WorldWideScience

Sample records for supply system nuclear

  1. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE Energy System - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation; however, the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE Energy System consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low-enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 qnd 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability

  2. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE energy system - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation, however the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE energy system consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 and 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability. (author)

  3. Development for a multi-purpose nuclear energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Sato, Kotaro; Imamura, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    Hokkaido is one of the four largest island of Japan located in the northern, most of the area, where the atmospheric temperature goes lower than the other area in winter. Thus, an average energy consumption per capita is larger in amount during cold seasons. Nowadays this energy is supplied by fossil fuels. On the other hand, problem of the green house gas emission should be controlled as much as possible in order to avoid global warming. From this point of view, the authors have discussed with local people on the possibility to utilize nuclear clean energy in the daily life in Hokkaido district. Recently some leaders in local towns become interested to such activities and they want information about nuclear energy and related systems. It is a very good chance for us to exchange information on nuclear energy with regards to public acceptance, fears of nuclear power or radiation, the extent of satisfaction to be sure for construction of urban nuclear plants and requirements for such plants. We prepared technical presentation materials and visited a selected towns and continued discussion in various aspects. For example, proposal of a proto type design concept of a small reactor, safety, heat energy supply system. The audience was mainly representatives of the towns firstly and gradually ordinal people also attended the meetings. Based on the information, it could be expected to establish a concept for such district energy supply system. In this paper, some examples and results through these activities are presented. (author)

  4. Research on assurance system of nuclear fuel supply (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Naoi, Yosuke; Wakabayashi, Shuji; Tazaki, Makiko; Senzaki, Masao

    2010-08-01

    Assurance of supply (AOS) of nuclear fuel is a special arrangement in case of nuclear fuel supply disruption caused by political reasons other than nonproliferation. It aims to support a stable supply of nuclear fuel while avoiding spread of sensitive enrichment technology. Current discussions on AOS have been initiated by the IAEA Director-General's article published in The Economist entitled 'Towards a Safer World' Oct. 2003. Since then, various proposals on AOS have been presented. In order to facilitate international discussions on AOS, authors have conducted studies of AOS system based on Japanese Government's proposal 'IAEA Standby Arrangement System (INFCIRC/683)'. In this paper, we have been able to discuss feasibility of AOS system more specifically by including additional costs and period required for AOS, and to present a system which could work as a practical system. Issues we have tried to tackle here include definitions of AOS, and roles of consumer States, supplier States, IAEA and nuclear industries. We present some solutions including broadening coverage of AOS, declaration by supplier States on AOS, establishing advisory committee in the IAEA on the actual application of AOS, and setting up an IAEA fund for AOS. (author)

  5. Hybrid district heating system with heat supply from nuclear source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, Z.; Petrovsky, I.

    1987-01-01

    Several designs are described of heat supply from large remote power sources (e.g., WWER-1000 nuclear power plants with a 1000 MW turbine) to localities where mainly steam distribution networks have been built but only some or none networks for hot water distribution. The benefits of the designs stem from the fact that they do not require the conversion of the local steam distribution system to a hot water system. They are based on heat supply from the nuclear power plant to the consumer area in hot water of a temperature of 150 degC to 200 degC. Part of the hot water heat will be used for the production of low-pressure steam which will be compressed using heat pumps (steam compressors) to achieve the desired steam distribution network specifications. Water of lower temperature can be used in the hot water network. The hot water feeder forms an automatic pressure safety barrier in heat supply of heating or technological steam from a nuclear installation. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 9 refs

  6. Nuclear steam supply system KLT-40 enhanced safety as independent power supply source. Employment prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunichev, V.I.; Sayanov, D.G.; Ardabievsky, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality of KLT-40 nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) providing enhanced safety is attained owing to the development and operation experience of equipments and systems in Soviet nuclear icebreakers. First of all they are the operating nuclear-powered icebreakers open-quotes Arktikaclose quotes, open-quotes Sibirclose quotes, open-quotes Rossiyaclose quotes, open-quotes Sovetsky Soyuzclose quotes, the limited draught icebreakers of joint Soviet-Finnish manufacturing open-quotes Taimyrclose quotes open-quotes Vaigachclose quotes. 30-years trouble-free operation of icebreaker open-quotes Leninclose quotes, the ancestor of nuclear powered fleet, is unprecedented. Operation life of individual equipment items amounts to 107000 hours, that testifies to high reliability and life characteristics of NSSS. Trouble-free operation of the nuclear-powered icebreakers' reactor plants (RPs) exceeded 130 reactor years, that proves high quality of design decisions being underlain in the basis of the KLT-40 NSSS for the lighter-cargo carrier open-quotes Sevmorputclose quotes, which was put into operation into 1988. Besides it testifies to the expediency of KLT-40 NSSS employment as a power source in different power installations. The KLT-40 is a reactor plant with a pwr type reactor. The design is described in detail with diagrams

