif. An aspartate residue (D198) likely bridges Fe 2+ and Zn 2+ centres, either directly or indirectly via H-bonding through a neighbouring H 2 O molecule. H276 contributes to Fe 2+ binding, mutation of which results in an inactive enzyme, and the loss of iron, but not zinc. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tdm also led to the identification of three hydrophobic aromatic residues likely involved in substrate coordination (F259, Y305, W321), potentially through a cation-π interaction. Furthermore, a crossover experiment using a substrate analogue gave direct evidence that a trimethylamine-alike intermediate was produced during the Tdm catalytic cycle, suggesting TMAO has a dual role of being both a substrate and an oxygen donor for formaldehyde formation. Together, our results provide novel insight into the role of Zn 2+ and Fe 2+ in the catalysis of TMAO demethylation by this unique oxygen-independent enzyme. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Epigenetic regulations in the IFNγ signalling pathway: IFNγ-mediated MHC class I upregulation on tumour cells is associated with DNA demethylation of antigen-presenting machinery genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlková, Veronika; Štěpánek, Ivan; Hrušková, Veronika; Šenigl, Filip; Mayerová, Veronika; Šrámek, Martin; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Hejhal, Tomáš; Dérian, N.; Klatzmann, D.; Six, A.; Reiniš, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2014), s. 6923-35 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/2174; GA MZd NT14461 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:French state funds within the Investissements d’Avenir program(FR) ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : IFNγ signalling pathway * DNA demethylation * tumour Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.359, year: 2014

  18. The autoradiolytic and the γ-induced demethylation of solid thymine-(methyl-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwitz, O.

    1980-01-01

    The autoradiolytic and the γ-induced demethylation of solid thymine were measured qualitatively and quantitatively for the first time with specially purified thymine-(methyl- 14 C). Analogous experiments with thymine-(methyl- 3 H) and radio-gaschromatographic analysis provided proof for the formation of molecular hydrogen and methane. Ethane was not detected. The results are discussed in connection with e.s.r.-spectroscopic studies. (author)

  19. A probabilistic generative model for quantification of DNA modifications enables analysis of demethylation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijö, Tarmo; Huang, Yun; Mannerström, Henrik; Chavez, Lukas; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Rao, Anjana; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2016-03-14

    We present a generative model, Lux, to quantify DNA methylation modifications from any combination of bisulfite sequencing approaches, including reduced, oxidative, TET-assisted, chemical-modification assisted, and methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing data. Lux models all cytosine modifications (C, 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) simultaneously together with experimental parameters, including bisulfite conversion and oxidation efficiencies, as well as various chemical labeling and protection steps. We show that Lux improves the quantification and comparison of cytosine modification levels and that Lux can process any oxidized methylcytosine sequencing data sets to quantify all cytosine modifications. Analysis of targeted data from Tet2-knockdown embryonic stem cells and T cells during development demonstrates DNA modification quantification at unprecedented detail, quantifies active demethylation pathways and reveals 5hmC localization in putative regulatory regions.

  20. FOXP3 Expression in GARP-Transduced Helper T Cells Is Not Associated with FOXP3 TSDR Demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrmann, Jan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Buer, Jan; Probst-Kepper, Michael

    2011-10-01

    AIM: Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) represents a human regulatory CD4+ CD25(hi) FOXP3+ T (T(reg)) cell-specific receptor that controls FOXP3. Ectopic expression of GARP in helper T (T(h)) cells has been shown to be sufficient for the induction of FOXP3 and generation of a stable regulatory phenotype. Since expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells is epigenetically controlled by a conserved motif, the so-called T(reg)-specific demethylated region (TSDR), we asked whether GARP-mediated upregulation of FOXP3 in Th cells is similarly accompanied by demethylation of the TSDR. METHODS: DNA methylation of the FOXP3 TSDR was analyzed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. RESULTS: Although GARP-transduced T(h) cells exhibit constitutive FOXP3 expression and a regulatory phenotype, the FOXP3 TSDR is completely methylated as in naive T(h) cells. GARP-mediated FOXP3 upregulation in T(h) cells is not associated with T(reg)-specific demethylation of the FOXP3 TSDR. CONCLUSION: Although GARP-engineered T(h) cells exhibit stable FOXP3 expression and a phenotypic reprogramming towards T(reg) cells in vitro, these cells do not completely mimic the epigenotype of natural T(reg) cells. Thus, concepts based on the genetic modification of T(h) cells as cellular therapies to treat autoimmune diseases or to control transplantation tolerance should be critically tested before any clinical application.

  1. Raman spectroscopic characterisations and analytical discrimination between caffeine and demethylated analogues of pharmaceutical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Munshi, T.; Anstis, M.

    2005-05-01

    The FT Raman spectrum of caffeine was analysed along with that of its demethylated analogues, theobromine and theophylline. The similar but not identical structures of these three compounds allowed a more detailed assignment of the Raman bands. Noticeable differences in the Raman spectra of these compounds were apparent and key marker bands have been identified for the spectroscopic identification of these three compounds.

  2. KDM1A triggers androgen-induced miRNA transcription via H3K4me2 demethylation and DNA oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Zhang, Jiyuan; Zhang, Yalong; Wan, Xuechao; Zhang, Congzhe; Huang, Xiaohui; Huang, Wenhua; Pu, Honglei; Pei, Chaohan; Wu, Hai; Huang, Yan; Huang, Shengdong; Li, Yao

    2015-06-15

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor that regulates the transcription of target genes. AR activity is closely involved in the maintenance and progression of prostate cancer. After the binding with androgen, AR moves into nucleus and binds to DNA sequence containing androgen response elements (ARE). Flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase KDM1A is necessary for AR driven transcription while the mechanism remains unclear. The association between androgen-dependent transcription and oxidation was tested through pharmaceutical inhibitions and siRNA knockdown of DNA oxidation repair components in prostate cancer cells. The recruitment of involved proteins and the histone methylation dynamics on ARE region was explored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Oxidation inhibition reduced AR dependent expression of KLK3, TMPRSS2, hsa-miR-125b2, and hsa-miR-133b. And such reduction could be restored by H2 O2 treatment. KDM1A recruitment and H3K4me2 demethylation on ARE regions, which produce H2 O2 , are associated with AR targets transcription. AR targets transcription and coupled oxidation recruit 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and the nuclease APEX1 to ARE regions. Such recruitment depends on KDM1A, and is necessary for AR targets transcription. Our work underlined the importance of histone demethylation and DNA oxidation/repairing machinery in androgen-dependent transcription. The present finds have implications for research into new druggable targets for prostate cancer relying on the cascade of AR activity regulation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. TSA-induced DNMT1 down-regulation represses hTERT expression via recruiting CTCF into demethylated core promoter region of hTERT in HCT116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jee-Hye; Min, Na Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Soo Hyun; Ko, Young Jong; Kang, Yoonsung; Moon, Young Joon; Rhee, Sangmyung; Ham, Seung Wook; Park, Ae Ja; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, is a well-known antitumor agent that effectively and selectively induces tumor growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, it was reported that hTERT is one of the primary targets for TSA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells but the mechanism of which has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, to better understand the epigenetic regulation mechanism responsible for the repression of hTERT by TSA, we examined expression of hTERT in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line after treatment with TSA and performed site-specific CpG methylation analysis of the hTERT promoter. We found that TSA-induced the demethylation of site-specific CpGs on the promoter of hTERT, which was caused by down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Among the demethylated region, the 31st-33rd CpGs contained a binding site for CTCF, an inhibitor of hTERT transcription. ChIP analysis revealed that TSA-induced demethylation of the 31st-33rd CpGs promoted CTCF binding on hTERT promoter, leading to repression of hTERT. Taken together, down-regulation of DNMT1 by TSA caused demethylation of a CTCF binding site on the hTERT promoter, the result of which was repression of hTERT via recruitment of CTCF to the promoter. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global demethylation of rat chondrosarcoma cells after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine results in increased tumorigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Hamm

    Full Text Available Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.

  5. A phase I study of hydralazine to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano, Pilar; Sandoval, Karina; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Chanona-Vilchis, Jose; Duenas-González, Alfonso; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Cetina, Lucely; Revilla-Vazquez, Alma; Taja-Chayeb, Lucía; Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Angeles, Enrique; Cabrera, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The antihypertensive compound hydralazine is a known demethylating agent. This phase I study evaluated the tolerability and its effects upon DNA methylation and gene reactivation in patients with untreated cervical cancer. Hydralazine was administered to cohorts of 4 patients at the following dose levels: I) 50 mg/day, II) 75 mg/day, III) 100 mg/day and IV) 150 mg/day. Tumor biopsies and peripheral blood samples were taken the day before and after treatment. The genes APC, MGMT; ER, GSTP1, DAPK, RARβ, FHIT and p16 were evaluated pre and post-treatment for DNA promoter methylation and gene expression by MSP (Methylation-Specific PCR) and RT-PCR respectively in each of the tumor samples. Methylation of the imprinted H19 gene and the 'normally methylated' sequence clone 1.2 was also analyzed. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis and cytosine extension assay. Toxicity was evaluated using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria. Hydralazine was well tolerated. Toxicities were mild being the most common nausea, dizziness, fatigue, headache and palpitations. Overall, 70% of the pretreatment samples and all the patients had at least one methylated gene. Rates of demethylation at the different dose levels were as follows: 50 mg/day, 40%; 75 mg/day, 52%, 100 mg/day, 43%, and 150 mg/day, 32%. Gene expression analysis showed only 12 informative cases, of these 9 (75%) re-expressed the gene. There was neither change in the methylation status of H19 and clone 1.2 nor changes in global DNA methylation. Hydralazine at doses between 50 and 150 mg/day is well tolerated and effective to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes without affecting global DNA methylation

  6. Mercury methylation and demethylation by periphyton biofilms and their host in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River (QC, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelin, Stéphanie; Planas, Dolors; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands in large rivers are important sites of production of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), and the periphyton growing on wetland macrophytes are increasingly recognized as key players in this production and transfer in food webs. Information is lacking about mercury methylation (K m ) and demethylation (K d ) rates in periphytic biofilms from the Northern Hemisphere, as well as about the drivers of net MeHg production, hampering ecosystem modeling of Hg cycling. Mercury methylation and demethylation rates were measured in periphytic biofilms growing on submerged plants in a shallow fluvial lake located in a temperate cold region (St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada). Incubations were performed in situ within macrophyte beds using low-level spikes of 199 HgO and Me 200 Hg stable isotopes as tracers. A direct relationship was observed between K m (0.002 to 0.137 d −1 ) and [MeHg] in periphyton. A similar relationship was found between K d (0.096 to 0.334 d −1 ) and [inorganic Hg]. Periphyton of Lake St. Pierre reached high levels of net MeHg production that were two orders of magnitude higher than those found in local sediment. This production varied through the plant growing season and was mainly driven by environmental variables such as depth of growth, available light, dissolved oxygen, temperature, plant community structure, and productivity of the habitat. - Highlights: • Periphyton Hg methylation and demethylation were studied in a large fluvial lake. • Addition of stable Hg isotopes was used to obtain in situ rates for these processes. • Net methylation was higher in periphyton than in local sediments. • Methylation and demethylation rates fluctuated during the summer. • Key drivers of rates were depth, light, temperature, and community structure

  7. Mercury methylation and demethylation by periphyton biofilms and their host in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River (QC, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, Stéphanie; Planas, Dolors [GRIL, Département de sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Amyot, Marc [GRIL, Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Wetlands in large rivers are important sites of production of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), and the periphyton growing on wetland macrophytes are increasingly recognized as key players in this production and transfer in food webs. Information is lacking about mercury methylation (K{sub m}) and demethylation (K{sub d}) rates in periphytic biofilms from the Northern Hemisphere, as well as about the drivers of net MeHg production, hampering ecosystem modeling of Hg cycling. Mercury methylation and demethylation rates were measured in periphytic biofilms growing on submerged plants in a shallow fluvial lake located in a temperate cold region (St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada). Incubations were performed in situ within macrophyte beds using low-level spikes of {sup 199}HgO and Me{sup 200}Hg stable isotopes as tracers. A direct relationship was observed between K{sub m} (0.002 to 0.137 d{sup −1}) and [MeHg] in periphyton. A similar relationship was found between K{sub d} (0.096 to 0.334 d{sup −1}) and [inorganic Hg]. Periphyton of Lake St. Pierre reached high levels of net MeHg production that were two orders of magnitude higher than those found in local sediment. This production varied through the plant growing season and was mainly driven by environmental variables such as depth of growth, available light, dissolved oxygen, temperature, plant community structure, and productivity of the habitat. - Highlights: • Periphyton Hg methylation and demethylation were studied in a large fluvial lake. • Addition of stable Hg isotopes was used to obtain in situ rates for these processes. • Net methylation was higher in periphyton than in local sediments. • Methylation and demethylation rates fluctuated during the summer. • Key drivers of rates were depth, light, temperature, and community structure.

  8. Herbivore-Induced DNA Demethylation Changes Floral Signalling and Attractiveness to Pollinators in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman T Kellenberger

    Full Text Available Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP analysis showed that leaf damage by the caterpillar Pieris brassicae was associated with genome-wide methylation changes in both leaves and flowers of B. rapa as well as a downturn in flower number, morphology and scent. A comparison to plants with jasmonic acid-induced defence showed similar demethylation patterns in leaves, but both the floral methylome and phenotype differed significantly from P. brassicae infested plants. Standardised genome-wide demethylation with 5-azacytidine in five different B. rapa full-sib groups further resulted in a genotype-specific downturn of floral morphology and scent, which significantly reduced the attractiveness of the plants to the pollinator bee Bombus terrestris. These results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in adjusting plant signalling in response to changing insect communities.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a homogeneous and silica supported homoleptic cationic tungsten(vi) methyl complex: application in olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Dey, Raju

    2016-08-19

    A method for the synthesis of a homogeneous cationic tungsten(VI)penta-methyl complex [(WMe5)(+)(C6F5)(3)BMe-] from neutral tungstenhexamethyl (WMe6) and a silica supported cationic tungstentetramethyl complex [( Si-O-)WMe4+ (C6F5)(3)BMe-] from a neutral silica supported tungstenpentamethyl complex [( Si-O-)WMe5] is described. In both cases a direct demethylation using the B(C6F5)(3) reagent was used. The aforesaid complexes were characterized by liquid or solid state NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the homogeneous cationic complex [(WMe5)(+)(C6F5)(3)BMe-] shows moderate activity whereas the supported cationic complex [( Si-O-)WMe4+(C6F5)(3)BMe-] exhibits good activity in olefin metathesis reactions.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a homogeneous and silica supported homoleptic cationic tungsten(vi) methyl complex: application in olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Dey, Raju; Samantaray, Manoja; Poater, Albert; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Kavitake, Santosh Giridhar; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Callens, Emmanuel; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of a homogeneous cationic tungsten(VI)penta-methyl complex [(WMe5)(+)(C6F5)(3)BMe-] from neutral tungstenhexamethyl (WMe6) and a silica supported cationic tungstentetramethyl complex [( Si-O-)WMe4+ (C6F5)(3)BMe-] from a neutral silica supported tungstenpentamethyl complex [( Si-O-)WMe5] is described. In both cases a direct demethylation using the B(C6F5)(3) reagent was used. The aforesaid complexes were characterized by liquid or solid state NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the homogeneous cationic complex [(WMe5)(+)(C6F5)(3)BMe-] shows moderate activity whereas the supported cationic complex [( Si-O-)WMe4+(C6F5)(3)BMe-] exhibits good activity in olefin metathesis reactions.

  11. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  12. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  13. Mitochondrial control through nutritionally regulated global histone H3 lysine-4 demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveychik, Maria; Xu, Mengshu; Zaslaver, Olga; Lee, Kwanyin; Narula, Ashrut; Jiang, River; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Meneghini, Marc D

    2016-11-29

    Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. While jhd2∆ caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2's impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation.

  14. Mitochondrial control through nutritionally regulated global histone H3 lysine-4 demethylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveychik, Maria; Xu, Mengshu; Zaslaver, Olga; Lee, Kwanyin; Narula, Ashrut; Jiang, River; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Caudy, Amy A.; Meneghini, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. While jhd2∆ caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2’s impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation. PMID:27897198

  15. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toribio E, E.

    2005-01-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  16. Tet1 oxidase regulates neuronal gene transcription, active DNA hydroxymethylation, object location memory, and threat recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation of neuronal activity-regulated genes is crucial for memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this equilibrium remain elusive. Tet1 oxidase has been shown to play a key role in the active DNA demethylation in the central nervous system. In this study, we used Tet1 gene knockout (Tet1KO mice to examine the involvement of Tet1 in memory consolidation and storage in the adult brain. We found that Tet1 ablation leads to altered expression of numerous neuronal activity-regulated genes, compensatory upregulation of active demethylation pathway genes, and upregulation of various epigenetic modifiers. Moreover, Tet1KO mice showed an enhancement in the consolidation and storage of threat recognition (cued and contextual fear conditioning and object location memories. We conclude that Tet1 plays a critical role in regulating neuronal transcription and in maintaining the epigenetic state of the brain associated with memory consolidation and storage.

  17. Deferasirox and vitamin D improves overall survival in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia after demethylating agents failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Paubelle

    Full Text Available The prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML in elderly (≥65 years patients is poor and treatment remains non-consensual especially for those who are not eligible for intensive therapies. Our group has shown that in vitro the iron chelator deferasirox (DFX synergizes with vitamin D (VD to promote monocyte differentiation in primary AML cells. Herein, we present results from a retrospective case-control study in which the association of DFX (1-2 g/d and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (100,000 IU/week (DFX/VD was proposed to patients following demethylating agents failure. Median survival of patients treated with DFX/VD combination (n = 17 was significantly increased in comparison with matched patients receiving best supportive care (BSC alone (n = 13 (10.4 versus 4 months respectively. In addition, the only factor associated to an increased overall survival in DFX/VD-treated patients was serum VD levels. We conclude that DFX/VD treatment correlated with increased overall survival of AML patients in this retrospective cohort of elderly patients.

  18. Tet1 Oxidase Regulates Neuronal Gene Transcription, Active DNA Hydroxy-methylation, Object Location Memory, and Threat Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Aggarwal, Milan; Kaas, Garrett A; Lewis, John; Wang, Jing; Ross, Daniel L; Zhong, Chun; Kennedy, Andrew; Song, Hongjun; Sweatt, J David

    2015-10-01

    A dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation of neuronal activity-regulated genes is crucial for memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this equilibrium remain elusive. Tet1 oxidase has been shown to play a key role in the active DNA demethylation in the CNS. In this study, we used Tet1 gene knockout (Tet1KO) mice to examine the involvement of Tet1 in memory consolidation and storage in the adult brain. We found that Tet1 ablation leads to: altered expression of numerous neuronal activity-regulated genes, compensatory upregulation of active demethylation pathway genes, and upregulation of various epigenetic modifiers. Moreover, Tet1KO mice showed an enhancement in the consolidation and storage of threat recognition (cued and contextual fear conditioning) and object location memories. We conclude that Tet1 plays a critical role in regulating neuronal transcription and in maintaining the epigenetic state of the brain associated with memory consolidation and storage.

  19. SET oncoprotein accumulation regulates transcription through DNA demethylation and histone hypoacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luciana O; Neto, Marinaldo P C; Sousa, Lucas O; Tannous, Maryna A; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andreia M

    2017-04-18

    Epigenetic modifications are essential in the control of normal cellular processes and cancer development. DNA methylation and histone acetylation are major epigenetic modifications involved in gene transcription and abnormal events driving the oncogenic process. SET protein accumulates in many cancer types, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); SET is a member of the INHAT complex that inhibits gene transcription associating with histones and preventing their acetylation. We explored how SET protein accumulation impacts on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on DNA methylation and histone acetylation. DNA methylation profile of 24 tumour suppressors evidenced that SET accumulation decreased DNA methylation in association with loss of 5-methylcytidine, formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and increased TET1 levels, indicating an active DNA demethylation mechanism. However, the expression of some suppressor genes was lowered in cells with high SET levels, suggesting that loss of methylation is not the main mechanism modulating gene expression. SET accumulation also downregulated the expression of 32 genes of a panel of 84 transcription factors, and SET directly interacted with chromatin at the promoter of the downregulated genes, decreasing histone acetylation. Gene expression analysis after cell treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) and Trichostatin A (TSA) revealed that histone acetylation reversed transcription repression promoted by SET. These results suggest a new function for SET in the regulation of chromatin dynamics. In addition, TSA diminished both SET protein levels and SET capability to bind to gene promoter, suggesting that administration of epigenetic modifier agents could be efficient to reverse SET phenotype in cancer.

  20. The Roles of a Flavone-6-Hydroxylase and 7-O-Demethylation in the Flavone Biosynthetic Network of Sweet Basil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Anna; Gang, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Lipophilic flavonoids found in the Lamiaceae exhibit unusual 6- and 8-hydroxylations whose enzymatic basis is unknown. We show that crude protein extracts from peltate trichomes of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars readily hydroxylate position 6 of 7-O-methylated apigenin but not apigenin itself. The responsible protein was identified as a P450 monooxygenase from the CYP82 family, a family not previously reported to be involved in flavonoid metabolism. This enzyme prefers flavones but also accepts flavanones in vitro and requires a 5-hydroxyl in addition to a 7-methoxyl residue on the substrate. A peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) homolog displayed identical substrate requirements, suggesting that early 7-O-methylation of flavones might be common in the Lamiaceae. This hypothesis is further substantiated by the pioneering discovery of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent flavone demethylase activity in basil, which explains the accumulation of 7-O-demethylated flavone nevadensin. PMID:23184958

  1. [Clinical Significance of ID4 Gene Mehtylation in Demethylation-Treated MDS Cell Line and 2 MDS Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Xin-Rong; Gao, Li; Wang, Wei; Li, Mian-Yang; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Yu, Li

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate significance of ID4 gene mehtylation in demethylating myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS) cell Line MUTZ1 and 2 patients with MDS. The methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to identify the methylation status and gene expression of ID4 gene in MDS cell line MUTZ1, a patient with aplastic anemia(AA) and a donor with normal bone marrow (NBM). RT-PCR was applied to detect the ID4 gene expression status in MUTZ1 cell line treated with decitabine at 3 different concentrations. Then bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was applied to detect ID4 gene methylation status in 2 MDS parients treated with decitabine. The MDS cell line MUTZ-1 displayed a complete methylation of ID4 gene promoter with little mRNA expression. Inversely, bone marrow of an AA patient and NBM showed complete unmethylation of this gene with intensity mRNA expression. With the increase of decitabine concentration, ID4 gene mRNA expression was more and more increased. After decitabine treatment, ID4 gene methylation-positive frequencies of both the 2 MDS patients were much more decreased than that of the first treatment. So, ID4 gene mRNA expression inhibited by promoter hypemethylation could be recovered by using demethylation medicine. ID4 as a new potential anti-oncogene suggests that its methylation may become a marker for selection and assessment of therapeutic schedules in patients with MDS.

  2. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  3. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  4. Suppression of Wnt signaling by the miR-29 family is mediated by demethylation of WIF-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wu, Junjie, E-mail: wujunjiesh@126.com [Department of Pneumology, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cai, Yong, E-mail: dryongcai@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dnmt3A and Dnmt3B are involved in the down-regulation of WIF-1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer. •MiR-29 family members could restore WIF-1 expression through demethylation. •MiR-29s suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibit tumor growth. •The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b could be regulated partially in a positive feedback loop. -- Abstract: Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) silencing induced by promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism of aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the activity of regulators associated with the methylation of the WIF-1 gene remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of three DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) in the expression of WIF-1. The three DNMTs were up-regulated in NSCLC tumor tissues and suppression of DNMT3A and DNMT3B restored the expression of WIF-1 in NSCLC cells. The miR-29 family (miR-29a, -29b, and -29c), which negatively regulates DNMT3A and DNMT3B, was examined in association with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. A positive correlation between the expression of WIF-1 and that of MiR-29s was observed in NSCLC tissues. Methylation-specific PCR and Western blotting indicated that miR-29s positively regulate WIF-1 expression by inhibiting the methylation of its promoter. Furthermore, miR-29 overexpression downregulated β-catenin expression, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b was partially regulated by DNMT3A and DNMT3B in a positive feedback loop. Taken together, our findings show that miR-29s suppress the Wnt signaling pathway through demethylation of WIF-1 in NSCLC.

  5. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of insignin and its 8-methoxy- and 6-demethoxy derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamer Saeed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A short and efficient synthesis of insignin (8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-heptyl- isocoumarin (1, a metabolite of natural lichens, has been described. Reaction of 3,5-dimethoxyhomophthalic anhydride (2 with octanoyl chloride in the presence of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG and triethyl amine afforded the 6,8-dimethoxy-3-heptylisocoumarin (3 in high yield. Regioselective demethylation of the latter using anhydrous aluminum chloride furnished the 8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-heptylisocoumarin (1 whereas, the complete demethylation of (3 yielded 6,8-dihydroxy-3-heptylisocoumarin (4. The isocoumarins (1, 3, and 4 were examined in vitro for antibacterial activity and were shown to exhibit moderate activity.

  6. Tet1 and Tet2 maintain mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis via demethylation of the P2rX7 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruili; Yu, Tingting; Kou, Xiaoxing; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Chider; Liu, Dawei; Zhou, Yanheng; Shi, Songtao

    2018-06-01

    Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family-mediated DNA oxidation represents an epigenetic modification capable of converting 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), which regulates various biological processes. However, it is unknown whether Tet family affects mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or the skeletal system. Here we show that depletion of Tet1 and Tet2 results in impaired self-renewal and differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs) and a significant osteopenia phenotype. Tet1 and Tet2 deficiency reduces demethylation of the P2rX7 promoter and downregulates exosome release, leading to intracellular accumulation of miR-297a-5p, miR-297b-5p, and miR-297c-5p. These miRNAs inhibit Runx2 signaling to impair BMMSC function. We show that overexpression of P2rX7 rescues the impaired BMMSCs and osteoporotic phenotype in Tet1 and Tet2 double knockout mice. These results indicate that Tet1 and Tet2 play a critical role in maintaining BMMSC and bone homeostasis through demethylation of P2rX7 to control exosome and miRNA release. This Tet/P2rX7/Runx2 cascade may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for osteopenia disorders.

  7. Production of 17-O-demethyl-geldanamycin, a cytotoxic ansamycin polyketide, by Streptomyces hygroscopicus DEM20745.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksh, Aron; Kepplinger, Bernhard; Isah, Hadiza A; Probert, Michael R; Clegg, William; Wills, Corinne; Goodfellow, Michael; Errington, Jeff; Allenby, Nick; Hall, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    The actinomycete DEM20745, collected from non-rhizosphere soil adjacent to Paraserianthes falactaria trees (Cangkringan, Indonesia), is an efficient producer of the anticancer ansamycin polyketide 17-O-demethyl-geldanamycin (17-O-DMG), a biosynthetic precursor of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM). In DEM20745, 17-O-DMG is the major ansamycin product observed reaching a maximum titre of 17 mg/L in the fermentation broth. 17-O-DMG has the potential to be a key starting material for the semi-synthesis of GDM analogues for use in anticancer therapy. Thus, this preferential biosynthesis of 17-O-DMG facilitates easy access to this important molecule and provides further insight in the biosynthesis of the geldanamycins.

  8. Demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in colorectal cancer cells targets genomic DNA whilst promoter CpG island methylation persists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, David; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. Aberrant epigenetic gene silencing in tumours is a frequent event, yet the factors which dictate which genes are targeted for inactivation are unknown. DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be modified with the chemical agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and Trichostatin A (TSA) respectively. The aim of this study was to analyse de-methylation and re-methylation and its affect on gene expression in colorectal cancer cell lines treated with 5-aza-dC alone and in combination with TSA. We also sought to identify methylation patterns associated with long term reactivation of previously silenced genes. Colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC, with and without TSA, to analyse global methylation decreases by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Re-methylation was observed with removal of drug treatments. Expression arrays identified silenced genes with differing patterns of expression after treatment, such as short term reactivation or long term reactivation. Sodium bisulfite sequencing was performed on the CpG island associated with these genes and expression was verified with real time PCR. Treatment with 5-aza-dC was found to affect genomic methylation and to a lesser extent gene specific methylation. Reactivated genes which remained expressed 10 days post 5-aza-dC treatment featured hypomethylated CpG sites adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS). In contrast, genes with uniformly hypermethylated CpG islands were only temporarily reactivated. These results imply that 5-aza-dC induces strong de-methylation of the genome and initiates reactivation of transcriptionally inactive genes, but this does not require gene associated CpG island de-methylation to occur. In addition, for three of our selected genes, hypomethylation at the TSS of an epigenetically silenced gene is associated with the long term reversion of

  9. Aerosol azacytidine inhibits orthotopic lung cancers in mice through Its DNA demethylation and gene reactivation effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Qiu

    Full Text Available We devised an aerosol based demethylation therapy to achieve therapeutic efficacy in premalignant or in situ lesions of lung cancer, without systemic toxicity. Optimum regimens of aerosolized azacytidine (Aza were designed and used in orthotopic human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft models. The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of aerosol Aza were compared with intravenously administered Aza. We observed that 80% of the droplets of the aerosol Aza measured ∼0.1-5 microns, which resulted in deposition in the lower bronchial airways. An animal model that phenocopies field carcinogeneisis in humans was developed by intratracheal inoculation of the human lung cancer cells in mice, thus resulting in their distribution throughout the entire airway space. Aerosolized Aza significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing endo-bronchial lung tumors. The aerosol treatment did not cause any detectable lung toxicity or systemic toxicity. A pre-pharmacokinetic study in mice demonstrated that lung deposition of aerosolized Aza was significantly higher than the intravenous route. Lung tumors were resected after aerosol treatment and the methylation levels of 24 promoters of tumor-suppresser genes related to lung cancer were analyzed. Aerosol Aza significantly reduced the methylation level in 9 of these promoters and reexpressed several genes tested. In conclusion, aerosol Aza at non-cytotoxic doses appears to be effective and results in DNA demethylation and tumor suppressor gene re-expression. The therapeutic index of aerosol Aza is >100-fold higher than that of intravenous Aza. These results provide a preclinical rationale for a phase I clinical trial of aerosol Aza to be initiated at our Institution.

  10. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    KAUST Repository

    La, Honggui; Ding, Bo; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Hongmei; Bellizzi, Maria Del Rosario; Chen, Songbiao; Meyers, Blake C.; Peng, Zhaohua; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Wang, Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counter-act transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.

  11. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    KAUST Repository

    La, Honggui

    2011-09-06

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counter-act transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.

  12. Agonists and partial agonists of rhodopsin: retinal polyene methylation affects receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Reiner; Lüdeke, Steffen; Siebert, Friedrich; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Sheves, Mordechai

    2006-02-14

    Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, we have studied the impact of sites and extent of methylation of the retinal polyene with respect to position and thermodynamic parameters of the conformational equilibrium between the Meta I and Meta II photoproducts of rhodopsin. Deletion of methyl groups to form 9-demethyl and 13-demethyl analogues, as well as addition of a methyl group at C10 or C12, shifted the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium toward Meta I, such that the retinal analogues behaved like partial agonists. This equilibrium shift resulted from an apparent reduction of the entropy gain of the transition of up to 65%, which was only partially offset by a concomitant reduction of the enthalpy increase. The analogues produced Meta II photoproducts with relatively small alterations, while their Meta I states were significantly altered, which accounted for the aberrant transitions to Meta II. Addition of a methyl group at C14 influenced the thermodynamic parameters but had little impact on the position of the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium. Neutralization of the residue 134 in the E134Q opsin mutant increased the Meta II content of the 13-demethyl analogue, but not of the 9-demethyl analogue, indicating a severe impairment of the allosteric coupling between the conserved cytoplasmic ERY motif involved in proton uptake and the Schiff base/Glu 113 microdomain in the 9-demethyl analogue. The 9-methyl group appears therefore essential for the correct positioning of retinal to link protonation of the cytoplasmic motif with protonation of Glu 113 during receptor activation.

  13. Automated extraction of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and N-demethyl-LSD from blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples using the Zymark RapidTrace with LC/MS/MS confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kanel, J; Vickery, W E; Waldner, B; Monahan, R M; Diamond, F X

    1998-05-01

    A forensic procedure for the quantitative confirmation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and the qualitative confirmation of its metabolite, N-demethyl-LSD, in blood, serum, plasma, and urine samples is presented. The Zymark RapidTrace was used to perform fully automated solid-phase extractions of all specimen types. After extract evaporation, confirmations were performed using liquid chromatography (LC) followed by positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) without derivatization. Quantitation of LSD was accomplished using LSD-d3 as an internal standard. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for LSD was 0.05 ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) for both LSD and N-demethyl-LSD was 0.025 ng/mL. The recovery of LSD was greater than 95% at levels of 0.1 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL. For LSD at 1.0 ng/mL, the within-run and between-run (different day) relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.2% and 4.4%, respectively.

  14. Analysis of acylcarnitines as their N-demethylated ester derivatives by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z H; Gage, D A; Bieber, L L; Sweeley, C C

    1991-11-15

    A novel approach to the analysis of acylcarnitines has been developed. It involves a direct esterification using propyl chloroformate in aqueous propanol followed by ion-pair extraction with potassium iodide into chloroform and subsequent on-column N-demethylation of the resulting acylcarnitine propyl ester iodides. The products, acyl N-demethylcarnitine propyl esters, are volatile and are easily analyzed by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. For medium-chain-length (C4-C12) acylcarnitine standards, detection limits are demonstrated to be well below 1 ng starting material using selected ion monitoring. Well-separated gas chromatographic peaks and structure-specific mass spectra are obtained with samples of synthetic and biological origin. Seven acylcarnitines have been characterized in the urine of a patient suffering from medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  15. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of the CYP2D6 catalyzed O-demethylation of (+)-tramadol but does not reduce the hypoalgesic effect in experimental pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noehr-Jensen, L; Zwisler, S T; Larsen, F

    2009-01-01

    Tramadol is O–demethylated to the active metabolite (+)–O–desmethyltramadol ((+)–M1) via CYP2D6, an enzyme that is weakly inhibited by escitalopram. We investigated the possibility of a pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of escitalopram on tramadol metabolism. Fifteen healthy...... subjects completed this randomized, double–blind, three–phase, crossover trial. Combinations of escitalopram 20 mg/day or placebo together with tramadol 150 mg or placebo were used. Blood samples for pharmacokinetics were drawn at 0–24 h after medication. The analgesic effect of (+)–M was assessed...... AUEC1–12 of CPT were 4,140 and 4,388 cm·s after placebo and escitalopram, respectively (P = 0.71). Although escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6, it does not impair the analgesic effect of tramadol....

  16. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  17. Liquid-Phase Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol over Mo2C Supported on Commercial CNF. Effects of Operating Conditions on Conversion and Product Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Moreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Mo2C catalyst that was supported on commercial carbon nanofibers (CNF was synthetized and tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol. The effects of operating conditions (temperature and pressure and reaction time (2 and 4 h on the conversion of guaiacol and products selectivity were studied. The major reaction products were cresol and phenol, followed by xylenols and toluene. The use of more severe operating conditions during the HDO of guaiacol caused a diversification in the reaction pathways, and consequently in the selectivity to products. The formation of phenol may have occurred by demethylation of guaiacol, followed by dehydroxylation of catechol, together with other reaction pathways, including direct guaiacol demethoxylation, and demethylation of cresols. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of spent catalysts did not reveal any significant changes as compared to the fresh catalyst.

  18. Redistribution of cell cycle by arsenic trioxide is associated with demethylation and expression changes of cell cycle related genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line (NB4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Saeed; Khaleghian, Ali; Ahmadian, Shahin; Alizadeh, Shaban; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2018-01-01

    PML-RARα perturbs the normal epigenetic setting, which is essential to oncogenic transformation in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Transcription induction and recruitment of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) by PML-RARα and subsequent hypermethylation are components of this perturbation. Arsenic trioxide (ATO), an important drug in APL therapy, concurrent with degradation of PML-RARα induces cell cycle change and apoptosis. How ATO causes cell cycle alteration has remained largely unexplained. Here, we investigated DNA methylation patterns of cell cycle regulatory genes promoters, the effects of ATO on the methylated genes and cell cycle distribution in an APL cell line, NB4. Analysis of promoter methylation status of 22 cell cycle related genes in NB4 revealed that CCND1, CCNE1, CCNF, CDKN1A, GADD45α, and RBL1 genes were methylated 60.7, 84.6, 58.6, 8.7, 33.4, and 73.7%, respectively, that after treatment with 2 μM ATO for 48 h, turn into 0.6, 13.8, 0.1, 6.6, 10.7, and 54.5% methylated. ATO significantly reduced the expression of DNMT1, 3A, and 3B. ATO induced the expression of CCND1, CCNE1, and GADD45α genes, suppressed the expression of CCNF and CDKN1A genes, which were consistent with decreased number of cells in G1 and S phases and increased number of cells in G2/M phase. In conclusion, demethylation and alteration in the expression level of the cell cycle related genes may be possible mechanisms in ATO-induced cell cycle arrest in APL cells. It may suggest that ATO by demethylation of CCND1 and CCNE1 and their transcriptional activation accelerates G1 and S transition into the G2/M cell cycle arrest.

  19. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  20. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m6A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m6A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  1. MINA controls proliferation and tumorigenesis of glioblastoma by epigenetically regulating cyclins and CDKs via H3K9me3 demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M-Y; Xuan, F; Liu, W; Cui, H-J

    2017-01-19

    It is generally known that histone demethylases regulate gene transcription by altering the methylate status on histones, but their roles in cancers and the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. MYC-induced nuclear antigen (MINA) is reported to be a histone demethylase and highly expressed in many cancers. Here, for the first time, we show that MINA is involved in glioblastoma carcinogenesis and reveal the probable mechanisms of it in cell-cycle control. Kaplan-Meier analysis of progression-free survival showed that high MINA expression was strongly correlated with poor outcome and advancing tumor stage. MINA knockdown significantly repressed the cell proliferation and tumorigenesis abilities of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo that were rescued by overexpressing the full-length MINA afterwards. Microarray analysis after knockdown of MINA revealed that MINA probably regulated glioblastoma carcinogenesis through the predominant cell-cycle pathways. Further investigation showed that MINA deficiency led to a cell-cycle arrest in G1 and G2 phases. And among the downstream genes, we found that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases were directly activated by MINA via the demethylation of H3K9me3.

  2. Supporting Human Activities - Exploring Activity-Centered Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad-hoc...

  3. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  4. Dioxygenases Catalyze O-Demethylation and O,O-Demethylenation with Widespread Roles in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolism in Opium Poppy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:23928311

  5. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-04

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy.

  6. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  7. DOES FAMILY SOCIAL SUPPORT AFFECT STARTUP BUSINESS ACTIVITIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaily F.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, StartUp has shown a considerable progress in Indonesia. Although most of the StartUps are newly established companies in phase to find the right markets, the StartUps are expected to contribute to the economy and solve local problems. In Indonesia most of the StartUps are still in the idea stage. Therefore, they have no profit, loss, or even failure. It causes the StartUps to be difficult in gaining trust from investors. To overcome these problems, support from various parties is necessary for the development of StartUp activities. One of them is a support from family (Family Social Support. Previous studies have shown that family support contributes to the success of an entrepreneur. However, there has been no research on the relationship between family support with StartUp activities, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This study examined the influence of family social support in the form of financial capital support, social capital, human capital, physical capital, and family cohesiveness on StartUp activities in Indonesia by using Poisson regression analysis. The results showed that family cohesiveness had a significant effect on the increase of StartUp activities.

  8. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation

  9. Modulators of membrane drug transporters potentiate the activity of the DMI fungicide oxpoconazole against Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Waard, de M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modulators known to reduce multidrug resistance in tumour cells were tested for their potency to synergize the fungitoxic activity of the fungicide oxpoconazole, a sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI), against Botrytis cinerea Pers. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine compound known as a calmodulin

  10. Activity-Based Support for Mobility and Collaboration in Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind

    2004-01-01

    is to: (1) support human activity by managing its collection of work tasks on a computer, (2) support mobility by distributing activities across heterogeneous computing environments, (3) support asynchronous collaboration by allowing several people to participate in an activity, and (4) support...

  11. Induction of the mesenchymal to epithelial transition by demethylation-activated microRNA-125b is involved in the anti-migration/invasion effects of arsenic trioxide on human chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xing; Ren, Tingting; Huang, Yi; Wang, Shidong; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Kuisheng; Zheng, Bingxin; Guo, Wei

    2016-08-30

    In addition to treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, arsenic trioxide (ATO) suppresses other solid tumors, including chondrosarcoma. However, the effects of ATO on metastasis in chondrosarcoma cells, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of ATO on the migratory and invasive capacities of chondrosarcoma cells were investigated by Wound healing, Transwell and EMT assays. The expression of miR-125b in human chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines was detected by real-time PCR analysis. Bisulfite sequencing analysis (BSP) was used to detect the effects of ATO on the expression of miR-125b. The gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were performed on chondrosarcoma cell lines to investigate the effects of miR-125b on chondrosarcoma invasion, and to determine whether signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(Stat3) mediates these effects. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify whether Stat3 is a direct target of miR-125b. MiR-125b was significantly downregulated in human metastatic chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines but not in non-metastatic chondrosarcoma tissues. ATO up-regulates the expression of miR-125b by the demethylation of DNA. ATO induces MET and attenuates the invasive capacities of chondrosarcoma cells through miR-125b. Stat3 was verified as a direct target of miR-125b, which is involved in ATO regulating EMT-associated traits. These findings, for the first time, provides evidence that the miR-125b-mediated inhibition of Stat3 is involved in the ATO-induced attenuation of metastasis in chondrosarcoma cells.

  12. Demethylation regulation of BDNF gene expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is implicated in opioid-induced pain hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Chieh; Xie, Fang; Li, Xueyang; Guo, Ruijuan; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Chen; Shi, Rong; Guan, Yun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Repeated administration of morphine may result in opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH), which involves altered expression of numerous genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Yet, it remains unclear how BDNF expression is increased in DRG neurons after repeated morphine treatment. DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression. In the current study, we hypothesized that the demethylation regulation of certain BDNF gene promoters in DRG neurons may contribute to the development of OIH. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess changes in the mRNA transcription levels of major BDNF exons including exon I, II, IV, VI, as well as total BDNF mRNA in DRGs from rats after repeated morphine administration. The levels of exon IV and total BDNF mRNA were significantly upregulated by repeated morphine administration, as compared to that in saline control group. Further, ELISA array and immunocytochemistry study revealed a robust upregulation of BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons after repeated morphine exposure. Correspondingly, the methylation levels of BDNF exon IV promoter showed a significant downregulation by morphine treatment. Importantly, intrathecal administration of a BDNF antibody, but not control IgG, significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity that developed in rats after repeated morphine treatment. Conversely, intrathecal administration of an inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) markedly upregulated the BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons and enhanced the mechanical allodynia after repeated morphine exposure. Together, our findings suggest that demethylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter may be implicated in the development of OIH through epigenetic control of BDNF expression in DRG neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of 5-azacytidine on natural killer cell activating receptor expression in patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis T. Costello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic drugs modify DNA methylation and are used in refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB. These drugs may reactivate anti-oncogene expression and restore a normal phenotype instead of inducing antitumor toxicity, although they also have immunosuppressive effects on T-lymphocytes [1] In RAEB and acute myeloid leukemia, a defect in natural killer (NK cell cytotoxicity has been shown, which relies on abnormal expression of activating receptors. Previous study has shown that 5-azacytidine impaired mRNA synthesis and induced apoptosis in NK cells [2]. In this study we investigated the effect of the demethylating drug 5-azacytidine (Vidaza® on NK receptors with the hypothesis that demethylation of the promoters of activating NK receptor genes induces gene reactivation and thus may increase their expression.

  14. A Simple, Rapid and Mild One Pot Synthesis of Benzene Ring Acylated and Demethylated Analogues of Harmine under Solvent-free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina S. Siddiqui

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also obtained. Yields from the eight syntheses (29 products in total were in the 6-34% range and all compounds were fully characterized.

  15. Implementation of Business Game Activity Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANABU Motonari

    2004-01-01

    Business game can be used not only as an educational tool for the development of decision making ability, but also can be used for supporting the knowledge creation activity in organizations. In this paper, some conceptual considerations to meanings of the business game in the knowledge creation activity by using the knowledge creation theory and other related theories are given,and business game activity concept which refers to game play and development is proposed. Then focusing on the business game activity as an instantiation of the knowledge creation activity, and a Web based gaming activity support system based on the former system called YBG that enables us to play and develop many business games through the standard web browser is proposed. This system also provides us a lot of opportunities to play and develop the business games over business game communities.

  16. Hypomethylation of the Treg-Specific Demethylated Region in FOXP3 Is a Hallmark of the Regulatory T-cell Subtype in Adult T-cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yayoi; Shimazu, Yutaka; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Nagai, Yuya; Sugino, Noriko; Fujii, Sumie; Kawahara, Masahiro; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-02-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Because of its immunosuppressive property and resistance to treatment, patients with ATL have poor prognoses. ATL cells possess the regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, such as CD4 and CD25, and usually express forkhead box P3 (FOXP3). However, the mechanisms of FOXP3 expression and its association with Treg-like characteristics in ATL remain unclear. Selective demethylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) in the FOXP3 gene leads to stable FOXP3 expression and defines natural Tregs. Here, we focus on the functional and clinical relationship between the epigenetic pattern of the TSDR and ATL. Analysis of DNA methylation in specimens from 26 patients with ATL showed that 15 patients (58%) hypomethylated the TSDR. The FOXP3(+) cells were mainly observed in the TSDR-hypomethylated cases. The TSDR-hypomethylated ATL cells exerted more suppressive function than the TSDR-methylated ATL cells. Thus, the epigenetic analysis of the FOXP3 gene identified a distinct subtype with Treg properties in heterogeneous ATL. Furthermore, we observed that the hypomethylation of TSDR was associated with poor outcomes in ATL. These results suggest that the DNA methylation status of the TSDR is an important hallmark to define this heterogeneous disease and to predict ATL patient prognosis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Physical activity and social support in adolescents: analysis of different types and sources of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.

  18. Identification of critical timeconsuming student support activities in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. de Vries

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education staff involved in e-learning often struggle with organising their student support activities. To a large extent this is due to the high workload involved with such activities. We distinguish support related to learning content, learning processes and student products. At two different educational institutions, surveys were conducted to identify the most critical support activities, using the Nominal Group Method. The results are discussed and brought to bear on the distinction between content-related, process-related and product-related support activities.

  19. Stromal cells expressing hedgehog-interacting protein regulate the proliferation of myeloid neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobune, M; Iyama, S; Kikuchi, S; Horiguchi, H; Sato, T; Murase, K; Kawano, Y; Takada, K; Ono, K; Kamihara, Y; Hayashi, T; Miyanishi, K; Sato, Y; Takimoto, R; Kato, J

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant reactivation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been described in a wide variety of human cancers including cancer stem cells. However, involvement of the Hh-signaling system in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment during the development of myeloid neoplasms is unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression of Hh-related genes in primary human CD34 + cells, CD34 + blastic cells and BM stromal cells. Both Indian Hh (Ihh) and its signal transducer, smoothened (SMO), were expressed in CD34 + acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-derived cells. However, Ihh expression was relatively low in BM stromal cells. Remarkably, expression of the intrinsic Hh-signaling inhibitor, human Hh-interacting protein (HHIP) in AML/MDS-derived stromal cells was markedly lower than in healthy donor-derived stromal cells. Moreover, HHIP expression levels in BM stromal cells highly correlated with their supporting activity for SMO + leukemic cells. Knockdown of HHIP gene in stromal cells increased their supporting activity although control cells marginally supported SMO + leukemic cell proliferation. The demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine rescued HHIP expression via demethylation of HHIP gene and reduced the leukemic cell-supporting activity of AML/MDS-derived stromal cells. This indicates that suppression of stromal HHIP could be associated with the proliferation of AML/MDS cells

  20. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  1. Driven to Support: Individual- and County-Level Factors Associated With Public Support for Active Transportation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Chriqui, Jamie F; Evenson, Kelly R; Goins, Karin Valentine; Gustat, Jeanette; Heinrich, Katie M; Perry, Cynthia K; Scanze, Michele; Schmid, Thomas L; Tabak, Rachel G; Umstattd Meyer, M Renee; Valko, Cheryl

    2018-03-01

    To assess predictors of stated support for policies promoting physically active transportation. Cross-sectional. US counties selected on county-level physical activity and obesity health status. Participants completing random-digit dialed telephone survey (n = 906). Survey measures assessed stated support for 5 policies to promote physically active transportation, access to active transportation facilities, and time spent in a car. County-level estimates included household car dependence and funding for bicycle-pedestrian projects. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models using binary distribution and logit link, accounting for clustering within county. Respondents supported policies for accommodating bicyclists and pedestrians through street improvements (89%), school active transportation programs (75%), employer-funded active commuting incentives (67%), and allocation of public funding (68%) and tax support (56%) for building and maintaining public transit. Residents spending >2 h/d (vs public transit (OR: 1.85; CI: 1.24-2.77) improvements. Residents in counties investing >$1.6 million in bicycle and pedestrian improvements expressed greater support for funding (OR: 1.71; CI: 1.04-2.83) and tax increases (OR: 1.73; CI: 1.08-2.75) for transit improvements compared to those with lower prior investments (transportation is higher where relevant investments in active transportation infrastructure are large (>$1.6 M), public transit is nearby, and respondents drive >2 h/d.

  2. Molecular basis of the activity of the phytopathogen pectin methylesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Markus; Ihrig, Jessica; Brocklehurst, Keith; Shevchik, Vladimir E; Pickersgill, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    We provide a mechanism for the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME), the enzyme that catalyses the essential first step in bacterial invasion of plant tissues. The complexes formed in the crystal using specifically methylated pectins, together with kinetic measurements of directed mutants, provide clear insights at atomic resolution into the specificity and the processive action of the Erwinia chrysanthemi enzyme. Product complexes provide additional snapshots along the reaction coordinate. We previously revealed that PME is a novel aspartic-esterase possessing parallel β-helix architecture and now show that the two conserved aspartates are the nucleophile and general acid-base in the mechanism, respectively. Other conserved residues at the catalytic centre are shown to be essential for substrate binding or transition state stabilisation. The preferential binding of methylated sugar residues upstream of the catalytic site, and demethylated residues downstream, drives the enzyme along the pectin molecule and accounts for the sequential pattern of demethylation produced by both bacterial and plant PMEs. PMID:17717531

  3. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  4. Validation of 13CO2 breath analysis as a measurement of demethylation of stable isotope labeled aminopyrine in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.F.; Schoeller, D.A.; Nemchausky, B.; Bayer, J.L.; Klein, P.

    1978-01-01

    Interval sampling of expired breath as a simple, non-invasive assessment of the effect of liver disease upon hepatic microsomal drug metabolism, has been demonstrated with [ 14 C] dimethylaminoantipyrine (aminopyrine). In order to eliminate radiation risk the authors have validated the use of aminopyrine labeled with the stable, non-radioactive isotope 13 C. Simultaneous oral administration of both [ 14 C]- and [ 13 C] aminopyrine to five adult subjects without liver disease as well as five patients with known liver disease, resulted in the excretion of label at nearly identical rates in both individual time collections (r=0.94) as well as cumulative excretion for three hours (r=0.97). An oral dose of 2-mg/kg of [ 13 C) aminopyrine resulted in rates of production of 13 CO 2 significantly greater than baseline variations in 13 CO 2 production in the fasting, resting subject. Measurements of a single peak value at one half hour correlated closely with the determination of cumulative appearance over three hours (r=0.96). A consistent reproducible increase in the peak production of 13 CO 2 was observed when five patients received phenobarbital. Stable isotope labeled aminopyrine may be used to detect the effects of disease and treatment upon hepatic N-demethylation activity in human subjects without incurring any risk from radiation. Furthermore, the availability of another isotopic carbon label should make possible the study of direct drug-drug interaction utilizing CO 2 analysis. (Auth.)

  5. Small business support of youth physical activity opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Ding, Ding

    2012-01-01

    Describe small business support for youth physical activity opportunities (YPAO) and identify factors associated with this support. Cross-sectional analysis of quantitative data relating business characteristics and support for YPAO. Eight demographically heterogeneous, urban neighborhoods in a Midwest metropolitan area. Adult small business owners (n = 90; 65% response rate; mean age 48.4 years; 73.3% male; 45.2% minority). Neighborhood demographics from the 2000 U.S. Census and self-reported business and owner characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to contrast business and owner characteristics between businesses that did and did not support YPAO. Businesses supporting YPAO had larger annual operating (F = 7.6; p = .018) and advertising budgets (F = 8.5; p = .009) and had younger owners (F = 6.1; p = .034), with sports backgrounds (χ(2) = 5.6; p = .018) and who felt businesses should support YPAO (χ(2) = 3.8; p = .048). Of the 46 businesses not supporting YPAO, 82.6% felt small businesses should support YPAO. The major reasons for nonsupport were difficulty identifying YPAO to support and not being asked for support. Business (e.g., budgets) and business owner characteristics (e.g., age), owner connectedness with YPAO, and the approach used for garnering support (active solicitation, clearly defined support mechanism) were associated with supporting YPAO. Additional business (e.g., annual revenues), owner (e.g., perceptions of YPAO), and environmental (e.g., crime rate, land use) factors should be examined as potential correlates.

  6. Supporting Activity-Based Computingusing Dynamically (De)Composable Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Schougaard, Kari Rye

    2004-01-01

    the document-centered paradigm for pervasive computing: it crosscuts work with different kinds of entities and sets the focus on the user and the user's tasks. In domain such as healthcare, activities are fundamentally mobile: doctors and nurses move throughout the hospital as their work progresses. Hence......, the computer must support mobility of activities. For this reason, we consider it important to investigate whether a computing platform that embraces mobility at a fundamental level supports implementing software for this new paradigm. This paper describes our initial design ideas for supporting activity......-centered computing in the Pervasive Object Model Project (POMP), a project which concerns the development of a platform for pervasive computing applications. We first describe POMP, the present the notion of activity-based computing, and last investigate how activity-based computing can be implemented in POMP....

  7. Tuning metal support interactions enhances the activity and durability of TiO2-supported Pt nanocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Bing-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Che; Pan, Chun-Jern; Su, Wei-Nien; Rick, John; Chou, Hung-Lung; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The coverage of TiO x on Pt can be modified by thermal and fluoric acid treatments. • Strong metal support interaction (SMSI) can be testified by electrochemical method. • For the first time, the SMSI effect is observed at 200 °C with supporting TEM images. • Increased activity and stability are attributed to stronger SMSI. • This tunable approach is valid for other oxide supported catalysts, e.g. Pt/Nb-TiO 2 . - Abstract: A facile approach to enhance catalytic activity and durability of TiO 2 -supported Pt nanocatalysts by tuning strong metal support interaction (SMSI) is investigated in this work. No need for a high temperature treatment, the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) in TiO 2 -supported Pt can be induced at 200° C by H 2 reduction. Moreover, electrochemical methods (methanol oxidation reaction and cyclic voltammetry) are first reported ever to be effective characterization tools for the coverage state caused by SMSI. In addition, the SMSI has also been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. It is found that the encapsulation of TiO 2-x species on the surface Pt clusters was induced and modified by thermal reduction and fluoric acid treatment. The catalytic activity and durability of the TiO 2 -supported Pt nanocatalysts are strongly dependent of the state of SMSI. The proposed SMSI-tunable approach to enhance the ORR activity and stability is also proved applicable to Pt/Ti 0.9 Nb 0.1 O 2 nanocatalysts. We believe that the reported approach paves the way for manipulating the activity and stability of other TiO 2 -supported metal nanocatalysts. Furthermore, the suggested electrochemical methods offer facile and effective ways to verify the presence of coverage state before combining with other physical analysis.

  8. Phlpp1 facilitates post-traumatic osteoarthritis and is induced by inflammation and promoter demethylation in human osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Becerra, Clara Castillejo; Amanatullah, Derek F.; Ta, Lauren E.; Otero, Miguel; Goldring, Mary B.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability. OA is characterized by articular chondrocyte deterioration, subchondral bone changes and debilitating pain. One strategy to promote cartilage regeneration and repair is to accelerate proliferation and matrix production of articular chondrocytes. We previously reported that the protein phosphatase Phlpp1 controls chondrocyte differentiation by regulating the activities of anabolic kinases. Here we examined the role of Phlpp1 in osteoarthritis progression in a murine model. We also assessed PHLPP1 expression and promoter methylation. DESIGN Knee joints of WT and Phlpp1−/− mice were surgically destabilized by transection of the medial meniscal ligament (DMM). Mice were assessed for signs of OA progression via radiographic and histological analyses, and pain assessment for mechanical hypersensitivity using the von Frey assay. Methylation of the PHLPP1 promoter and PHLPP1 expression was evaluated in human articular cartilage and chondrocyte cell lines. RESULTS Following DMM surgeries, Phlpp1 deficient mice showed fewer signs of OA and cartilage degeneration. Mechanical allodynia associated with DMM surgeries was also attenuated in Phlpp1−/− mice. PHLPP1 was highly expressed in human articular cartilage from OA patients, but was undetectable in cartilage specimens from femoral neck fractures. Higher PHLPP1 levels correlated with less PHLPP1 promoter CpG methylation in cartilage from OA patients. Blocking cytosine methylation or treatment with inflammatory mediators enhanced PHLPP1 expression in human chondrocyte cell lines. CONCLUSION Phlpp1 deficiency protects against OA progression while CpG demethylation and inflammatory responses promote PHLPP1 expression. PMID:26746148

  9. Measures of Patient Activation and Social Support in a Peer-Led Support Network for Women With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy

    Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.

  10. Demethylation of Circulating Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene in Cerebral Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fen Lin

    Full Text Available Estrogen is involved in neuron plasticity and can promote neuronal survival in stroke. Its actions are mostly exerted via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. Previous animal studies have shown that ERα is upregulated by DNA demethylation following ischemic injury. This study investigated the methylation levels in the ERα promoter in the peripheral blood of ischemic stroke patients.The study included 201 ischemic stroke patients, and 217 age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. The quantitative methylation level in the 14 CpG sites of the ERα promoter was measured by pyrosequencing in each participant. Multivariate regression model was used to adjust for stroke traditional risk factors. Stroke subtypes and sex-specific analysis were also conducted.The results demonstrated that the stroke cases had a lower ERα methylation level than controls in all 14 CpG sites, and site 13 and site 14 had significant adjusted p-values of 0.035 and 0.026, respectively. Stroke subtypes analysis showed that large-artery atherosclerosis and cardio-embolic subtypes had significantly lower methylation levels than the healthy controls at CpG site 5, site 9, site 12, site 13 and site 14 with adjusted p = 0.039, 0.009, 0.025, 0.046 and 0.027 respectively. However, the methylation level for the patients with small vessel subtype was not significant. We combined the methylation data from the above five sites for further sex-specific analysis. The results showed that the significant association only existed in women (adjusted p = 0.011, but not in men (adjusted p = 0.300.Female stroke cases have lower ERα methylation levels than those in the controls, especially in large-artery and cardio-embolic stroke subtypes. The study implies that women suffering from ischemic stroke of specific subtype may undergo different protective mechanisms to reduce the brain injury.

  11. Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolt Gregory S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence exists for the influence of encouragement on physical activity participation, the diversity of support sources and the type of physical activity examined previously is limited. This study examined the importance of perceived encouragement from parents, siblings/cousins, friends, and schools on participation levels across three time-specific activity opportunities that are available during a school day (after-school physical activities, lunchtime activity, and active transportation to and from school. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 12–18 year old high school students (n = 3,471 were recruited from low SES schools within South Auckland, New Zealand and categorised as either Junior (Years 9–11 or Senior (Years 12 & 13 students. Participants reported their physical activity levels and quantity of encouragement received from their parent(s, friend(s, sibling(s/cousin(s, and school to be active. For each physical activity variable participants were dichotomized as being either "active" or "less active". For each social support source, participants were grouped into either receiving "high" or "low" levels of support. Binary logistic regression analyzes were conducted to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Low parental support (Juniors, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.38–0.58; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60 and low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51–0.74; Seniors, OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35–0.69 were associated with reduced odds of being regularly active after school. For lunchtime activity, low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32–0.48; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57 was associated with reduced odds of being categorized as active. While no variables were significantly related to active transportation among senior students, low peer support was associated with reduced odds of actively commuting for Junior students (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92. Irrespective

  12. Identification of three new phase II metabolites of a designer drug methylone formed in rats by N-demethylation followed by conjugation with dicarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Židková, Monika; Linhart, Igor; Balíková, Marie; Himl, Michal; Dvořáčková, Veronika; Lhotková, Eva; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    1. Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone, MDMC), which appeared on the illicit drug market in 2004, is a frequently abused synthetic cathinone derivative. Known metabolic pathways of MDMC include N-demethylation to normethylone (3,4-methylenedioxycathinone, MDC), aliphatic chain hydroxylation and oxidative demethylenation followed by monomethylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid and/or sulphate. 2. Three new phase II metabolites, amidic conjugates of MDC with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid, were identified in the urine of rats dosed subcutaneously with MDMC.HCl (20 mg/kg body weight) by LC-ESI-HRMS using synthetic reference standards to support identification. 3. The main portion of administered MDMC was excreted unchanged. Normethylone, was a major urinary metabolite, of which a minor part was conjugated with dicarboxylic acids. 4. Previously identified ring-opened metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethcathinone (4-OH-3-MeO-MC), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxymeth-cathinone (3-OH-4-MeO-MC) and 3,4-dihydroxymethcathinone (3,4-di-OH-MC) mostly in conjugated form with glucuronic and/or sulphuric acids were also detected. 5. Also, ring-opened metabolites derived from MDC, namely, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycathinone (4-OH-3-MeO-C), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycathinone (3-OH-4-MeO-C) and 3,4-dihydroxycathinone (3,4-di-OH-C) were identified for the first time in vivo.

  13. Inhibition of H3K27me3 Histone Demethylase Activity Prevents the Proliferative Regeneration of Zebrafish Lateral Line Neuromasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Beier; He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    The H3K27 demethylases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death by regulating transcriptional activity. However, the function of H3K27 demethylation in the field of hearing research is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity in hair cell regeneration using an in vivo animal model. Our data showed that pharmacologic inhibition of H3K27 demethylase activity with the specific small-molecule inhibitor GSK-J4 decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. Furthermore, inhibition of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and activated caspase-3 levels in the regenerating neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line. GSK-J4 administration also increased the expression of p21 and p27 in neuromast cells and inhibited the ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings indicate that H3K27me3 demethylation is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish and suggest that H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hearing loss. PMID:28348517

  14. Importance of phytoalexin tolerance and detoxification for pathogenicity. Progress report, June 1983-June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanEtten, H.; Matthews, D.

    1985-01-01

    This study focuses on the biochemistry of phytoalexin detoxifying enzymes. Progress is reported on purification, substrate specificity, and mechanism of several enzymes involved. Some aspects of the regulation of pisatin demethylase were studied since parallel genetic studies suggest its regulation is an important factor in the pathogenicity of Nectria haematococca. We have established that the detoxification of pisatin requires two components: NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P-450. The ability to separate and reconstitute these two components has allowed us to demonstrate that the reductase from a non-demethylating isolate of N. haematococca will support demethylating activity when combined with the cytochrome P-450 from a demethylating isolate. The finding that the critical genetic factor here is the cytochrome P-450 fraction reinforces the hypothesis that the multiple pda genes of this fungus encode different cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The evidence for monooxygenase catalyzed metabolism of maackiain suggests the existence of additional members of a phytoalexin detoxifying cytochrome P-450 family. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Support system for Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Fumio; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Sakurai, Fumio; Onizawa, Koji

    1999-01-01

    In the research reactor of JAERI, the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been utilized as a major part of an irradiation usage. To utilize NAA, research participants are always required to learn necessary technique. Therefore, we started to examine a support system that will enable to carry out INAA easily even by beginners. The system is composed of irradiation device, gamma-ray spectrometer and data analyzing instruments. The element concentration is calculated by using KAYZERO/SOLCOI software with the K 0 standardization method. In this paper, we review on a construction of this INAA support system in JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  16. The roles of co-chaperone CCRP/DNAJC7 in Cyp2b10 gene activation and steatosis development in mouse livers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marumi Ohno

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR retention protein (CCRP and also known as DNAJC7 is a co-chaperone previously characterized to retain nuclear receptor CAR in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. Here we have produced CCRP knockout (KO mice and demonstrated that CCRP regulates CAR at multiple steps in activation of the cytochrome (Cyp 2b10 gene in liver: nuclear accumulation, RNA polymerase II recruitment and epigenetic modifications. Phenobarbital treatment greatly increased nuclear CAR accumulation in the livers of KO males as compared to those of wild type (WT males. Despite this accumulation, phenobarbital-induced activation of the Cyp2b10 gene was significantly attenuated. In ChIP assays, a CAR/retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα heterodimer binding to the Cyp2b10 promoter was already increased before phenobarbital treatment and further pronounced after treatment. However, RNA polymerase II was barely recruited to the promoter even after phenobarbital treatment. Histone H3K27 on the Cyp2b10 promoter was de-methylated only after phenobarbital treatment in WT but was fully de-methylated before treatment in KO males. Thus, CCRP confers phenobarbital-induced de-methylation capability to the promoter as well as the phenobarbital responsiveness of recruiting RNA polymerase II, but is not responsible for the binding between CAR and its cognate sequence, phenobarbital responsive element module. In addition, KO males developed steatotic livers and increased serum levels of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in response to fasting. CCRP appears to be involved in various hepatic regulations far beyond CAR-mediated drug metabolism.

  17. A High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry Assay Coupled with Redox Activity Testing Reduces Artifacts and False Positives in Lysine Demethylase Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigle, Tim J; Swinger, Kerren K; Campbell, John E; Scholle, Michael D; Sherrill, John; Admirand, Elizabeth A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Kuntz, Kevin W; Chesworth, Richard; Moyer, Mikel P; Scott, Margaret Porter; Copeland, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Demethylation of histones by lysine demethylases (KDMs) plays a critical role in controlling gene transcription. Aberrant demethylation may play a causal role in diseases such as cancer. Despite the biological significance of these enzymes, there are limited assay technologies for study of KDMs and few quality chemical probes available to interrogate their biology. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of self-assembled monolayer desorption/ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry for the investigation of quantitative KDM enzyme kinetics and for high-throughput screening for KDM inhibitors. SAMDI can be performed in 384-well format and rapidly allows reaction components to be purified prior to injection into a mass spectrometer, without a throughput-limiting liquid chromatography step. We developed sensitive and robust assays for KDM1A (LSD1, AOF2) and KDM4C (JMJD2C, GASC1) and screened 13,824 compounds against each enzyme. Hits were rapidly triaged using a redox assay to identify compounds that interfered with the catalytic oxidation chemistry used by the KDMs for the demethylation reaction. We find that overall this high-throughput mass spectrometry platform coupled with the elimination of redox active compounds leads to a hit rate that is manageable for follow-up work. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods: A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls’ perspectives of how significant others’ influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Results: Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. Conclusion: The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls’ perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity. PMID:29405881

  19. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Yvonne; Fawkner, Samantha; Niven, Ailsa

    2018-12-01

    Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls' perspectives of how significant others' influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls' perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity.

  20. Relative contribution of rat cytochrome P450 isoforms to the metabolism of caffeine: the pathway and concentration dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Marta; Daniel, Władysława A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the relative contribution of rat P450 isoforms to the metabolism of caffeine and to assess the usefulness of caffeine as a marker substance for estimating the activity of P450 in rat liver and its potential for pharmacokinetic interactions in pharmacological experiments. The results obtained using rat cDNA-expressed P450s indicated that 8-hydroxylation was the main oxidation pathway of caffeine (70%) in the rat. CYP1A2 was found to be a key enzyme catalyzing 8-hydroxylation (72%) and substantially contributing to 3-N-demethylation (47%) and 1-N-demethylation (37.5%) at a caffeine concentration of 0.1mM (relevant to "the maximum therapeutic concentration in humans"). Furthermore, CYP2C11 considerably contributed to 3-N-demethylation (31%). The CYP2C subfamily (66%) - mainly CYP2C6 (27%) and CYP2C11 (29%) - played a major role in catalyzing 7-N-demethylation. At higher substrate concentrations, the contribution of CYP1A2 to the metabolism of caffeine decreased in favor of CYP2C11 (N-demethylations) and CYP3A2 (mainly 8-hydroxylation). The obtained results were confirmed with liver microsomes (inhibition and correlation studies). Therefore, caffeine may be used as a marker substance for assessing the activity of CYP1A2 in rats, using 8-hydroxylation (but not 3-N-demethylation-like in humans); moreover, caffeine may also be used to simultaneously, preliminarily estimate the activity of CYP2C using 7-N-demethylation as a marker reaction. Hence caffeine pharmacokinetics in rats may be changed by drugs affecting the activity of CYP1A2 and/or CYP2C, e.g. by some antidepressants.

  1. A spectroscopic and catalytic investigation of active phase-support interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Active catalytic phases (metal, mixed metals, oxide or mixed oxides) interacting with oxide support on which the active phase is dispersed can affect the percentage exposed, the morphology of supported particles, the degree of reducibility of cations, etc., in a variety of ways. Our objective is to characterize the physical chemistry of the active phase-oxide support by spectroscopic methods and to correlate this structure with catalytic function. The three systems discussed in this progress report are Ag/TiO{sub 2}, Ru-Cu/SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Determination of parameters influencing methylation and demethylation in tropical lakes in Brazil and Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylander, Lars D.; Ahlgren, Ingemar; Erikson, Rolf; Lantz, Peter; Toernblom, Erik; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Meili, Markus; Montenegro Guillen, Salvador; Vammen, Katherine; Altamirano, Maximina; Zelaya, Argentina; Sarria Sacasa, Karla; Jimenez, Mario

    2001-01-01

    Increased awareness about the toxicity of mercury (Hg) has during the latest decades resulted in reduced Hg use in industrialised countries. Developing countries, on the contrary, have largely increased their anthropogenic Hg emissions caused by its use in gold mining, transfer of Hg emitting factories from developed countries, and increased burning of coal without appropriate flue gas cleaning. These increased emissions occur mainly in the tropics, where the fate of Hg is not well documented. The aim of the present study is to increase the knowledge about Hg levels and transformations in two tropical areas affected by anthropogenic Hg emissions - the Pantanal wetland in Brazil, housing gold miners using the amalgamation method, and Lake Xolotilan (Managua) in Nicaragua, where a chlor-alkali plant relocated from the USA has emitted much Hg. Actual Hg content in water, biota, and sediment will be determined by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury inethylation capacity in sediments and selected biota will be determined with in-situ incubations with 203 Hg and subsequent radiological measurements. Factors affecting the methylation and demethylation rates will be identified by varying environmental conditions such as pH, redox potential, conductivity, light, temperature, geochemical factors and population of bacteria. Sediment turnover will be studied by determining fallout cesium ( 137 Cs) in sediment profiles. The study is expected to increase the knowledge about Hg-transformations in the tropics and point out proper measures to reduce health hazards due to Hg-exposure. (author)

  3. Biogeochemistry of mercury in contaminated environment in the wider Idrija region and the Gulf of Trieste. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, Milena

    2002-01-01

    Activities at mercury (Hg) mines can lead to the mobilization of large quantities of Hg that enter the environment and are transported downstream. Although much of this Hg is deposited near the source, over time much of this Hg can be carried hundreds of kilometers where it can potentially enter and bioaccumulate in distant food webs. Mining activities in the ldrija, Slovenia mining district occurred for 500 years and the legacy of that mining can be seen in high concentrations of Hg throughout the watershed and into the Gulf of Trieste. Mercury concentrations are high in the sediments near the mouth of the Soca/Isonzo, River in the Gulf, and the Soca River continues to deliver ∼1.5 tons of Hg to the marine environment ∼100 km from the mine. Much of the Hg carried to the sea is probably as fine cinnabar particles, and the potential remobilization and further transformation of this Hg is of concern with regard to local environmental and the accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg in seafood. Mercury sulfide minerals are subject to dissolution and increased bioavailability when they contact sulfidic environments such as what occurs in coastal marine sediments. This 'newly' available Hg can potentially undergo methylation to supply the environment with newly formed MeHg. Indeed, Gulf sediments contain significant concentrations of MeHg and effluxes of MeHg from Gulf sediments have been observed in recent studies. However, sediments can also support active demethylation by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. This demethylation can be due to either oxidative or reductive pathways. The present study was conducted to determine the potential of sediments from the Gulf of Trieste to methylate and demethylate Hg including an assessment of which demethylation pathway is most prevalent

  4. Google Home: Experience, Support and Re-Experience of Social Home Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2008-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence research is about ubiquitous computing and about social and intelligent properties of computer-supported environments. These properties aim at providing inhabitants or visitors of ambient intelligence environments with support in their activities. Activities include interactions

  5. Google Home: Experience, Support and Re-Experience of Social Home Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2006-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence research is about ubiquitous computing and about social and intelligent properties of computer-supported environments. These properties aim at providing inhabitants or visitors of ambient intelligence environments with support in their activities. Activities include interactions

  6. Effects of emodin on the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Liang; Bu, He-Qi; Yu, Qing-Jiang; Jiang, Dan-Dan; Pan, Feng-Ping; Wang, Yu; Liu, Dian-Lei; Lin, Sheng-Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum, has been reported to inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through different modes of action; yet, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we hypothesized that emodin exerts its antitumor effect by participating in the regulation of the DNA methylation level. Our research showed that emodin inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dot-blot results showed that 40 µM emodin significantly inhibited genomic 5 mC expression in the PANC-1 cells, and mRNA-Seq showed that different concentrations of emodin could alter the gene expression profile in the PANC-1 cells. BSP confirmed that the methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A and ppENK were decreased, while concomitantly the unmethylated status was increased. RT-PCR and western blotting results confirmed that the low expression or absence of expression of mRNA and protein in the PANC-1 cells was re-expressed following treatment with emodin. In conclusion, our study for the first time suggests that emodin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth, which may be related to the demethylation of tumor-suppressor genes. The related mechanism may be through the inhibition of methyltransferase expression.

  7. JAIF's teacher support activity on radiation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kito, K.; Kudo, K.

    2016-01-01

    Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) has been conducting science teacher support activities on radiation education since 2011, after the Fukushima NPP Accident, in cooperation with member organizations of the Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net). (author)

  8. Chemical synthesis of high specific-activity [35S]adenosylhomocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, P.H.; Hoffman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the family of transmethylases, critical to normal cellular function and often altered in cancer, can be facilitated by the availability of a high specific-activity S-adenosylhomocysteine. The authors report the two-step preparation of [ 35 S]adenosylhomocysteine from [ 35 S]methionine at a specific activity of 1420 Ci/mmol in an overall yield of 24% by a procedure involving demethylation of the [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]homocysteine followed by condensation with 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine. The ease of the reactions, ready availability and low cost of the reagents and high specific-activity and stability of the product make the procedure an attractive one with many uses, and superior to current methodology

  9. Relationship model and supporting activities of JIT, TQM and TPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttapon SaeTong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a relationship model and supporting activities of Just-in-time (JIT, Total Quality Management (TQM,and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. By reviewing the concepts, 5S, Kaizen, preventive maintenance, Kanban, visualcontrol, Poka-Yoke, and Quality Control tools are the main supporting activities. Based on the analysis, 5S, preventive maintenance,and Kaizen are the foundation of the three concepts. QC tools are required activities for implementing TQM, whereasPoka-Yoke and visual control are necessary activities for implementing TPM. After successfully implementing TQM andTPM, Kanban is needed for JIT.

  10. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  11. Monozygotic twins discordant for common variable immunodeficiency reveal impaired DNA demethylation during naïve-to-memory B-cell transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortez, Virginia C.; del Pino-Molina, Lucia; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Ciudad, Laura; Gómez-Cabrero, David; Company, Carlos; Urquiza, José M.; Tegnér, Jesper; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos; López-Granados, Eduardo; Ballestar, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent primary immunodeficiency characterized by loss of B-cell function, depends partly on genetic defects, and epigenetic changes are thought to contribute to its aetiology. Here we perform a high-throughput DNA methylation analysis of this disorder using a pair of CVID-discordant MZ twins and show predominant gain of DNA methylation in CVID B cells with respect to those from the healthy sibling in critical B lymphocyte genes, such as PIK3CD, BCL2L1, RPS6KB2, TCF3 and KCNN4. Individual analysis confirms hypermethylation of these genes. Analysis in naive, unswitched and switched memory B cells in a CVID patient cohort shows impaired ability to demethylate and upregulate these genes in transitioning from naive to memory cells in CVID. Our results not only indicate a role for epigenetic alterations in CVID but also identify relevant DNA methylation changes in B cells that could explain the clinical manifestations of CVID individuals. PMID:26081581

  12. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Friend Support on Adolescent Vigorous Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to test social cognitive theory's notion that self-efficacy relates to intention that translates into behavior and to investigate whether friend support and self-efficacy synergize, interfere, or compensate for one another to predict vigorous physical activity in adolescents-a population at risk of rapid decreases in physical activity. A survey at two points in time was conducted in 226 students aged 12 to 16 years. In a conditional process analysis, friend support and physical activity self-efficacy were specified as interacting predictors of intention. The latter was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and later vigorous physical activity, controlling for sex and age. Self-efficacy emerged as the dominant predictor of intention, followed by friend support, and an interaction between support and self-efficacy. In adolescents with high self-efficacy, intention was independent of support. In those with low self-efficacy, receiving friend support partly compensated for lack of self-efficacy. The effect of self-efficacy on vigorous physical activity was mediated by intention. Adolescent vigorous physical activity was indirectly predicted by self-efficacy via intention, and this mediation was further moderated by levels of friend support, indicating that friend support can partly buffer lack of self-efficacy.