  7. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor nuclear steam supply system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmott, M. J.; Harkness, A. W.; Van Wyk, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 600 Cranberry Woods Drive, Cranberry Twp. PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the first in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. Also described in this series are the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design driving motivators dictated the final configuration of the Westinghouse SMR to varying degrees, depending on the specific features under consideration. These design drivers include safety, economics, AP1000{sup R} reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR NSSS consists of an integral reactor vessel within a compact containment vessel. The core is located in the bottom of the reactor vessel and is composed of 89 modified Westinghouse 17x17 Robust Fuel Assemblies (RFA). These modified fuel assemblies have an active core length of only 2.4 m (8 ft) long, and the entirety of the core is encompassed by a radial reflector. The Westinghouse SMR core operates on a 24 month fuel cycle. The reactor vessel is approximately 24.4 m (80 ft) long and 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter in order to facilitate standard rail shipping to the site. The reactor vessel houses hot and cold leg channels to facilitate coolant flow, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), instrumentation and cabling, an intermediate flange to separate flow and instrumentation and facilitate simpler refueling, a pressurizer, a straight tube, recirculating steam

  8. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor nuclear steam supply system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmott, M. J.; Harkness, A. W.; Van Wyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the first in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. Also described in this series are the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design driving motivators dictated the final configuration of the Westinghouse SMR to varying degrees, depending on the specific features under consideration. These design drivers include safety, economics, AP1000 R reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR NSSS consists of an integral reactor vessel within a compact containment vessel. The core is located in the bottom of the reactor vessel and is composed of 89 modified Westinghouse 17x17 Robust Fuel Assemblies (RFA). These modified fuel assemblies have an active core length of only 2.4 m (8 ft) long, and the entirety of the core is encompassed by a radial reflector. The Westinghouse SMR core operates on a 24 month fuel cycle. The reactor vessel is approximately 24.4 m (80 ft) long and 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter in order to facilitate standard rail shipping to the site. The reactor vessel houses hot and cold leg channels to facilitate coolant flow, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), instrumentation and cabling, an intermediate flange to separate flow and instrumentation and facilitate simpler refueling, a pressurizer, a straight tube, recirculating steam generator

  9. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  10. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design

  11. Concept of voltage monitoring for a nuclear power plant emergency power supply system (PWR 1300 MWe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, R.B. de

    1988-01-01

    Voltage monitoring concept for a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Power Supply Systems (PWR 1300 MWe) is described based on the phylosophy adopted for Angra 2 and 3 NPP's. Some suggested setpoints are only guidance values and can be modified during plant commissioning for a better performance of the whole protection system. (author) [pt

  12. A protection system of low temperature thermo-supply nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Binsen

    1988-09-01

    A Protection system of low temperature thermo-supply nuclear reactor is introduced. It is the first protection system, which is designed and manufactred on the basis of Chinese National Standard GB 4083-83 'General Safety Principle of Nuclear Reactor Protection System', to be considered under the circumstances of industry level in China. Advantages of the protection system are as follows: 1)The single failure criteria can fully be fulfilled by the protection system. 2) On-line testing system can be used for detecting all of failure components and quick identifying the failure points in the system. 3) It is convenience for maintenacnce of the system. To complete this project is very important and helpful in promoting the development of the protection system and safety operation of nuclear reactor in China

  13. Nuclear reactor power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The protection system has a number of separate protection units, each unit receiving the process signals from the like sensors of each assembly in its turn. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor parameter assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector is interposed between the protection system and the control system. This selector prevents a parameter signal of a set of signals, which differs from the other parameter signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation of the sensors which produce the set, from passing to the control system. The connection between the protection units and the selector is four separate fiber optic channels so that electrical interaction between the protection units and the selector or control system is precluded. The selectors include a pair of signal selection units, one unit sending selected process signals to primary control channels and the other sending selected process signals to back-up control channels. Test signals are periodically impressed on a selected pair of a selected unit and control channels. When test signals are so impressed the selected control channel is disabled from transmitting control signals to the reactor and/or its associated components

  14. Siting studies for an asymptotic U. S. energy supply system based primarily on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy center (NEC) concept is an approach to siting wherein nuclear facilities would be clustered in and delimited to a relatively small number of locations throughout the United States. These designated centers would be concurrently developed to their full capability over several decades, at which time, they would be several times larger than the largest nuclear power stations in existence today. The centers would be permanently dedicated to nuclear operations including the future decommissioning of functionally obsolescent facilities as well as the commissioning of their replacements. The criteria for and characteristics of an acceptable nuclear energy system that could supply most of the U.S. energy requirements in the distant future are discussed. The time period is unspecified but occurs when fossil-fuel resources are depleted to such an extent that their use is economic only in special situations, and is not economic, in general, for use as fuel.