  13. Active Elastic Support/Dry Friction Damper with Piezoelectric Ceramic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic operation principle of elastic support/dry friction damper in rotor system was introduced and the unbalance response of the rotor with elastic support/dry friction damper was analyzed theoretically. Based on the previous structure using an electromagnet as actuator, an active elastic support/dry friction damper using piezoelectric ceramic actuator was designed and its effectiveness of reducing rotor vibration when rotor traverses its critical speed and blade-out event happened was experimentally verified. The experimental results show that the active elastic support/dry friction damper with piezoelectric ceramic actuator can significantly reduce vibration in rotor system; the vibration amplitude of the rotor in critical speed region decreased more than 2 times, and the active damper can protect the rotor when a blade-out event happened, so the rotor can traverse the critical speed and shut down smoothly. In addition, the structure is much simpler than the previous, the weight was reduced by half and the power consumption was only 5 W.

  14. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures...

  15. Caffeine demethylation measured by breath analysis in experimental liver injury in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaad, H.J.; Renner, E.L.; Wietholtz, H.; Preisig, R. [University of Berne, Department of Clinical Pharmaceology, Berne (Switzerland); Arnaud, M.J. [Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Vevey (Switzerland)

    1995-01-01

    To assess the effect of experimental liver injury on caffeine metabolism, 1 {mu}{sup C}i/kg b.w. of [3-methyl{sup 14}C]-caffeine (together with 5 mg/kg b.w. of the cold compound) was injected i.p. to four different experimental groups and respective controls of unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was completely collected during 4 h and peak exhalation rate and fraction of dose recovered were calculated. 1/3 hepatectomy affected {sup 14}CO{sub 2} exhalation to a limited extent, decreasing solely peak exhalation rate (p<0.05 compared to sham-operated control). 2/3 hepatectomy, on the other hand, resulted in significant reduction (p<0.01) in both peak exhalation rate (by 59%) and fraction of dose recovered (by 47%), that were proportionate to the loss of liver mass (50%). End-to-side portocaval shunt led to the well-documented hepatic `atrophy`, liver weight being diminished on average to 50% within 2 weeks of surgery; however, reductions in peak exhalation rate (by 75%) and fraction of dose recovered (by 64%) were even more pronounced. Finally, 48 h bile duct ligation was equivalent to `functional 2/3 hepatectomy`, peak exhalation rate (by 65%) and fraction of dose recovered (by 56%) being markedly diminished despite increased liver weight. These results indicate that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} exhalation curves following administration of specifically labelled caffeine are quantitative indicators of acute or chronic loss of functioning liver mass. In addition, the 3-demethylation pathway appears to be particularly sensitive to the inhibitory effects of cholestasis on microsomal function. (au) (30 refs.).

  16. Studies of H3K4me3 demethylation by KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 reveals strong substrate recognition in vitro and identifies 2,4-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid as an in vitro and in cell inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Nielsen, Anders Laerke; Helgstrand, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic methylations and demethylations of histone lysine residues are important for gene regulation and are facilitated by histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases (HDMs). KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 is an H3K4me3/me2 specific lysine demethylase belonging to the family of JmjC domain containing...... lysine specific HDMs (JHDMs). Several studies have linked KDM5B to breast, prostate and skin cancer, highlighting its potential as a drug target. However, most inhibitor studies have focused on other JHDMs, and inhibitors for KDM5B remain to be explored. Here, we report the expression, purification...... and characterization of the catalytic core of recombinant KDM5B (residues 1-769, ccKDM5B). We show that ccKDM5B, recombinantly expressed in insect cells, demethylates H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 in vitro. The kinetic characterization showed that ccKDM5B has a K(m) (app) value of 0.5 µM for its tri-methylated substrate H3...

  17. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo; Relacion de la desmetilacion del ADN con la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toribio E, E

    2005-07-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  18. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo; Relacion de la desmetilacion del ADN con la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toribio E, E

    2005-07-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  19. Support effects and catalytic trends for water gas shift activity of transition metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Astrid; Janssens, T.V.W.; Schumacher, Nana Maria Pii

    2010-01-01

    Water gas shift activity measurements for 12 transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Re, Ir, Pt, Au) supported on inert MgAl2O4 and Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 are presented, to elucidate the influence of the active metal and the support. The activity is related to the adsorption energy of molecular...... activity on the MgAl2O4 support and are both characterized by weak CO adsorption. For the MgAl2O4-supported catalysts a volcano-type relation between the activity and the adsorption energy of atomic oxygen on the metal is obtained. The maximum activity is found for metals with a binding energy of oxygen...... around −2.5 eV. No clear correlation exists with the adsorption energy of CO. In contrast, the activity for the Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 support increases with increasing adsorption strength for CO, and based on a relatively low activity of Cu the activity does not seem to depend on the adsorption energy of oxygen...

  20. Simultaneous determination of the novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor meditinib and its active metabolite demethylation meditinib in monkey plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feng; Kong, Qi; Guo, Yongqi; Wang, Yu; Sun, Dejie; Liu, Shi; Cai, Jinling; Guan, Yongbiao; Ding, Rigao

    2015-08-01

    Meditinib (ME) is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor used as an antichronic myeloid leukemia drug. A simple, sensitive and specific LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of ME and its metabolite demethylation meditinib (PI) in monkey plasma using naltrexone as the internal standard. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation with methanol. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent C8 column (3.5 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm). Elution was achieved with a mobile phase gradient varying the proportion of a water solution containing 0.1% formic acid (solvent A) and a 0.1% formic acid in methanol solution (solvent B) at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The method had a linear calibration curve over the concentration range of 2-1000 ng/mL for ME and 2-1000 ng/mL for PI. The lower limits of quantification of ME and PI were 2 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision values were 85%. The assay has been successfully used for pharmacokinetic evaluation of ME and PI using the monkey as an animal model, and those data are reported for the first time. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Remodeling Precedes Lineage Specification during Differentiation of Human CD4+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E. Nestor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-methylcytosine (5mC is converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC by the TET family of enzymes as part of a recently discovered active DNA de-methylation pathway. 5hmC plays important roles in regulation of gene expression and differentiation and has been implicated in T cell malignancies and autoimmunity. Here, we report early and widespread 5mC/5hmC remodeling during human CD4+ T cell differentiation ex vivo at genes and cell-specific enhancers with known T cell function. We observe similar DNA de-methylation in CD4+ memory T cells in vivo, indicating that early remodeling events persist long term in differentiated cells. Underscoring their important function, 5hmC loci were highly enriched for genetic variants associated with T cell diseases and T-cell-specific chromosomal interactions. Extensive functional validation of 22 risk variants revealed potentially pathogenic mechanisms in diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Our results support 5hmC-mediated DNA de-methylation as a key component of CD4+ T cell biology in humans, with important implications for gene regulation and lineage commitment.

  2. Hydrotreatment activities of supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolce, G.M.; Savage, P.E.; Thompson, L.T. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The growing need for alternative sources of transportation fuels encourages the development of new hydrotreatment catalysts. These catalysts must be active and more hydrogen efficient than the current commercial hydrotreatment catalysts. Molybdenum nitrides and carbides are attractive candidate materials possessing properties that are comparable or superior to those of commercial sulfide catalysts. This research investigated the catalytic properties of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides. These catalysts were synthesized via temperature-programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides with ammonia or methane/hydrogen mixtures. Phase constituents and compositions were determined by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and neutral activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface properties of the catalysts. Specific activities of the molybdenum nitrides and carbides were competitive with those of a commercial sulfide catalyst for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). For HDN and HDS, the catalytic activity on a molybdenum basis was a strong inverse function of the molybdenum loading. Product distributions of the HDN, HDO and HDS of a variety of heteroatom compounds indicated that several of the nitrides and carbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalyst. 35 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Study of the catalytic activity of supported technetium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Mikhailenko, I.E.; Pokorovskaya, O.V.

    1985-01-01

    The radioactive d metal 43 Tc 99 has catalytic properties in the synthesis of ammonia. For the purpose of reducing the quantity of the radioactive metal and of increasing the specific surface, the active component was applied to BaTiO 3 and gamma-Al 2 O 3 supports. This paper uses charcoal as a support and a table presents the catalytic activity of the samples during the synthesis of ammonia. X-ray diffractometric investigation of the catalysts was carried out with the use of Cu K /SUB alpha/ radiation. It is shown that the catalysts. The values of the specific rate constants of technetium in the catalysts. The values of the specific rate constants remain practically constant for all the catalyst samples studied, attesting to the absence of a specific metal-support interaction during the synthesis of ammonia

  4. Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a multi-year, worldwide, indefinite quantity contract by which the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Global Bureau Center for Human Capacity (G/HCD) can work to achieve four objectives: (1) improve the quality, efficiency, access, and equity of education, particularly basic…

  5. Personalizing Narratives to Support Motivation for Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Olli; Oduor, Michael; Isomursu, Minna

    2017-01-01

    and self-monitoring are common for activity and emotion tracking applications, and lately there has been interest also in the use of narratives. Consequently, in this study we evaluate through a qualitative study how narratives are used to motivate physical activity. We analyze both user and system......Technology supporting motivation for physical activity has been a common theme for researchers and companies during the last decade. Mobile devices and applications with diverse features provide novel and personalized ways to motivate users for healthier lifestyles. Features like goal orientation...

  6. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3 km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without BW support shorter knee extensor muscle off-activation time and increased relative peak muscle activation was observed in PD patients and did not improve with 8 weeks of training. In conclusion, patients with PD walked with excessive activation of the knee extensor and flexor muscles when compared to healthy participants. Specialized locomotor training may facilitate adaptive processes related to motor control of walking in PD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. METHANE DRY REFORMING OVER Ni SUPPORTED ON PINE SAWDUST ACTIVATED CARBON: EFFECTS OF SUPPORT SURFACE PROPERTIES AND METAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of metal loading and support surface functional groups (SFG on methane dry reforming (MDR over Ni catalysts supported on pine-sawdust derived activated carbon were studied. Using pine sawdust as the catalyst support precursor, the smallest variety and lowest concentration of SFG led to best Ni dispersion and highest catalytic activity, which increased with Ni loading up to 3 Ni atoms nm-2. At higher Ni loading, the formation of large metal aggregates was observed, consistent with a lower "apparen" surface area and a decrease in catalytic activity. The H2/CO ratio rose with increasing reaction temperature, indicating that increasingly important side reactions were taking place in addition to MDR.

  8. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight...... healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support...... decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without...

  9. NiMo-sulfide supported on activated carbon to produce renewable diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Y Acelas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak polarity and large surface area, activated carbon supports have the potential to enhance the dispersion of metal-sulfides. It is expected that the absence of a strong metal-support interaction can result in the formation of a very active and stable Ni-Mo-S phase. In this study, catalysts with different amounts of nickel and molybdenum supported on a commercial activated carbon were prepared by a co-impregnation method and characterized by BET, XRF, and SEM techniques. The catalytic activity for hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated in a batch reactor, and the composition of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. Results showed that gaseous products are mainly composed of high amounts of propane and small amounts of other light hydrocarbons (C1 to C5. Liquid hydrocarbon products consisted of a mixture containing mainly n-paraffins of C15-C18 and some oxygenated compounds. The catalysts with a mass fraction of 3 % Ni, 15 % Mo (Ni3Mo15/AC presented the highest selectivity toward C17-C18 hydrocarbons, with a product distribution similar to a commercial alumina-supported Ni-Mo-S catalyst.

  10. Determination of parameters influencing methylation and demethylation in tropical lakes in Brazil and Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylander, Lars D.; Ahlgren, Ingemar; Broberg, Anders; Lantz, Peter; Tornblom, Erik; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Mauro, Jane; Markus, Meili; Guillen Montenegro, Salvador; Vammen, Katherine; Sacasa, Sarria Karla; Regnell, Olof

    2002-01-01

    Increased awareness about the toxicity of mercury (Hg) has during the latest decades resulted in reduced use of Hg in industrialised countries. Developing countries, on the contrary, have largely increased their anthropogenic Hg emissions caused by its use in gold mining, transfer of Hg emitting factories from developed countries, and increased burning of coal without appropriate flue gas cleaning. The contribution of global Hg sources and the importance of other parameters to increased Hg levels encountered in hydroelectric reservoirs and other areas after flooding is not well understood, especially not in the tropics. The aim of the present study is to increase the knowledge about Hg transformations in tropical areas. Total Hg content in water, biota, and sediment will be determined by atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry and methyl Hg content in biota by gaschromatography after extraction with acids, hydroxides, and organic solvents. Mercury methylation capacity in sediments, water, and selected biota will be determined with 203 Hg and subsequent radiological measurements of insitu incubations. Factors affecting the methylation and demethylation rates will be identified with laboratory incubations with 203 Hg at varying environmental conditions such as organic matter, pH, redox potential, conductivity, light, temperature, geochemical factors and populations of bacteria. The populations of bacteria will be determined to quantity by isotope techniques. The first experiments indicate markedly larger methylation capacity as well as bacterial production of incubated samples of Eichhornia crassipes, originating from Brazil, compared to Myriophyllum spicatum from Sweden. The results are the first step to better understand the importance of environmental parameters and bacterial production for methylation of Hg. (author)

  11. The overmethylated genes in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa are demethylated in gastric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Sang-Wook

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitional-CpG sites between weakly methylated genes and densely methylated retroelements are overmethylated in the gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and they are undermethylated in the gastric cancers depending on the level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH events. This study delineated the transitional-CpG methylation patterns of CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes in view of the retroelements. Methods The transitional-CpG sites of eight CpG-island-containing genes and six CpG-island-lacking genes were semi-quantitatively examined by performing radioisotope-labelling methylation-specific PCR under stringent conditions. The level of LOH in the gastric cancers was estimated using the 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes. Each gene was scored as overmethylated or undermethylated based on an intermediate level of transitional-CpG methylation common in the H. pylori-negative gastric mucosa. Results The eight CpG-island genes examined were overmethylated depending on the proximity to the nearest retroelement in the H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. The six CpG-island-lacking genes were similarly methylated in the H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric mucosa. In the gastric cancers, long transitional-CpG segments of the CpG-island genes distant from the retroelements remained overmethylated, whereas the overmethylation of short transitional-CpG segments close to the retroelements was not significant. Both the CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes tended to be decreasingly methylated in a LOH-level-dependent manner. Conclusions The overmethylated genes under the influence of retroelement methylation in the H. pylori-infected stomach are demethylated in the gastric cancers influenced by LOH.

  12. Research and development activity in support of LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The research and development activity (RDAC) established in support of the Large Coil Program (LCP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is described. Some experimental results are presented and the importance of the RDAC to the magnet community is discussed

  13. Pervasive Computing Support for Hospitals: An Overview of the Activity-Based Computing Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob E

    2007-01-01

    The activity-based computing project researched pervasive computing support for clinical hospital work. Such technologies have potential for supporting the mobile, collaborative, and disruptive use of heterogeneous embedded devices in a hospital......The activity-based computing project researched pervasive computing support for clinical hospital work. Such technologies have potential for supporting the mobile, collaborative, and disruptive use of heterogeneous embedded devices in a hospital...

  14. Early Assessment of VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Support Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwofu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Oudrari, Hassan; Wu, Aisheng; Schwaller, Mathew; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, formally the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), provides a bridge between current and future low-Earth orbiting weather and environmental observation satellite systems. The NASA s NPP VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) is designed to assess the long term geometric and radiometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the S-NPP spacecraft and to support NPP Science Team Principal Investigators (PI) for their independent evaluation of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDRs). This paper provides an overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration activities and examples of sensor initial on-orbit performance. It focuses on the radiometric calibration support activities and capabilities provided by the NASA VCST.

  15. Wellbeing, activity and housing satisfaction - comparing residents with psychiatric disabilities in supported housing and ordinary housing with support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Argentzell, Elisabeth; Bejerholm, Ulrika; Tjörnstrand, Carina; Brunt, David

    2017-08-30

    The home is imperative for the possibilities for meaningful everyday activities among people with psychiatric disabilities. Knowledge of whether such possibilities vary with type of housing and housing support might reveal areas for improved support. We aimed to compare people with psychiatric disabilities living in supported housing (SH) and ordinary housing with support (OHS) regarding perceived well-being, engaging and satisfying everyday activities, and perceived meaning of activity in one's accommodation. The importance of these factors and socio-demographics for satisfaction with housing was also explored. This naturalistic cross-sectional study was conducted in municipalities and city districts (n = 21) in Sweden, and 155 SH residents and 111 OHS residents participated in an interview that included both self-reports and interviewer ratings. T-test and linear regression analysis were used. The SH group expressed more psychological problems, but better health, quality of life and personal recovery compared to the OHS residents. The latter were rated as having less symptom severity, and higher levels of functioning and activity engagement. Both groups rated themselves as under-occupied in the domains of work, leisure, home management and self-care, but the SH residents less so regarding home management and self-care chores. Although the groups reported similar levels of activity, the SH group were more satisfied with everyday activities and rated their housing higher on possibilities for social interaction and personal development. The groups did not differ on access to activity in their homes. The participants generally reported sufficient access to activity, social interaction and personal development, but those who wanted more personal development in the OHS group outnumbered those who stated they received enough. Higher scores on satisfaction with daily occupations, access to organization and information, wanting more social interaction, and personal

  16. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-02-21

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation.

  17. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Configuration Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauber, V.; Scheffer, N.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of configuration management-related activities within a nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. This paper describes a new training course that shall support the standardization and improvement of configuration management activities. Recommendations will be given that should be considered when designing and developing comparable training programs to support change processes within engineering units. (Author)

  18. Overview and Categorization of Robots Supporting Independent Living of Elderly People: What Activities Do They Support and How Far Have They Developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; De Witte, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, many robots for the elderly have been developed, supporting different activities of elderly people. A systematic review in four scientific literature databases and a search in article references and European projects was performed in order to create an overview of robots supporting independent living of elderly people. The robots found were categorized based on their development stage, the activity domains they claim to support, and the type of support provided (i.e., physical, non-physical, and/or non-specified). In total, 107 robots for the elderly were identified. Six robots were still in a concept phase, 95 in a development phase, and six of these robots were commercially available. These robots claimed to provide support related to four activity domains: mobility, self-care, interpersonal interaction & relationships, and other activities. Of the many robots developed, only a small percentage is commercially available. Technical ambitions seem to be guiding robot development. To prolong independent living, the step towards physical support is inevitable and needs to be taken. However, it will be a long time before a robot will be capable of supporting multiple activities in a physical manner in the home of an elderly person in order to enhance their independent living.

  19. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  20. Associations between Dementia Outcomes and Depressive Symptoms, Leisure Activities, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Heser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social relations and depressive symptoms are intertwined. They both predict subsequent dementia, but only few studies on the association between social life aspects and subsequent dementia exist. Methods: The risk of subsequent dementia was estimated over 2 follow-up assessments, each 18 months apart, depending on leisure activity, social support (general scale and the 3 factors emotional support, practical support, and social integration, and depressive symptoms, using proportional hazard models in a cohort of elderly patients (n = 2,300, with a mean age of 82.45 years recruited for the study by their general practitioners. Results: Higher depressive symptoms and lower cognitive and physical activity were associated with an increased risk of subsequent all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's dementia (AD. While neither social engagement nor the general social support scale was associated with subsequent dementia, a higher level of social integration was associated with a lower dementia risk. In combined models, the results for activity variables remained similar, but the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and the subsequent risk of dementia decreased, and the association with social integration disappeared. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms increased and activity variables decreased the risk of subsequent dementia; however, activity variables, namely cognitive and physical activity, partly mediated the effect of depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of all-cause dementia and AD. In many cases, social support was not associated with a risk of subsequent dementia.

  1. Activation of CHK1 in Supporting Cells Indirectly Promotes Hair Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jadali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensory hair cells of the inner ear are exquisitely sensitive to ototoxic insults. Loss of hair cells after exposure to ototoxic agents causes hearing loss. Chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin causes hair cell loss. Cisplatin forms DNA mono-adducts as well as intra- and inter-strand DNA crosslinks. DNA cisplatin adducts are repaired through the DNA damage response. The decision between cell survival and cell death following DNA damage rests on factors that are involved in determining damage tolerance, cell survival and apoptosis. Cisplatin damage on hair cells has been the main focus of many ototoxic studies, yet the effect of cisplatin on supporting cells has been largely ignored. In this study, the effects of DNA damage response in cochlear supporting cells were interrogated. Supporting cells play a major role in the development, maintenance and oto-protection of hair cells. Loss of supporting cells may indirectly affect hair cell survival or maintenance. Activation of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K signaling was previously shown to promote hair cell survival. To test whether activating PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival after cisplatin damage, cochlear explants from the neural subset (NS Cre Pten conditional knockout mice were employed. Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN activates PI3K signaling in multiple cell types within the cochlea. Supporting cells lacking PTEN showed increased cell survival after cisplatin damage. Supporting cells lacking PTEN also showed increased phosphorylation of Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1 levels after cisplatin damage. Nearest neighbor analysis showed increased numbers of supporting cells with activated PI3K signaling in close proximity to surviving hair cells in cisplatin damaged cochleae. We propose that increased PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival through phosphorylation of CHK1 and increased survival of supporting cells indirectly increases hair cell

  2. Demethylation of induced pluripotent stem cells from type 1 diabetic patients enhances differentiation into functional pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Gohar S; Kim, Eun-Mi; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2017-08-25

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be managed by transplanting either the whole pancreas or isolated pancreatic islets. However, cadaveric pancreas is scarcely available for clinical use, limiting this approach. As such, there is a great need to identify alternative sources of clinically usable pancreatic tissues. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from patients with T1D to generate glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells (IPCs) via 3D culture. Initially, T1D iPS cells were resistant to differentiation, but transient demethylation treatment significantly enhanced IPC yield. The cells responded to high-glucose stimulation by secreting insulin in vitro The shape, size, and number of their granules, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, were identical to those found in cadaveric β cells. When the IPCs were transplanted into immunodeficient mice that had developed streptozotocin-induced diabetes, they promoted a dramatic decrease in hyperglycemia, causing the mice to become normoglycemic within 28 days. None of the mice died or developed teratomas. Because the cells are derived from "self," immunosuppression is not required, providing a much safer and reliable treatment option for T1D patients. Moreover, these cells can be used for drug screening, thereby accelerating drug discovery. In conclusion, our approach eliminates the need for cadaveric pancreatic tissue.

  3. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by black raspberry anthocyanins involved the modulation of gut microbiota and SFRP2 demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Jiang, Bowen; Zhong, Chunge; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Lihao; Mu, Teng; Zhang, Qiuhua; Bi, Xiuli

    2018-03-08

    Freeze-dried black raspberry (BRB) powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated C57BL/6J mice with a diet containing BRB anthocyanins for 12 weeks, and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared with AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibrio sp. and Enterococcus spp., was increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota. BRB anthocyanins also caused the demethylation of the SFRP2 gene promoter, resulting in increased expression of SFRP2, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression levels of DNMT31 and DNMT3B, as well as of p-STAT3 were downregulated by BRB anthocyanins in these animals. Taken together, these results suggested that BRB anthocyanins could modulate the composition of gut commensal microbiota, and changes in inflammation and the methylation status of the SFRP2 gene may play a central role in the chemoprevention of CRC.

  4. Perceptions, Expectations, and Informal Supports Influence Exercise Activity in Frail Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Broderick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore frail older adults’ perceptions of what influences their exercise behaviors. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 29 frail older adults. Thematic content analysis established the findings. Frail older adults perceive exercise as a by-product of other purposeful activities such as manual work or social activities. Progression into frailty appears to be associated with a decline in non-family support, changing traditional roles within family support networks, and lower baseline activity levels. Frail older adults perceive exercise as incidental to more purposeful activities rather than an endpoint in itself. Therefore, exercise programs concentrating on functional outcomes may be more relevant for this population. Strategies that educate and promote social support networks may also benefit frail older adults.

  5. Intramolecular Oxidative O-Demethylation of an Oxoferryl Porphyrin Complexed with a Per-O-methylated β-Cyclodextrin Dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Kurosawa, Shun; Kano, Koji

    2016-11-22

    The intramolecular oxidation of ROCH 3 to ROCH 2 OH, where the latter compound spontaneously decomposed to ROH and HCHO, was observed during the reaction of the supramolecular complex (met-hemoCD3) with cumene hydroperoxide in aqueous solution. Met-hemoCD3 is composed of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinatoiron(III) (Fe III TPPS) and a per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer having an -OCH 2 PyCH 2 O- linker (Py=pyridine-3,5-diyl). The O=Fe IV TPPS complex was formed by the reaction of met-hemoCD3 with cumene hydroperoxide, and isolated by gel-filtration chromatography. Although the isolated O=Fe IV TPPS complex in the cyclodextrin cage was stable in aqueous solution at 25 °C, it was gradually converted to Fe II TPPS (t 1/2 =7.6 h). This conversion was accompanied by oxidative O-demethylation of an OCH 3 group in the cyclodextrin dimer. The results indicated that hydrogen abstraction by O=Fe IV TPPS from ROCH 3 yields HO-Fe III TPPS and ROCH 2 . . This was followed by radical coupling to afford Fe II TPPS and ROCH 2 OH. The hemiacetal (ROCH 2 OH) immediately decomposed to ROH and HCHO. This study revealed the ability of oxoferryl porphyrin to induce two-electron oxidation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. VERA-CS User Support Activities for PoR 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this milestone is to document the user support activities that took place between 10/1/2016 and 3/31/2017 (PoR 14). In the normal PHI workflow, that also extends to several activities within RTM, a Kanban process is followed. This involves creating tickets for specific work items and track the progress to complete these specific work items.

  7. FAKTOR - FAKTOR PENYEBAB MUNCULNYA ACTIVITY SUPPORT DI KAWASAN RUANG PUBLIK BUNDARAN HOTEL INDONESIA JAKARTA PUSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mustikowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Area Bundaran Hotel Indonesia menjadi salah satu ruang publik di mana banyak pengunjung datang untuk melakukan berbagai kegiatan. Kondisi ini menyebabkan munculnya activity support misalnya PKL, penyewa peralatan olahraga, dan beberapa hiburan jalanan. Di puncak intensitas kegiatan, activity support tersebut tersebar di beberapa tempat ini seperti di koridor utama, jalur pejalan kaki dan air plaza mancur. Melihat fenomena itu, dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat faktor-faktor penyebab munculnya activity support tersebut. Dalam menjawab tujuan penelitian, digunakan penelitian rasionalistik kuantitatif sebagai paradigma untuk membangun variabel faktor berdasarkan teori Activity Support dan Ruang Publik. Variabel yang dioperasionalkan dalam kuesioner dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis faktor uji statistik. Jumlah faktor variabel yang memiliki korelasi yang kuat dalam analisis tereduksi menjadi beberapa factor yang signifikan sebagai penyebab dari munculnya activity support di ruang publik, yaitu, area pedesrian, jalan masuk, sirkulasi dan parkir, keragaman kegiatan, karakteristik ruang publik, jenis kegiatan, bentuk-makna-arti ruang publik, aksesibilitas dan visual, budaya, fungsi dan bentuk ruang publik dan area lansekap, batasan kawasan dan ciri khas dari ruang publik. [Title: The Factors Causing Appearance of Activity Support in The Public Area Around Bundaran Hotel Indonesia in Central Jakarta] Bundaran Hotel Indonesia area becomes one of public space where many of people have coming to do some activities here. This condition causes the occurrences of activity support for instance the street vendors, sport equipments tenants, and some of street entertaintment. In the peak of intensity of activities, the activity supports crowded around this area such as in the main corridor, pedestrian pathways and fountain plaza. Seeing those phenomena, it could be concluded that there are causal factors of the occurrences of the activity support. In

  8. Epigenetic switch involved in activation of pioneer factor FOXA1-dependent enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Avner, Stéphane; Percevault, Frédéric; Demay, Florence; Bizot, Maud; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Brown, Myles; Lupien, Mathieu; Métivier, Raphaël; Salbert, Gilles; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specifically to discrete regions of mammalian genomes called cis-regulatory elements. Among those are enhancers, which play key roles in regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation. Despite the recognized central regulatory role exerted by chromatin in control of TF functions, much remains to be learned regarding the chromatin structure of enhancers and how it is established. Here, we have analyzed on a genomic-scale enhancers that recruit FOXA1, a pioneer transcription factor that triggers transcriptional competency of these cis-regulatory sites. Importantly, we found that FOXA1 binds to genomic regions showing local DNA hypomethylation and that its cell-type-specific recruitment to chromatin is linked to differential DNA methylation levels of its binding sites. Using neural differentiation as a model, we showed that induction of FOXA1 expression and its subsequent recruitment to enhancers is associated with DNA demethylation. Concomitantly, histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is induced at these enhancers. These epigenetic changes may both stabilize FOXA1 binding and allow for subsequent recruitment of transcriptional regulatory effectors. Interestingly, when cloned into reporter constructs, FOXA1-dependent enhancers were able to recapitulate their cell type specificity. However, their activities were inhibited by DNA methylation. Hence, these enhancers are intrinsic cell-type-specific regulatory regions of which activities have to be potentiated by FOXA1 through induction of an epigenetic switch that includes notably DNA demethylation. PMID:21233399

  9. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Impact of a Chest Support on Lower Back Muscles Activity During Forward Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaĝan Albayrak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on previous research on the poor body posture of surgeons and their experienced discomfort during surgical procedures. Since surgeons have head-bent and back-bent posture during open surgical procedures, a chest support is a viable supporting principle. This support is meant to reduce lower back pain by minimising lower back muscle activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of a chest support on lower back muscle activity during forward bending and to establish a possible relation between supporting force and the kind of balancing strategy a person adopts. Use of the chest support shows a significant reduction of muscle activity in the lower back and leg muscles. Within the participants three user groups are identified as “sceptical users”, “non-trusters” and “fully trusters”, each following a different balancing strategy. Since there are different kinds of users, the designed body support should offer the possibility for altering the posture and should not constrain the user to take a certain body posture.

  11. The verification of neutron activation analysis support system (cooperative research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Fumio; Ichimura, Shigeju; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Takayanagi, Masaji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology; Onizawa, Kouji [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    Neutron activation analysis support system is the system in which even the user who has not much experience in the neutron activation analysis can conveniently and accurately carry out the multi-element analysis of the sample. In this verification test, subjects such functions, usability, precision and accuracy of the analysis and etc. of the neutron activation analysis support system were confirmed. As a method of the verification test, it was carried out using irradiation device, measuring device, automatic sample changer and analyzer equipped in the JRR-3M PN-3 facility, and analysis software KAYZERO/SOLCOI based on the k{sub 0} method. With these equipments, calibration of the germanium detector, measurement of the parameter of the irradiation field and analysis of three kinds of environmental standard sample were carried out. The k{sub 0} method adopted in this system is primarily utilized in Europe recently, and it is the analysis method, which can conveniently and accurately carried out the multi-element analysis of the sample without requiring individual comparison standard sample. By this system, total 28 elements were determined quantitatively, and 16 elements with the value guaranteed as analytical data of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) environment standard sample were analyzed in the accuracy within 15%. This report describes content and verification result of neutron activation support system. (author)

  12. Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu Jun; Ackerman, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Here we reveal that enzyme specific activity can be increased substantially by changing the protein loading density (P LD ) in functionalized nanoporous supports so that the enzyme immobilization efficiency (I e , defined as the ratio of the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme to the specific activity of the free enzyme in solution) can be much higher than 100%. A net negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOX) and a net positively charged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were entrapped spontaneously in NH 2 - and HOOC-functionalized mesoporous silica (300 A, FMS) respectively. The specific activity of GOX entrapped in FMS increased with decreasing P LD . With decreasing P LD , I e of GOX in FMS increased from 150%. Unlike GOX, OPH in HOOC-FMS showed increased specific activity with increasing P LD . With increasing P LD , the corresponding I e of OPH in FMS increased from 100% to>200%. A protein structure-based analysis of the protein surface charges directing the electrostatic interaction-based orientation of the protein molecules in FMS demonstrates that substrate access to GOX molecules in FMS is limited at high P LD , consequently lowering the GOX specific activity. In contrast, substrate access to OPH molecules in FMS remains open at high P LD and may promote a more favorable confinement environment that enhances the OPH activity

  13. Active and passive social support in families of greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, IBR; Weiss, BM; Frigerio, D; Kotrschal, K

    2005-01-01

    In general, support by social allies may reduce stress, increase success in agonistic encounters and ease access to resources. Social support was mainly known from mammals, particularly primates, and has been studied in birds only recently. Basically two types are known: (i) 'active social support',

  14. Semi-active control of a cable-stayed bridge under multiple-support excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ze-Bing; Huang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Xia

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a semi-active strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. In this control strategy, Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are proposed as control devices, a LQG-clipped-optimal control algorithm is employed. An active control strategy, shown in previous researches to perform well at controlling the benchmark bridge when uniform earthquake motion was assumed, is also used in this study to control this benchmark bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. The performance of active control system is compared to that of the presented semi-active control strategy. Because the MR fluid damper is a controllable energy- dissipation device that cannot add mechanical energy to the structural system, the proposed control strategy is fail-safe in that bounded-input, bounded-output stability of the controlled structure is guaranteed. The numerical results demonstrated that the performance of the presented control design is nearly the same as that of the active control system; and that the MR dampers can effectively be used to control seismically excited cable-stayed bridges with multiple-support excitations.

  15. African American Youths with Internalizing Difficulties: Relation to Social Support and Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS' MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR BELIEFS, AND SUPPORT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.

  17. 16 CFR 1031.7 - Commission support of voluntary standards activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government or industrial model code development activities, so as to develop uniformity and minimize... as hosting meetings and secretarial assistance. (11) Providing funding support for voluntary...

  18. Incidence of invasive macrophytes on methylmercury budget in temperate lakes: Central role of bacterial periphytic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentès, Sophie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Legeay, Alexia; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Davail, Stephane; André, Jean-Marc; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated high mercury (Hg) methylation and demethylation in the periphyton associated with floating roots in tropical ecosystems. The importance of aquatic plants on methylmercury production in three temperate ecosystems from south-western France was evaluated through Hg species concentrations, and Hg methylation/demethylation activities by using stable isotopic tracers ( 199 Hg(II), Me 201 Hg). Hg accumulation and high methylation and demethylation yields were detected in plant roots and periphyton, whereas results for sediment and water were low to insignificant. The presence of sulfate reducing prokaryotes was detected in all compartments (T-RFLP based on dsrAB amplified through nested PCR) and their main role in Hg methylation could be demonstrated. In turn, sulfate reduction inhibition did not affect demethylation activities. The estimation of net MeHg budgets in these ecosystems suggested that aquatic rhizosphere is the principal location for methylmercury production and may represent an important source for the contamination of the aquatic food chain. - Highlights: ► Both Hg methylation and demethylation occur in the periphyton of temperate ecosystems. ► Aquatic rhizosphere is the main compartment for net methylmercury production. ► Sulfate reducers are detected in all ecosystem compartments (water, sediment, periphyton). ► Sulfate reducers are responsible for methylmercury production in aquatic roots. - The incidence of periphytic microbial communities on net methylmercury production is highlighted in temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Science Support: The Building Blocks of Active Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, A.

    2013-12-01

    While the scientific method is built on reproducibility and transparency, and results are published in peer reviewed literature, we have come to the digital age of very large datasets (now of the order of petabytes and soon exabytes) which cannot be published in the traditional way. To preserve reproducibility and transparency, active curation is necessary to keep and protect the information in the long term, and 'science support' activities provide the building blocks for active data curation. With the explosive growth of data in all fields in recent years, there is a pressing urge for data centres to now provide adequate services to ensure long-term preservation and digital curation of project data outputs, however complex those may be. Science support provides advice and support to science projects on data and information management, from file formats through to general data management awareness. Another purpose of science support is to raise awareness in the science community of data and metadata standards and best practice, engendering a culture where data outputs are seen as valued assets. At the heart of Science support is the Data Management Plan (DMP) which sets out a coherent approach to data issues pertaining to the data generating project. It provides an agreed record of the data management needs and issues within the project. The DMP is agreed upon with project investigators to ensure that a high quality documented data archive is created. It includes conditions of use and deposit to clearly express the ownership, responsibilities and rights associated with the data. Project specific needs are also identified for data processing, visualization tools and data sharing services. As part of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), the Centre for Environmental Data Archival (CEDA) fulfills this science support role of facilitating atmospheric and Earth observation data generating projects to ensure

  20. Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

  1. TiO2 nanotubes supported NiW hydrodesulphurization catalysts: Characterization and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcheva, R.; Dimitrov, L.; Tyuliev, G.; Spojakina, A.; Jiratova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiW catalysts supported on TiO 2 nanotubes, titania and alumina. ► The best results are obtained with NiW/TiO 2 nanotubes in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. ► Active phase is Ni-WO x S y . ► Electronic promotion of W by Ti. - Abstract: High surface area TiO 2 nanotubes (Ti-NT) synthesized by alkali hydrothermal method were used as a support for NiW hydrodesulphurization catalyst. Nickel salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid – Ni 3/2 PW 12 O 40 was applied as oxide precursor of the active components. The catalyst was characterized by S BET , XRD, UV–vis DRS, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TPR and HRTEM. The results obtained were compared with those for the NiW catalysts prepared over high surface area titania and alumina supports. A polytungstate phase evidenced by Raman spectroscopy was observed indicating the destruction of the initial heteropolyanion. The catalytic experiments revealed two times higher thiophene conversion on NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT than those of catalysts supported on alumina and titania. Increased HDS activity of the NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT could be related to a higher amount of W oxysulfide entities interacting with Ni sulfide particles as consequence of the electronic effects of the Ti-NT observed with XPS analysis.

  2. Instrumental support in the physical activity community - premilinary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elloumi, Lamia; Zhang, Qiwen; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Currently, we witness the growth of ICT-mediated solutions for chronic diseases management, especially to assist and support patients in lifestyle changes in order to improve their health condition. Being physically active is one the recommended lifestyle changes for patients with chronic diseases.

  3. Physical activity support community togetheractive - architecture, implementation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elloumi, Lamia; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Reducing sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity is getting an increased attention of researchers and health organizations due to its significant benefits on health. In the same direction we are proposing a virtual community system, TogetherActive, which supports people in their daily physical

  4. A simplified method for active-site titration of lipases immobilised on hydrophobic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalder, Tim D; Kurtovic, Ivan; Barrow, Colin J; Marshall, Susan N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a simple and accurate protocol to measure the functional active site concentration of lipases immobilised on highly hydrophobic supports. We used the potent lipase inhibitor methyl 4-methylumbelliferyl hexylphosphonate to titrate the active sites of Candida rugosa lipase (CrL) bound to three highly hydrophobic supports: octadecyl methacrylate (C18), divinylbenzene crosslinked methacrylate (DVB) and styrene. The method uses correction curves to take into account the binding of the fluorophore (4-methylumbelliferone, 4-MU) by the support materials. We showed that the uptake of the detection agent by the three supports is not linear relative to the weight of the resin, and that the uptake occurs in an equilibrium that is independent of the total fluorophore concentration. Furthermore, the percentage of bound fluorophore varied among the supports, with 50 mg of C18 and styrene resins binding approximately 64 and 94%, respectively. When the uptake of 4-MU was calculated and corrected for, the total 4-MU released via inhibition (i.e. the concentration of functional lipase active sites) could be determined via a linear relationship between immobilised lipase weight and total inhibition. It was found that the functional active site concentration of immobilised CrL varied greatly among different hydrophobic supports, with 56% for C18, compared with 14% for DVB. The described method is a simple and robust approach to measuring functional active site concentration in immobilised lipase samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  6. IAEA activities in support of RERTR programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has supported the programme for Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors from the very initial stage. As part of its research reactor programme, the Agency has convened several technical meetings and seminars, issued many publications on the subject, and provided technical and financial assistance to many reactor operators in the developing countries. The worldwide current status of fuel enrichment for research reactors and a resume of Agency activities are presented in this paper. (author)

  7. Discovery of gemfibrozil analogues that activate PPARα and enhance the expression of gene CPT1A involved in fatty acids catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Barbara; Giancristofaro, Antonella; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Alessandra; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Maccallini, Cristina; Petruzzelli, Michele; Amoroso, Rosa

    2011-10-01

    A new series of gemfibrozil analogues conjugated with α-asarone, trans-stilbene, chalcone, and their bioisosteric modifications were synthesized and evaluated to develop PPARα agonists. In this attempt, we have removed the methyls on the phenyl ring of gemfibrozil and introduced the above scaffolds in para position synthesizing two series of derivatives, keeping the dimethylpentanoic skeleton of gemfibrozil unaltered or demethylated. Four compounds exhibited good activation of the PPARα receptor and were also screened for their activity on PPARα-regulated gene CPT1A. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Active role of the support in NO{sub x} storage and reductioncatalytic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tek, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Dumlupinar Bulvari No:1, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ustunel, Hande, E-mail: ustunel@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Dumlupinar Bulvari No:1, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Toffoli, Daniele, E-mail: toffoli@units.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} units provide strong anchoring sites for the BaO storage material. • The support stabilises the interaction between NO{sub 2} and small supported BaO clusters. • This support-mediated increase in stability is not observed for SO{sub 2} adsorption. • The larger activity of titania supported BaO clusters towards NO{sub 2} adsorption could be used to inhibit sulfur poisoning. - Abstract: We present first-principles density functional theory calculations of the adsorption properties of NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on isolated (BaO){sub n} (n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9) clusters as well as on small BaO clusters ((BaO){sub n} with n = 1, 2, 4) supported on the anatase TiO{sub 2}(0 0 1) surface. The TiO{sub 2} support influences binding indirectly by enhancing the electron donation from the BaO clusters to both chemisorbed NO{sub 2} and the support. This support-mediated increase in stability is not observed for SO{sub 2}. We describe in detail and highlight the role played by TiO{sub 2} on the charge transfer mechanism, which can be used to control the catalytic properties of the active components of nitrogen storage and reduction catalytic systems. The relatively larger activity of the supported BaO clusters towards NO{sub 2} adsorption in comparison to SO{sub 2} could in principle offer protection against sulfur poisoning.

  9. Enhancement of protocatechuate decarboxylase activity for the effective production of muconate from lignin-related aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoki, Tomonori; Morooka, Miyuki; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Jellison, Jody; Goodell, Barry

    2014-12-20

    The decarboxylation reaction of protocatechuate has been described as a bottleneck and a rate-limiting step in cis,cis-muconate (ccMA) bioproduction from renewable feedstocks such as sugar. Because sugars are already in high demand in the development of many bio-based products, our work focuses on improving protocatechuate decarboxylase (Pdc) activity and ccMA production in particular, from lignin-related aromatic compounds. We previously had transformed an Escherichia coli strain using aroY, which had been used as a protocatechuate decarboxylase encoding gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae A170-40, and inserted other required genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to allow the production of ccMA from vanillin. This recombinant strain produced ccMA from vanillin, however the Pdc reaction step remained a bottleneck during incubation. In the current study, we identify a way to increase protocatechuate decarboxylase activity in E. coli through enzyme production involving both aroY and kpdB; the latter which encodes for the B subunit of 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase. This permits expression of Pdc activity at a level approximately 14-fold greater than the strain with aroY only. The expression level of AroY increased, apparently as a function of the co-expression of AroY and KpdB. Our results also imply that ccMA may inhibit vanillate demethylation, a reaction step that is rate limiting for efficient ccMA production from lignin-related aromatic compounds, so even though ccMA production may be enhanced, other challenges to overcome vanilate demethylation inhibition still remain.

  10. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such as...

  11. Highly Active, Carbon-supported, PdSn Nano-core, Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-supported, Pt partially covered, PdSn alloy nanoparticles (Pt-PdSn/C) were synthesized via a metathetical reaction of PdSn alloy nanoparticles, and a platinum precursor. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by methanol oxidation. The Pt-PdSn/C catalysts were characterized by transmission electron ...

  12. Support vector machines classifiers of physical activities in preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to develop, test, and compare multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and support vector machines (SVM) in classifying preschool-aged children physical activity data acquired from an accelerometer. In this study, 69 children aged 3-5 years old were asked to participate in a s...

  13. Practice leadership and active support in residential services for people with intellectual disabilities: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle-Brown, J; Mansell, J; Ashman, B; Ockenden, J; Iles, R; Whelton, B

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesised that a key factor determining the quality of active support was 'practice leadership' - provided by the first-line manager to focus staff attention and develop staff skills in providing direct support to enable people with intellectual disabilities to have a good quality of life. This exploratory study focused on what levels of practice leadership were found and its role in explaining variation in active support. Relevant aspects of management, including practice leadership, were assessed by questionnaires administered to staff in residential settings alongside observational measures of active support and resident engagement in meaningful activity. Relationships between these variables were explored using regression and post hoc group comparisons. There was wide variation, with average levels of practice leadership being low, though improving over the period studied. Practice leadership had a significant impact on active support, but was fully mediated by the effect of quality of management. When the quality of management was higher better practice leadership did produce a significant difference in active support. However, higher quality of management on its own did not produce better active support. A number of limitations are acknowledged and further research is required. Practice leadership appears to be an important factor in enabling staff to provide active support but as part of generally good management. Given the rather low levels found, attention needs to be given to the training, career development and support of practice leaders and also to how to protect their time from their many other responsibilities. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Control system design for flexible rotors supported by actively lubricated bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2008-01-01

    and keeping the lengths of the two eigenvalues constant in the real-imaginary plane. The methodology is applied to an industrial gas compressor supported by active tilting-pad journal bearings. The unbalance response functions and mode shapes of the flexible rotor with and without active control are presented...

  15. Immune suppressor factor confers stromal cell line with enhanced supporting activity for hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Shibata, Fumi; Fukuchi, Yumi; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ito, Miyuki; Urano, Atsushi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Immune suppressor factor (ISF) is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump. We earlier identified a short form of ISF (ShIF) as a stroma-derived factor that supports cytokine-independent growth of mutant Ba/F3 cells. Here, we report that ISF/ShIF supports self-renewal and expansion of primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Co-culture of murine bone marrow cells with a stromal cell line overexpressing ISF or ShIF (MS10/ISF or MS10/ShIF) not only enhanced their colony-forming activity and the numbers of long-term culture initiating cells, but also maintained the competitive repopulating activity of HSC. This stem cell supporting activity depended on the proton-transfer function of ISF/ShIF. Gene expression analysis of ISF/ShIF-transfected cell lines revealed down-regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, and the restoration of their expressions in MS10/ISF cells partially reversed its enhanced LTC-IC supporting activity to a normal level. These results suggest that ISF/ShIF confers stromal cells with enhanced supporting activities for HSCs by modulating Wnt-activity and the extracellular matrix

  16. Forms of Supporting Local Innovative Business Activity in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Fedirko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates contemporary trends of innovation policy of European countries, describes the essence of contemporary mechanisms and tools for supporting local innovative development. The following most powerful tools for facilitating scientific and technical and innovative business activity are discovered: direct support of private R&D, financing of innovative enterprises, governmental and private cooperative scientific and research projects. A trend is identified for decreasing the share of institutional financing of R&D, and increasing of weight of competitive financing of academic institutions. A conclusion is made as for spreading of technologies commercialization processes support, especially on final stages thereof; the share of these has increased in respect of governmental programs focused on early stages of scientific and research projects. An insight is that within the last two decades the tools for facilitating local innovative business activities have been diversified in the EU: alongside with long-term collaborative governmental and private R&D and initiatives for developing innovative science intensive clusters, short-term tools have been significantly spread, such as innovation projects vouchers and science intensive start-ups support. Given that, it is established that traditionally developed toolkit for supporting small and medium enterprises is being complimented with scaled programs of large companies direct financing. A general trend is identified for increasing the weight of collaborative programs, while the share of individual subsidies and grants for R&D and that of companies innovative activity has substantially decreased. Higher effectiveness of start-ups facilitation measures is concluded, as well as that of venture investments, in comparison with individual subsidies. The leading role of start-ups in EU economy is determined by a range of advantages originating from dynamic process of formation thereof

  17. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity: Tools and Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-sponsored, multi-year initiative designed to further improve the quality of, effectiveness of, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. This catalog is one element of the BEPS information dissemination process. The…

  18. A Cost Model for Integrated Logistic Support Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elena Nenni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An Integrated Logistic Support (ILS service has the objective of improving a system’s efficiency and availability for the life cycle. The system constructor offers the service to the customer, and she becomes the Contractor Logistic Support (CLS. The aim of this paper is to propose an approach to support the CLS in the budget formulation. Specific goals of the model are the provision of the annual cost of ILS activities through a specific cost model and a comprehensive examination of expected benefits, costs and savings under alternative ILS strategies. A simple example derived from an industrial application is also provided to illustrate the idea. Scientific literature is lacking in the topic and documents from the military are just dealing with the issue of performance measurement. Moreover, they are obviously focused on the customer’s perspective. Other scientific papers are general and focused only on maintenance or life cycle management. The model developed in this paper approaches the problem from the perspective of the CLS, and it is specifically tailored on the main issues of an ILS service.

  19. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Jacqui; Pretorius, Chrisma

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease and there is little research on support networks for people with MS (PwMS). More specifically, most studies on online support groups focus on those who actively participate in the group, whereas the majority of those who utilise online support groups do so in a passive way. This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information) and social companionship (place of belonging). Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group) and social companionship (non-active status). These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important, the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  20. Process intensification by combination of activated carbon supported catalysts and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Calvino Casilda, Vanesa; Pérez-Mayoral, E.

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Activated carbons are well known for their catalytic properties and for being used as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis. Activated carbons possess most of the desired properties of a catalyst support; inertness towards unwanted reactions, stability under regeneration and reaction conditions, suitable mechanical properties, tunable surface area, porosity, and the possibility of being manufactured in different size and shape. On the other hand, the in...

  1. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation

  2. Selective inhibition of the demethylation at C-14 in ergosterol biosynthesis by the fungicide, Denmert (S-1358)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshiro; Kawase, Yasuo

    1976-01-01

    A direct evidence of the inhibitory effect in a cell-free system of S. cerevisiae was experimentally studied, and the site of action of Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butylbenzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbon-imidate) in sterol biosynthesis was examined. 14 C-labeled lanosterol and 14-desmethyl-lanosterol were biosynthetically prepared. DL-mevalonate-2- 14 C was incubated with yeast cell-free homogenates for 3 hr at 28 deg C while being shaked vigorously in atmospheric oxygen. The resultant 14 C-labeled sterol was extracted and chromatographed on a silicic acid-Hyflo Super Cel column. 4,4-dimethyl sterol thus obtained was acetylated with acetic anhydride and pyridine. The separation of lanosteryl acetate and 14-desmethyl lanosteryl acetate was accomplished on alumina thin-layer plates. After the saponification of each steryl acetate, the quantity of the sterol was assessed by gas chromatography with cholesterol as an internal standard. The incubation of the 14 C-labeled sterol was achieved under the same conditions as those for the DL-mevalonate-2- 14 C except the addition of the substrate which was dispersed in 0.1M phosphate buffer. Denmert inhibited the conversion of 14 C-labeled lanosterol to 4-desmethyl sterol, while the conversion of 14 C-labeled 14-desmethyl lanosterol to 4-desmethyl sterol was hardly affected by the fungicide. Therefore, Denmert is a potent selective inhibitor of the demethylation at the C-14 position in ergosterol biosynthesis. The fungicide, triarimol, exhibited the same effect on sterol biosynthesis as that of Denmert. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. SEMG activity of jaw-closing muscles during biting with different unilateral occlusal supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M-Q; He, J-J; Zhang, J-H; Wang, K; Svensson, P; Widmalm, S E

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that experimental and reversible changes of occlusion affect the levels of surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity in the anterior temporalis and masseter areas during unilateral maximal voluntary biting (MVB) in centric and eccentric position. Changes were achieved by letting 21 healthy subjects bite with and without a cotton roll between the teeth. The placement alternated between sides and between premolar and molar areas. The SEMG activity level was lower when biting in eccentric position without than with a cotton roll between teeth (P 0.05). In the anterior temporalis area, the balancing side SEMG activity was lower in eccentric than in centric but only in molar-supported biting (P = 0.026). These results support that the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles have different roles in keeping the mandible in balance during unilateral supported MVB. Changes in occlusal stability achieved by biting with versus without a cotton roll were found to affect the SEMG activity levels.

  4. KOH-activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as platinum supports for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chaoxiong; Song, Shuqin; Liu, Jinchao; Maragou, Vasiliki; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis

    In the present investigation, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thermally treated by KOH were adopted as the platinum supporting material for the oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts. FTIR and Raman spectra were used to investigate the surface state of MWCNTs treated by KOH at different temperatures (700, 800, and 900 °C) and showed MWCNTs can be successfully functionalized. The structural properties of KOH-activated MWCNTs supported Pt were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their electrochemical performance was evaluated by the aid of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. According to the experimental findings of the present work, the surrface of MWCNTs can be successfully functionalized with oxygen-containing groups after activation by KOH, favoring the good dispersion of Pt nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The as-prepared Pt catalysts supported on KOH treated MWCNTs at higher temperature, possess higher electrochemical surface area and exhibit desirable activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). More precisely, it has been found that the electrochemical active area of Pt/MWCNTs-900 is approximately two times higher than that of Pt/MWCNTs. It can be concluded that KOH activation is an effective way to decorate MWCNTs' surface with oxygen-containing groups and bigger surface area, which makes them more suitable as electrocatalyst support materials.

  5. SAM: Support Vector Machine Based Active Queue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the design of AQM (Active Queue Management) controllers. The purpose of these controllers is to manage the network congestion under varying loads, link delays and bandwidth. In this paper, a new AQM controller is proposed which is trained by using the SVM (Support Vector Machine) with the RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernal. The proposed controller is called the support vector based AQM (SAM) controller. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with three conventional AQM controllers, namely the Random Early Detection, Blue and Proportional Plus Integral Controller. The preliminary simulation studies show that the performance of the proposed controller is comparable to the conventional controllers. However, the proposed controller is more efficient in controlling the queue size than the conventional controllers. (author)

  6. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Steadman

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. Method: An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Results: Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease,informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information and social companionship (place of belonging. Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease, informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group and social companionship (non-active status. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important,the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  7. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  8. Activity Monitors as Support for Older Persons' Physical Activity in Daily Life: Qualitative Study of the Users' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Maria; Eriksson, Lennie Carlén; Åkerberg, Nina; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2018-02-01

    Falls are a major threat to the health and independence of seniors. Regular physical activity (PA) can prevent 40% of all fall injuries. The challenge is to motivate and support seniors to be physically active. Persuasive systems can constitute valuable support for persons aiming at establishing and maintaining healthy habits. However, these systems need to support effective behavior change techniques (BCTs) for increasing older adults' PA and meet the senior users' requirements and preferences. Therefore, involving users as codesigners of new systems can be fruitful. Prestudies of the user's experience with similar solutions can facilitate future user-centered design of novel persuasive systems. The aim of this study was to investigate how seniors experience using activity monitors (AMs) as support for PA in daily life. The addressed research questions are as follows: (1) What are the overall experiences of senior persons, of different age and balance function, in using wearable AMs in daily life?; (2) Which aspects did the users perceive relevant to make the measurements as meaningful and useful in the long-term perspective?; and (3) What needs and requirements did the users perceive as more relevant for the activity monitors to be useful in a long-term perspective? This qualitative interview study included 8 community-dwelling older adults (median age: 83 years). The participants' experiences in using two commercial AMs together with tablet-based apps for 9 days were investigated. Activity diaries during the usage and interviews after the usage were exploited to gather user experience. Comments in diaries were summarized, and interviews were analyzed by inductive content analysis. The users (n=8) perceived that, by using the AMs, their awareness of own PA had increased. However, the AMs' impact on the users' motivation for PA and activity behavior varied between participants. The diaries showed that self-estimated physical effort varied between participants and

  9. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1...

  10. Research Training, Institutional Support, and Self-Efficacy: Their Impact on Research Activity of Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Thomas Lynch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While the expectations for social work practitioners to do research have increased, their involvement is still limited. We know little about what factors influence involvement in research. The present study proposes a theoretical model that hypothesizes research training and institutional support for research as the exogenous variables, research self-efficacy as an intervening variable, and research activity as the endogenous variable. The study tests the model using data collected from a random sample of social workers. To a large degree the data support the model. Research self-efficacy has a significant effect on research activity. It is also an important mediating variable for the effect of institutional support on research activity. Although institutional support for research has no direct effect, it has an indirect effect via self-efficacy on research activity. However, research training has no effect on research activity and self-efficacy in research. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. A Comparison between LMS tools to support e-health educational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Novaes, Magdala; Soares de Vasconcelos, Gabriel; Florencio da Silva, Jackson Raniel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how a Learning Management System (LMS) plataform is used in a telehealth center to support two virtual learning enviroments focused on the education of the healthcare professionals and the students of a medical schoool. The study outcome is expected to provide indications towards choosing a better LSM for the telehelath center to support their educacional activities.

  12. Special Education in General Education Classrooms: Cooperative Teaching Using Supportive Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robin R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Supportive learning activities were implemented in a multiple-baseline time series design across four fifth-grade classrooms to evaluate the effects of a cooperative teaching alternative (supportive learning) on teaching behavior, the behavior and grades of general and special education students, and the opinions of general education teachers.…

  13. Supporting intra-group social metacognitive activities with technology: A grammar learning game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Horvers, A.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a technology enhanced collaborative grammar learning activity on students sentence parsing and formulation. These types of collaborative learning activities for grammar education are expected to support more effective learning. Yet, effective intra-group social

  14. Investigation of the Origin of Catalytic Activity in Oxide-Supported Nanoparticle Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Ian [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Since Haruta’s discovery in 1987 of the surprising catalytic activity of supported Au nanoparticles, we have seen a very large number of experimental and theoretical efforts to explain this activity and to fully understand the nature of the behavior of the responsible active sites. In 2011, we discovered that a dual catalytic site at the perimeter of ~3nm diameter Au particles supported on TiO2 is responsible for oxidative catalytic activity. O2 molecules bind with Au atoms and Ti4+ ions in the TiO2 support and the weakened O-O bond dissociates at low temperatures, proceeding to produce O atoms which act as oxidizing agents for the test molecule, CO. The papers supported by DOE have built on this finding and have been concerned with two aspects of the behavior of Au/TiO2 catalysts: (1). Mechanistic behavior of dual catalytic sites in the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylene and acetic acid; (2). Studies of the electronic properties of the TiO2 (110) single crystal in relation to its participation in charge transfer at the occupied dual catalytic site. A total of 20 papers have been produced through DOE support of this work. The papers combine IR spectroscopic investigations of Au/TiO2 catalysts with surface science on the TiO2(110) and TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces with modern density functional modeling. The primary goals of the work were to investigate the behavior of the dual Au/Ti4+ site for the partial oxidation of alcohols to acids, the hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols, and the condensation of oxygenate intermediates- all processes related to the utilization of biomass in the production of useful chemical energy sources.

  15. Applying activity theory to computer-supported collaborative learning and work-based activities in corporate settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Business needs in many corporations call for learning outcomes that involve problem solutions, and creating and sharing new knowledge within worksplace situation that may involve collaboration among members of a team. We argue that work-based activities (WBA) and computer-supported collaborative

  16. Methylation of the chicken vitellogenin gene: influence of estradiol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijlink, F C; Philipsen, J N; Gruber, M; Ab, G

    1983-01-01

    The degree of methylation of the chicken vitellogenin gene has been investigated. Upon induction by administration of estradiol to a rooster, methyl groups at specific sites near the 5'-end of the gene are eliminated. The process of demethylation is slower than the activation of the gene. Demethylation is therefore probably not a prerequisite to gene transcription. At least two other sites in the coding region of the gene are methylated in the liver of estrogenized roosters, but not in the liver of a laying hen, where the gene is naturally active. Images PMID:6298743

  17. Hungarian national report on activities related to operator support systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorjan, F.; Lux, I.; Vegh, J.; Vegh, E.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized operator support systems and related activities in Hungary are summarized. Systems developed in the past, presently developed and used as well as being in a planning phase are briefly described. Activity of the Hungarian participants in the framework of the co-ordinated project on operator support systems for nuclear power plant is summarized. (author). 55 refs

  18. Effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and ticlopidine on CYP1A2 activity and caffeine metabolism: an in vitro comparative study with human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 and liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Marta; Daniel, Władysława A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), which is regarded as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 inhibitor, and ticlopidine, an efficient CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 inhibitor, on the activity of human CYP1A2 and the metabolism of caffeine (1-N-, 3-N- and 7-N-demethylation, and C-8-hydroxylation). The experiment was carried out in vitro using human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 (Supersomes) and human pooled liver microsomes. The effects of DDC and ticlopidine were compared to those of furafylline (a strong CYP1A2 inhibitor). A comparative in vitro study provides clear evidence that ticlopidine and DDC, applied at concentrations that inhibit the above-mentioned CYP isoforms, potently (as compared to furafylline) inhibit human CYP1A2 and caffeine metabolism, in particular 1-N- and 3-N-demethylation.

  19. Structure-activity relationships of carbon-supported platinum-bismuth and platinum-antimony oxidation catalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphoru, MV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Compositional and morphological studies on supported platinum are important for the improvement and expanded use of catalysts for oxidative coupling reactions. Nanocomposites consisting of 5% Pt supported on activated carbon and promoted with 5% Bi...

  20. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalz Dorothy L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92 and boys (N = 110. Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1 overweight; (2 female; or (3 having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

  1. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  2. The Investigation of Social Support and Physical Activity Related to Workplace among Female Teachers in Jolfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Sahranavard-Gargari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the amount of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this amount, decreases with aging. Family, friends, colleagues and society’s support, especially at workplace, have a positive effect on the amount of engagement in physical activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of social support and physical activity related to workplace among female teachers in Jolfa. Material and Methods: In this study, 230 female teachers working at different schools in Jolfa were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Required data were collected using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and social support questionnaire by Sallis et al. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The average of physical activity related to teachers’ work was about 20 minutes per week which is very low. Ten percent of them had light physical activity, 61.7% had moderate physical activity and 28.3% had heavy activity. The results of this study proved a significant relationship between social support and physical activity. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that a large percentage of the teachers do not have enough physical activity, having more physical activity and creating a social network through encouraging friends and colleagues to promote physical activity is emphasized.

  3. Support for physical activity policies and perceptions of work and neighborhood environments: variance by BMI and activity status at the county and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; O'Malley, Keelia; Hu, Tian; Tabak, Rachel G; Goins, Karin Valentine; Valko, Cheryl; Litt, Jill; Eyler, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To examine support for local policies encouraging physical activity and perceived neighborhood environment characteristics by physical activity and weight status of respondents across U.S. counties. We used a random-digit-dial, computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) to conduct a cross-sectional telephone questionnaire in selected U.S. counties in 2011. Counties with high prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (HH; n = 884) and counties with low prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (LL; n = 171) were selected nationally. Adult respondents from HH (n = 642) and LL (n = 566) counties. Questions were asked of respondents, pertaining to support for physical activity policies in various settings, neighborhood features, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, self-reported weight and height, and personal demographic information. Means and frequencies were calculated; bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regression models, developed. Models were adjusted for individual characteristics and county HH/LL status. Respondents in LL counties perceived their neighborhood and work environments to be more supportive of healthy behaviors and were more supportive of local physical activity policies than respondents in HH counties (p physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior. Policy support and neighborhood environments are associated with behaviors. Results can inform targeting policy agendas to facilitate the improvement of environments (community, work, and school) to be more supportive of physical activity.

  4. Effects of Conazole Fungicides on Spontaneous Activity in Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaconazole (HEX), Tetraconazole (TET), Fluconazole (FLU), and Triadimefon (TRI) are conazole fungicides, used to control powdery mildews on crops, and as veterinary and clinical treatments. TRI, a demethylation inhibitor, is neurotoxic in vivo, and previous in vitro experiments...

  5. Circulating Differentially Methylated Amylin DNA as a Biomarker of β-Cell Loss in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Olsen

    Full Text Available In type 1 diabetes (T1D, β-cell loss is silent during disease progression. Methylation-sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR of β-cell-derived DNA in the blood can serve as a biomarker of β-cell death in T1D. Amylin is highly expressed by β-cells in the islet. Here we examined whether demethylated circulating free amylin DNA (cfDNA may serve as a biomarker of β-cell death in T1D. β cells showed unique methylation patterns within the amylin coding region that were not observed with other tissues. The design and use of methylation-specific primers yielded a strong signal for demethylated amylin in purified DNA from murine islets when compared with other tissues. Similarly, methylation-specific primers detected high levels of demethylated amylin DNA in human islets and enriched human β-cells. In vivo testing of the primers revealed an increase in demethylated amylin cfDNA in sera of non-obese diabetic (NOD mice during T1D progression and following the development of hyperglycemia. This increase in amylin cfDNA did not mirror the increase in insulin cfDNA, suggesting that amylin cfDNA may detect β-cell loss in serum samples where insulin cfDNA is undetected. Finally, purified cfDNA from recent onset T1D patients yielded a high signal for demethylated amylin cfDNA when compared with matched healthy controls. These findings support the use of demethylated amylin cfDNA for detection of β-cell-derived DNA. When utilized in conjunction with insulin, this latest assay provides a comprehensive multi-gene approach for the detection of β-cell loss.

  6. Implementation of resources to support patient physical activity through diabetes centres in Nova Scotia: the effectiveness of enhanced support for exercise participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jonathon R; Shields, Chris; d'Entremont, Lisette; McQuaid, Stephanie; Barron, Brittany; Dunbar, Peggy

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of enhancing support for physical activity counselling and exercise participation at diabetes centres in Nova Scotia on physical activity and exercise behaviours and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 180 patients at 8 diabetes centres participated in this observational study. A range of enhanced supports for exercise were offered at these centres. A kinesiologist was added to the diabetes care team to primarily provide extra physical activity counselling and exercise classes. Patient physical activity and exercise levels, efficacy perceptions and mean glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months. We compared changes in these variables for patients who participated in the enhanced supports versus patients who did not. Participants who attended exercise classes (n=46), increased moderate physical activity by 27% and doubled resistance exercise participation (1.0±1.8 to 2.0±2.1 days per week) whereas those who did not attend exercise classes (n=49) reduced moderate physical activity by 26% and did not change resistance exercise participation (interactions, p=0.04 and p=0.07, respectively). Patients who received resistance band instruction (n=15) from a kinesiologist had reductions in A1C (from 7.5±1.4 to 7.1±1.2; p=0.04), whereas other subgroups did not have significant changes in A1C. Offering enhanced support for exercise at diabetes centres produced improvements in physical activity and exercise in type 2 diabetes patients. Resistance band instruction from a kinesiologist combined with participating in a walking and resistance training program improved glycemic control, which underscores the importance of including exercise professionals in diabetes management. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increase in Social Activity of Citizens on the Basis of Grant Support of Rural Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogatchev Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of development of social activity of population. The low activity of local population is now characterized by the following social trends: aloofness from public life, individualism, leading-strings mentality, consumer attitude, legal nihilism. The characteristic of the main reasons for the current situation is given in the article. It is noted that one of the effective tools to attract social investment and development is a grant support for local initiatives, which plays an important role in increasing the social activity of population. This article focuses on the development of grant support in the rural areas at the modern stage. The author analyzed the current status of grant support of rural initiatives in Russia and the Orel region. It is noted that the grant support has great potential, although it is at an early stage of its development. In the conclusion, actions for the development of social activity at the local level are planned.

  8. Enantiomeric separation of some demethylated analogues of clofibric acid by capillary zone electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Bettoni, Giancarlo; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2006-03-01

    The enantiomeric separation of some demethylated analogues of clofibric acid, namely 2-(6-chloro-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-, 2-(6-methoxy-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-, 2-(quinolin-2-yloxy)-, 2-(6-chloro-quinolin-2-yloxy)-, 2-(7-chloro-quinolin-4-yloxy)-propionic acid (compounds A-E, respectively), has been studied by CZE and nano-LC using for the first technique two beta-CD derivatives and vancomycin added to the BGE and vancomycin-modified silica particles for the second one, with the aim to find the optimum experimental conditions for the baseline resolution. The type and the concentration of the chiral selector added to the BGE, the buffer pH, the type of organic modifier and its concentration, the capillary temperature and the applied voltage played a very important role in the enantioresolution of the analysed compounds. The use of 6-monodeoxy-6-monoamino-beta-CD allowed to achieve baseline resolution of four of five clofibric acid derivatives in less than 10 min while heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-CD partially resolved the same compounds in their enantiomers. Employing vancomycin as the chiral selector in CZE, the counter-current partial filling method was chosen achieving baseline resolution of four analytes. All the studied compounds were enantioresolved employing a capillary column packed with vancomycin stationary phase by nano-LC, and the resolution was strongly influenced by the concentration of the organic modifier and by the pH of the mobile phase. The best results were achieved at pH 4.5 in presence of 60% of methanol (MeOH). However, longer analysis times were observed in the experiments carried out by nano-LC.

  9. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific research include: analysis and generalization for studying the main kinds and characteristics of the government support of the small and medium-sized enterprises; dynamic and comparative analysis for studying the problems and factors influencing the development of small and medium enterprises and innovative activity, peculiarities of tax incentives for business development; systemanalytical method for studying the conditions of the innovative development of the small and medium-sized entrepreneurship. Results. The government's financial support priorities should be: optimal application of the fiscal regulation instruments (reduction of the amount of taxes, determination of the criteria for the maximum taxation amount, tax incentives etc., maintenance of the self-investment of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as investment, financial means of the public influence over the development of the enterprises, effective combination of both direct and indirect forms of the innovative development support. Practical implications. The obtained results can be used in the process of formation and implementation of the small and medium enterprise sector development strategy and innovative activity in the long-term perspective. Value/originality. The obtained data can provide a better understanding of the direction of innovative business development in Ukraine.

  10. [Experimental rationale for the parameters of a rapid method for oxidase activity determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, N N

    2010-01-01

    Experimental rationale is provided for the parameters of a rapid (1-2-min) test to concurrently determine the oxidase activity of all bacteria grown on the membrane filter after water filtration. Oxidase reagents that are the aqueous solutions of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and demethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride have been first ascertained to exert no effect on the viability and enzymatic activity of bacteria after one-hour contact. An algorithm has been improved for the rapid oxidase activity test: the allowable time for bacteria to contact oxidase reagents and procedures for minimizing the effect on bacterial biochemical activity following the contact. An accelerated method based on lactose medium with tergitol 7 and Endo agar has been devised to determine coliform bacteria, by applying the rapid oxidase test: the time of a final response is 18-24 hours. The method has been included into GOST 52426-2005.

  11. Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM, respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.

  12. Initial investigation of organisational factors associated with the implementation of active support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Chris; McCubbery, Jeffrey; Reid, Katharine J

    2008-09-01

    Active support (AS) has been shown to increase the amount of time that residents in shared residential settings are involved in purposeful activities. The organisational processes required to implement AS have been less well researched. Staff in community houses answered questions about the occurrence of organisational activities and processes thought to assist AS implementation (e.g., training and teamwork), their understanding of engagement, and their experience of changes in staff practice consistent with AS (including implementation problems). Non-house-based managers were also interviewed about their role in AS implementation. Reported occurrence of organisational activities and processes (e.g., training and teamwork) and understanding of engagement were associated with more reports of changes in staff practice and fewer staff reports of implementation problems. Staff reports on the role of non-house-based managers were not associated with reports of changes in staff practice or with reports of fewer AS implementation problems. Non-house-based managers' reports overestimated their role in AS implementation when compared with reports from house-based staff groups. While there are limitations in the research design (including the reliance on staff reports), the findings support the importance of wider organisational factors (beyond training programs for direct support staff) as integral to the implementation of AS. There is a need for further research on AS implementation.

  13. Quantification of citalopram or escitalopram and their demethylated metabolites in neonatal hair samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Vogliardi, Susanna; Terranova, Claudio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Citalopram and escitalopram are highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors widely used in the treatment of depression. They exhibit adverse drug reactions and side effects, however, and the development of specific methods for their determination is of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the assay of citalopram, escitalopram, and their demethylated metabolites in 10-mg hair samples. The analytes were extracted by incubation in methanol and liquid/liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane. Gradient elution on a narrow bore C18 column was realized using clomipramine-d3 as an internal standard. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method exhibited a linear range of 25 to 2000 pg/mg, a quantification limit of 25 pg/mg for all analytes, relative standard deviations in the range of 12.10 to 9.80 (intraassay), and 13.80 to 11.78 (interassay), and accuracies (as percent recovery of the spiked standards) in the range of 90% to 110%; it was applied to the determination of citalopram and escitalopram and their metabolites in hair samples of two newborns to document their in utero exposure to the drugs. The method proved suitable for neonatal hair analysis of citalopram or escitalopram and was applied to two real cases of gestational exposure.

  14. Social support for physical activity-role of Facebook with and without structured intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-12-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions.

  15. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  16. The behavioral outcomes of a technology-supported leisure activity in people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.W.C. Gemert-Pijnen; N. Nijhof; Joost van Hoof; H. van Rijn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a technology-supported leisure game for people with dementia in relation to the stimulation of social behavior. OBJECTIVE: In this study we explore the additional impact of technology-supported leisure activities on behavioral outcomes

  17. [Supporting an Academic Society with the Active Learning Tool Clica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kensuke; Mitsubori, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

     Within school classrooms, Active Learning has been receiving unprecedented attention. Indeed, Active Learning's popularity does not stop in the classroom. As more and more people argue that the Japanese government needs to renew guidelines for education, Active Learning has surfaced as a method capable of providing the necessary knowledge and training for people in all areas of society, helping them reach their full potential. It has become accepted that Active Learning is more effective over the passive listening of lectures, where there is little to no interaction. Active Learning emphasizes that learners explain their thoughts, ask questions, and express their opinions, resulting in a better retention rate of the subject at hand. In this review, I introduce an Active Learning support tool developed at Digital Knowledge, "Clica". This tool is currently being used at many educational institutions. I will also introduce an online questionnaire that Digital Knowledge provided at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences.

  18. Physical activity practice among children and adolescents with visual impairment--influence of parental support and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the practice of physical activity among children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI), regarding the possible influence of parental support and perceived barriers. Twenty-two young people with VIs (10 + 2.74 years old) and one of each of their parents were evaluated. They responded to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Baecke Questionnaire, the Parental Support Scale and a questionnaire about perceived barriers to physical activity. The independent samples t-test, pearson correlation test and chi-square test were performed. Blind young people showed lower physical activity levels. There were significant correlations both between parents' physical activity and the support offered to children and between the PAQ-C results and the importance given by young people to physical activity, but only for those aged between 8 and 10 years old. The main perceived barriers were lack of security, motivation, professional training and information about available physical activity programs. The influence of parental support seems to be an important factor in the adoption of a physically active lifestyle for young people with VI. Parents and children should have more information about the benefits and opportunities of physical activity. Implications for Rehabilitation Young people with visual impairment should be encouraged by parents to practice physical activity. More information should be provided on the benefits of physical activity to both parents and children. Professional training should be available to help support this group become more active.

  19. Software support for students engaging in scientific activity and scientific controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, Violetta; Weiner, Arlene W.; Lesgold, Alan M.

    Computer environments could support students in engaging in cognitive activities that are essential to scientific practice and to the understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge, but that are difficult to manage in science classrooms. The authors describe a design for a computer-based environment to assist students in conducting dialectical activities of constructing, comparing, and evaluating arguments for competing scientific theories. Their choice of activities and their design respond to educators' and theorists' criticisms of current science curricula. They give detailed specifications of portions of the environment.

  20. Being active supports client control over health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Barb; Nay, Rhonda

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how healthcare clients achieve and maintain a sense of control over their health. The literature review conducted refers to: (i) key definitions of control, (ii) locus of control, and (iii) control and wellbeing. Participants with a range of acute and chronic health conditions and who had been hospitalised at some point were selected for the study. Symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969) and modified grounded theory of Strauss & Corbin (1998) provided the frameworks for this study. During the six month study period, data were collected from sixty participants and included interviews, participant observation, reviewing participants' records (nursing care plans, nursing notes and case histories), the nursing units' philosophy, organisational charts, policies and procedures, annual reports, consumer brochures and any other relevant information sources. Findings from the study indicated that participants moved from feeling vulnerable to having a sense of control through to being purposefully active. Vulnerability was associated with: (i) having limited choices in respect to their health, (ii) lacking adequate health information to make choices, (iii) being ignored by health providers with respect to their needs, and (iv) lacking friend/family supports. Purposefully activating was associated with three major categories: (i) reflecting, (ii) being self-determiningly involved and (iii) normalising. Findings from this study could be used by health care clients who want a sense of control over their health care, and also by health care providers who wish to support clients in the healthcare process.