  15. Siting studies for an asymptotic U.S. energy supply system based primarily on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy center (NEC) concept is an approach to siting wherein nuclear facilities would be clustered in and delimited to a relatively small number of locations throughout the United States. These designated centers would be concurrently developed to their full capability over several decades, at which time, they would be several times larger than the largest nuclear power stations in existence today. The centers would be permanently dedicated to nuclear operations including the future decommissioning of functionally obsolescent facilities as well as the commissioning of their replacements. The criteria for and characteristics of an acceptable nuclear energy system that could supply most of the U.S. energy requirements in the distant future are discussed. The time period is unspecified but occurs when fossil-fuel resources are depleted to such an extent that their use is economic only in special situations, and is not economic, in general, for use as fuel

  16. Improvements to the sodium supply system of a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Rene; Marchais, Christian.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns an improvement to the sodium supply system of a nuclear reactor core and, in particular, concerns the area included between the outlet of the primary circulation pumps and the core proper. A simplified structure and a lightening of all this linking area between the circulation pumps and the distribution tank under the core is achieved and this results in a very significant reduction in the risks of deterioration and in a definite increase in the reliability of the reactor. The invention is therefore an improvement to the sodium supply system of the nuclear reactor core vessel with incorporated exchangers, in which the cool sodium, after passing through the primary exchangers, is collected in a ring compartment from whence it is taken up by the pumps and moved to at least one pipe reaching a distribution tank located under the reactor core [fr

  17. Expert systems for analysis and management assistance of nuclear reactor electrical power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Souchet, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical power supplies of nuclear plants are very complex systems. They are studied in many ways: failure consequences, probabilistic risk assessement, failure diagnosis, corrective actions in case of incident ... Knowledge base technology (expert systems) is very suited to solve these problems. A common structural representation can generate specific functional representations; thus we get coherency and easy evolution. This paper shows a two facet methodology: the plant description (both static and dynamic) and reasoning about it. Current applications are developed for pressurized water reactors and gas cooled reactors, using the SPIRAL expert system shell buil at CEA [fr

  18. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  19. Nuclear power and ratepayer protest: The Washington Public Power Supply System crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In early 1982, the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) terminated two nuclear projects, triggering an episode of mass ratepayer insurgency throughout the state. In this survey of the crisis, the author analyzes the political and economic conditions that precipitated the protest and examines citizen opposition to the WPPSS nuclear venture between 1976 and 1981. The review of the public initiative campaigns aimed at the Northwest utility establishment by local antinuclear forces and the role of key individuals and organizations involved in anti-KPPSS activism are central to the discussion. By emphasizing the organizational dynamics of citizen opposition, the analysis clarifies the influence of antinuclear protest in bringing about the WPPSS crisis, which is still in litigation over disputed financial and management liability claims. Finally, the author offers insights into the implications of the 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and the role of the new Northwest Power Planning Council in regional electrical energy planning

  20. ORTAP: a simulator of high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear steam supply system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, J.C.; Hedrick, R.A.; Bell, S.J; Delene, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    ORTAP was developed to predict the dynamic behavior of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) Nuclear Steam Supply System for normal operational transients and postulated accidents. Normal operational transients which can be analyzed with ORTAP include both reactor startup and shutdown, and normal and rapid load charges. Upset transients that can be analyzed with ORTAP include reactor trip, turbine trip and sudden reduction in feedwater flow. ORTAP has been used to predict plant response to postulated emergency or faulted conditions such as primary system depressurization, loss of primary coolant flow and uncontrolled removal of control poison from the reactor core. A brief description of the HTGR system and the models used for each of the major components is presented, together with certain modeling and solution techniques used in ORTAP that are of general interest.

  1. Nonlinear Coordinated Control for MHTGR-Based Nuclear Steam Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhe

    2014-10-01

    Because of its inherent safety feature and potential economic competitiveness, modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) has been seen as one of the best candidates for building the next generation nuclear plants. As a typical small modular reactor (SMR), MHTGR can be incorporated with new energy resources to build micro-grids, and can also be utilized to build large nuclear energy systems having inherent safety feature at any power rating. The nuclear steam supplying system (NSSS) of MHTGR-based plants is composed of an MHTGR and a once-through steam generator (OTSG). The NSSS coordinated control is crucial for providing the load-following function. Motivated by this, a nonlinear coordinated control for MHTGR-based NSSSs is proposed in this paper. Based upon theoretical analysis, sufficient conditions for this newly-built control law to guarantee globally asymptotic closed-loop stability are given. The feasibility of this novel coordinated control strategy is verified through numerical simulation, and simulation results show that this new control law can provide satisfactory regulating performance for the NSSS by properly choosing its feedback gains. Moreover, this coordinated control has a very simple form, which means that it can be easily implemented in practical engineering.

  2. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  3. Concept of voltage and frequency monitoring for a nuclear power plant normal power supply system - PWR 1300 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, R.B. de

    1990-01-01

    Voltage and frequency monitoring concept for a Nuclear Power Plant Normal Power Supply System (PWR 1300 MWe) is described based on the phylosophy adopted for Angra 2 and e NPP's. Some suggested setpoints are only guidance values and can be modified during plant commissioning for a better performance of the whole protection system. (author) [pt

  4. Model-Free Coordinated Control for MHTGR-Based Nuclear Steam Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR is a typical small modular reactor (SMR that offers simpler, standardized and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having a shorter construction period. Thanks to its small size, the MHTGRs could be beneficial in providing electric power to remote areas that are deficient in transmission or distribution and in generating local power for large population centers. Based on the multi-modular operation scheme, the inherent safety feature of the MHTGRs can be applicable to large nuclear plants of any desired power rating. The MHTGR-based nuclear steam supplying system (NSSS is constituted by an MHTGR, a side-by-side arranged helical-coil once-through steam generator (OTSG and some connecting pipes. Due to the side-by-side arrangement, there is a tight coupling effect between the MHTGR and OTSG. Moreover, there always exists the parameter perturbation of the NSSSs. Thus, it is meaningful to study the model-free coordinated control of MHTGR-based NSSSs for safe, stable, robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a new model-free coordinated control strategy that regulates the nuclear power, MHTGR outlet helium temperature and OTSG outlet overheated steam temperature by properly adjusting the control rod position, helium flowrate and feed-water flowrate is established for the MHTGR-based NSSSs. Sufficient conditions for the globally asymptotic closed-loop stability is given. Finally, numerical simulation results in the cases of large range power decrease and increase illustrate the satisfactory performance of this newly-developed model-free coordinated NSSS control law.

  5. Optimum design of a nuclear heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis for the optimum design of a nuclear heat supply to a given district-heating network. First, a general description of the system is given, which includes a nuclear power plant, a heating power plant and a district-heating network. The heating power plant is fed with steam from the nuclear power plant. It is assumed that the heating network is already in operation and that the nuclear power plant was previously designed to supply electricity. Second, a technical definition of the heat production and transportation installations is given. The optimal power of these installations is examined. The main result is a relationship between the network capacity and the level of the nuclear heat supply as a substitute for oil under the best economic conditions. The analysis also presents information for choosing the best operating mode. Finally, the heating power plant is studied in more detail from the energy, technical and economic aspects. (author)

  6. A “Grammar” for assessing the performance of power-supply systems: Comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Maurin, François; Giampietro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates an innovative approach for the characterization and comparison of the performance of power-supply systems. The concept of ‘grammar’ forces to declare the pre-analytical decisions about: (i) semantic and formal categories used for the accounting – primary energy sources (PES), energy carriers (EC), and production factors; (ii) the set of functional and structural elements of the power-supply system included in the analysis. After having tamed the systemic ambiguity associated with energy accounting, it becomes possible to generate a double assessment referring to: (i) external constraints – the consumption of PES and the generation of waste and pollution; and (ii) internal constraints – the requirements of production factors such as human labor, power capacity, internal consumption of EC for making EC. The case study provided compares the production of EC (electricity) with “nuclear energy” and “fossil energy”. When considering internal constraints, nuclear energy requires about twice as much power capacity (5.9–9.5 kW/GWh vs. 2.6–2.9 kW/GWh) and 5–8 times more labor (570–640 h/GWh vs. 80–115 h/GWh). Things do not improve for nuclear energy when looking at external constraints – e.g. the relative scarcity of PES. This may explain the difficulties faced by nuclear energy to gain interest from investors. -- Highlights: ► A new approach to assess the performance of power-supply systems is provided. ► A biophysical analysis of the production process is based on the concept of grammar. ► A grammar is capable of handling the inherent ambiguity associated with energy. ► The performance of nuclear energy and fossil energy is compared using this grammar. ► Nuclear energy demonstrates a lower performance than fossil energy in making electricity.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of the Nogent nuclear power plant on the Paris area water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguy, D.; Retkowsky, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The starting up of a nuclear power plant in NOGENT S/SEINE upstream of the main Paris area surface water intake stations led the Seine Normandy Basin Agency and the main water utilities involved to pay attention to the eventual consequences of this nuclear plant on the drinking water supply system of the area. The river Seine itself represents one half of the drinking water resources of the area, more if the intake from the alluvial water table downstream from the capital is taken into account. A working group, run by the Basin Agency and associating the town of Paris, the Ile de France Waterboard, the Compagnie Generale des Eaux, and the Societe Lyonnaise des Eaux was created in 1983 to study the possible impact of the nuclear plant. The main preoccupations which this study highlighted led to the studies and equipments programme this paper presents. (author)

  8. The structure of an expert system to diagnose and supply a corrective procedure for nuclear power plant malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Stasenko, J.E.; Hashemi, S.; Bhatnagar, R.; Yamada, N.; Punch, W.F. III.