  1. Identification, replication and characterization of epigenetic remodelling in the aging genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare

    Background: Aging is a complex biological process that involves numerous changes at various levels through remodelling of multiple biological processes and regulatory mechanisms including epigenetics. Recent analysis of the DNA methylome has reported large numbers of epigenetic markers associated......, and by overwhelming age-related methylation in CpG island and demethylation at shore/shelf and open sea. Biological pathway analysis showed that age-dependent methylations were especially involved in cellular signalling activities while demethylations were particularly related to functions of the extracellular matrix....... Conclusion: Extensive epigenetic remodelling in the DNA methylome could be involved in the aging process. The identified age-methylated and demethylated sites displayed differential distribution patterns over genomic regions and were involved in biological pathways closely related to aging phenotypes and age...

  2. Biting Force and Muscle Activity in Implant-Supported Single Mandibular Overdentures Opposing Fixed Maxillary Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Magaleh, Wafaʼa R; Abbas, Nadia A; Amer, Ashraf A; Abdelkader, Ann A; Bahgat, Basma

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between biting force and masticatory muscle activity in patients treated by 3 modalities of single mandibular dentures. Forty implants were placed in 10 patients with completely edentulous mandibles. The study was divided into 3 treatment stages. Initially, each patient received a conventional mandibular complete denture. At the second stage, 4 mandibular implants were placed and the denture was refitted to their abutments. Third stage comprised connecting the denture to the implants through ball attachments. During each treatment stage, maximum biting force and muscle activity were measured during maximum clenching and chewing of soft and hard food. Biting force demonstrated a statistically significant increase by time for the 3 treatment stages. The highest muscle activity was recorded for the conventional denture followed by the implant-supported overdenture without attachment, whereas the lowest values were recorded for the implant-supported overdenture with attachment. Biting force was related mainly to the quality of denture support. Muscle activity was higher in patients with conventional denture than with implant-supported prostheses (with or without attachments).

  3. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  4. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Friend Support on Adolescent Vigorous Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M.; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current…

  5. Interaction Analysis for Supporting Students' Self-Regulation during Blog-Based CSCL Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Nikolaos; Kapravelos, Efstathios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2018-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an important means of supporting students' self-awareness and self-regulation level so as to enhance their motivation and engagement. Interaction Analysis (IA) contributes to this end, and its use in studying learning dynamics involved in asynchronous Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) activities has…

  6. System for supporting operator's cognitive activity in the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.

    1992-01-01

    New views upon the formation of a system of means for an efficient support of the operator are presented. The development of a system to promote cognitive activities at the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute is outlined. As the major issues, changes in the operator's working environment and the starting model of the working situation during stress are briefly described. The fundamental elements of the supporting system under development, which constitute its didactical and engineering-cognitive basis, are explained. The suitability of using expert system technology in this supporting system is substantiated. A particular example of expert counselling of the NPPO-TINA type (Nuclear Power Plant Operation - Transparent Inference Architecture) is reported. (Z.S.). 5 figs., 6 refs

  7. Home and workplace built environment supports for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, Aaron J; Marx, Christine; Yang, Lin; Tabak, Rachel; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been associated with obesity and related chronic diseases. Understanding built environment (BE) influences on specific domains of physical activity (PA) around homes and workplaces is important for public health interventions to increase population PA. To examine the association of home and workplace BE features with PA occurring across specific life domains (work, leisure, and travel). Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included sociodemographic characteristics, home and workplace supports for PA, and dietary behaviors. Data analysis was conducted in 2013; logistic regression was used to examine associations between BE features and domain-specific PA. In home neighborhoods, seven of 12 BE features (availability of fruits and vegetables, presence of shops and stores, bike facilities, recreation facilities, crime rate, seeing others active, and interesting things) were associated with leisure PA. The global average score of home neighborhood BE features was associated with greater odds of travel PA (AOR=1.99, 95% CI=1.46, 2.72); leisure PA (AOR=1.84, 95% CI=1.44, 2.34); and total PA (AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.04, 1.92). Associations between workplace neighborhoods' BE features and workplace PA were small but in the expected direction. This study offers empirical evidence on BE supports for domain-specific PA. Findings suggest that diverse, attractive, and walkable neighborhoods around workplaces support walking, bicycling, and use of public transit. Public health practitioners, researchers, and worksite leaders could benefit by utilizing worksite domains and measures from this study for future BE assessments. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of changing occlusal support on jaw-closing muscle electromyographic activity in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Qing; He, Jian-Jun; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To test whether changes in occlusal support differentially modulate masseter and anterior temporalis muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during controlled maximal voluntary clenching. Forty-seven healthy subjects (32 M and 15 F, 22.9+/-1.3 years) were recruited. Cotton-rolls were used to modify the occlusal contact relations and were positioned on the right, left, or both sides, and either in the molar or premolar regions, i.e. six different occlusal combinations. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the masseter and anterior temporalis area and normalized with respect to maximal voluntary clenching in the intercuspal position. Analysis of variance and the paired t-test were used to test the data. Normalized EMG activity was influenced by changes in cotton-roll modified occlusal support, and there were differences between muscles (pocclusal support was moved from the molar to the premolar region. When occlusal support was moved from bilateral to unilateral contacts, EMG activity in the balancing-side anterior temporalis muscle and in bilateral masseter muscles decreased. Unilateral clenching on the molars, but not on the premolars, was associated with lower EMG activity in the balancing-side masseter and always associated with lower EMG activity in the balancing-side anterior temporalis compared to the working side (pocclusal support, which may have implications for stability of the mandible during intense clenching.

  9. Identification of critical time-consuming student support activities in e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Fred; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Pannekeet, Kees; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Please cite the original publication: De Vries, F., Kester, L., Sloep, P., Van Rosmalen, P., Pannekeet, K., & Koper, R. (2005). Identification of critical time-consuming student support activities in e-learning. Research in Learning Technology (ALT-J), 13(3), 219-229.

  10. Report of the summative evaluation by the advisory committee on research support and collaborative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) set up an Advisory Committee on Research Support and Collaborative Activities in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations. The Advisory Committee on Research Support and Collaborative Activities evaluated the adequacy of the plans of research support and collaborative activities to be succeeded from JAERI to a new research institute which will be established by integration of JAERI and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The Advisory Committee consisted of nine specialists from outside the JAERI conducted its activities from June 2004 to August 2004. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Advisory Committee meeting which was held on July 21, 2004, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on December 1, 2004. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Research Support and Collaborative Activities. (author)

  11. Designing Interactive Applications to Support Novel Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyowon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available R&D in media-related technologies including multimedia, information retrieval, computer vision, and the semantic web is experimenting on a variety of computational tools that, if sufficiently matured, could support many novel activities that are not practiced today. Interactive technology demonstration systems produced typically at the end of their projects show great potential for taking advantage of technological possibilities. These demo systems or “demonstrators” are, even if crude or farfetched, a significant manifestation of the technologists’ visions in transforming emerging technologies into novel usage scenarios and applications. In this paper, we reflect on design processes and crucial design decisions made while designing some successful, web-based interactive demonstrators developed by the authors. We identify methodological issues in applying today’s requirement-driven usability engineering method to designing this type of novel applications and solicit a clearer distinction between designing mainstream applications and designing novel applications. More solution-oriented approaches leveraging design thinking are required, and more pragmatic evaluation criteria is needed that assess the role of the system in exploiting the technological possibilities to provoke further brainstorming and discussion. Such an approach will support a more efficient channelling of the technology-to-application transformation which are becoming increasingly crucial in today’s context of rich technological possibilities.

  12. Evaluation of Packed-Bed Reactor and Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor for the Production of Colchicine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kumar, Punit; Haque, Shafiul; Jawed, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    Bioconversion of colchicine into its pharmacologically active derivative 3-demethylated colchicine (3-DMC) mediated by P450BM3 enzyme is an economic and promising strategy for the production of this inexpensive and potent anticancer drug. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and packed-bed reactor (PBR) of 3 L and 2 L total volumes were compared for the production of 3-demethylated colchicine (3-DMC) a colchicine derivative using Bacillus megaterium MTCC*420 under aerobic conditions. Statis...

  13. Efficiency of state financial support of export activity of small and medium businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur R. Urumov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the effectiveness and role of state financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises. Methods regression analysis abstractlogical method method of comparison. Results the need is identified to evaluate the impact of state programs of export support on the results of export operations as a mechanism for assessing the efficiency of public spending in this area. The institutions are analyzed of state support of export of small and medium businesses production in the USA and India. It is revealed that in the US the main tool of support are export credits and guarantees while in India the emphasis is on the promotion of products to the world markets. To assess the effectiveness of public expenditure on export support the data were collected and systematized on the total volume of export and the costs of its support in the United States and India. The project revealed the presence of a time lag between these indices. When building a regression model the method of least squares was applied on the basis of which three hypotheses were investigated namely those taking into account and not taking into account the presence of the time lag between variables. As a result of constructing the model it was found that in the U.S. the increase in budget spending on export support to 1mln leads to an increase in export volume to 2mln. In India the corresponding figure was 10mln. The analysis of the Russian practice of the state support of export of the small and medium businesses production showed a lack of systematic approach and poor development of the small business sector compared to the studied countries. Scientific novelty the positive relationship was revealed between the costs of exports support and export sales in the United States and India. The necessity was grounded of state the financial support of export activities of small and medium enterprises in Russia as well as product promotion through sectoral

  14. Activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles: a hybrid material for carbon dioxide adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruban, Cansu; Esenturk, Emren Nalbant

    2018-03-01

    Activated carbon-supported copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple impregnation method to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of the support. The structural and chemical properties of the hybrid material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (https://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intertek.com%2Fanalytical-laboratories%2Fxrd%2F&ei=-5WZVYSCHISz7Aatqq-IAw&usg=AFQjCNFBlk-9wqy49foh8tskmbD-GGbG9g&sig2=eKrhYjO75rl_Id2sLGpq4w&bvm=bv.96952980,d.bGg) (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles are well-distributed on the activated carbon surface. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and BET analyses. The results showed that CuO nanoparticle loading on activated carbon led to about 70% increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K). The main contributor to the observed increase is an improvement in chemical adsorption of CO2 due to the presence of CuO nanoparticles on activated carbon.

  15. Effect of support on the catalytic activity of manganese oxide catalyts for toluene combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozan, Gulin Selda

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► α-Al 2 O 3 , obtained from Bohmite, as a support for enhancing of the activity. ► The support material for catalytic oxidation. ► The manganese state and oxygen species effect on the catalytic combustion reaction. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to study combustion of toluene (1000 ppm) over MnO 2 modified with different supports. α-Al 2 O 3 and γ-Al 2 O 3 obtained from Boehmite, γ-Al 2 O 3 (commercial), SiO 2 , TiO 2 and ZrO 2 were used as commercial support materials. In view of potential interest of this process, the influence of support material on the catalytic performance was discussed. The deposition of 9.5MnO 2 was performed by impregnation over support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed reduction and oxidation (TPR/TPO) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed-bed flow reactor. 9.5MnO 2 /α-Al 2 O 3 (B) (synthesized from Boehmite) catalyst exhibits the highest catalytic activity, over which the toluene conversion was up to 90% at a temperature of 289 °C. Considering all the characterization and reaction data reported in this study, it was concluded that the manganese state and oxygen species played an important role in the catalytic activity.

  16. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlates with hepatic cytochrome P4503A activity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Olsen, A K; Stentoft, K

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) and tacrolimus may result from differences in the activity of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A). The erythromycin breath test is an in vivo assay of hepatic CYP3A activity......, but the method has never been directly validated. The aim of the study was to investigate whether an early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlated with the hepatic CYP3A protein level and catalytic activity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 18 liver transplant recipients, the erythromycin...... breath test was performed within 2 hours after transplantation. A graft biopsy was obtained during surgery and analyzed for the CYP3A protein level by Western blotting and for CYP3A activity with erythromycin demethylation and testosterone 6beta- hydroxylation assays. RESULTS: The erythromycin breath...

  17. Using an Activity Dashboard to Support Awareness and Reflection in a European Virtual Seminar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    In order to support students in online learning environments to become more aware of and reflect on their activities we have implemented an Activity Dashboard within the learning environment of an online course. The Activity Dashboard provides feedback, visualised in radar diagrams and bar charts.

  18. The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG): Child-reported Physical Activity Parenting in African American and Non-Hispanic White Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Nishi, Akihiro; Baskin, Monica L; Carson, Tiffany L; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a child-report, multidimensional measure of physical activity (PA) parenting, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), in African American and non-Hispanic white families. The ACTS-MG was administered to children aged 5 to 12 years. A three factor model of PA parenting (Modeling of PA, Logistic Support, and Restricting Access to Screen-based Activities) was tested separately for mother's and fathers' PA parenting. The proposed three-factor structure was supported in both racial groups for mothers' PA parenting and in the African American sample for fathers' PA parenting. Factorial invariance between racial groups was demonstrated for mother's PA parenting. Building on a previous study examining the ACTS-MG parent-report, this study supports the use of the ACTS-MG child-report for mothers' PA parenting. However, further research is required to investigate the measurement of fathers' PA parenting across racial groups.

  19. Abundance, genetic diversity and sensitivity to demethylation inhibitor fungicides of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from organic substrates with special emphasis on compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Matić, Slavica; Gisi, Ulrich; Spadaro, Davide; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria L

    2017-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread fungus that colonizes dead organic substrates but it can also cause fatal human diseases. Aspergilloses are treated with demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides; however, resistant isolates appeared recently in the medical and also environmental area. The present study aims at molecular characterizing and quantifying A. fumigatus in major environmental habitats and determining its sensitivity to medical and agricultural DMI fungicides. A. fumigatus was isolated only rarely from soil and meadow/forest organic matter but high concentrations (10 3 to 10 7  cfu/g) were detected in substrates subjected to elevated temperatures, such as compost and silage. High genetic diversity of A. fumigatus from compost was found based on SSR markers, distinguishing among fungal isolates even when coming from the same substrate sample, while subclustering was observed based on mutations in cyp51A gene. Several cyp51A amino acid substitutions were found in 15 isolates, although all isolates were fully sensitive to the tested DMI fungicides, with exception of one isolate in combination with one fungicide. This study suggests that the tested A. fumigatus isolates collected in Italy, Spain and Hungary from the fungus' major living habitats (compost) and commercial growing substrates are not potential carriers for DMI resistance in the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Activity and selectivity regulation of synthesis gas reaction over supported ruthenium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K; Nobusawa, T; Fukushima, T; Tominaga, H

    1985-01-01

    The catalytic activities of supported ruthenium for synthesis-gas conversion to hydrocarbons was found to be in the following order: TiOS > Nb2O3 > ZrO2 > SiO2 > Ta2O5 > Al2O3 > V2O5 > MoO3 > WO3 > MnO2 > ZnO. Turnover frequencies of the supported ruthenium increased with decrease in dispersion of the metal particles for every carrier material. Even the activities per unit weight of metals were higher for low-dispersion ruthenium of Al2O3, TiO2, and ZrO2. The chain-growth probability of a hydrocarbon product, which is characterized by the Schulz-Flory distribution, increased markedly with decrease in the metal dispersion irrespective of the carrier material. The catalytic activity of ruthenium particles with a dispersed ruthenium increased almost linearly with an increase in reaction pressure (up to at least 2.0 MPa). 23 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Human Activity Recognition Supported on Indoor Localization: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jesús; López, Diego M

    2018-01-01

    The number of older adults is growing worldwide. This has a social and economic impact in all countries because of the increased number of older adults affected by chronic diseases, health emergencies, and disabilities, representing at the end high cost for the health system. To face this problem, the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) domain has emerged. Its main objective is to extend the time that older adults can live independently in their homes. AAL is supported by different fields and technologies, being Human Activity Recognition (HAR), control of vital signs and location tracking the three of most interest during the last years. To perform a systematic review about Human Activity Recognition (HAR) approaches supported on Indoor Localization (IL) and vice versa, describing the methods they have used, the accuracy they have obtained and whether they have been directed towards the AAL domain or not. A systematic review of six databases was carried out (ACM, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer). 27 papers were found. They were categorised into three groups according their approach: paper focus on 1. HAR, 2. IL, 3. HAR and IL. A detailed analysis of the following factors was performed: type of methods and technologies used for HAR, IL and data fusion, as well as the precision obtained for them. This systematic review shows that the relationship between HAR and IL has been very little studied, therefore providing insights of its potential mutual support to provide AAL solutions.

  2. Changes in cytochrome P4501A activity during development in common tern chicks fed polychlorinated biphenyls, as measured by the caffeine breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Van den Berg, M.

    2000-03-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test (CBT) with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-caffeine) was used to measure in vivo CYP1A activity twice during development in 14 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks treated with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons. Tern hatchlings were fed fish spiked with 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) such that the diet contained an average of 23, 99, or 561 pg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents per gram of fish for 21 d. Sixteen additional common tern chicks were similarly dosed with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons but were not subjected to the CBT procedure. In weeks 1 and 2, caffeine N-demethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity on day 21 were elevated in birds that received the greatest PCB dose. There was less constitutive and greater induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity than caffeine N-demethylation. The {sup 14}C-CBT was less invasive than the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Only one morphological parameter differed significantly between CBT subjects and no-CBT subjects fed the same level of PCBs. Bursa weight was significantly less in control CBT subjects than in control no-CBT subjects, but bursa weights did not differ among CBT and no-CBT birds from the two PCB treatment groups. No alterations of survival or growth occurred in CBT subjects compared with no-CBT subjects.

  3. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  4. eHealth technologies to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Williams, Rebecca L; Wynne, Katie; Kriss, Michelle; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided.

  5. Effect of a patella support brace on myoelectric activity of knee joint muscles during single leg landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salariesker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patellfemoral pain syndrome is one of the most common knee joint problems that affect athletes and non-athletes. Knee brace is often used as a treatment method for patellar realignment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a patella support brace on myoelectric activity of selected knee muscles during single leg landing in healthy females. Materials and Methods: 19 healthy female students (Mean age: 23.6±1.98 years, height: 163.5±5.88 cm, weight: 62.3±3.6 kg participated in this study. Myoelectric activity of biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis were collected during single leg landing in with and without using the patella support brace conditions.Results: Use of the patella support brace had no significant effect on myoelectric activity for the semitendinosus (p=0.668, vastus medialis (VM (p=0.915 and vastus lateralis (VL (P=0.134, while myoelectric activity for biceps femoris (p=0.005 and ratio of VM/VL myoelectric activity significantly increased (p=0.045. Conclusion: Our results revealed that biceps femoris activity and vastus medialis/vastus lateralis ratio increased after using patella support brace during single leg landing. Further studies on kinematic and kinetic variables are needed to describe these changes in muscular activity when using the patella support brace.

  6. Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; West, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that price increases may be supported where funds are dedicated to tobacco control. This study assessed public support in England for such a policy. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in England between August 2008 and January 2009. A representative sample of 8736 respondents aged 16+, of whom 1900 (22%) were cigarette smokers at the time of the survey, was recruited. The primary outcome measure was support for a 20p (4%) price increase on a pack of cigarettes with proceeds going to fund tobacco control activities. 6216 participants (71%), including half (47%) of current cigarette smokers, indicated that they would support a 20p price increase if funds were dedicated to tobacco control activities. Levels of support among smokers were similar across the social gradient and gender. Younger smokers were more likely to support the increase. Smokers who smoked 0-10 cigarettes per day were more supportive of the increase than heavier smokers. There is broad public support for raising the cost of cigarettes with funds being used for tobacco control activities. The absence of a social gradient among smokers concurs with other research showing that more disadvantaged smokers are as engaged with tobacco control objectives as more affluent smokers.

  7. Supporting Tourist Activity Planning Decisions From an Urban Tourism Management Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Raaij, van W.F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Urgan tourism has positive effects on the city such as generating financial support and improving the city's atmosphere, but may also have negative impacts such as overusage of resources. In this article an activity-based approach to tourists'behavior analysis is combined with a game-theoretic

  8. Anti-bacterial compounds from the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Kamat, S.Y.; Chandramohan, D.; Nair, S.; Das, B.

    located the active principles in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions Further purification of these active fractions on silica gel columns and subsequently on HPLC yielded several active compounds two of which have been identified as demethyl...

  9. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  10. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The exploration activities associated with NASA?s goals to return to the Moon, travel to Mars, or explore Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will involve the need for human-supported space and surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). The technology development and human element associated with these exploration missions provide fantastic content to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). As NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden remarked on December 9, 2009, "We....need to provide the educational and experiential stepping-stones to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and leaders in STEM fields." The EVA Systems Project actively supports this initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for these missions. This paper summarizes these education and public efforts.

  11. Ambulatory activity classification with dendogram-based support vector machine: Application in lower-limb active exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Oishee; Kundu, Ananda Sankar; Lenka, Prasanna Kumar; Bhaumik, Subhasis

    2016-10-01

    Ambulatory activity classification is an active area of research for controlling and monitoring state initiation, termination, and transition in mobility assistive devices such as lower-limb exoskeletons. State transition of lower-limb exoskeletons reported thus far are achieved mostly through the use of manual switches or state machine-based logic. In this paper, we propose a postural activity classifier using a 'dendogram-based support vector machine' (DSVM) which can be used to control a lower-limb exoskeleton. A pressure sensor-based wearable insole and two six-axis inertial measurement units (IMU) have been used for recognising two static and seven dynamic postural activities: sit, stand, and sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, level walk, fast walk, slope walk, stair ascent and stair descent. Most of the ambulatory activities are periodic in nature and have unique patterns of response. The proposed classification algorithm involves the recognition of activity patterns on the basis of the periodic shape of trajectories. Polynomial coefficients extracted from the hip angle trajectory and the centre-of-pressure (CoP) trajectory during an activity cycle are used as features to classify dynamic activities. The novelty of this paper lies in finding suitable instrumentation, developing post-processing techniques, and selecting shape-based features for ambulatory activity classification. The proposed activity classifier is used to identify the activity states of a lower-limb exoskeleton. The DSVM classifier algorithm achieved an overall classification accuracy of 95.2%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  13. Promoting Constructive Activities that Support Vicarious Learning during Computer-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Barry; Craig, Scotty D.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores several ways computer-based instruction can be designed to support constructive activities and promote deep-level comprehension during vicarious learning. Vicarious learning, discussed in the first section, refers to knowledge acquisition under conditions in which the learner is not the addressee and does not physically…

  14. Creation of University Wellness Program Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyle Supports: A Knowledge-to-Action Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Phillip; Mann, Linda; Blotnicky, Karen

    2018-03-01

    With the burdens that preventable health conditions place on individuals, workplaces, and society, workplace wellness programs (WWP) are critical to ensuring employees have access to health promotion supports tailored to their work environments. Such programs are best guided by a knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework; a theoretically grounded, systematic process that considers the ongoing exchange of knowledge with employees to engage them in health behaviour change and to garner employers' support for the interventions. Therefore the purpose of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate WWP healthy eating and active lifestyle supports at a university. A KTA process guided the consultations with employees and stakeholders that led to the development and implementation of a range of resource effective supports and the incorporation of wellness in the organization culture. A key support was the Wellness Passport that encouraged participation in scheduled WWP activities, as well as allowing for self-identified ones. Quality assurance assessments demonstrated a desire for a continuation of these WWP supports and activities. Dietitians, as health promotion leaders, can play key roles in the emerging field of WWPs. University dietetic and internship programs should consider adding WWP and KTA training components.

  15. Biochemical background of toxic interaction between tiamulin and monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Gyula; Tamási, Viola; Laczay, Péter; Monostory, Katalin

    2004-03-15

    Tiamulin, a diterpene antibiotic, is used for treatment of pulmonary and gastrointestinal infections in swine and poultry. Combined administration of tiamulin and ionophores (e.g. monensin) to farm animals may lead to intoxication manifested in severe clinical symptoms. Tiamulin metabolite complex with cytochrome P450 has been suggested to be the basis of drug-interactions. However, the formation of metabolic intermediate complex is questionable. The effect of tiamulin-treatment on cytochrome P450 activities was investigated in rats. Ethylmorphine and aminopyrine N-demethylation activities as well as monensin metabolism (O-demethylation) increased in liver microsomes of tiamulin-treated (200 mg/kg) animals. CYP3A1 induction caused by tiamulin was confirmed by the results of Western blot analysis. To test metabolic intermediate complex formation as a result of tiamulin treatment, cytochrome P450 activities were also determined in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. The findings together with those of in vitro complex formation suggested that formation of metabolic intermediate complexes of tiamulin with cytochrome P450 could be excluded. On the other hand, the results of inhibition studies showed significant decrease of ethylmorphine or aminopyrine as well as monensin demethylation in the presence of tiamulin. Our results proved that tiamulin has dual effect on cytochromes P450. It is able to induce and directly inhibit CYP3A enzymes, which are predominantly responsible for monensin O-demethylation. The direct effect of tiamulin as an inhibitor might play a more important role in toxicity than its putative effect as a chemical inducer of CYP3A enzymes.

  16. Polystyrene-Supported Acyclic Diaminocarbene Palladium Complexes in Sonogashira Cross-Coupling: Stability vs. Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Mikhaylov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two types of immobilized on the amino-functionalized polystyrene-supported acyclic diaminocarbene palladium complexes (ADC-PdII are investigated under Sonogashira cross-coupling conditions. Depending on substituents in the diaminocarbene fragment immobilized ADC-PdII, systems are found to have different catalytic activity and stability regarding Pd-leaching. PdII-diaminocarbenes possessing protons at both nitrogen atoms smoothly decompose into Pd0-containing species providing a catalytic “cocktail system” with high activity and ability to reuse within nine runs. Polymer-supported palladium (II complex bearing NBn–Ccarbene–NH-moiety exhibits greater stability while noticeably lower activity under Sonogashira cross-coupling. Four molecular ADC-PdII complexes are also synthesized and investigated with the aim of confirming proposed base-promoted pathway of ADC-PdII conversion through carbodiimide into an active Pd0 forms.

  17. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A. E.; Nikolaev, P.; Amama, P. B.; Zakharov, D.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; Stach, E. A.; Maruyama, B.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only in the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. With the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.

  18. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  19. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R.; Werth, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Activated carbon supported CaO for conversion of palm oil to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, activated carbon supported CaO catalyst was used for the transesterification reaction of palm oil. The catalyst was prepared according to the conventional incipient witness impregnation method. Kinetic experiment was performed in a batch reactor in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst for a wide range of ...

  2. Catalytic Performance of Co3O4 on Different Activated Carbon Supports in the Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Cordoba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Co3O4 particles were supported on a series of activated carbons (G60, CNR, RX3, and RB3. Incipient wetness method was used to prepare these catalysts. The effect of the structural and surface properties of the carbonaceous supports during oxidation of benzyl alcohol was evaluated. The synthetized catalysts were characterized via IR, TEM, TGA/MS, XRD, TPR, AAS, XPS, and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm techniques. Co3O4/G60 and Co3O4/RX3 catalysts have high activity and selectivity on the oxidation reaction reaching conversions above 90% after 6 h, without the presence of promoters. Catalytic performances show that differences in chemistry of support surface play an important role in activity and suggest that the presence of different ratios of species of cobalt and oxygenated groups on surface in Co3O4/G60 and Co3O4/RX3 catalysts, offered a larger effect synergic between both active phase and support increasing their catalytic activity when compared to the other tested catalysts.

  3. State of technology, system and solution supporting on-line maintenance - company's activities and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Junichi; Shimizu, Shunichi; Higasa, Hisakazu

    2010-01-01

    The new inspection system based on operator's maintenance and monitoring program of nuclear power plants was introduced in Japan more than one year ago and recommended on-line maintenance (maintenance during operation) will be carried out to increase capacity factor with safe and reliable operation of the plant. In this feature article, nine experts described the state of technology, system and solution supporting on-line maintenance - company's activities and products. These were titled as 'MHI's technology supporting on-line maintenance'. 'Technology supporting on-line maintenance - Toshiba's activities to upgrade monitoring and diagnostic service and maintenance management', 'AsahiKASEI's activities of on-line maintenance', 'Importance of information sharing of on-line maintenance and its ideal method-function of impact plan of IBM Maximo Asset Management for Nuclear', 'US's on-line maintenance and information systems', 'SmartProcedures realizing safe operation of nuclear power plant - proposal of computerized procedures', 'Ultrasonic leak detection system SDT170', 'Application of infrared thermography for equipment maintenance in nuclear power plant' and 'On-line condition monitoring system - condition eye'. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Enantiomeric metabolic interactions and stereoselective human methadone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totah, Rheem A; Allen, Kyle E; Sheffels, Pamela; Whittington, Dale; Kharasch, Evan D

    2007-04-01

    Methadone is administered as a racemate, although opioid activity resides in the R-enantiomer. Methadone disposition is stereoselective, with considerable unexplained variability in clearance and plasma R/S ratios. N-Demethylation of methadone in vitro is predominantly mediated by cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and somewhat by CYP2C19. This investigation evaluated stereoselectivity, models, and kinetic parameters for methadone N-demethylation by recombinant CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19, and the potential for interactions between enantiomers during racemate metabolism. CYP2B6 metabolism was stereoselective. CYP2C19 was less active, and stereoselectivity was opposite that for CYP2B6. CYP3A4 was not stereoselective. With all three isoforms, enantiomer N-dealkylation rates in the racemate were lower than those of (R)-(6-dimethyamino-4,4-diphenyl-heptan-3-one) hydrochloride (R-methadone) or (S)-(6-dimethyamino-4,4-diphenyl-heptan-3-one) hydrochloride (S-methadone) alone, suggesting an enantiomeric interaction and mutual metabolic inhibition. For CYP2B6, the interaction between enantiomers was stereoselective, with S-methadone as a more potent inhibitor of R-methadone N-demethylation than R-of S-methadone. In contrast, enantiomer interactions were not stereoselective with CYP2C19 or CYP3A4. For all three cytochromes P450, methadone N-demethylation was best described by two-site enzyme models with competitive inhibition. There were minor model differences between cytochromes P450 to account for stereoselectivity of metabolism and enantiomeric interactions. Changes in plasma R/S methadone ratios observed after rifampin or troleandomycin pretreatment in humans in vivo were successfully predicted by CYP2B6- but not CYP3A4-catalyzed methadone N-demethylation. CYP2B6 is a predominant catalyst of stereoselective methadone metabolism in vitro. In vivo, CYP2B6 may be a major determinant of methadone metabolism and disposition, and CYP2B6 activity and stereoselective metabolic

  5. REECo activities and sample logistics in support of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wireman, D.L.; Rosenberry, C.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Activities and sample logistics of Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), in support of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), are discussed in this summary report. Activities include the collection, preparation, and shipment of samples of soils, vegetation, and small animals collected at Pu-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range. (CH)

  6. Investigation of the effect of support thermal treatment on gold-based catalysts' activity towards propene total oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamallem, M.; Cousin, R.; Thomas, R.; Siffert, St.; Aissi, F.; Aboukais, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the effect of support thermal treatment on the activity of gold-based catalysts for the total oxidation of propene. Ce 0.3 Ti 0.7 O 2 supports were prepared using sol-gel method. These compounds are calcined at 400, 500 and 600 C. Physico-chemical properties of synthesized materials were characterized by means of XRD, DR/UV-vis and H 2 -TPR. Then gold was deposited on these supports by the deposition precipitation method. Thus the catalytic activity of these solids in the propene oxidation was evaluated. On the basis of the catalytic results, a better activity is obtained when gold is deposited on Ce 0.3 Ti 0.7 O 2 support previously calcined at 400 C under air. (authors)

  7. Electron Tomography Reveals the Active Phase–Support Interaction in Sulfidic Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsbouts, Sonja; Li, Xuang; Juan-Alcaniz, Jana; van den Oetelaar, Leon C A; Bergwerff, Jaap; Loos, Joachim; Carlsson, Anna; Vogt, E.T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2D) transmission electron microscopy of sulfidic hydroprocessing catalysts can be deceiving and give the impression that parts of the support are overloaded with active phase. High-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography reveals

  8. Update on Activities of CEOS Disaster Management Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. M.; Lauritson, L.

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG) has supported natural and technological disaster management on a worldwide basis by fostering improved utilization of existing and planned Earth Observation (EO) satellite data. The DMSG has focused on developing and refining recommendations for the application of satellite data to selected hazard areas--drought, earthquake, fire, flood, ice, landslide, oil spill, and volcanic hazards. Particular emphasis was placed on working closely with space agencies, international and regional organizations, and commercial organizations on the implementation of these recommendations. The DMSG is in its last year with its primary focus on documenting its work and migrating on going activities to other fora. With over 300 participants from more than 140 organizations, the DMSG has found strong support among CEOS space agencies and the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), as well as an enthusiastic reception from numerous international, regional, and national emergency managers, and distinct interest from the commercial sector. In addition, the group has worked to give full support to the work of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in pursuit of decisions taken at UNISPACE III and the United Nations International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (ISDR). In conjunction with the IGOS, several of the DMSG hazards teams (earthquake, landslide, and solid Earth dimensions of volcanoes) are joining in the effort to develop an IGOS Geohazards theme team. Cooperation efforts with organizations such as IGOS, COPUOS, and ISDR will hopefully lead to the pick up of much of the on going DMSG activities. Since the inception of this ad hoc working group and its predecessor project, the DMSG has developed and refined recommendations for the application of satellite data by bringing together experts from eight hazard areas to identify user needs, as well as

  9. Poisoning Experiments Aimed at Discriminating Active and Less-Active Sites of Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydride for Alkane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Saggio, Guillaume; Taoufik, Mostafa; Basset, Jean-Marie; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Only 50% of the silica-supported tantalum hydride sites are active in the metathesis of propane. Indeed, more than 45% of the tantalum hydride can be eliminated by a selective oxygen poisoning of inactive sites with no significant decrease

  10. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Chong, Pablo; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Cordovez, Viviane; Guzman, Mauricio; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Meijer, Harold J G; Scalliet, Gabriel; Sierotzki, Helge; Lilia Peralta, Esther; Arango Isaza, Rafael E; Kema, Gerrit H J

    2017-11-04

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications, with a major contribution from sterol demethylation-inhibitors (DMIs). The continued use of DMIs places considerable selection pressure on natural P. fijiensis populations, enabling the selection of novel genotypes with reduced sensitivity. The hitherto explanatory mechanism for this reduced sensitivity was the presence of non-synonymous point mutations in the target gene Pfcyp51, encoding the sterol 14α-demethylase enzyme. Here, we demonstrate a second mechanism involved in DMI sensitivity of P. fijiensis. We identified a 19-bp element in the wild-type (wt) Pfcyp51 promoter that concatenates in strains with reduced DMI sensitivity. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay identified up to six Pfcyp51 promoter repeats in four field populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica. We used transformation experiments to swap the wt promoter of a sensitive field isolate with a promoter from a strain with reduced DMI sensitivity that comprised multiple insertions. Comparative in vivo phenotyping showed a functional and proportional up-regulation of Pfcyp51, which consequently decreased DMI sensitivity. Our data demonstrate that point mutations in the Pfcyp51 coding domain, as well as promoter inserts, contribute to the reduced DMI sensitivity of P. fijiensis. These results provide new insights into the importance of the appropriate use of DMIs and the need for the discovery of new molecules for black Sigatoka management. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Operator support systems activities at EPRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of operator support systems supports the nuclear power plant goals of improved availability and reliability, enhanced safety, reduced operations and maintenance costs, and improved productivity. Two major aspects which supports this integration are discussed in this paper. The first is the plant communications and computing architecture which provides the infrastructure that allows the integration to exist in a easy to implement manner. Open systems concepts are utilized to guarantee interoperability of systems and interchangeability of equipment. The second is the EPRI Plant-Window System which supplies the interface between the human and the plant systems. It implements common human-machine interfaces amongst systems and supports the implementation of diagnostic and decision aids. Work in both of these areas is being done as part of the EPRI Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Program. A number of operator support systems have been developed and are in various stages of implementation, testing and utilization. Two of these, the RWCU and the EOPTS, are described here. 5 refs, 14 figs

  12. [Social support and physical activity in adolescents from public schools: the importance of family and friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Crisley Vanessa; Lima, Alex Vieira; Fermino, Rogério César; Añez, Ciro Romelio Rodriguez; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the association between different types and sources of social support and physical activity among adolescents from Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. A school-based survey was conducted with a representative sample of adolescents from public schools (n = 1,469). Multiple regression models were used to test the association between weekly frequency and sources of social support from family and friends and weekly frequency of physical activity. Among boys, frequent company of family (PR: 2.88; 95%CI: 2.00-4.13) and friends (PR: 5.46; 95%CI: 2.33-12.78) and positive reinforcement from friends (PR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.18-2.77) were positively associated with physical activity. Sporadic invitation by the family was negatively associated with physical activity (PR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.46-1.14). For girls, frequent company of family (PR: 3.39; 95%CI: 1.49-7.69) and friends (PR: 4.06; 95%CI: 2.22-7.45) increased the likelihood of physical activity. Company of friends was the most important type of social support for physical activity among these adolescents.

  13. Tuning the Electronic Structure of Titanium Oxide Support to Enhance the Electrochemical Activity of Platinum Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Feifei

    2013-09-11

    Two times higher activity and three times higher stability in methanol oxidation reaction, a 0.12 V negative shift of the CO oxidation peak potential, and a 0.07 V positive shift of the oxygen reaction potential compared to Pt nanoparticles on pristine TiO2 support were achieved by tuning the electronic structure of the titanium oxide support of Pt nanoparticle catalysts. This was accomplished by adding oxygen vacancies or doping with fluorine. Experimental trends are interpreted in the context of an electronic structure model, showing an improvement in electrochemical activity when the Fermi level of the support material in Pt/TiOx systems is close to the Pt Fermi level and the redox potential of the reaction. The present approach provides guidance for the selection of the support material of Pt/TiOx systems and may be applied to other metal-oxide support materials, thus having direct implications in the design and optimization of fuel cell catalyst supports. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Determination of oxidation products of 5-methylcytosine in plants by chemical derivatization coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Xiong, Jun; Jiang, Han-Peng; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yuan, Bi-Feng

    2014-08-05

    Cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5-mC) in DNA is an important epigenetic mark that has regulatory roles in various biological processes. In plants, active DNA demethylation can be achieved through direct cleavage by DNA glycosylases, followed by replacement of 5-mC with cytosine by base excision repair (BER) machinery. Recent studies in mammals have demonstrated 5-mC can be sequentially oxidized to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-foC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC) by Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins. The consecutive oxidations of 5-mC constitute the active DNA demethylation pathway in mammals, which raised the possible presence of oxidation products of 5-mC (5-hmC, 5-foC, and 5-caC) in plant genomes. However, there is no definitive evidence supporting the presence of these modified bases in plant genomic DNA, especially for 5-foC and 5-caC. Here we developed a chemical derivatization strategy combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method to determine 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-fodC) and 5-carboxyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-cadC). Derivatization of 5-fodC and 5-cadC by Girard's reagents (GirD, GirT, and GirP) significantly increased the detection sensitivities of 5-fodC and 5-cadC by 52-260-fold. Using this method, we demonstrated the widespread existence of 5-fodC and 5-cadC in genomic DNA of various plant tissues, indicating that active DNA demethylation in plants may go through an alternative pathway similar to mammals besides the pathway of direct DNA glycosylases cleavage combined with BER. Moreover, we found that environmental stresses of drought and salinity can change the contents of 5-fodC and 5-cadC in plant genomes, suggesting the functional roles of 5-fodC and 5-cadC in response to environmental stresses.