    1987-01-01

    Two prototype knowledge based systems have been developed at the Ohio State University. These systems were the result of collaboration between the Nuclear Engineering Program and the Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). The first system uses hierarchical classification to diagnose malfunctions of the coolant system in a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The second system provides a plan of action, through a process of dynamic procedure synthesis, to stabilize the plant once an abnormal transient has occurred. The objective of this paper is to discuss a structure that will integrate the two systems. The combined system will be capable of informing plant personnel about the nature of malfunctions, and of supplying to the operator the most direct corrective procedure available. Two important features of the integrated system are faulty sensor detection, based on malfunction context and unlike sensor data, and procedure synthesis based on the initial state of the plant

  9. Total energy supply-system for manned spaceship using nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Honma, Yuji; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the deep space, such as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc in the future, a spacecraft that will be driven by nuclear power should be developed. At present, satellites or space probes have been using mainly electric source of chemical battery, fuel battery, solar battery, and RI battery. However, considering highly developed and extensive space exploration in the future, it is obvious that larger electric power is required over the long term space travel more than several years. Additionally, the solar battery used in space will be fundamentally impossible to use in planetary exploration father away form Mars because sunlight is attenuated. Therefore, larger electric power source must be installed in the space craft. In this study, we consider about co-generation system for heat and electricity using nuclear power. We think that the nuclear power is appropriate for using in deep space because of a long time operation without refueling and possibility in downsizing due to higher power density. We selected the fast reactor system of about 18 MWth compared with other type of reactors, such as PWR and high temperature gas reactor (Honma, 2006). With regard to a power generation system, we examined about efficiency of Stirling engine compared with a gas-turbine engine. Theoretical efficiency of Stirling engine is much higher than that of gas-turbine engine. Therefore, we selected Stirling engine and we have started the model test of a Stirling engine. Total power generation at International Space Station (ISS) that has been built since 1998 is about 110kWe. We estimated that about 5 times as much electricity as that of ISS is enough to explore or developed the space. In that case, 2.5MWe will be generated by the system, number of crews will be about 10 and 2MW will be used to electric propulsion. (author)

  10. The structure of an expert system to diagnose and supply a corrective procedure for nuclear power plant malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Stasenko, J.E.; Hashemi, S.; Bhatnagar, R.; Punch, W.F. III; Yamada, N.

    1987-01-01

    During the past two years, two prototype knowledge based systems have been developed at the Ohio State University. These systems were the result of collaboration between the Nuclear Engineering Program and the Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). The first system uses hierarchical classification to diagnose malfunctions of the coolant system in a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The second system provides a plan of action, through a process of dynamic procedure management, to stabilize the plant once an abnormal transient has occurred. The objective of this paper is to discuss the structure that has been designed to integrate the two systems. The combined system will be capable of informing plant personnel about the nature of malfunctions, and of supplying to the operator the most direct corrective procedure available. Two important features of the integrated system are faulty sensor detection, based on malfunction context and unlike sensor data, and procedure management based on the initial state of the plant. Since the two knowledge based systems were developed separately, the integration has required a separate component currently under development, the Plant Status Monitoring System (PSMS). The task of PSMS is to monitor plant parameters in order to detect an abnormal condition developing within the plant. Based on the nature of the event, PSMS is capable of directing control to either the procedure management or diagnosis component. The integrated system plays only an advisory role, and any suggested action would be executed by the plant personnel

  11. Nuclear information access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, C. H.; Yang, M. H.; Yoon, S. W.

    1998-01-01

    The energy supply in the countries, which have abundant energy resources, may not be affected by accepting the assertion of anti-nuclear and environment groups. Anti-nuclear movements in the countries which have little energy resources may cause serious problem in securing energy supply. Especially, it is distinct in Korea because she heavily depends on nuclear energy in electricity supply(nuclear share in total electricity supply is about 40%).The cause of social trouble surrounding nuclear energy is being involved with various circumstances. However, it is very important that we are not aware of the importance of information access and prepared for such a situation from the early stage of nuclear energy's development. In those matter, this paper analyzes the contents of nuclear information access system in France and Japan which have dynamic nuclear development program and presents the direction of the nuclear access regime through comparing Korean status and referring to progresses of the regime

  12. Supply assurance in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assurance, in the face of world and political uncertainties, is interrelated with nuclear technology development plans and international safeguards considerations. This has led some countries to accelerate their commitments to nuclear commercialization faster than necessary and has made non-proliferation policies harder to enforce. Fuel assurance is described on a national basis in three time scales: short-term, or resilience to supply interruptions; mid-term, or contract conditions in which governments make commitments to purchase or deliver; and long-term, or resource adequacy. A review of former assurance problems and current trends in the enrichment and uranium markets indicates that supplier concentration is no longer the major problem so much as non-proliferation actions. The present state of unstable equilibrium is expected to move in the direction of less fuel-supply assurance for countries having a small market or not subscribing to non-proliferation criteria. The authors, while generally optimistic that the fuel-supply system will function, express concern that policies for fuel stockpiles and the condition of uranium markets need improvement. 21 references

  13. High temperature molten salt reactor in a system of nuclear power supply of technological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    Features of the high-temperature molten-salt reactor with natural convection of the coolant in the primary power curcuit are considered. An operating process of energy transfer from the core to the energy consumption zone is described. The main energy consumer is the metallurgical production based on the direct reduction of iron oxides by solid carbon. Some other energy consumers are being considered more briefly. A high efficiency usage of nuclear fuel in industrial technological cycles is possible only on fulfilling some definite conditions relating to compatibility limiting power properties of the nuclear heat source and the perfection of the technological cycle of energy consumption

  14. RELAP/MOD1.5 analysis of steam line break transients for a 3-loop and a 4-loop Westinghouse nuclear steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, G.B.; McDonald, T.A.; Kennedy, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    RELAP/MOD1.5 (Cycle 31 and 34) calculations were made to assess the assumptions used by Westinghouse (W) to analyze mainsteam line break transients. Models of a W 3-loop and 4-loop nuclear steam supply system were used. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the effect of the availability of offsite power, break size and initial core power. Comparison with W results indicated that if the assumptions used by W are replicated within the RELAP5 framework, then the W methodology for prediction of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) response is conservative for steam line break transients

  15. Nuclear power as a regional energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLoon, Frank.

    1983-02-01

    The author describes the Point Lepreau nuclear power plant and its impact on the electric power grid and the economy of the small province of New Brunswick. The 600 MW CANDU reactor is considered suitable for small operations and has an excellent world record. Although nuclear energy has high capital costs, its fuel costs are low, thus rendering it comparatively inflation free. Its fuel costs of 3 to 4 mills are contrasted with 40 mills for oil-fuelled units. The cost advantage of uranium over coal and oil permits New Brunswick to put aside funds for waste management and decommissioning. Regulatory streamlining is needed to reduce both expense and time of construction. The CANDU system is ideally suited to providing base load, with coal as an intermediate load supply and hydro for peaking. There is room for tidal power as a future part of the mix

  16. World supply of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    At the end of 1980 nuclear energy accounted for 9% of the world production of electricity stemming from 262 power stations, utilising mainly the process of water reactors and representing an installed capacity of 142 GWe. This production, apparently limited, already represents the equivalent of 150 million TOE. The 600 nuclear power stations in service, under construction or ordered represent a total of 450 GWe. In 1985, their production ought to cover 15% of the world requirements of electricity, which corresponds to a doubling of the share of nuclear energy within 6 years. During these recent years, the development of nuclear energy has undergone a significant slowing down and the number of orders for new nuclear power stations has dropped considerably in particular in the United States. Considering the time required and the available industrial capacity, the accumulated capacity which could be installed worlwide by 1990 could attain 530 GWe, equivalent to 650 MTOE covering 24% of the world production of electricity and 7% of the world consumption of primary energy. A determined effort for the end of this century could end up by the installation of 1200 GWe of capacity, generating 1.5 GTOE. The share of nuclear energy would then represent 35% of the production of electricity [fr

  17. Water supply impacts of nuclear fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Luo, Y.; Maciejowski, M.E.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear winter,” more properly called “nuclear fall,” could be caused by injection of large amounts of dust into the atmosphere. Besides causing a decrease in temperature, it could be accompanied by “nuclear drought,” a catastrophic decrease in precipitation. Dry land agriculture would then be impossible, and municipal, industrial, and irrigation water supplies would be diminished. It has been argued that nuclear winter/fall poses a much greater threat to human survival than do fall out or the direct impacts of a conflict. However, this does not appear to be true, at least for the U.S. Even under the unprecedented drought that could result from nuclear fall, water supplies would be available for many essential activities. For the most part, ground water supplies would be relatively invulnerable to nuclear drought, and adequate surface supplies would be available for potable uses. This assumes that conveyance facilities and power supplies survive a conflict largely intact or can be repaired

  18. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  19. Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements through the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong, Ha-Vinh

    1981-10-01

    By virtue of its statutory functions, the International Atomic Energy Agency may be the depositary and also the supplier of nuclear materials made available to it by Member States, and these may then be stored in facilities it has acquired or which it has established under its control. However, this possibility did not materialize, mainly because the supplying states -few in number- do not want an international organization to become directly involved in bilateral transactions in that field. This paper analyses in particular the provisions of supply agreements concluded with the United Kingdom, the USA and the USSR. The Annex contains a Table of Agreements on supply of nuclear fuel and equipment concluded between supplying and consumer states through the IAEA. (NEA) [fr