  15. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Cedric; van den Hurk, Mark; Eames, Tameji; Marchand, Cynthia; Hernandez, Ruben V; Kellogg, Mariko; Gorris, Mark; Galet, Ben; Palomares, Vanessa; Brown, Joshua; Bang, Anne G; Mertens, Jerome; Böhnke, Lena; Boyer, Leah; Simon, Suzanne; Gage, Fred H

    2015-05-19

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, we designed a new neuronal medium (BrainPhys basal + serum-free supplements) in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. We then tested that this medium adequately supports neuronal activity and survival of human neurons in culture. Long-term exposure to this physiological medium also improved the proportion of neurons that were synaptically active. The medium was designed to culture human neurons but also proved adequate for rodent neurons. The improvement in BrainPhys basal medium to support neurophysiological activity is an important step toward reducing the gap between brain physiological conditions in vivo and neuronal models in vitro.

  16. The number of supports does not modify the electrical cortical activity during balance tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective was to evaluate the electrical cortical activity during two static and two dynamic tasks, comparing between tasks with single support tasks and tasks with two feet on the platform. Settings and Design: Sixteen young males participated in this cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: Electrical cortical activity was assessed using the Enobio device. Two static and two dynamic tasks were performed, all of them on the Biodex Balance System device. Statistical analysis used: Mean power spectrum for the Alpha band was analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare tasks with one single support and tasks with the two feet on the platform. Results: No significant difference was observed when comparing the balance tasks. Conclusions: The number of supports did not significantly modify the EEG signal in the alpha band. However, cognitive demands in the single support dynamic task seemed to be somewhat higher compared with the rest of the tasks. These results may be relevant to design future programs based on dual task.

  17. Feasibility of a Supporting-Salt-Free Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery Utilizing Ionic Active Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Jarrod D; Fisher, Sydney L; Breault, Tanya M; Thompson, Levi T; Brushett, Fikile R

    2017-05-09

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) are promising devices for grid-scale energy storage, but high projected prices could limit commercial prospects. One route to reduced prices is to minimize or eliminate the expensive supporting salts typically employed in NAqRFBs. Herein, the feasibility of a flow cell operating in the absence of supporting salt by utilizing ionic active species is demonstrated. These ionic species have high conductivities in acetonitrile (12-19 mS cm -1 ) and cycle at 20 mA cm -2 with energy efficiencies (>75 %) comparable to those of state-of-the-art NAqRFBs employing high concentrations of supporting salt. A chemistry-agnostic techno-economic analysis highlights the possible cost savings of minimizing salt content in a NAqRFB. This work offers the first demonstration of a NAqRFB operating without supporting salt. The associated design principles can guide the development of future active species and could make NAqRFBs competitive with their aqueous counterparts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Comparison of Perceived Support for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Related Practices of Children and Young Adolescents in Hong Kong and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the self-reported physical activity, perceived social support for, and perceived barriers to, physical activity of primary and secondary school children from Hong Kong and Australia. Hong Kong boys and girls reported spending significantly less time, outside of school hours, on physical activity than their Australian…

  19. Development of an integrated decision support system to aid cognitive activities of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety-critical systems, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, the number of necessary operators, and the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve Main Control Room (MCR) interface design and to develop automated or decision support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid operator cognitive processes is proposed for advanced MCRs of future NPPs. This work suggests the design concept of a decision support system which accounts for an operator's cognitive processes. The proposed system supports not only a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed according to a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each cognitive process activity are suggested

  20. Perceived social support and parental education as determinants of adolescents' physical activity and eating behaviour: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2015-08-01

    To examine the role of perceived social support and parental education on physical activity and eating behaviour of Ghanaian adolescents. Seven hundred and seventy Senior High School students (504 boys and 266 girls) between the ages of 14-21 years participated by completing questionnaires on perceived social support, physical activity and eating behaviour. The highest education attained by either parent or guardian was also obtained. Multivariate analysis of covariance was the main statistical test used to analyse the data. The results showed significant gender differences in physical activity and eating behaviour combined, with boys more likely to engage in physical activity than girls, and girls also more likely to engage in healthy eating behaviour than boys, albeit the effect was not statistically significant. While perceived social support had a significant positive effect on eating behaviour and physical activity, parental education had a significant effect only on eating behaviour but not physical activity. Perceived social support from family coupled with parental education provides more opportunities for adolescents to engage in healthy eating behaviour. Also, parents' educational attainment alone does not necessarily guarantee that adolescents will engage in physical activity; providing the needed social support and conducive home environment is more likely to induce physical activity behaviours. Finally, physical activity and eating behaviour should not be construed as alternative health behaviours as suggested by gender differentials in these health behaviours.

  1. The experience of cancer survivors in community-based psycho-social support activities in Shanghai, China: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Shen, Qian; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Jiang; Luo, Zheng-Nian; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Cancer survivors are often embroiled in various physical and psycho-social issues as a consequence of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Psycho-social support activities in the phase of rehabilitation were provided to enhance their quality of life. This study seeks to explore and understand their experience of engagement in Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club (SCRC). Sixty-eight participants attended eight semi-structured focus group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis framework was adopted for data analysis. The participants reported benefits such as psychological support, informational provision and tangible support in the activities. Public services were reported to have restored their dignity and enabled them to rediscover their own meaning of life. Participants also pointed out challenges on functioning and opportunity for development of SCRC. The psycho-social support activities of SCRC had influenced cancer survivor's life. Public health resources and supportive policies should be in place to support local self-help cancer rehabilitation groups.

  2. Relationships between structure and activity of carbon as a multifunctional support for electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Sanja I; Panić, Vladimir V; Dekanski, Aleksandar B; Tripković, Amalija V; Jovanović, Vladislava M

    2012-07-14

    We report on new insights into the relationships between structure and activity of glassy carbon (GC), as a model material for electrocatalyst support, during its anodization in acid solution. Our investigation strongly confirms the role of CFGs in promotion of Pt activity by the "spill-over" effect related to CO(ads) for methanol electrooxidation (MEO) on a carbon-supported Pt catalyst. Combined analysis of voltammetric and impedance behaviour as well as changes in GC surface morphology induced by intensification of anodizing conditions reveal an intrinsic influence of the carbon functionalization and the structure of a graphene oxide (GO) layer on the electrical and electrocatalytic properties of activated GC. Although GO continuously grows during anodization, it structurally changes from being a graphite inter-layer within graphite ribbons toward a continuous GO surface layer that deteriorates the native structure of GC. As a consequence of the increased distance between GO-spaced graphite layers, the GC conductivity decreases until the case of profound GO exfoliation under drastic anodizing conditions. This exposes the native, yet abundantly functionalized, GC texture. While GC capacitance continuously increases with intensification of anodizing conditions, the surface nano-roughness and GO resistance reach the highest values at modest anodizing conditions, and then decrease upon drastic anodization due to the onset of GO exfoliation. We found for the first time that the activity of a GC-supported Pt catalyst in MEO, as one of the promising half-reactions in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, strictly follows the changes in GC nano-roughness and GO-induced GC resistance. The highest GC/Pt MEO activity is reached when optimal distance between graphite layers and optimal degree of GC functionalization bring the highest amount of CFGs into intimate contact with the Pt surface. This confirms the promoting role of CFGs in MEO catalysis.

  3. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles Supported on Electrically Polarized Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefei; Yates, Matthew Z

    2018-05-23

    Fast recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) remains a challenging issue, limiting the photocatalytic activity. This study demonstrates increased photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 nanoparticles supported on electrically polarized hydroxyapatite (HA) films. Dense and thermally stable yttrium and fluorine co-doped HA films with giant internal polarization were synthesized as photocatalyst supports. TiO 2 nanoparticles deposited on the support were then used to catalyze the photochemical reduction of aqueous silver ions to produce silver nanoparticles. It was found that significantly more silver nanoparticles were produced on polarized HA supports than on depolarized HA supports. In addition, the photodegradation of methyl orange with TiO 2 nanoparticles on polarized HA supports was found to be much faster than with TiO 2 nanoparticles on depolarized HA supports. It is proposed that separation of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO nanoparticles is promoted by the internal polarization of the HA support, and consequently, the recombination of charge carriers is mitigated. The results imply that materials with large internal polarization can be used in strategies for enhancing quantum efficiency of photocatalysts.

  4. Physical activity counseling intervention at a federally qualified health center: improves autonomy-supportiveness, but not patients' perceived competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer K; Fiscella, Kevin; Epstein, Ronald M; Sanders, Mechelle R; Winters, Paul C; Moorhead, S Anne; van Osch, Liesbeth; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effect of a pilot intervention to promote clinician-patient communication about physical activity on patient ratings of their perceived competence for physical activity and their clinicians' autonomy-supportiveness. Family medicine clinicians (n=13) at two urban community health centers were randomized to early or delayed (8 months later) communication training groups. The goal of the training was to teach the 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange) for physical activity counseling. Outcome measures were changes in patient perceptions of autonomy support (modified Health Care Climate Questionnaire, mHCCQ) and perceived competence (Perceived Competence Scale for physical activity, PCS) completed via surveys at baseline, post-intervention and six-month follow-up. Patients (n=326) were mostly female (70%) and low income. Using a generalized estimating equations model (GEE) with patients nested within clinician, patient perceived autonomy support increased at post-intervention compared to baseline (mean HCCQ scores 3.68-4.06, p=0.03). There was no significant change in patient perceived competence for physical activity. A clinician-directed intervention increased patient perceptions of clinician autonomy support but not patient perceived competence for physical activity. Clinicians working with underserved populations can be taught to improve their autonomy supportiveness, according to patient assessments of their clinicians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Covalent Immobilization of Cellulase Using Magnetic Poly(ionic liquid) Support: Improvement of the Enzyme Activity and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Hassan; Hosseini, Seyedeh Ameneh; Zohreh, Nasrin; Yaghoubi, Mahshid; Pourjavadi, Ali

    2018-01-31

    A magnetic nanocomposite was prepared by entrapment of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles into the cross-linked ionic liquid/epoxy type polymer. The resulting support was used for covalent immobilization of cellulase through the reaction with epoxy groups. The ionic surface of the support improved the adsorption of enzyme, and a large amount of enzyme (106.1 mg/g) was loaded onto the support surface. The effect of the presence of ionic monomer and covalent binding of enzyme was also investigated. The structure of support was characterized by various instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, VSM, XRD, TEM, SEM, and DLS. The activity and stability of immobilized cellulase were investigated in the prepared support. The results showed that the ionic surface and covalent binding of enzyme onto the support improved the activity, thermal stability, and reusability of cellulase compared to free cellulase.

  6. Mineralization of phenmedipham and derivates by Trichoderma viride. Immobilization of 14C residues. Effects on biological activity and germ number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinck, C.; Mayaudon, J.

    1979-01-01

    The degradation of phenmedipham and derivates by T. viride was investigated. This microorganisms is unable to cleave the aromatic ring but demethylates the three herbicides. The half-life periods of the phenylcarbamates vary from 11 to 38 days; those of their residues from 250 to 900 days. The most part of residual 14 C is found as soluble material. Adsorption varies in the following order: humin > humic acids > fulvic acids. No intact herbicide can be detected forty days after soil treatment. 14 C phenylcarbamates or 14 C residues are found by autoradiography in mycelial fragments and spores of T. viride. The period of most active degradation of herbicides is characterized by a numerical increase of germs and a fall of biological activity [fr

  7. Seeing, Believing, and Learning to Be Skeptical: Supporting Language Learning through Advertising Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee; He, Haixia; Robbgrieco, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study documents how a high school ESL teacher working with new immigrants ages 14-20 supported the development of their critical thinking and English language skills by using advertising analysis activities. The article examines the use of key critical questions for analyzing media messages and documents instructional activities designed to…

  8. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  9. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Regulations by increasing small business size standards for three of the four industries in North American... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule; correction...

  10. Poisoning Experiments Aimed at Discriminating Active and Less-Active Sites of Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydride for Alkane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Saggio, Guillaume

    2010-10-04

    Only 50% of the silica-supported tantalum hydride sites are active in the metathesis of propane. Indeed, more than 45% of the tantalum hydride can be eliminated by a selective oxygen poisoning of inactive sites with no significant decrease in the global turnover. Conversely, cyclopentane induces no such selective poisoning. Hence, the active tantalum hydride sites that show greater resistance to oxygen poisoning correspond to the νTa-H bands of higher wavenumbers, particularly that at 1860cm-1. These active tantalum hydride sites should correspond to tris- or monohydride species relatively far from silica surface oxygen atoms. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. UTX and UTY demonstrate histone demethylase-independent function in mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl B Shpargel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available UTX (KDM6A and UTY are homologous X and Y chromosome members of the Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27 demethylase gene family. UTX can demethylate H3K27; however, in vitro assays suggest that human UTY has lost enzymatic activity due to sequence divergence. We produced mouse mutations in both Utx and Uty. Homozygous Utx mutant female embryos are mid-gestational lethal with defects in neural tube, yolk sac, and cardiac development. We demonstrate that mouse UTY is devoid of in vivo demethylase activity, so hemizygous X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos should phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. However, X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos develop to term; although runted, approximately 25% survive postnatally reaching adulthood. Hemizygous X(+ Y(Uty- mutant males are viable. In contrast, compound hemizygous X(Utx- Y(Uty- males phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. Therefore, despite divergence of UTX and UTY in catalyzing H3K27 demethylation, they maintain functional redundancy during embryonic development. Our data suggest that UTX and UTY are able to regulate gene activity through demethylase independent mechanisms. We conclude that UTX H3K27 demethylation is non-essential for embryonic viability.

  12. Perception of human activities : a means to support connectedness between the elderly and their caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Kadian; Owusu, E.B.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, Lucio; Feijs, Loe; Hu, Jun; Holzinger, Andreas; Röcker, Carsten; Fred, Ana; Helfert, Markus; O'Donoghue, John; Ziefle, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This position paper describes a smart-phone based activity recognition system for improving social connectedness between caregivers and their elderly relatives. Sensing technologies can enable real-time monitoring to provide activity recognition in order to support health and safety among the

  13. A Study on Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Technical Support System and Activation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, M. H.; Park, W. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Won, B. C.; Kim, Y. H.; Goo, D. S.; Choi, H. B.

    2009-11-01

    This report includes activities related to establishment of 'BaroBaro nuclear plant technical support center', 'selection of nuclear plant applicable technology', and 'various information interchange between KAERI and nuclear power plant'. 'BaraBaro center was newly organized to support on resolving the technical difficulties in operation of nuclear power plant'. The center consists of 10 technical parts and a leading expert is assigned to each part to support more efficiently. This center is always served for 24 hour. The plant operators can register their problem to the center by a call, e-mail, or internet and they can receive the answer about what they issued from KAERI experts. To make a brochure, we selected 32 technologies which are applicable in nuclear plant without additional R and D activity. The brochure was distributed to the officer in charge of nuclear plant operations. Various meetings were held to increase interchange of experience and technology between KAERI and nuclear power plant and we discussed many different issues at that meeting

  14. eHealth technologies to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in diabetes self-management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollo ME

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Megan E Rollo,1 Elroy J Aguiar,2 Rebecca L Williams,1 Katie Wynne,3 Michelle Kriss,3 Robin Callister,4 Clare E Collins1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA; 3Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Hunter New England Health, New Lambton, NSW, Australia;\t4School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided. Keywords: diabetes self-management, eHealth, nutrition, physical activity, smartphones, wearables

  15. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  16. Hungarian national report on activities related to operator support systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorjan, F.; Lux, I.; Vegh, J.; Vegh, E.

    1993-01-01

    According to the summary report of the Co-ordinated Research Meeting on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'', 13-16 October 1992, the national reports shall cover the following topics: General summary of the national activity; description of the results in the framework of the CRP; overview of the OSS related recent national activity. Accordingly, in the first section we give an overview of the operator support systems developed in Hungary. The second section summarizes the data collected in order to comply with the Tasks 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 of the CRP. In the third section we summarize the most recent works pertaining to the development and application of OSS at nuclear power plants

  17. Social support for health-related leisure activity of the elderly and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inferences from previous research suggest that social support from friends and family is important in influencing physical activity participation in enabling the elderly to achieve better health outcomes and satisfaction with life. Within a South African context, some of the elderly are faced with the prospect of increased isolation ...

  18. Highly n-Type Titanium Oxide as an Electronically Active Support for Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, L. Robert; Hervier, Antoine; Seo, Hyungtak; Kennedy, Griffin; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2011-01-01

    -support interaction is electronic activation of surface adsorbates by charge carriers. Motivated by the goal of using electronic activation to drive nonthermal chemistry, we investigated the ability of the oxide support to mediate charge transfer. We report

  19. Active and reactive power support of MV distribution systems using battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiawei; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    shaving and voltage support service from the perspective of Distribution System Operators (DSOs). An active power support algorithm is implemented and the effects of various load profiles as well as different Photovoltaic (PV) penetration scenarios on the operation of BESS and the optimal BESS converter......Adoption of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) for provision of grid services is increasing. This paper investigates the applications of BESS for the grid upgrade deferral and voltage support of Medium Voltage (MV) distribution systems. A BESS is modelled in Matlab/Simulink to perform peak load...... size for peak load shaving are investigated. The BESS annual lifetime degradation is also estimated using a rainflow counting algorithm. A reactive power support algorithm embedded with Q-U droop control is proposed in order to reduce the voltage drop in a part of 10 kV distribution network of Nordhavn...

  20. BRAIN NETWORKS. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-06-12

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. The position of imidazopyridine and metabolic activation are pivotal factors in the antimutagenic activity of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Hussin, Warda A; Al-Faiyz, Yasair S; Ismail, Mohamed A

    2013-09-05

    The antimutagenic activity of eight novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives (I-VIII) against sodium azide (NaN3) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was evaluated using the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. At non-toxic concentrations (12.5-50 µM), imidazopyridines I, II, III, and V with a terminal imidazopyridine group were mutagenic, while derivatives VII and VIII with a central imidazopyridine group were not mutagenic. Compounds IV, VII, and VIII exerted a moderate antimutagenic activity against NaN3 under pre-exposure conditions, and a strong activity (>40%) against B[a]P in the presence of S9 under both pre- and co-exposure conditions and mostly independent on the dose. Imidazopyridines possibly inhibited the microsomal-dependent activation of B[a]P. The demethylated derivative VII was the most active antimutagen. All imidazopyridines had a low to moderate antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity of imidazopyridines was sporadic and moderate probably due to the failure of bacteria to convert imidazopyridines into active metabolites. The position of imidazopyridine was a pivotal factor in the mutagenic/antimutagenic activity. The strong antimutagenic compounds were dicationic planar compounds with a centered imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine spacer. With LD50 of 60 mg/kg in mice for both derivatives VII and VIII, it is safe to investigate the anticancer activity of these derivatives in animal models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  3. Improved hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution using cobalt catalysts supported on modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie; Yue, Xuehai [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Dai, Ping [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production from alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution via hydrolysis process over activated carbon supported cobalt catalysts is studied. Activated carbons are used in their original form and after liquid phase oxidation with HNO{sub 3}. The changes in surface functional groups of the activated carbon are detected by FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of HNO{sub 3} oxidation on the properties of the activated carbon and the resulting catalyst performance are investigated. FTIR analysis reveals that the oxidative treatment leads to the formation of various functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon. Cobalt catalysts supported on the modified activated carbon are found to exhibit higher activity and stability. (author)

  4. Social support plays a role in the attitude that people have towards taking an active role in medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabers, Anne E M; de Jong, Judith D; Groenewegen, Peter P; van Dijk, Liset

    2016-09-21

    There is a growing emphasis towards including patients in medical decision-making. However, not all patients are actively involved in such decisions. Research has so far focused mainly on the influence of patient characteristics on preferences for active involvement. However, it can be argued that a patient's social context has to be taken into account as well, because social norms and resources affect behaviour. This study aims to examine the role of social resources, in the form of the availability of informational and emotional support, on the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. A questionnaire was sent to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel (response 70 %; n = 1300) in June 2013. A regression model was then used to estimate the relation between medical and lay informational support and emotional support and the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. Availability of emotional support is positively related to the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making only in people with a low level of education, not in persons with a middle and high level of education. The latter have a more positive attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making, irrespective of the level of emotional support available. People with better access to medical informational support have a more positive attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making; but no significant association was found for lay informational support. This study shows that social resources are associated with the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. Strategies aimed at increasing patient involvement have to address this.

  5. Support and Size Effects of Activated Hydrotalcites for Precombustion CO2 Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, N.N.A.H.; Bitter, J.H.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mg−Al hydrotalcites (HTs) with lateral platelet sizes ranging from 40 nm to 2 μm were prepared hydrothermally. Small HT platelets (20 nm) were obtained by deposition onto a carbon nanofiber (CNF) support. The CO2 sorption capacity at 523 K for the activated unsupported HT was low (0.1

  6. Support of Activities of the NAS in Relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douple, Evan B.

    2006-01-01

    The National Academies (NA) provides support for the activities related to the long-term follow up of the health of the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki being conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) laboratories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The NA serves as scientific and administrative liaison between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and RERF, and performs tasks in the areas of scientific oversight, information/public interface, fiscal oversight, and personnel management. The project includes recruitment and support of approximately 10 NA employees who work at RERF in Japan. Specific activities are performed consistent with the cooperative agreement's Statement of Work between DOE and NA and consistent with an Annual Work Plan developed by DOE and NA

  7. Characteristics of motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs is generally used for ultra-high-speed machining. Iron loss of radial AMB is very great owing to high rotation speed, and it will cause severe thermal deformation. The problem is particularly serious on the occasion of large power application, such as all electric aero-engine. In this study, a prototype motorized spindle supported by five degree-of-freedom AMBs is developed. Homopolar and heteropolar AMBs are independently adopted as radial bearings. The influences of the two types of radial AMBs on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle are comparatively investigated by theoretical analysis, test modal analysis and actual operation of the system. The iron loss of the two types of radial AMBs is analyzed by finite element software and verified through run-down experiments of the system. The results show that the structures of AMB have less influence on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle. However, the homopolar structure can effectively reduce the iron loss of the radial AMB and it is useful for improving the overall performance of the motorized spindle.

  8. Effect of support on the catalytic activity of manganese oxide catalyts for toluene combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozan, Gulin Selda

    2012-06-30

    The aim of this work was to study combustion of toluene (1000ppm) over MnO(2) modified with different supports. α-Al(2)O(3) and γ-Al(2)O(3) obtained from Boehmite, γ-Al(2)O(3) (commercial), SiO(2), TiO(2) and ZrO(2) were used as commercial support materials. In view of potential interest of this process, the influence of support material on the catalytic performance was discussed. The deposition of 9.5MnO(2) was performed by impregnation over support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed reduction and oxidation (TPR/TPO) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed-bed flow reactor. 9.5MnO(2)/α-Al(2)O(3)(B) (synthesized from Boehmite) catalyst exhibits the highest catalytic activity, over which the toluene conversion was up to 90% at a temperature of 289°C. Considering all the characterization and reaction data reported in this study, it was concluded that the manganese state and oxygen species played an important role in the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Let's talk about it: dialogues with multimedia databases Database support for human activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.P.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Blanken, Henk

    We describe two scenarios of user tasks in which access to multimedia data plays a significant role. Because current multimedia databases cannot support these tasks, we introduce three new requirements on multimedia databases: multimedia objects should be active objects, querying is an interaction

  10. Supporting smartphone-based behavioral activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Rohani, Darius A.; Tuxen, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral activation has shown to be a simple yet efective therapy for depressive patients. The method relies on extensive collection of patient reported activity data on an hourly basis. We are currently in the process of designing a smartphone-based behavioral activation system for depressive...... disorders. However, it is an open question to what degree patients would use this approach given the high demand for user input. In order to investigate this question, we collected paper-based behavioral activation forms from 5 patients, covering in total 18 weeks, 115 days, and 1,614 hours of self......-reported activity data. In this paper we present an analysis of this data and discuss the implications for the design of a smartphone-based system for behavioral activation....

  11. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  12. CEDEX's supporting activities through the Cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Marrero, I. del

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the activities CEDEX has being doing since 2012, Giving Technical support to the cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation (Fondo de Cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento-FCAS), of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Throughout the document, the different activities carried out by the CEDEX up to now, are briefly described. They have mainly consisted in giving technical support during the formulation, review and monitoring of the tasks derived from the FCAS programs, capacity buildings, and preparing technical guides and recommendations concerning different subjects. The FCAS programs concerns water planning water supply and sanitation planning as well as water supply and sanitation (sewerage and wastewater treatment plants) construction projects. The paper ends up presenting a set of conclusions and lessons learned extracted from this period working for the FCAS, as well as the main courses of action projected for the future collaboration works. (Author)

  13. The effect of flexible acrylic resin on masticatory muscle activity in implant-supported mandibular overdentures: a controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Background It is not yet clear from the current literature to what extent masticatory muscle activity is affected by the use of flexible acrylic resin in the construction of implant-supported mandibular overdentures. Objective To compare masticatory muscle activity between patients who were provided with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from flexible acrylic resin and those who were provided with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from heat-cured conven...

  14. IAEA Activities supporting education and training at research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peld, N.D.; Ridikas, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Through the provision of neutrons for experiments and their historical association with universities, research reactors have played a prominent role in nuclear education and training of students, scientists and radiation workers. Today education and training remains the foremost application of research reactors, involving close to 160 facilities out of 246 operational. As part of its mandate to facilitate and expand the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, the IAEA administers a number of activities intended to promote nuclear research and enable access to nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, one of which is the support of various education and training measures involving research reactors. In the last 5 years, education and training has formed one pillar for the creation of research reactor coalitions and networks to pool their resources and offer joint programmes, such as the on-going Group Fellowship Training Course. Conducted mainly through the Eastern European Research Reactor Initiative, this programme is a periodic sic week course for young scientists and engineers on nuclear techniques and administration jointly conducted at several member research reactor institutes. Organization of similar courses is under consideration in Latin America and the Asia-Pacific Region, also with support from the IAEA. Additionally, four research reactor institutes have begun offering practical education courses through virtual reactor experiments and operation known as the Internet Reactor Laboratory. Through little more than an internet connection and projection screens, university science departments can be connected regionally or bilaterally with the control room o a research reactor for various training activities. Finally, two publications are being prepared, namely Hands-On Training Courses Using Research Reactors and Accelerators, and Compendium on Education and training Based on Research Reactors. These

  15. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity . The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  16. The IAEA activities supporting implementation of best practice in uranium production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slezak, J.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Since the International Atomic Energy Agency's foundation in 1957, the Agency has had an increasing interest in uranium production cycle (UPC) developments. Recent activities cover tasks on uranium geology & deposits, exploration, mining & processing including environmental issues. The two projects titles are (1) Updating uranium resources, supply and demand and nuclear fuel cycle databases and (2) Supporting good practices in the UPC in particular for new countries. Based o the recent experience, one of the new activities is focused at human resources development to improve application of best practice called Uranium Production Cycle Network (UPNet). (author)

  17. Calcium Oxide Supported on Monoclinic Zirconia as a Highly Active Solid Base Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, A.M.; Haasterecht, van T.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxide supported on ZrO2 is a highly active catalyst for base-catalyzed reactions such as aldol-type reactions and transesterification reactions. The role of key parameters during preparation, that is, impregnation versus precipitation, heat treatment, and metal oxide loading on the basicity

  18. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific...

  19. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children's Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.

  20. Influences of species of metals and supports on the hydrogenation activity of carbon-supported metal sulfides catalysts; Tanso biryushi tanji shokubai no suisoka kassei ni taisuru kassei kinzoku oyobi tantaishu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanishi, K.; Hasuo, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Nagamatsu, T.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    In order to design catalysts suitable for primary liquefaction stage and secondary upgrading stage respectively in the multi-stage liquefaction process, various carbon-supported catalysts were prepared. Catalytic activities of them were investigated for the hydrogenation of 1-methylnaphthalene, to discuss the influences of metals and carbon species on the catalytic activity. Various water soluble and oil soluble Mo and Ni salts were used for NiMo supported catalysts. Among various carbon supports, Ketjen Black (KB) was effective for preparing the catalyst showing the most excellent hydrogenation activity. The KB and Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) showing high hydrogenation activity were fine particles having high specific surface area more than 1000 m{sup 2}/g and primary particle diameter around 30 nm. This was inferred to contribute to the high dispersion support of active metals. Since such fine particles of carbon exhibited hydrophobic surface, they were suitable for preparing catalysts from the methanol-soluble metals. Although Ni and Mo added iron-based catalysts provided lower aromatic hydrogenation activity, they exhibited liquefaction activity competing with the NiMo/KB catalyst. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. The Zemstvo’s Activities to Guide the Primary School Teacher Resources Formation and Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the activities of the zemstvo in the Volga-Ural region of the second half of XIX – early XX century aimed at forming and supporting primary school teacher resources. The study of the complex process required the use of a large number of information sources, including extractions from the regional documentation archives, reference books and periodicals to carry out a systemic and panoramic analysis of the zemstvo’s activities in terms of teacher resources formation and support. The focus of the study was on the issues of the zemstvo’s participation in the development of teacher training and scholarship support for students, advanced training of teachers through courses, congresses, teachers’ self-organization, as well as financial and material situation of zemsky teachers and the activities carried out by the teachers’ mutual aid societies. The authors make a conclusion that, despite the complicated conditions, the zemstvo was able to create a network of schools and provide them with teachers, including women teachers. To achieve this, the zemstvo had set up their own educational institutions as well as funded the state-run institutions or issued scholarships to future teachers. The zemstvo tried to make up for the apparent insufficiency of qualified teachers by starting a system of professional retraining and advanced training through specially organized short-term and long-term courses and congresses for teachers, as well as by providing more books for teachers’ libraries. The zemstvo tried to do their best to improve the financial and material position of zemsky teachers that was aggravated by complicated working conditions. Despite particular counterproductive activities of the state, the zemstvo was able to create a certain stratum of zemsky teachers that consisted of qualified teachers with professional education, who had been taught primary education methodology and enjoyed respect in the

  2. Hypoxia, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and TET-Mediated Epigenetic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Han Kao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumor hypoxia is a pathophysiologic outcome of disrupted microcirculation with inadequate supply of oxygen, leading to enhanced proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Epigenetic changes induced by hypoxia are well documented, and they lead to tumor progression. Recent advances show that DNA demethylation mediated by the Ten-eleven translocation (TET proteins induces major epigenetic changes and controls key steps of cancer development. TET enzymes serve as 5mC (5-methylcytosine-specific dioxygenases and cause DNA demethylation. Hypoxia activates the expression of TET1, which also serves as a co-activator of HIF-1α transcriptional regulation to modulate HIF-1α downstream target genes and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition. As HIF is a negative prognostic factor for tumor progression, hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs may provide a favorable therapeutic approach to lessen hypoxia-induced malignancy.

  3. Reliability of a Novel Social Activity Questionnaire: Perceived Social Support and Verbal Interaction in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Koscik, Rebecca L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Peppard, Paul E; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D

    2018-02-01

    Social activity is associated with healthy aging and preserved cognition. Such activity includes a confluence of social support and verbal interaction, each influencing cognition through rarely parsed, mechanistically distinct pathways. We created a novel verbal interaction measure for the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) and assessed reliability of resultant data, a first step toward mechanism-driven examination of social activity as a modifiable predictor of cognitive health. Two WRAP subsamples completed a test-retest study to determine 8-week stability ( n = 107) and 2-year stability ( n = 136) of verbal interaction, and 2-year stability of perceived social support. Reliability was determined using quadratic-weighted kappa, percent agreement, or correlation coefficients. Reliability was fair to almost perfect. The association between social support and interaction quantity decreased with age. Social activity data demonstrate moderate to excellent temporal stability. Moreover, in older individuals, social support and verbal interaction represent two distinct dimensions of social activity.

  4. Correlates of Social Support and Its Association with Physical Activity among Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Monique; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Rice, Lindsay N.; Roth, Sarah E.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Cole, Brian L.; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Prelip, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: A substantial proportion of adolescents, particularly girls and minority youth, fail to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. Social support contributes to adolescent PA, but studies examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results and rarely focus on diverse, urban populations. Aims: This study examines the…

  5. The effects of backward adjustable thoracic support in wheelchair on spinal curvature and back muscle activation for elderly people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ting Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting.Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9 were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (-0.32±4.80° when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27° and lumbar support (-8.97±3.31° sitting postures (P<0.001, and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (-23.38±6.50° when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°, normal (0.44±7.47°, and lumbar support (-16.76±4.77° sitting postures (P<0.05. It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain.

  6. The role of CYP2D6 in primary and secondary oxidative metabolism of dextromethorphan: in vitro studies using human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, N L; Somogyi, A A; Bochner, F; Mikus, G

    1994-01-01

    1. The enzyme kinetics of dextromethorphan O-demethylation in liver microsomes from three extensive metabolisers (EM) with respect to CYP2D6 indicated high (Km1 2.2-9.4 microM) and low (Km2 55.5-307.3 microM) affinity sites whereas microsomes from two poor metabolisers (PM) indicated a single site (Km 560 and 157 microM). Similar differences were shown for 3-methoxymorphinan O-demethylation to 3-hydroxymorphinan (Km 6.9-9.6 microM in EM subjects; Km 307 and 213 microM in PM subjects). 2. Dextromethorphan O-demethylation was inhibited competitively by quinidine (Ki 0.1 microM), rac-perhexiline (Ki 0.4 microM), dextropropoxyphene (Ki 6 microM), rac-methadone (Ki 8 microM), and 3-methoxymorphinan (Ki 15 microM). These compounds were also potent inhibitors of 3-methoxymorphinan O-demethylation with IC50 values ranging from 0.02-12 microM. Anti-LKM1 serum inhibited both dextromethorphan and 3-methoxymorphinan O-demethylations in a titre-dependent manner. 3. The Michaelis-Menten constant for dextromethorphan N-demethylation to 3-methoxymorphinan (Km 632-977 microM) and dextrorphan N-demethylation to 3-hydroxymorphinan (Km 1571-4286 microM) did not differ between EM and PM microsomes. These N-demethylation reactions were not inhibited by quinidine and rac-methadone or LKM1 antibodies. 4. Dextromethorphan and 3-methoxymorphinan are metabolised by the same P450 isoform, CYP2D6, whereas the N-demethylation reactions are not carried out by CYP2D6. PMID:7826826

  7. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  8. LSQuiz: A Collaborative Classroom Response System to Support Active Learning through Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceffo, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    The constructivist theory indicates that knowledge is not something finished and complete. However, the individuals must construct it through the interaction with the physical and social environment. The Active Learning is a methodology designed to support the constructivism through the involvement of students in their learning process, allowing…

  9. Engineering analysis activities in support of susquehanna unit 1 startup testing and cycle 1 operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.D.; Kukielka, C.A.; Olson, L.M.; Refling, J.G.; Roscioli, A.J.; Somma, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering analysis group is responsible for all nuclear plant systems analysis and reactor analysis activities, excluding fuel management analysis, at Pennsylvania Power and Light Company. These activities include making pretest and posttest predictions of startup tests; analyzing unplanned or unexpected transient events; providing technical training to plant personnel; assisting in the development of emergency drill scenarios; providing engineering evaluations to support design and technical specification changes, and evaluating, assessing, and resolving a number of license conditions. Many of these activities have required the direct use of RETRAN models. Two RETRAN analyses that were completed to support plant operations - a pretest analysis of the turbine trip startup test, and a posttest analysis of the loss of startup transformer event - are investigated. For each case, RETRAN results are compared with available plant data and comparisons are drawn on the acceptability of the performance of the plant systems

  10. MobiGroup: Enabling Lifecycle Support to Social Activity Organization and Suggestion with Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Liming; Zhou, Xingshe; Ma, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This paper presents a group-aware mobile crowd sensing system called MobiGroup, which supports group activity organization in real-world settings. Acknowledging the complexity and diversity of group activities, this paper introduces a formal concept model to characterize group activities and classifies them into four organizational stages. We t...

  11. Active in-database processing to support ambient assisted living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Wagner O; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-08-12

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  12. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  13. Highly n-Type Titanium Oxide as an Electronically Active Support for Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, L. Robert

    2011-08-18

    The role of the oxide-metal interface in determining the activity and selectivity of chemical reactions catalyzed by metal particles on an oxide support is an important topic in science and industry. A proposed mechanism for this strong metal-support interaction is electronic activation of surface adsorbates by charge carriers. Motivated by the goal of using electronic activation to drive nonthermal chemistry, we investigated the ability of the oxide support to mediate charge transfer. We report an approximately 2-fold increase in the turnover rate of catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum nanoparticles supported on stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) when the TiO2 is made highly n-type by fluorine (F) doping. However, for nonstoichiometric titanium oxide (TiOX<2) the effect of F on the turnover rate is negligible. Studies of the titanium oxide electronic structure show that the energy of free electrons in the oxide determines the rate of reaction. These results suggest that highly n-type TiO2 electronically activates adsorbed oxygen (O) by electron spillover to form an active O- intermediate. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Peer Support and Adolescents' Physical Activity: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun; Dai, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to contrast the mediating magnitude of self-efficacy and enjoyment connecting peer support and adolescents' physical activity (PA). Participants were 9th-12th grade students ( N  = 409; 56.5% boys) who were randomly chosen from six public schools located in Fuzhou city in southeast China. The bootstrapping method in structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of peer support on adolescents' PA. Peer support did not directly impact PA. Rather, peer support indirectly influenced PA through either self-efficacy or enjoyment, with self-efficacy demonstrating a stronger mediating effect. Additionally, we found a significant serial mediating effect with enjoyment, and self-efficacy sequentially mediated the relationship between peer support and PA. The findings highlight the role of self-efficacy and enjoyment as mediators connecting peer support and PA. Self-efficacy seems to be more important, as it demonstrated a significantly greater mediating effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Screening and identification of metabolites of two kinds of main active ingredients and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in rat after lavage Farfarae Flos extract by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoye; Liao, Man; Diao, Xinpeng; Sun, Yupeng; Zhang, Lantong

    2018-02-01

    Farfarae Flos, the dried flower buds of Tussilago farfara L., is usually used to treat coughs, bronchitic and asthmatic conditions as an important traditional Chinese medicine. Tussilagone and methl butyric acid tussilagin ester are seen as representatives of two kinds of active substances. In addition, the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, mainly senkirkine and senecionine, present in the herb can be hepatoxic. In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was successfully applied to identify the metabolites of tussilagone, methl butyric acid tussilagin ester, senkirkine and senecionine. A total of 35, 37, 18 and nine metabolites of tussilagone, methl butyric acid tussilagin ester, senkirkine and senecionine in rats were tentatively identified. Hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction and demethylation were the major metabolic reactions for tussilagone and methl butyric acid tussilagin ester. The main biotransformation routes of senkirkine and senecionine were identified as demethylation, N-methylation, oxidation and reduction. This study is the first reported analysis and characterization of the metabolites and the proposed metabolic pathways might provide further understanding of the metabolic fate of the chemical constituents after oral administration of Farfarae Flos extract in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Does Spousal Support Can Increase the Women’s Physical Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Rezaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square. Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.0001. Also, the Body Mass Index in the intervention group was significantly decreased compared to before the intervention and control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Spouses could encourage women to perform physical activities. It is recommended that the health care system should implement educational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise.