  20. Introduction to nuclear supply chain management. In the context of fuel cycle strategy from LWR cycle system to FR cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi; Namba, Takashi; Yasumatsu, Naoto; Heta, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) is an important technique to maintain supply and demand balance and to achieve total optimization from upstream to downstream in manufacturers' management. One of the major reasons why SCM receives much attention recently is the trend in production and sales systems from 'Push type' to 'Pull type'. 'Push type' can be restated as 'Make to Stock' (MTS). MTS is a type of supply chain in which the production is not connected to actual demand. On the contrary, 'Pull type' can be restated as 'Make to Order' (MTO) in which the production is connected to actual demand. In this paper, the terminologies and ideas of SCM was introduced into the scenario study to give a fresh perspective for considering LWR cycle to FR cycle transition strategies in Japan. Then, an analytical tool (SCM tool) which has been developed by the authors is used to survey Japanese nuclear energy system in transition with the SCM terminologies and viewpoints. When some of the Japanese nuclear fuel cycle strategies and tools are thought back with the framework of SCM, they tend to treat nuclear fuel cycle system as 'Push type' supply chain in their simulations. For example, a reprocessing plant separates SFs (spent fuels) without considering the actual Pu demand. However, because future reprocessing plants and fuel fabrication plants will act as Pu suppliers (front-end facility) to FR as well as back-end facilities of LWRs, the reasonable plant operation principle can be 'Pull type'. The analysis was conducted by the SCM tool to simulate the behaviors of both MTS and MTO type facilities during the LWR to FR transition period. If there are large uncertainties in the Pu demand or the load factor, etc. of future reprocessing plants, SCM framework is beneficial. Furthermore, the realization of MTO type operation by SCM can reduce the recovered Pu stock in spite of the increase of the SF interim storage. As the result of the investigation on the boundary location of 'Push type

  1. Development of a Nuclear Steam Supply System Thermal-Hydraulic Module for the Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Using a Best-Estimate Code, RETRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jae Seung

    2004-08-01

    The NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) thermal-hydraulic programs adopted in the domestic full-scope power plant simulators were provided in early 1980s by foreign vendors. Because of limited computational capability at that time, they usually used very simplified physical models for the real-time simulation of Ness thermal-hydraulic transients, which entails inaccurate results and, thus, the possibility of so-called 'negative training', especially for complicated two-phase flows in the reactor coolant system. To resolve the problem, a realistic NSSS thermal-hydraulic program ARTS has been developed, it was based on the RETRAN code for the improvement of the Nuclear Power Plant full-scope simulator. Since ARTS is a generalized code to solve a simultaneous equation system, the smaller time-step size should be used if converged solution could not obtain even in a single volume. Therefore, dedicated models which do not force to reduce the time-step size are sometimes more suitable in terms of a real-time calculation and robustness. The PRT(Pressurizer Relief Tank) is a good example, which requires a dedicated model. The PRT consists of subcooled water in bottom and non-condensable gas in top. The sparger merged under subcooled water enhances condensation. The complicated thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as condensation, phase separation with existence of non-condensable gas makes difficult to simulate. Therefore, the PRT volume may limit the time-step size if it is modeled with a general control volume. To mitigate the time-step size reduction due to convergence failure at this component using RETRAN, the PRT model was developed as a dedicated model. The dedicated model was expected to provide reasonable results without convergence problem in the analysis of the system transients. The ARTS code guarantees the real-time calculations of almost all transients and ensures the robustness of simulations. However, there are some possibilities of calculation failure in the

  2. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs - that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades - that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  3. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gitau, Ernest T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ford, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  4. BORILAIN. Mobile device for automatic continuous supply of liquid injection system backup of a nuclear plant in emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacalle, J.; Traino, J.; Troeung, J.; Arnaldos, A.; Alcaraz, D. A.; Lopez, B.; Ponce, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the first automatic mobile device for the preparation of a neutron absorbing solution, and providing continuous, 30 days, of the injection system liquid reserve of a nuclear emergency. The work has been developed by GD Energy Services (GDES) for Electricite de France (EDF). (Author)

  5. Electricity supplies in a French nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As the operation of a nuclear power station requires a power supply system enabling this operation as well as the installation safety, this document describes how such systems are designed in the different French nuclear power stations to meet the requirements during a normal operation (when the station produces electricity) or when it is stopped, but also to ensure power supply to equipment ensuring safety functions during an incident or an accident occurring on the installation. More precisely, these safety functions are provided by two independent systems in the French nuclear power stations. Their operation is briefly described. Two different types of nuclear reactors are addressed: pressurised water reactors (PWR) of second generation, EPR (or PWR of third generation)

  6. Transition to large scale nuclear energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, DA.

    2006-01-01

    We can expect to see the peak of world oil production very soon. Some say that we can see that peak now in our rear-view mirrors as we drive into an oil-poor future. Natural gas already is in short supply in North America. Nuclear energy must make up the lion's share of the world's energy deficit. This paper examines, in very general terms, the implications of today's shifting prospects for nuclear energy, as it exists today, and how those prospects might develop in the future. The time span under consideration is the remainder of the 21st century. (author)

  7. Reliability analysis with the simulator S.ESCAF of a very complex sequential system: the electrical power supply system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, M.