  17. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  18. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of English schoolchildren. Methods The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people, a cohort of 2064 9–10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23 versus 11 (SD 15 minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002, especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p Conclusion The study has developed a new methodology for the identification of environments in which bouts of continuous physical activity are undertaken. The results highlight the importance of the provision of urban gardens and greenspaces, and the maintenance of safe street environments as places for children to be active.

  19. Opportunities and supporting activities to promote preventive maintenance of NPPs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, A.; Shinkawa, T.; Sakurada, M.

    1998-01-01

    With increase of the number of NPPs and operation history, enhancement of the safety regulation is becoming important for such long-operated NPPs. Centering on the comprehensive preventive maintenance, periodic safety reviews by utilities and its review and evaluation by MITI are in progress. The first reviews have not revealed essential and critical indications to be newly implemented. This means that the most of activities to secure reliability and safety have been done steadily. The present paper addresses the mechanism of on-going preventive maintenance and its essential elements: opportunities to identify issues and problems, and supporting activities to promote decision-makings on feedback, upgrading and modernization of NPPs. (author)

  20. Regulatory support activities of JNES by thermal-hydraulic and safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    Current status and some related topics on regulatory support activities of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) by thermal-hydraulic and safety analyses are reported. The safety of nuclear facilities is secured primarily by plant owners and operators. However, the regulatory body NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) has conducted a strict regulation to confirm the adequacy of the site condition as well as the basic and detailed design. The JNES has been conducting independent analyses from applicants (audit analyses, etc.) by direction of NISA and supporting its review. In addition to the audit analysis, thermal-hydraulic and safety analyses are used in such areas as analytical evaluation for investigation of causes of accidents and troubles, level 2 PSA for risk informed regulation, etc. Recent activities of audit analyses are for the application of Tsuruga 3 and 4 (APWR), the spent fuel storage facility for the establishment, and the LMFBR Monju for the core change. For the trouble event evaluation, the criticality accident analysis of Sika1 was carried out and the evaluation of effectiveness of accident management (AM) measure for Tomari 3 (PWR) and Monju was performed. The analytical codes for these evaluations are continuously revised by reflecting the state-of-art technical information and validated using the information provided by the data from JAEA, OECD project, etc. (author)

  1. Regulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animals

    KAUST Repository

    He, Xinjian; Chen, Taiping; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2011-01-01

    ) pathway. In animals, multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed, including a deaminase- and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathway. New information concerning the effects of various histone modifications on the establishment

  2. A possible highly active supported Ni dimer catalyst for O{sub 2} dissociation: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shan [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Zhang, Yanxing, E-mail: 2016025@htu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Zhang, Xilin; Mao, Jianjun [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Henan Province (China)

    2017-04-30

    Graphical abstract: The minimum energy paths (MEPs) for the dissociation process of O{sub 2} on the surfaces of bare YSZ (111) and Ni{sub n}/YSZ (111) (n = 1, 2 and 3). - Highlights: • The catalytic activity of supported metal catalysts is closely related to the size of metal particles. • The dissociation of O{sub 2} on the YSZ (111) surface is largely enhanced by the supported Ni cluster. • The supported Ni dimer is predicted to be the smallest Ni cluster needed for efficient O{sub 2} dissociation. • The results would provide an important reference to improve the activity and efficiency of the Ni/YSZ(111) nanocomposite catalysts in cost-effective materials. - Abstract: The adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on the supported small nickel clusters with one-, two-, three-Ni atoms on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) surfaces, as well as those on the bare YSZ(111) and Ni(111) surfaces are comparatively studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. It is found that the dissociation of O{sub 2} on the YSZ(111) surface is largely enhanced by the supported Ni dimer, which is predicted to be the smallest Ni cluster needed for efficient O{sub 2} dissociation. The results would provide an important reference to improve the activity and efficiency of the Ni/YSZ(111) nanocomposite catalysts in cost-effective materials.

  3. Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pró-Saúde cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pró-Saúde study. LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS. To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group. Results After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p Conclusions All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the practice of LTPA.

  4. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  5. State-Level Farmers Market Activities: A Review of CDC-Funded State Public Health Actions That Support Farmers Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahin, Sahra A; Wright, Demia S; Pejavara, Anu; Kim, Sonia A

    Introducing farmers markets to underserved areas, or supporting existing farmers markets, can increase access and availability of fruits and vegetables and encourage healthy eating. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) has provided guidance and funding to state health departments (SHDs) to support the implementation of interventions, including activities around farmers markets, to address healthy eating, and improve the access to and availability of fruits and vegetables at state and community levels. For this project, we identified state-level farmers market activities completed with CDC's DNPAO funding from 2003 to 2013. State-level was defined as actions taken by the state health department that influence or support farmers market work across the state. We completed an analysis of SHD farmers market activities of 3 DNPAO cooperative agreements from 2003 to 2013: State Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Program; and Communities Putting Prevention to Work. To identify state farmers market activities, data sources for each cooperative agreement were searched using the key words "farm," "market," "produce market," and "produce stand." State data with at least one state-level farmers market action present were then coded for the presence of itemized activities. Across all cooperative agreements, the most common activities identified through analysis included the following: working on existing markets and nutrition assistance benefit programs, supporting community action, and providing training and technical assistance. Common partners were nutrition assistance benefit program offices and state or regional Department of Agriculture or agricultural extension offices. Common farmers market practices and evidence-based activities, such as nutrition assistance benefits programs and land

  6. The Effect of Instructional Method on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skill Performance: A Comparison Between Instructor-Led Basic Life Support and Computer-Based Basic Life Support With Voice-Activated Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sands, Cathy; Brahn, Pamela; Graves, Kristal

    2015-01-01

    Validating participants' ability to correctly perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills during basic life support courses can be a challenge for nursing professional development specialists. This study compares two methods of basic life support training, instructor-led and computer-based learning with voice-activated manikins, to identify if one method is more effective for performance of CPR skills. The findings suggest that a computer-based learning course with voice-activated manikins is a more effective method of training for improved CPR performance.

  7. Homework through a network: designing technologies to support learning activities within the home and between home and school

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Katie C.

    2009-01-01

    Government policy and academic research both talk about transforming learning through networked technologies – sharing newly available information about the learning context with new partners to support lifelong learning activities, and giving learners increased power and autonomy. This thesis examines how such learning opportunities might be supported. In order to ground these learning opportunities in current educational activity it studies homework, which is an example of a learning activi...

  8. Regulatory activities and their research and development support in the CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klik, F.; Kriz, Z.

    1977-01-01

    dealing with general standardization, radiation and environmental protection, labour safety etc. Finally the first part of the paper describes the structure of the corresponding Department of CSAEC which is dealing with its regulatory role. The activity of this Department is assisted by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety and supported mainly by the research and development activities of Nuclear Research Institute of CSAEC and also by other research institutes and universities. This supporting activity is the subject of the second part of the paper. Some results obtained in the development of the methods for reliability and safety assessment, methods and computer codes for the evaluation of abnormal operational occurrences and accidental conditions, computer codes for the assessment of the environmental impact of nuclear power plant etc. and their application in the licensing process are presented. The paper gives also some informatio English

  9. Yucca Mountain Project: A summary of technical support activities, January 1987--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This report is a summary of the technical support activities of Mifflin ampersand Associates, Inc., during the 18-month period beginning 01 January 1987 and ending on 30 June 1988. It covers the following topics: Vadose zone drilling site selection, permits and quality assurance (QA) procedures; climate change; geochemistry, mineralogy; disturbed zone; hydrogeology; and review of technical documents. The report is organized by generally discussing each topic from the following perspectives: issue(s), objective(s) of activity, finding(s), interpretation of finding(s), additional work needed, recommended program, and existing program

  10. The activities execution in education support in the nuclear power field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Maruoka, Hisamu.

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of machinery structure, system composition and plant behavior, and operational technique related to them are necessary for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. From these matters, the education and training against the technicians being engaged in the nuclear power are important themes, which have conventionally been tackled with positively. On the other hand, hardwares of PC (personal computer) and multimedia technologies have been rapidly advanced, which make it possible to do effective learning by using such technologies. Our company is making activities in education support using the nuclear power plant technology which has been built up as a company of TOSHIBA group. In this paper, we introduce Multimedia CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) and PLEVIS (Plant Engineering Visual and Interactive Simulator) which have been developed by us, and their application to education support systems in the nuclear power plant, and make some description on the future prospects. (author)

  11. Active Control of Thermostatic Loads for Economic and Technical Support to Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Active control of electric water heaters (EWHs) is presented in this paper as a means of exploiting demand flexibility for supporting low-voltage (LV) distribution grids. A single-node model of an EWH is implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory using a thermal energy balancing equation and three...... decentralized control schemes are designed to ensure consumer comfort, economic benefit to the consumer, and technical support to LV grids. First, a price-based control that adaptively adjusts an allowable energy band per electricity price is implemented to ensure economic benefit. Next, an adaptive update...... of the energy band is done based on feeder loading to respect thermal grid constraints. Finally, a voltage-based control is implemented to provide real-time voltage support to the LV grids. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the presented method to realize both economic and technical advantages...

  12. Biomechanics-based active control of bedding support properties and its influence on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, D; Verhaert, V; Willemen, T; Wuyts, J; Verbraecken, J; Exadaktylos, V; Haex, B; Vander Sloten, J

    2012-01-01

    Proper body support plays an import role in the recuperation of our body during sleep. Therefore, this study uses an automatically adapting bedding system that optimises spinal alignment throughout the night by altering the stiffness of eight comfort zones. The aim is to investigate the influence of such a dynamic sleep environment on objective and subjective sleep parameters. The bedding system contains 165 sensors that measure mattress indentation. It also includes eight actuators that control the comfort zones. Based on the measured mattress indentation, body movements and posture changes are detected. Control of spinal alignment is established by fitting personalized human models in the measured indentation. A total of 11 normal sleepers participated in this study. Sleep experiments were performed in a sleep laboratory where subjects slept three nights: a first night for adaptation, a reference night and an active support night (in counterbalanced order). Polysomnographic measurements were recorded during the nights, combined with questionnaires aiming at assessing subjective information. Subjective information on sleep quality, daytime quality and perceived number of awakenings shows significant improvements during the active support (ACS) night. Objective results showed a trend towards increased slow wave sleep. On the other hand, it was noticed that % N1-sleep was significantly increased during ACS night, while % N2-sleep was significantly decreased. No prolonged N1 periods were found during or immediately after steering.

  13. MECHANISMS OF THE COMPLEX FORMATION BY d-METALS ON POROUS SUPPORTS AND THE CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE FORMED COMPLEXES IN REDOX REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of supported complexes of d metals in redox reactions with participation of gaseous toxicants, PH3, CO, O3, and SO2, depends on their composition. Owing to the variety of physicochemical and structural-adsorption properties of available supports, their influence on complex formation processes, the composition and catalytic activity of metal complexes anchored on them varies over a wide range. The metal complex formation on sup-ports with weak ion-exchanging properties is similar to that in aqueous solutions. In this case, the support role mainly adds up to the ability to reduce the activity of water adsorbed on them. The interaction between a metal complex and a support surface occurs through adsorbed water molecules. Such supports can also affect complex formation processes owing to protolytic reactions on account of acidic properties of sorbents used as supports. The catalytic activity of metal complexes supported on polyphase natural sorbents considerably depends on their phase relationship. In the case of supports with the nonsimple structure and pronounced ion-exchanging properties, for instance, zeolites and laminar silicates, it is necessary to take into account the variety of places where metal ions can be located. Such location places determine distinctions in the coordination environment of the metal ions and the strength of their bonding with surface adsorption sites and, therefore, the catalytic activity of surface complexes formed by theses metal ions. Because of the energy surface inhomogeneity, it is important to determine a relationship between the strength of a metal complex bonding with a support surface and its catalytic activity. For example, bimetallic complexes are catalytically active in the reactions of oxidation of the above gaseous toxicants. In particular, in the case of carbon monoxide oxidation, the most catalytic activity is shown by palladium-copper complexes in which copper(II is strongly

  14. Empirical study of ill-supported activities in variation risk identification and assessment in early stage product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Kristian; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ebro, Martin

    2017-01-01

    medical device company by interviewing six key employees that work in the variation risk identification and assessment process. It is found that there are several ill-supported activities, and that the project teams rely heavily on tolerance experts’ assistance and experience in order to identify...... and assess the variation risk. Ill-supported activities are found to be: Balancing hardness of requirements and the screening; communicating mechanism understanding; predicting user input and internal component movement; documenting and communicating tolerance analysis; implementing robustness in the early...

  15. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2 at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2 in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2 (p = 0.003. Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives.

  16. The Relationship Between Sexual Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Effects of Gender and Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Janna A; Huebner, David M

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable debate over whether adolescent sexual activity is maladaptive and associated with worse mental health outcomes versus a positive developmental milestone that is associated with better mental health outcomes. Although these perspectives are often pitted against one another, the current study employed a more integrative perspective: adolescent sexual activity may be maladaptive in certain contexts, but healthy in other contexts. We investigated whether family support and gender moderated the relation between sexual activity and mental health outcomes in a diverse sample of 519 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth. Specifically, we examined whether youth who engaged in more sexual activity would have fewer depressive symptoms in the context of a more supportive family environment, but more depressive symptoms in the context of a less supportive family environment and whether this effect was stronger for sexual minority girls. Consistent with the sexual health perspective, we found that among girls with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had lower levels of depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, we found that among boys with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had higher levels of depressive symptoms. In contrast, girls and boys with less family support showed no relation between sexual activity and depressive symptoms. Overall, results suggest that context is critical when determining whether same-sex sexual contact among LGB youth should be considered maladaptive or beneficial.

  17. Mechanical evidence that flamingos can support their body on one leg with little active muscular force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Hui; Ting, Lena H

    2017-05-01

    Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) often stand and sleep on one leg for long periods, but it is unknown how much active muscle contractile force they use for the mechanical demands of standing on one leg: body weight support and maintaining balance. First, we demonstrated that flamingo cadavers could passively support body weight on one leg without any muscle activity while adopting a stable, unchanging, joint posture resembling that seen in live flamingos. By contrast, the cadaveric flamingo could not be stably held in a two-legged pose, suggesting a greater necessity for active muscle force to stabilize two-legged versus one-legged postures. Our results suggest that flamingos engage a passively engaged gravitational stay apparatus (proximally located) for weight support during one-legged standing. Second, we discovered that live flamingos standing on one leg have markedly reduced body sway during quiescent versus alert behaviours, with the point of force application directly under the distal joint, reducing the need for muscular joint torque. Taken together, our results highlight the possibility that flamingos stand for long durations on one leg without exacting high muscular forces and, thus, with little energetic expenditure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. 76 FR 31683 - Agency Information Collection (Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage) Activity under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0115] Agency Information Collection (Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage) Activity under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Marriage, VA Form 21-4171. OMB Control Number: 2900-0115. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved...

  19. Yucca Mountain Project: A summary of technical support activities, January 1987--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The activities in the Geochemistry and Mineralogy section of our program support three independent and interrelated subject areas which are: Geochemical retardation/transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment, site-specific mineralogy and geophysical studies to establish the hydrogeology of the vadose zone, and past climate and related genesis of authigenic desert carbonates and silicates

  20. MTHFR methylation moderates the impact of smoking on DNA methylation at AHRR for African American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Ong, Mei Ling; Brody, Gene H; Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Smoking has been shown to have a large, reliable, and rapid effect on demethylation of AHRR, particularly at cg05575921, suggesting that methylation may be used as an index of cigarette consumption. Because the availability of methyl donors may also influence the degree of demethylation in response to smoking, factors that affect the activity of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key regulator of methyl group availability, may be of interest. In the current investigation, we examined the extent to which individual differences in methylation of MTHFR moderated the association between smoking and demethylation at cg05575921 as well as at other loci on AHRR associated with a main effect of smoking. Using a discovery sample (AIM, N = 293), and a confirmatory sample (SHAPE, N = 368) of young adult African Americans, degree of methylation of loci in the first exon of MTHFR was associated with amplification of the association between smoking and AHRR demethylation at cg05575921. However, genetic variation at a commonly studied MTHFR variant, C677T, did not influence cg05575921 methylation. The significant interaction between MTHFR methylation and the smoking-induced response at cg05575921 suggests a role for individual differences in methyl cycle regulation in understanding the effects of cigarette consumption on genome wide DNA methylation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enzyme induction in neonates after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rating, D.; Jaeger-Roman, E.; Nau, H.; Kuhnz, W.; Helge, H.

    1983-01-01

    The 13 C-AP breath test is shown to be a convenient, noninvasive method to monitor velocity and capacity of P450-dependent AP N-demethylation in infancy and childhood. According to 13 C-AP breath tests, neonates have a very low capacity to eliminate 13 CO 2 , which is only 15 to 21% of the activity in adults. During the first year of life AP N-demethylation increases to reach its maximum at about 2 years; afterwards a slight decrease occurs. In 25 neonates exposed prenatally to different antiepileptic drugs 13 C-AP breath test was efficiently used to prove that cytochrome AP N-demethylation was considerably stimulated. After primidone/phenobarbitone, especially in combination with phenytoin, 13 C elimination reaches and even surpasses the range for older children. Valproate exposure during fetal life is not consistently followed by a significant increase in AP N-demethylation. The enzyme induction demonstrated by 13 C-AP breath test was often accompanied by accelerated metabolic clearance and shortened half-life times of transplacentally acquired antiepileptic drugs. There was good agreement between 13 C-AP breath tests and pharmacokinetic data for primidone/phenobarbitone but not for phenytoin. In contrast, in the case of phenytoin exposure during pregnancy the pharmacokinetic parameters and the 13 C breath test data will transport very different informations about enzyme induction in these neonates

  2. [Proposal of a conceptual method of supportive care for co-active patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidli, Yamine; Piette, Danielle; Casini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    There is a broad consensus on the importance for health professionals to support co-active patients. However, in practice, very few "patient care partnership" approaches have been developed. We hypothesized that the lack of investment in supporting patient care partnerships is due to the lack of interest in the skills needed by caregivers to provide such support. This paper intends to address thisgap. The patient care partnership method is studied, adapted and developed from existing models. It complements, harmonizes and integrates various schools of thought arising from the need to place the patient at the center of care and life in general. The patient care partnership method includes 7 stages during which the professional accompanies the patient through the process of care. The methodological approach for training professionals is designed to ensure that professionals experience the change as well as its difficulties of the change they expect from the patient in the care relationship. This method now needs to be validated by the experience of other professionals in order define the limits of application and to allow further development.

  3. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. de Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  4. Proposal of SQL Database to Support the Activities in Small IT Company

    OpenAIRE

    Říha, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zaměřuje na návrh SQL databáze pro podporu činností malé IT firmy a její vytvoření v programu MS SQL Server. This thesis focuses on the design of SQL databases to support the activities of a small IT company and its creation in MS SQL Server. B

  5. VEGETATIVE SUPPORT OF CARDIAC ACTIVITY IN ATHLETES WITH DIFFERENT ANTHROPOMETRIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Kudrya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – to study the features of the functioning of the cardiovascular system and regulatory mechanisms of the young athletes of different heights.Materials and methods. The study included athletes aged 15-16 (32 girls and 36 boys engaged in competitive sports. To study the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system using mathematical methods and spectral analysis of heart rate variability. To characterize the vegetative support the circulatory apparatus, all subjects performed an active orthostatic test.Results. The features of vegetative maintenance of heart activity in tall athletes: stress regulatory mechanisms observed resting in tall men and decrease the functionality of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system during active orthostatic test in athletes of different sex. Athletes tall urgent adaptation of the cardiovascular system to changing external conditions associated with activation of suprasegmental divisions of the autonomic nervous system and the excessive activation of the sympathetic division, which is an inefficient way of adaptation.Conclusion. Thus, high growth is evident not only in the increase of total size of the body of athletes, but also in the peculiarities of morphofunctional state involved, indicating the need of individual rationing of loads for tall players. The revealed morphofunctional characteristics of the organism tall athletes allow us to recommend an increase in the proportion of aerobic exercise to enhance the adaptive capacities of the organism. 

  6. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  7. Hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal activation during retrieval-mediated learning supports novel inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Dominick, April L; Preston, Alison R

    2012-07-12

    Memory enables flexible use of past experience to inform new behaviors. Although leading theories hypothesize that this fundamental flexibility results from the formation of integrated memory networks relating multiple experiences, the neural mechanisms that support memory integration are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that retrieval-mediated learning, whereby prior event details are reinstated during encoding of related experiences, supports participants' ability to infer relationships between distinct events that share content. Furthermore, we show that activation changes in a functionally coupled hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal cortical circuit track the formation of integrated memories and successful inferential memory performance. These findings characterize the respective roles of these regions in retrieval-mediated learning processes that support relational memory network formation and inferential memory in the human brain. More broadly, these data reveal fundamental mechanisms through which memory representations are constructed into prospectively useful formats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Activity of carbon supported Pt3Ru2 nanocatalyst in CO oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KSENIJA DJ. POPOVIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic activity of Pt3Ru2/C nanocatalyst toward the electro-oxidation of bulk CO was examined in acid and alkaline solution at ambient temperature using the thin-film, rotating disk electrode (RDE method. The catalyst was characterized by XRD analysis. The XRD pattern revealed that the Pt3Ru2/C catalyst consisted of two structures, i.e., Pt–Ru-fcc and Ru-hcp (a solid solution of Ru in Pt and a small amount of Ru or a solid solution of Pt in Ru. Electrocatalytic activities were measured by applying potentiodynamic and steady state techniques. The oxidation of CO on the Pt3Ru2/C catalyst was influenced by pH and anions from the supporting electrolytes. The Pt3Ru2/C was more active in alkaline than in acid solution, as well as in perchloric than in sulfuric acid. Comparison of CO oxidation on Pt3Ru2/C and Pt/C revealed that the Pt3Ru2/C was more active than Pt/C in acid solution, while both catalysts had a similar activity in alkaline solution.

  9. Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Characteristics of Social Network Support for Exercise Among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Haughton, Jessica; Shakya, Holly

    2018-02-01

    To examine the association between characteristics of social support for exercise and moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Latinas. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in 16 churches located in San Diego County. Participants (N = 436) were Latinas between 18 and 65 years old who did not self-report >150 minutes or did not exceed 250 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per week measured by accelerometer. Latinas listed up to 6 individuals who had provided support for exercise within the past 6 months, including their gender, relationship with the respondent, types of support provided, and respondent's satisfaction with support. Self-reported LTPA was dichotomized (none vs any). We generated dyads between Latinas who named ≥1 supporter (n = 323) and each supporter they named (n = 569 dyads). Logistic regression analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations to adjust for multiple observations per participant. Having an exercise partner (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-4.62), help with household duties (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.35-3.38), being "very much" satisfied with support (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.26-4.30), and naming >2 supporters (OR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.06-6.25) was positively associated with LTPA. Findings suggest specific aspects of support for exercise that should be targeted in future interventions to promote LTPA.

  10. The use of caffeine as a biological marker of human exposure and response to polycyclic and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.E

    1987-06-05

    The use of caffeine as a non-invasive biological marker of PAH-inducible P-450 enzyme induction in humans is assessed through caffeine biotransformation studies using human liver preparations, and through caffeine ingestion studies of human populations exposed to diverse polycyclic and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HAHs). In vitro studies indicate that all N-demethylations from caffeine and its primary metabolites are mediated in large part by PAH-inducible P-450 in human liver microsomes, whereas corresponding methylxanthine hydroxylations are in large and variable part mediated by other enzymes that are apparently not inducible by PAHs. It is proposed that a caffeine metabolite ratio (CMR), based on paraxanthine 7-demethylation products relative to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product measured in the urine after caffeine ingestion, reflects PAH-inducible P-450 activity. In vivo studies demonstrate that mean CMR values are significantly higher in smokers and lower in oral contraceptive users, and that CMR values correlate highly with systemic caffeine clearance. Furthermore, mean CMR and CBT (caffeine breath test) values determined for six populations of varying age, and PAH and HAH exposure demonstrated a significant correlation. The participation of xanthine oxidase in the metabolism of caffeine, and proposes the use of the urinary ratio of 1-methyluric acid to 1-methylxanthine as an index of xanthine oxidase activity is also demonstrated. The data suggest that xanthine oxidase activity is not altered by gender, age, oral contraceptive use, PAH and HAH exposure. The data support the use of the CMR as an indicator of PAH-inducible P-450 activity, and show that xanthine oxidase is resistant to induction by PAHs and HAHs. 300 refs., 41 figs., 35 tabs.

  11. Reliability and validity of a physical activity social support assessment scale in adolescents - ASAFA Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the reliability and validity of a scale used to measure social support for physical activity in adolescents - ASAFA Scale. Methods: This study included 2,755 adolescents (57.6% girls, 16.5 ± 1.2 years of age, from Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Initially, the scale was consisted of 12 items (6 for social support from parents and 6 from friends. The reliability of the scale was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α, by the Composite Reliability (CR, and by the model with two factors and factorial invariance by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA adequacy. Results: The CFA results confirmed that the social support scale contained two factors (factor 1: social support from parents; factor 2: social support from friends with five items each (one item was excluded from each scale, all with high factor loadings (> 0.65 and acceptable adjustment indexes (RMR = 0.050; RMSEA = 0.063; 90%CI: 0.060 - 0.067; AGFI = 0.903; GFI = 0.940; CFI = 0.934, NNFI = 0.932. The internal consistency was satisfactory (parents: α ≥ 0.77 and CR ≥ 0.83; friends: α ≥ 0.87 and CR ≥ 0.91. The scale's factorial invariance was confirmed (p > 0.05; Δχ2 and ΔCFI ≤ 0.01 across all subgroups analyzed (gender, age, economic class. The construct validity was evidenced by the significant association (p < 0.05 between the adolescents physical activity level and the social support score of parents (rho = 0.29 and friends (rho = 0.39. Conclusions: The scale showed reliability, factorial invariance and satisfactory validity, so it can be used in studies with adolescents.

  12. HDS, HDN and HDA activities of nickel-molybdenum catalysts supported on alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya. Avenida Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No.152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada (CICATA-Altamira, IPN) Km 14.5 Carretera Tampico-puerto Industrial 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Ramirez-Meneses, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada (CICATA-Altamira, IPN) Km 14.5 Carretera Tampico-puerto Industrial 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Diaz-Garcia, L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya. Avenida Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No.152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Arce-Estrada, E.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Metalurgia y Materiales. A.P. 75-876, 07300 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    In this work, NiMo-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared by using different alumina precursors. The supports were impregnated by means of the spray at incipient wetness technique in both basic and acid media. Both the supports and fresh catalysts were characterized by the adsorption-desorption isotherms, Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR), Thermal Pyridine Adsorption-Desorption (TPD) and X-Ray Diffraction analyses (XRD). After sulfidation, the NiMoS metallic particles were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The initial analyses were performed in a trickle-bed reactor by using a real feedstock (Mexican heavy gas oil) and performing hydrotreating reactions (HDS, HDN and HDA) at three different temperatures: 613, 633 and 653 K; and 54 kg cm{sup -} {sup 2}. The catalytic activities are discussed in relation to the physicochemical properties of the NiMo catalysts, alumina phase and pH of the impregnating solution. The catalytic results show an increase in the conversion profiles with temperature. The sulfur conversion was increased from 89 to 99.25%, 91-99%, 90.8-97%, 83-95% and 78-96% when the crystal size of the support varied from 3 to 20 nm, respectively. The nitrogen and aromatic conversions were also increased in the range of 23-45 wt.%. It was found that the {gamma} phase reached a higher catalytic performance than the {eta} phase. The NiMo catalysts synthesized in a basic medium showed a better catalytic performance than that obtained with those prepared in acid solutions. The significance of the kinetic data to compare the catalysts is discussed. The maximum value of the catalytic activity was reached with the catalysts with the smallest particle sizes. (author)

  13. Self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: can coping styles and social support have a buffering role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeghian, Zeinab; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Parisa; Parvin, Mahmoud; Gillani, Kobra Roohi; Hassanabadi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes self-care is a key element in the overall management of diabetes. However, the importance of psychosocial factors for successful disease management is under investigated. This study aimed at exploring the role of coping styles and social support in the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes. One hundred adults (60% female, aged 40-70 years) with type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires assessing self-care activities, coping styles and social support. In addition, a blood test was performed to obtain glycated haemoglobin levels. Result showed significant relationships of glycated haemoglobin with self-care activities, coping styles and social support. Regression analysis indicated that social support had a moderating role on the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin, such that, at very high levels of social support the association, between Self-Care and HbA1c disappears. Findings indicate that health care providers, within the context of the Iranian social and cultural situation, should pay more attention to psychosocial factors when addressing self-care activities. Delineation of the role of coping styles and social support might be useful for identifying patients in need of particular counselling and support for improving self-care activities and HbA1c levels.

  14. PEPFAR support of alcohol-HIV prevention activities in Namibia and Botswana: a framework for investigation, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenshaw, M; Deluca, N; Adams, R; Parry, C; Fritz, K; Du Preez, V; Voetsch, K; Lekone, P; Seth, P; Bachanas, P; Grillo, M; Kresina, T F; Pick, B; Ryan, C; Bock, N

    2016-01-01

    The association between harmful use of alcohol and HIV infection is well documented. To address this dual epidemic, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) developed and implemented a multi-pronged approach primarily in Namibia and Botswana. We present the approach and preliminary results of the public health investigative and programmatic activities designed, initiated and supported by PEPFAR to combat the harmful use of alcohol and its association as a driver of HIV morbidity and mortality from 2008 to 2013. PEPFAR supported comprehensive alcohol programming using a matrix model approach that combined the socio-ecological framework and the Alcohol Misuse Prevention and Intervention Continuum. This structure enabled seven component objectives: (1) to quantify harmful use of alcohol through rapid assessments; (2) to develop and evaluate alcohol-based interventions; (3) to promote screening programs and alcohol abuse resource services; (4) to support stakeholder networks; (5) to support policy interventions and (6) structural interventions; and (7) to institutionalize universal prevention messages. Targeted PEPFAR support for alcohol activities resulted in several projects to address harmful alcohol use and HIV. Components are graphically conceptualized within the matrix model, demonstrating the intersections between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities and individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors. Key initiative successes included leveraging alcohol harm prevention activities that enabled projects to be piloted in healthcare settings, schools, communities, and alcohol outlets. Primary challenges included the complexity of multi-sectorial programming, varying degrees of political will, and difficulties monitoring outcomes over the short duration of the program.

  15. High activity of cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene towards ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lu; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Bin-Wei; Cai, Yuan-Rong; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-07-21

    Cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene (PtxRhy/GN) with different atomic ratio of Pt and Rh were directly synthesized for the first time using the modified polyol method with Br(-) for the shape-directing agents. The process didn't use surface-capping agents such as PVP that easily occupy the active sites of electrocatalysts and are difficult to remove. Graphene is the key factor for cubic shape besides Br(-) and keeping catalysts high-dispersed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of these electrocatalysts. The results showed that they were composed of homogeneous cubic PtRh alloys. Traditional electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, were used to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of PtxRhy/GN towards ethanol electrooxidation. It can be seen that PtxRhy/GN with all atomic ratios exhibited high catalytic activity, and the most active one has a composition with Pt : Rh = 9 : 1 atomic ratio. Electrochemical in situ FTIR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the cleavage of C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acidic solutions, the results illustrated that Rh in an alloy can promote the split of C-C bond in ethanol, and the alloy catalyst with atomic ratio Pt : Rh = 1 : 1 showed obviously better performance for the C-C bond breaking in ethanol and higher selectivity for the enhanced activity of ethanol complete oxidation to CO2 than alloys with other ratios of Pt and Rh. The investigation indicates that high activity of PtxRhy/GN electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation is due to the specific shape of alloys and the synergistic effect of two metal elements as well as graphene support.

  16. Everyday physical activity in ambulatory heart transplant candidates: the role of expected health benefits, social support, and potential barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Weidner, Gerdi; Grassmann, Mariel; Spaderna, Heike

    2014-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is recommended for stable patients with advanced heart failure (HF). We evaluated expected health benefits of PA and social support as facilitators of PA, and physical symptom distress and psychological distress (depression, anxiety) as barriers to PA. Additionally, we investigated if facilitators of PA are of particular importance for patients who report barriers. We analyzed data assessed at time of waitlisting in 231 ambulatory patients (53.4 ± 10.3 years, 18 % women) who were enrolled in the multisite Waiting for a New Heart Study in 1 Austrian and 16 German hospitals. Self-reported everyday PA scores (number of activities, duration of activities) was regressed on demographic characteristics and indicators of disease severity (ejection fraction, peak oxygen consumption), facilitators (expected health benefits of PA, perceived emotional support, perceived support for PA), and barriers to PA (physical symptom distress, psychological distress). Interaction terms of facilitators with barriers were also examined. PA was positively associated with higher peak oxygen consumption, validating self-reported PA. Regarding facilitators, expected health benefits of PA were independently associated with higher PA (p values barriers, depression tended to be associated with fewer activities (p = 0.068). However, in the presence of barriers (depression, physical symptoms), feeling supported for being physically active was positively associated with PA (p values < 0.05). Interventions to improve PA may benefit from strengthening positive expectations of health outcomes associated with everyday PA and fostering PA-specific social support for those distressed by HF symptoms or depression.

  17. Determination of total and organic mercury and evaluation of methylation and demethylation processes in sediments of the Rio Grande Reservoir, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson Leocadio

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is a very important water supply for this region. In the present study bottom waters and sediment samples collected in this reservoir, in four sampling points, in four campaigns, from September 2008 to January 2010, were analyzed. Firstly total Hg was determined in sediment and bottom waters by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). Following, the analytical methodology for organic Hg was adapted from literature, where the organomercurial compounds were extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium and subsequent destruction of organic compounds by bromine chloride. The validation of this methodology, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by means of IAEA 405 and BCR-CRM 580 reference materials analyses. For methylation and demethylation processes evaluation in this environment, the following physical and chemical parameters were assessed, in situ: pH, water temperature, redox potential (EH), transparency and depth. For the sediment samples, granulometry, total organic carbon, sulphate-reducing bacteria, total N and P, besides the metals Co, Cu, Fe and Mn were evaluated. The selection of these parameters was related to the factors that influence the behavior of MeHg in the sediments and its transition zone. Total Hg ranging from 1.0 to 71.0 mg kg'- 1 and organic mercury from -1 in sediments and methylation rates from 0.06 to 1.4% were found, along the reservoir. Different methylation conditions along the reservoir and its influences were also discussed. As supplementary study the concentration of some metals and trace elements in the sediments by neutron activation analysis technique was determined. As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm and Yb were determined. The enrichment factor in relation to earth crust values using Sc as normalizer element reached values higher than 2.0 for the elements As, Br

  18. Modification of Ammonia Decomposition Activity of Ruthenium Nanoparticles by N-Doping of CNT Supports

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Tamsin; Zhan, G; Wu, Kejun; Torrente Murciano, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The use of ammonia as a hydrogen vector has the potential to unlock the hydrogen economy. In this context, this paper presents novel insights into improving the ammonia decomposition activity of ruthenium nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (CNT) by nitrogen doping. Our results can be applied to develop more active systems capable of delivering hydrogen on demand, with a view to move towards the low temperature target of less than 150 °C. Herein we demonstrate that nitrogen doping of ...

  19. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  20. Synthesis and trypanocidal activity of 7, 2'-dioxygenated isoflavones and oxypropanolamine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Terezinha de J.; Silva, Luiz G. Fonseca e; Souza Filho, Jose D. de; Chiari, Egler; Oliveira, Alaide B. de

    2005-01-01

    7, 2'-Dihydroxyisoflavone was shown to be active against the bloodstream trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. Amphiphilic derivatives of this isoflavone were synthesized aiming to obtain hydrosoluble compounds of potential use as prophylactic agents to be added to blood for transfusion. This isoflavone was obtained by demethylation of 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone that was synthesized via the intermediate deoxybenzoin. Its reaction with epichlorohydrin, followed by aminolysis with diethylamine, afforded the 7-oxypropanolamine which on treatment with methyl iodide gave the corresponding ammonium salt. The 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone was inactive in the in vitro assays, the 7-oxypropanolamine was more active than 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone while the ammonium salt has not eliminated the parasite from the blood besides causing total lysis of the erythrocytes. The simple synthetic procedures described in the present paper can be used to provide gram quantities of 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone and its 7-oxypropanolamine derivative that should be further investigated in in vivo murine models as potential chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of Chagas' disease. (author)

  1. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshid M. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic activity of nano-Au-catalyst(s for the complete propane oxidation was investigated. The results showed that the nature of both Au precursor and support strongly influences catalytic activity of the Au-catalyst(s for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation. Among the studied Au-catalysts, the AuHAuCl4-Ce catalyst is found to be the most active catalyst.

  2. Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pró-Saúde cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aldair J; Lopes, Claudia S; de Leon, Antônio C Ponce; Rostila, Mikael; Griep, Rosane H; Werneck, Guilherme L; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2011-07-26

    Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pró-Saúde study). LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group) and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS). To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group) and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group). After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p time spent on LTPA (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.2-3.9). In the maintenance group, material support was associated with group LTPA (OR = 1.80; 95% CI; 1.1-3.1) and the positive social interaction dimension was associated with time spent on LTPA (OR = 1.65; 95% CI; 1.1-2.7). All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the

  3. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalimov, V.; Monahov, Y.; Tamre, M.; Rõbak, D.; Sivitski, A.; Aryassov, G.; Penkov, I.

    2018-02-01

    The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC). The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  4. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalimov V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC. The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  5. Size control and catalytic activity of bio-supported palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søbjerg, Lina Sveidal; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels; Finster, Kai; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2011-07-01

    The development of nanoparticles has greatly improved the catalytic properties of metals due to the higher surface to volume ratio of smaller particles. The production of nanoparticles is most commonly based on abiotic processes, but in the search for alternative protocols, bacterial cells have been identified as excellent scaffolds of nanoparticle nucleation, and bacteria have been successfully employed to recover and regenerate platinum group metals from industrial waste. We report on the formation of bio-supported palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of two bacterial species with distinctly different surfaces: the gram positive Staphylococcus sciuri and the gram negative Cupriavidus necator. We investigated how the type of bacterium and the amount of biomass affected the size and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles formed. By increasing the biomass:Pd ratio, we could produce bio-supported Pd nanoparticles smaller than 10nm in diameter, whereas lower biomass:Pd ratios resulted in particles ranging from few to hundreds of nm. The bio-supported Pd nanoparticle catalytic properties were investigated towards the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction and hydrogenation reactions. Surprisingly, the smallest nanoparticles obtained at the highest biomass:Pd ratio showed no reactivity towards the test reactions. The lack of reactivity appears to be caused by thiol groups, which poison the catalyst by binding strongly to Pd. Different treatments intended to liberate particles from the biomass, such as burning or rinsing in acetone, did not re-establish their catalytic activity. Sulphur-free biomaterials should therefore be explored as more suitable scaffolds for Pd(0) nanoparticle formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep Spindles in the Right Hemisphere Support Awareness of Regularities and Reflect Pre-Sleep Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  7. TiO2 activation using acid-treated vermiculite as a support: Characteristics and photoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ling; Dai Bin

    2012-01-01

    Vermiculite was treated by sulfuric or nitric acid aqueous solutions with different concentration. These modified materials as the promising supports, were used to immobilize TiO 2 . TiO 2 was prepared by the precursor, which was obtained by substituting partly isopropyl alcohol with Cl - in titanium chloride {[Ti(IV)(OR) n Cl m ] (n = 2-3, m = 4 - n)}. The TiO 2 /vermiculite composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the nitrogen absorption. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by removal of methylene blue (MB). The pure anatase type crystalline phase was well deposited on the supports. The concentrations of acid for treatment had a significant influence on pore sizes and surface area of vermiculite. The treatment process changed microstructure of vermiculite, modified its characteristics, and farther improved the catalytic activity and absorption capacity of TiO 2 /vermiculite composites. The treatment effect of nitric acid was superior to that of sulfuric acid.

  8. Development and implementation of a local government survey to measure community supports for healthy eating and active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latetia V Moore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to make healthy choices is influenced by where one lives, works, shops, and plays. Locally enacted policies and standards can influence these surroundings but little is known about the prevalence of such policies and standards that support healthier behaviors. In this paper, we describe the development of a survey questionnaire designed to capture local level policy supports for healthy eating and active living and findings and lessons learned from a 2012 pilot in two states, Minnesota and California, including respondent burden, survey sampling and administration methods, and survey item feasibility issues. A 38-item, web-based, self-administered survey and sampling frame were developed to assess the prevalence of 22 types of healthy eating and active living policies in a representative sample of local governments in the two states. The majority of respondents indicated the survey required minimal effort to complete with half taking <20 min to complete the survey. A non-response follow-up plan including emails and phone calls was required to achieve a 68% response rate (versus a 37% response rate for email only reminders. Local governments with larger residential populations reported having healthy eating and active living policies and standards more often than smaller governments. Policies that support active living were more common than those that support healthy eating and varied within the two states. The methods we developed are a feasible data collection tool for estimating the prevalence of municipal healthy eating and active living policies and standards at the state and national level.

  9. Enhanced magnetic separation and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped titania photocatalyst supported on strontium ferrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Azrina; Yong, Kok Soon; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Pichiah, Saravanan

    2012-01-15

    An enhanced ferromagnetic property, visible light active TiO(2) photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by supporting strontium ferrite (SrFe(12)O(19)) onto TiO(2) doped with nitrogen (N) and compared with N-doped TiO(2). The synthesized catalysts were further characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), BET surface area analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and visible light spectroscopy analysis for their respective properties. The XRD and EDS revealed the structural and inorganic composition of N-TiO(2) supported on SrFe(12)O(19). The supported N-TiO(2) exhibited a strong ferromagnetic property with tremendous stability against magnetic property losses. It also resulted in reduced band gap (2.8 eV) and better visible light absorption between 400 and 800 nm compared to N-doped TiO(2). The photocatalytic activity was investigated with a recalcitrant phenolic compound namely 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a model pollutant under direct bright and diffuse sunlight exposure. A complete degradation of 2,4-DCP was achieved with an initial concentration of 50mg/L for both photocatalysts in 180 min and 270 min respectively under bright sunlight. Similarly the diffuse sunlight study resulted in complete degradation for supported N-TiO(2) and >85% degradation N-TiO(2), respectively. Finally the supported photocatalyst was separated under permanent magnetic field with a mass recovery ≈ 98% for further reuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth-supporting activity for Legionella pneumophila in tap water cultures and implication of hartmannellid amoebae as growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Butler, L J; Cook, M K; Verma, S M; Paul, M A; Fields, B S; Keleti, G; Sykora, J L; Yee, R B

    1988-11-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, free-living amoebae, and ciliated protozoa may support growth of Legionella pneumophila. Studies were done with two tap water cultures (WS1 and WS2) containing L. pneumophila and associated microbiota to characterize growth-supporting activity and assess the relative importance of the microbiota in supporting multiplication of L. pneumophila. The water cultures were incubated in the dark at 35 degrees C. The growth-supporting factor(s) was separated from each culture by filtration through 1-micron-pore-size membrane filters. The retentate was then suspended in sterile tap water. Multiplication of L. pneumophila occurred when both the retentate suspension and the filtrate from either culture were inoculated into sterile tap water. L. pneumophila did not multiply in tap water inoculated with only the filtrate, even though filtration did not reduce the concentration of L. pneumophila or heterotrophic bacteria in either culture. Growth-supporting activity of the retentate suspension from WS1 was inactivated at 60 degrees C but unaffected at 0, 25, and 45 degrees C after 30-min incubations. Filtration experiments indicated that the growth-supporting factor(s) in WS1 was 2 to 5 micron in diameter. Ciliated protozoa were not detected in either culture. Hartmannellid amoebae were conclusively demonstrated in WS2 but not in WS1. L. pneumophila multiplied in tap water inoculated with the amoebae (10(3)/ml) and the 1-micron filtrate of WS2. No multiplication occurred in tap water inoculated with the filtrate only. Growth-supporting activity for L. pneumophila may be present in plumbing systems; hartmannellid amoebae appear to be important determinants of multiplication of L. pneumophila in some tap water cultures.

  11. Decision Support and Shared Decision Making About Active Surveillance Versus Active Treatment Among Men Diagnosed with Low-Risk Prostate Cancer: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ronald E; Leader, Amy E; Censits, Jean Hoffman; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Keith, Scott W; Petrich, Anett M; Quinn, Anna M; Den, Robert B; Hurwitz, Mark D; Lallas, Costas D; Hegarty, Sarah E; Dicker, Adam P; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M; Giri, Veda N; Ayaz, Hasan; Gomella, Leonard G

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of a decision support intervention (DSI) and shared decision making (SDM) on knowledge, perceptions about treatment, and treatment choice among men diagnosed with localized low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). At a multidisciplinary clinic visit, 30 consenting men with localized low-risk PCa completed a baseline survey, had a nurse-mediated online DS session to clarify preference for active surveillance (AS) or active treatment (AT), and met with clinicians for SDM. Participants also completed a follow-up survey at 30 days. We assessed change in treatment knowledge, decisional conflict, and perceptions and identified predictors of AS. At follow-up, participants exhibited increased knowledge (p decision. Perceived support of the decision facilitated patient choice of AS.

  12. Beyond advertising : large displays for supporting people’s needs and activities in public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, Wouter; Slakhorst, Wout; Veenstra, Mettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how displays can be used to support human needs and activities in public spaces rather than be employed for commercial purposes only. Based on our analysis of screen usage around the world, eight different categories of usage are described and motivated. For the purpose of

  13. Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bronikowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2, 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4. An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities.

  14. Investigations into the post-natal development of demethylating enzyme systems by determination of carbon dioxide 14 in the air exhaled by mice after applications of carbon 14 dimethyl amino-antipyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.

    1982-01-01

    Albino mice were subcutaneously injected with carbon 14 dimethyl aminopyrines, the methyl group of which can be metabolised in the organism into carbon dioxide 14. The following results were obtained: In the carbon dioxide 14 exhalation of neonate, young and adult animals after administration of carbon 14 aminopyrine, distinct differences were noted. The maximum of elimination via the lungs occurs after 20-30 minutes in grown-up mice, in neonates or young animals distinctly later (60-90 min). The carbon dioxide 14 exhalation was also measured after additional subcutaneous application of methrotrexate. In mice aged 8 and 10 days a distinct decrease in carbon dioxide 14 exhalation was found. By contrast, a rise in carbon dioxide 14 exhaled was found in mice aged 2 days. The orientating experiments with folic acid and carbon 14 dimethyl aminopyrine show that leucovorin leads to a distinct increase in carbon dioxide 14 exhalation during the first 30 minutes. As a cause of the different degrees of stimulation respectively inhibition of demethylation, different biochemical ways of formaldehyde formation are pointed out. One of these probably includes the folate-dependent reaction. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Hydrous titanium oxide-supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Stohl, F.V.; Richardson, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Catalysts were prepared on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) supports by ion exchange of an active metal for Na + ions incorporated in the HTO support during preparation by reaction with the parent Ti alkoxide. Strong active metal-HTO interactions as a result of the ion exchange reaction can require significantly different conditions for activation as compared to catalysts prepared by more widely used incipient wetness methods. The latter catalysts typically involve conversion or while the HTO catalysts require the alteration of electrostatic bonds between the metal and support with subsequent alteration of the support itself. In this paper, the authors discuss the activation, via sulfidation or reduction, of catalysts consisting of Co, Mo, or Ni-Mo dispersed on HTO supports by ion exchange. Correlations between the activation process and the hydrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation, and hydrodesulfurization activities of the catalysts are presented

  16. Catalytic performance of activated carbon supported cobalt catalyst for CO2 reforming of CH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Su, Aiting; Du, Yannian; Qu, Jiangwen; Xu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Syngas production by CO2 reforming of CH4 in a fixed bed reactor was investigated over a series of activated carbon (AC) supported Co catalysts as a function of Co loading (between 15 and 30wt.%) and calcination temperature (Tc=300, 400 or 500°C). The catalytic performance was assessed through CH4 and CO2 conversions and long-term stability. XRD and SEM were used to characterize the catalysts. It was found that the stability of Co/AC catalysts was strongly dependent on the Co loading and calcination temperature. For the loadings (25wt.% for Tc=300°C), stable activities have been achieved. The loading of excess Co (>wt.% 25) causes negative effects not only on the performance of the catalysts but also on the support surface properties. In addition, the experiment showed that ultrasound can enhance and promote dispersion of the active metal on the carrier, thus improving the catalytic performance of the catalyst. The catalyst activity can be long-term stably maintained, and no obvious deactivation has been observed in the first 2700min. After analyzing the characteristics, a reaction mechanism for CO2 reforming of CH4 over Co/AC catalyst was proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 34 CFR 403.150 - What activities does the Secretary support under the Consumer and Homemaking Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the...; (ix) Conserving limited resources; (x) Understanding the impact of new technology on life and work... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does the Secretary support under the...

  18. Emplotment, Embodiment, Engagement: Narrative Technology in Support of Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a keynote lecture delivered at the International Association of Physical Education in Higher Education 2011 Conference, University of Limerick, on the sub theme: "Technologies in Support of Physical Education, Sport, and Physical Activity." The paper outlines and illustrates a framework: narrative technology, which can be…

  19. Student-Centered Modules to Support Active Learning in Hydrology: Development Experiences and Users' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Habib, E. H.; Deshotel, M.; Merck, M. F.; Lall, U.; Farnham, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to undergraduate hydrology and water resource education are textbook based, adopt unit processes and rely on idealized examples of specific applications, rather than examining the contextual relations in the processes and the dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. The overarching goal of this project is to address the needed paradigm shift in undergraduate education of engineering hydrology and water resources education to reflect parallel advances in hydrologic research and technology, mainly in the areas of new observational settings, data and modeling resources and web-based technologies. This study presents efforts to develop a set of learning modules that are case-based, data and simulation driven and delivered via a web user interface. The modules are based on real-world case studies from three regional hydrologic settings: Coastal Louisiana, Utah Rocky Mountains and Florida Everglades. These three systems provide unique learning opportunities on topics such as: regional-scale budget analysis, hydrologic effects of human and natural changes, flashflood protection, climate-hydrology teleconnections and water resource management scenarios. The technical design and contents of the modules aim to support students' ability for transforming their learning outcomes and skills to hydrologic systems other than those used by the specific activity. To promote active learning, the modules take students through a set of highly engaging learning activities that are based on analysis of hydrologic data and model simulations. The modules include user support in the form of feedback and self-assessment mechanisms that are integrated within the online modules. Module effectiveness is assessed through an improvement-focused evaluation model using a mixed-method research approach guiding collection and analysis of evaluation data. Both qualitative and quantitative data are collected through student learning data, product analysis, and staff interviews

  20. On the influence and role of alkali metals on supported and unsupported activated hydrotalcites for CO2 sorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, N.N.A.H.; Bitter, J.H.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    To increase the CO2 capture capacity of hydrotalcites, the influence of alkali (K, Na) metal carbonate loading of activated supported and unsupported hydrotalcites (HTact) on their CO2 capture properties was investigated. The alkali-loaded supported hydrotalcites adsorb at 523 K, depending on the

  1. An activity theory perspective of how scenario-based simulations support learning: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The dominant frameworks for describing how simulations support learning emphasize increasing access to structured practice and the provision of feedback which are commonly associated with skills-based simulations. By contrast, studies examining student participants' experiences during scenario-based simulations suggest that learning may also occur through participation. However, studies directly examining student participation during scenario-based simulations are limited. This study examined the types of activities student participants engaged in during scenario-based simulations and then analyzed their patterns of activity to consider how participation may support learning. Drawing from Engeström's first-, second-, and third-generation activity systems analysis, an in-depth descriptive analysis was conducted. The study drew from multiple qualitative methods, namely narrative, video, and activity systems analysis, to examine student participants' activities and interaction patterns across four video-recorded simulations depicting common motivations for using scenario-based simulations (e.g., communication, critical patient management). The activity systems analysis revealed that student participants' activities encompassed three clinically relevant categories, including (a) use of physical clinical tools and artifacts, (b) social interactions, and (c) performance of structured interventions. Role assignment influenced participants' activities and the complexity of their engagement. Importantly, participants made sense of the clinical situation presented in the scenario by reflexively linking these three activities together. Specifically, student participants performed structured interventions, relying upon the use of physical tools, clinical artifacts, and social interactions together with interactions between students, standardized patients, and other simulated participants to achieve their goals. When multiple student participants were present, such as in a

  2. Concept of an immersive assistance system with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eursch, Andreas A.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis on an immersive assistance system concept with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments covers the following topics: analysis of the situation: production and use of radioactive materials, problem analysis of the work in the production facilities, necessity of manual activities, automation, prediction in hot cells; status of research and development; assistance system concept, immersive camera system; augmented reality support in hot cells; economic evaluation and generalization.

  3. Synthesis and trypanocidal activity of 7, 2'-dioxygenated isoflavones and oxypropanolamine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Terezinha de J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: tjfaria@uel.br; Silva, Luiz G. Fonseca e; Souza Filho, Jose D. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Chiari, Egler [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Oliveira, Alaide B. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos

    2005-11-15

    '-Dihydroxyisoflavone was shown to be active against the bloodstream trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. Amphiphilic derivatives of this isoflavone were synthesized aiming to obtain hydrosoluble compounds of potential use as prophylactic agents to be added to blood for transfusion. This isoflavone was obtained by demethylation of 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone that was synthesized via the intermediate deoxybenzoin. Its reaction with epichlorohydrin, followed by aminolysis with diethylamine, afforded the 7-oxypropanolamine which on treatment with methyl iodide gave the corresponding ammonium salt. The 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone was inactive in the in vitro assays, the 7-oxypropanolamine was more active than 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone while the ammonium salt has not eliminated the parasite from the blood besides causing total lysis of the erythrocytes. The simple synthetic procedures described in the present paper can be used to provide gram quantities of 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone and its 7-oxypropanolamine derivative that should be further investigated in in vivo murine models as potential chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of Chagas' disease. (author)

  4. Synthesis and comparison of the activities of a catalyst supported on two silicate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Eduardo G., E-mail: eduardogv5007@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp-Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56-Centro, Caixa Postal 31, CEP 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Silva, Rafael O.; Carmo, Devaney R. do [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp-Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56-Centro, Caixa Postal 31, CEP 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Junior, Enes F. [Departamento de Fitotecnia, Tecnologia de Alimentos e Sócio Economia, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Dias Filho, Newton L., E-mail: nldias@unesc.net [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp-Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. Brasil, 56-Centro, Caixa Postal 31, CEP 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Av. Universitaria, 1105, CP 3167, CEP 88806-000, Criciúma, SC (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    The focus of this work is inspecting the synthesis and comparison of the activities of a catalyst supported on two silicate materials in the epoxidation of 1-octene. The two new catalyst materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, solid-state {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and analysis of nitrogen. Lastly, the two new catalysts, Silsesq-TCA-[(W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}){sub 3}] and Silica-TCA-[W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}] were tested as catalysts in reactions of epoxidation of 1-octene and compared with their analogue not supported [W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}(thiocarbamide)]. After an extensive literature search, we verified that our work is the first that has reported the immobilization process of [W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}] on silsesquioxane and silica gel functionalized with propyl-thiocarbamide groups and their applications as catalysts of reactions of catalytic epoxidation of 1-octene. - Highlights: • Immobilization of [W(CO){sub 3}I{sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}] complex onto mesoporous supports. • Synthesis and characterization of new mesoporous catalysts. • The new catalysts exhibit great catalytic activity in the epoxidation of 1-octene. • Recyclable catalysts with excellent reusability and stability.

  5. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  6. Immersion Calorimetry for the Characterization of PD Catalysts Supported on Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons obtained from coconut peel were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide. Superficial characteristics of these carbons were determined through N2 and CO2 isotherms and functional groups were characterized by TPD. Finally, the microcalorimetry technique was used in order to obtain the immersion enthalpies in diverse liquids and established the relation between them and the results obtained by the other characterization techniques. The results suggested that the immersion calorimetry allow establishing the difference between the supports and the catalysts.

  7. Isotopically labeled sulfur compounds and synthetic selenium and tellurium analogues to study sulfur metabolism in marine bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson L. Brock

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the marine Roseobacter clade can degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP via competing pathways releasing either methanethiol (MeSH or dimethyl sulfide (DMS. Deuterium-labeled [2H6]DMSP and the synthetic DMSP analogue dimethyltelluriopropionate (DMTeP were used in feeding experiments with the Roseobacter clade members Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395 and Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, and their volatile metabolites were analyzed by closed-loop stripping and solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC–MS. Feeding experiments with [2H6]DMSP resulted in the incorporation of a deuterium label into MeSH and DMS. Knockout of relevant genes from the known DMSP demethylation pathway to MeSH showed in both species a residual production of [2H3]MeSH, suggesting that a second demethylation pathway is active. The role of DMSP degradation pathways for MeSH and DMS formation was further investigated by using the synthetic analogue DMTeP as a probe in feeding experiments with the wild-type strain and knockout mutants. Feeding of DMTeP to the R. pomeroyi knockout mutant resulted in a diminished, but not abolished production of demethylation pathway products. These results further corroborated the proposed second demethylation activity in R. pomeroyi. Isotopically labeled [2H3]methionine and 34SO42−, synthesized from elemental 34S8, were tested to identify alternative sulfur sources besides DMSP for the MeSH production in P. gallaeciensis. Methionine proved to be a viable sulfur source for the MeSH volatiles, whereas incorporation of labeling from sulfate was not observed. Moreover, the utilization of selenite and selenate salts by marine alphaproteobacteria for the production of methylated selenium volatiles was explored and resulted in the production of numerous methaneselenol-derived volatiles via reduction and methylation. The pathway of selenate/selenite reduction, however, proved to be strictly separated from sulfate reduction.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted oxidation of dibenzothiophene with phosphotungstic acid supported on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Phosphotungstic acid (HPW) supported on activated carbon (AC) was applied to catalyze deep oxidation desulfurization of fuel oil with the assist of ultrasound. The sulfur-conversion rate was evaluated by measuring the concentration of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-octane before and after the oxidation. Supporting HPW on AC has been verified to play a positive role in UAOD process by a series of contrast tests, where only HPW, AC or a mixture of free HPW and AC was used. The influences of catalyst dose, ultrasound power, reaction temperature, H2O2:oil volume ratio and the reuse of catalyst on the catalytic oxidation desulfurization kinetics were investigated. The DBT conversion rate of the reaction catalyzed by supported HPW under ultrasound irradiation was higher than the summation of the reactions with HPW only and AC only as catalyst. With the increase of loading amount of HPW on AC, ultrasound power, H2O2:oil volume ratio and reaction temperature, the catalytic oxidation reactivity of DBT would be enhanced. The optimum loading amount of HPW was 10%, exceed which DBT conversion would no longer increase obviously. DBT could be completely converted under the optimized conditions (volume ratio of H2O2 to model oil: 1:10, mass ratio of the supported HPW to model oil: 1.25%, temperature: 70°C) after 9 min of ultrasound irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel, Highly Specific N-Demethylases Enable Bacteria To Live on Caffeine and Related Purine Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ryan M.; Louie, Tai Man; Yu, Chi-Li; Gakhar, Lokesh; Louie, Kailin C.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis for the ability of bacteria to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is unknown. Pseudomonas putida CBB5, which grows on several purine alkaloids, metabolizes caffeine and related methylxanthines via sequential N-demethylation to xanthine. Metabolism of caffeine by CBB5 was previously attributed to one broad-specificity methylxanthine N-demethylase composed of two subunits, NdmA and NdmB. Here, we report that NdmA and NdmB are actually two independent Rieske nonheme iron monooxygenases with N1- and N3-specific N-demethylation activity, respectively. Activity for both enzymes is dependent on electron transfer from NADH via a redox-center-dense Rieske reductase, NdmD. NdmD itself is a novel protein with one Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, one plant-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and one flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per enzyme. All ndm genes are located in a 13.2-kb genomic DNA fragment which also contained a formaldehyde dehydrogenase. ndmA, ndmB, and ndmD were cloned as His6 fusion genes, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified using a Ni-NTA column. NdmA-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N1-demethylation of caffeine, theophylline, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine to theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and xanthine, respectively. NdmB-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N3-demethylation of theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline to 7-methylxanthine, xanthine, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine, respectively. One formaldehyde was produced from each methyl group removed. Activity of an N7-specific N-demethylase, NdmC, has been confirmed biochemically. This is the first report of bacterial N-demethylase genes that enable bacteria to live on caffeine. These genes represent a new class of Rieske oxygenases and have the potential to produce biofuels, animal feed, and pharmaceuticals from coffee and tea waste. PMID:22328667

  10. Support effects on hydrotreating activity of NiMo catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Diaz-Garcia, L.; Cortez de la Paz, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the gamma alumina particle size on the catalytic activity of NiMoS x catalysts prepared by precipitation method of aluminum acetate at pH = 10 was studied. The structural characterization of the supports was measured by using XRD, pyridine FTIR-TPD and nitrogen physisorption. NiMo catalysts were characterized during the preparation steps (annealing and sulfidation) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen TPR studies of the NiMo catalysts were also carried out in order to correlate their hydrogenating properties and their catalytic functionality. Catalytic tests were carried out in a pilot plant at 613, 633 and 653 K temperatures. The results showed that the rate constants of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatizing (HDA) at 613-653 K decreased in the following order: A > B > C corresponding to the increase of NiMoS particle size associated to these catalysts

  11. Catalytic activity of supported silver and potassium salts of tungstophosphoric acid in dehydration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, J.; Matachowski, L.; Pamin, K.; Napruszewska, B.

    2002-01-01

    Potassium and silver salts of tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) have been supported on silica. Two series of potassium and silver salts of tungstophosphoric acid K x H 3-x PW 12 O 40 and Ag x H 3-x PW 12 O 40 where x = 1;2;3 supported on silica were prepared using incipient wetness method. In a typical synthesis, the heteropolyacid which after deposition on silica was washed with water to remove the part of heteropolyacid not bound to the support was reacted with silver or potassium salt. The vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol was employed as a test reaction. All the catalytic tests were carried out in a conventional flow type reactor, under atmospheric pressure, in the temperature range 125-500 o C. The results of these studies were used to explain the differences between the catalytic activities of heteropolysalts of potassium and silver supported on silica. (author)

  12. Hydroxyapatite supported Ag3PO4 nanoparticles with higher visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xiaoting; Wu Xiaohui; Zhang Qiuyun; Xiao Mingfeng; Yang Gelin; Qiu Meirong; Han Guocheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite supported Ag 3 PO 4 nanocomposites have been synthesized by a wet impregnation process. UV-vis absorption spectra show a red shift of the absorption edges for the composite systems compared to pure hydroxyapatite support. The surface structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results suggest that Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles (6-17 nm in diameter) are well dispersed on the hydroxyapatite support and Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles density is larger for the higher Ag + loading sample. The as-prepared nanocomposite photocatalysts showed a pronounced photocatalytic activity upon decomposition of methylene blue dye in aqueous solution under both visible light (wavelength > 400 nm) and UV-vis light irradiation. A synergic mechanism of inherent photocatalytic capability of Ag 3 PO 4 and the accelerated electron/hole separation resulting from the photoinduced electrons captured by the slow-released Ag + at the interface of Ag 3 PO 4 and hydroxyapatite is proposed for the nanocomposites on the enhancement of photocatalytic performance in comparison to that of pure Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. The support of hydroxyapatite may also act as an absorbent which favors the mass transfer in heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction.

  13. A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY ON SMARTPHONES FEATURES FOR SUPPORTING THE ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES AT UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN GANESHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Putri Rustrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to analyse the use of smartphones for lecturers and students in Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha which are measured based on the supporting factors of the smartphoness application and to analyse its features in academic activities. The data were collected by using questionnaires and analyzed by using a descriptive analysis method. This study showed that the level of smartphones use to support academic activities is categorized as very high with the motivation factor of 90. 51%. There are 3 groups of features that dominate the use of smartphones namely calculation, storage and documentation. The calculation feature was represented by calculator with the percentage of 99%. The storage feature was represented by contact, gallery, and dropbox with the precentages of 99%, 97%, and 71% respectively. The documentation feature was represented by camera, video and recorder with the percentages of 97%, 81%, and 51% respectively.

  14. Voice Activity Detection Using Fuzzy Entropy and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Johny Elton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes support vector machine (SVM based voice activity detection using FuzzyEn to improve detection performance under noisy conditions. The proposed voice activity detection (VAD uses fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn as a feature extracted from noise-reduced speech signals to train an SVM model for speech/non-speech classification. The proposed VAD method was tested by conducting various experiments by adding real background noises of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR ranging from −10 dB to 10 dB to actual speech signals collected from the TIMIT database. The analysis proves that FuzzyEn feature shows better results in discriminating noise and corrupted noisy speech. The efficacy of the SVM classifier was validated using 10-fold cross validation. Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed method was compared with those of previous standardized VAD algorithms as well as recently developed methods. Performance comparison suggests that the proposed method is proven to be more efficient in detecting speech under various noisy environments with an accuracy of 93.29%, and the FuzzyEn feature detects speech efficiently even at low SNR levels.

  15. The Aorta-Gonad-Mesonephros Organ Culture Recapitulates 5hmC Reorganization and Replication-Dependent and Independent Loss of DNA Methylation in the Germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Joseph Hargan; Cook, Helene; Vincent, John J; Nee, Kevin; Clark, Amander T

    2015-07-01

    Removal of cytosine methylation from the genome is critical for reprogramming and transdifferentiation and plays a central role in our understanding of the fundamental principles of embryo lineage development. One of the major models for studying cytosine demethylation is the mammalian germ line during the primordial germ cell (PGC) stage of embryo development. It is now understood that oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is required to remove cytosine methylation in a locus-specific manner in PGCs; however, the mechanisms downstream of 5hmC are controversial and hypothesized to involve either active demethylation or replication-coupled loss. In the current study, we used the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) organ culture model to show that this model recapitulates germ line reprogramming, including 5hmC reorganization and loss of cytosine methylation from Snrpn and H19 imprinting control centers (ICCs). To directly address the hypothesis that cell proliferation is required for cytosine demethylation, we blocked PI3-kinase-dependent PGC proliferation and show that this leads to a G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest in PGCs, together with retained levels of cytosine methylation at the Snrpn ICC, but not at the H19 ICC. Taken together, the AGM organ culture model is an important tool to evaluate mechanisms of locus-specific demethylation and the role of PI3-kinase-dependent PGC proliferation in the locus-specific removal of cytosine methylation from the genome.

  16. What is the relationship between parental support, self-efficacy and physical activity in young students? A pilot cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Ariza Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between parental support for physical activity, weekly Physical Activity (PA practice frequency, and self-efficacy expectations to overcome barriers to participation. A total of 335 adolescents took part in this pilot cross-sectional study. The results show that boys and girls who attribute parents to a high level of instrumental support, modeling and behavioral limitation are allocated to higher number of days per week to perform the physical-sport activity during a minimum interval of sixty minutes and were more self-efficacious in their practice. Likewise, the frequency of practice of the activity and self-efficacy were higher in the case of boys.

  17. Tales from the Dark Side: Teacher Professional Development , Support , Activities, Student Research & Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    In a partnership last Spring with Arizona Public Service, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) created the 'Dark-Skies Energy Education Program: Energy Awareness for a Sustainable Future'. In this program, experienced science and technology education specialists from NOAO led 2 one-day professional development workshops for thirteen 6th grade teachers on dark skies and energy education. The workshops focused on three foundational, scaffolding activities and a final student research project. This in turn culminated in a Family Science Night where students presented their projects. In between these events, our NOAO team provided support for teachers through real-time video conferencing using FaceTime. In addition to the professional development, each teacher received a kit full of resource materials to perform the activities and research project. The kit was at no cost to the teacher, school, or district. Each kit contained the latest version of a tablet, which was used to facilitate communication and support for the teachers, as well as provide all the program's written teaching materials. The activities are in accordance with state, Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. Our NOAO instructors gave firsthand experiences on how best to use these materials in a classroom or public setting. They also discussed opportunities on how they can incorporate, adapt and expand upon the activities and research projects in the classroom. Evaluation reports from the program's independent evaluator showed that the students enjoyed learning from the three foundational activities and research projects. The project presentations by the Yuma students were outstanding in their creativity, level of effort, and scientific accuracy. To summarize the evaluations, significant changes in knowledge and attitude were made with the teachers and students (from one-on-one interviews and surveys), but behavioral changes (albeit only over a semester) seemed minimal. The AGU

  18. USING CHIRALITY TO INFORM THE METABOLISM OF TRIADIMEFON TO TRIADIMENOL: A CROSS-SPECIES EXAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triadimefon is a systemic agricultural fungicide of the conazole class whose metabolite, triadimenol, provides the majority of the actual fungicidal activity; i.e. inhibition of steroid demethylation. Triadimenol is also registered and used as a fungicide. Both chemicals are ch...

  19. Methods for measuring specific rates of mercury methylation and degradation and their use in determining factors controlling net rates of mercury methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlal, P.S.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Hecky, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate specific rates of demethylation of methyl mercury in aquatic samples by measuring the volatile 14 C end products of 14 CH 3 HgI demethylation. This method was used in conjuction with a 203 Hg 2+ radiochemical method which determines specific rates of mercury methylation. Together, these methods enabled us to examine some factors controlling the net rate of mercury methylation. The methodologies were field tested, using lake sediment samples from a recently flooded reservoir in the Southern Indian Lake system which had developed a mercury contamination problem in fish. Ratios of the specific rates of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation occurred in the flooded shorelines of Southern Indian Lake. These results provide an explanation for the observed increases in the methyl mercury concentrations in fish after flooding

  20. Understanding the Effects of Surface Chemistry and Microstructure on the Activity and Stability of Pt Electrocatalysts on Non-Carbon Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustain, William [Univ. of Conneticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The objective of this project is to elucidate the effects of the chemical composition and microstructure of the electrocatalyst support on the activity, stability and utilization of supported Pt clusters.

  1. Regulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animals

    KAUST Repository

    He, Xinjian

    2011-02-15

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes. In plants, DNA methylation can be established through the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, an RNA interference pathway for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which requires 24-nt small interfering RNAs. In mammals, de novo DNA methylation occurs primarily at two developmental stages: during early embryogenesis and during gametogenesis. While it is not clear whether establishment of DNA methylation patterns in mammals involves RNA interference in general, de novo DNA methylation and suppression of transposons in germ cells require 24-32-nt piwi-interacting small RNAs. DNA methylation status is dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation reactions. In plants, active DNA demethylation relies on the repressor of silencing 1 family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases, which remove the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site, initiating a base excision repair (BER) pathway. In animals, multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed, including a deaminase- and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathway. New information concerning the effects of various histone modifications on the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation has broadened our understanding of the regulation of DNA methylation. The function of DNA methylation in plants and animals is also discussed in this review. © 2011 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.

  2. EPRI activities in support of new nuclear plant deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulford, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the challenges to new plant deployment in the United States and discusses the role of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in efforts to address these challenges. These technical challenges include completing remaining design work, licensing review, and standardization required to ensure that new LWRs are a competitive near-term option. The costs for construction, licensing, and operation of new nuclear plants are uncertain and this uncertainty, along with concerns about construction schedule form a financial challenge to investment. Because the new process for licensing nuclear power plants in the United States has not been fully demonstrated, regulatory concerns also serve as a challenge to near-term commitments to build new nuclear power plants. EPRI is working in concert with utilities and vendors to upgrade certified LWR designs and obtain certification of new LWR designs. Specific technical areas being addressed by EPRI projects include updating the Utility Requirements Document (URD), seismic resolution, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the development of utility planning tools, and staff optimization. EPRI's key on-going project, the New Plant Deployment Program Model (NPDPM), is designed to help prospective and actual new nuclear plant managers and staff to identify schedule and resource requirements from the point of the decision to build a plant through to the start of commercial operation. This model will describe and organize key activities and assess schedule, activity duration, logic relationships and critical path analysis. The new plant licensing and deployment process is a five to ten year activity representing a significant financial investment that requires coordination with federal and state regulators, designers, architect engineers, and numerous other contributing organizations. Planning is crucial to schedule and budget control. EPRI has also supported projects to quantify the environmental

  3. Integrin specificity and enhanced cellular activities associated with surfaces presenting a recombinant fibronectin fragment compared to RGD supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Timothy A; Capadona, Jeffrey R; Reyes, Catherine D; García, Andrés J

    2006-11-01

    Biomimetic strategies focusing on presenting short bioadhesive oligopeptides, including the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif present in numerous adhesive proteins, on a non-fouling support have emerged as promising approaches to improve cellular activities and healing responses. Nevertheless, these bio-inspired strategies are limited by low activity of the oligopeptides compared to the native ligand due to the absence of complementary or modulatory domains. In the present analysis, we generated well-defined biointerfaces presenting RGD-based ligands of increasing complexity to directly compare their biological activities in terms of cell adhesion strength, integrin binding and signaling. Mixed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold were optimized to engineer robust supports that present anchoring groups for ligand tethering within a non-fouling, protein adsorption-resistant background. Controlled bioadhesive interfaces were generated by tethering adhesive ligands via standard peptide chemistry. On a molar basis, biointerfaces functionalized with the FNIII7-10 recombinant fragment presenting the RGD and PHSRN adhesive motifs in the correct structural context exhibited significantly higher adhesion strength, FAK activation, and cell proliferation rate than supports presenting RGD ligand or RGD-PHSRN, an oligopeptide presenting these two sites separated by a polyglycine linker. Moreover, FNIII7-10-functionalized surfaces displayed specificity for alpha5beta1 integrin, while cell adhesion to supports presenting RGD or RGD-PHSRN was primarily mediated by alphavbeta3 integrin. These results are significant to the rational engineering of bioactive materials that convey integrin binding specificity for directed cellular and tissue responses in biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  4. High methanol oxidation activity of electrocatalysts supported by directly grown nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-H.; Shih, H.-C.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Du, H.-Y.; Chen, L.-C.; Chen, K.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and electrochemical activity of the Pt-Ru supported by nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CN x NTs) directly grown on the carbon cloth have been investigated. The CN x NTs directly grown on the carbon cloth (CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode) were synthesized using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition first and then use as the template to support the Pt-Ru nanoclusters subsequently sputtered on. The ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox reaction in cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed a faster electron transfer on the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode than the one with carbon cloth alone. Comparing their methanol oxidation abilities, it is found that the Pt-Ru nanoclusters supported by the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode have considerably higher electrocatalytic activity than the carbon cloth counterpart. This result suggests high performance of the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode, and demonstrates its suitability for direct methanol fuel cell applications

  5. High methanol oxidation activity of electrocatalysts supported by directly grown nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-T. [Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Du, H.-Y. [Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, K.-H. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) and Institue of Atomic and Molecular Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chenkh@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw

    2006-12-01

    The microstructure and electrochemical activity of the Pt-Ru supported by nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CN {sub x} NTs) directly grown on the carbon cloth have been investigated. The CN {sub x} NTs directly grown on the carbon cloth (CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode) were synthesized using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition first and then use as the template to support the Pt-Ru nanoclusters subsequently sputtered on. The ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox reaction in cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed a faster electron transfer on the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode than the one with carbon cloth alone. Comparing their methanol oxidation abilities, it is found that the Pt-Ru nanoclusters supported by the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode have considerably higher electrocatalytic activity than the carbon cloth counterpart. This result suggests high performance of the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode, and demonstrates its suitability for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  6. Isolated Pt Atoms Stabilized by Amorphous Tungstenic Acid for Metal-Support Synergistic Oxygen Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Qin, Xixi; Duanmu, Fanpeng; Ji, Huiming; Shen, Zhurui; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Wenbin

    2018-06-05

    Oxygen activation plays a crucial role in many important chemical reactions such as organics oxidation and oxygen reduction. For developing highly active materials for oxygen activation, herein, we report an atomically dispersed Pt on WO3 nanoplates stabilized by in-situ formed amorphous H2WO4 out-layer and the mechanism for activating molecular oxygen. Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that the isolated Pt atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms from [WO6] and water of H2WO4, consequently leading to optimized surface electronic configuration and strong metal support interaction (SMSI). In exemplified reactions of butanone oxidation sensing and oxygen reduction, the atomic Pt/WO3 hybrid exhibits superior activity than those of Pt nanoclusters/WO3 and bare WO3 as well as enhanced long-term durability. This work will provide insight on the origin of activity and stability for atomically dispersed materials, thus promoting the development of highly efficient and durable single atom-based catalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Muscle activity during backward and forward running with body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kenji; Soucy, Michael T; Bailey, Joshua P; Mercer, John A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated muscle activity during backward (BR) and forward (FR) running with body weight support (BWS). Ten participants completed BR and FR on a lower body positive pressure treadmill while selecting a preferred speed (PS) for different BWS conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%BWS). Muscle activity from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), preferred stride frequency (PSF), and PS were measured. Magnitude of muscle activity (BF, TA, and GA), RPE, PSF