    1987-06-01

    The reliability analysis of complex sequential systems, in which the order of arrival of the events must be taken into account, can be very difficult, because the use of the classical modelling technique of Markov diagrams leads to an important limitation on the number of components which can be handled. The desk-top apparatus S.ESCAF, which electronically simulates very closely the behaviour of the system being studied, and is very easy to use, even by a non specialist in electronics, allows one to avoid these inconveniences and to enlarge considerably the analysis possibilities. This paper shows the application of the S.ESCAF method to the electrical power supply system of a nuclear reactor. This system requires the simulation of more than forty components with about sixty events such as failure, repair and refusal to start. A comparison of times necessary to perform the analysis by these means and by other methods is described, and the advantages of S.ESCAF are presented

  8. The role of nuclear energy for Korean long-term energy supply strategy : application of energy demand-supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu Nam

    1995-02-01

    An energy demand and supply analysis is carried out to establish the future nuclear energy system of Korea in the situation of environmental restriction and resource depletion. Based on the useful energy intensity concept, a long-term energy demand forecasting model FIN2USE is developed to integrate with a supply model. The energy supply optimization model MESSAGE is improved to evaluate the role of nuclear energy system in Korean long-term energy supply strategy. Long-term demand for useful energy used as an exogeneous input of the energy supply model is derived from the trend of useful energy intensity by sectors and energy carriers. Supply-side optimization is performed for the overall energy system linked with the reactor and nuclear fuel cycle strategy. The limitation of fossil fuel resources and the CO 2 emission constraints are reflected as determinants of the future energy system. As a result of optimization of energy system using linear programming with the objective of total discounted system cost, the optimal energy system is obtained with detailed results on the nuclear sector for various scenarios. It is shown that the relative importance of nuclear energy would increase especially in the cases of CO 2 emission constraint. It is concluded that nuclear reactor strategy and fuel cycle strategy should be incorporated with national energy strategy and be changed according to environmental restriction and energy demand scenarios. It is shown that this modelling approach is suitable for a decision support system of nuclear energy policy

  9. Design study of nuclear power systems for deep space explorers. (2) Electricity supply capabilities of solid cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akifumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    This study has been carried out in series with the other study, 'Criticality of Low Enriched Uranium Fueled Core' to explore the possibilities of a solid reactor electricity generation system for supplying propulsion power of a deep space explorer. The design ranges of two different systems are determined with respect to the electric power, the radiator mass, and the operating temperatures of the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters. The two systems are the core surface cooling with heat-pipe system (CSHP), and the core direct cooling with heat-pipe system (CDHP). The evaluated electric powers widely cover the 1 to 100 kW range, which had long been claimed to be the range that lacked the power sources in space. Therefore, the concepts shown by this study may lead to a breakthrough of the human activities in space. The working temperature ranges of the main components, namely the heat-pipes and thermoelectric converters, are wide and covers down to relatively low temperatures. This is desirable from the viewpoints of broadening the choices, reducing the development needs, and improving the reliabilities of the devices. Hence, it is advantageous for an early establishment of the concept. (author)

  10. Operating experience feedback on lose of offsite power supply for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Feng; Hou Qinmai; Che Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    The function of the service power system of a nuclear power plant is to provide safe and reliable power supply for the nuclear power plant facilities. The safety of nuclear power plant power supply is essential for nuclear safety. The serious accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred due to loss of service power and the ultimate heat sink. The service power system has two independent offsite power supplies as working power and auxiliary power. This article collected events of loss of offsite power supply in operating nuclear power plants at home and abroad, and analyzed the plant status and cause of loss of offsite power supply events, and proposed improvement measures for dealing with loss of offsite power supply. (authors)

  11. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  12. The anaesthesia gas supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply.

  13. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  14. Aerial radiological survey of the Washington. Date of survey: July 1982 Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project and surrounding area, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 14 to 20 July 1982 over a 270-square-kilometer area centered on the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project located near Richland, Washington. All gamma ray data were collected by flying parallel lines spaed 152 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to total external exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates ranged from 5 to 15 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) with the average background ranging from 9 to 12μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. The exposure rates obtained from ground-based measurements taken in background locations within the survey area displayed positive agreement the aerial data

  15. 78 FR 36278 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.137, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies.'' Revision 2 of RG 1.137 endorses ANSI/ANS- 59.51-1997, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Safety-Related Emergency Diesel Generators...

  16. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor shutdown system is described comprising a temperature sensitive device connected to control the electric power supply to a magnetic latch holding a body of a neutron absorbing material. The temperature sensitive device is exposed to the reactor coolant so that when the reactor coolant temperature rises above a specific level, the temperature sensitive device will cause deenergization of the magnetic latch to allow the body of neutron absorbing material to enter the reactor core. (author)

  17. Technical report on dc power supplies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Emergency electrical power supplies, both a.c. and d.c. for nuclear power plants are important to safety. For this reason, the electric power systems for operating nuclear plants and those plants under licensing review have been required to provide a high degree of reliability. It is this high reliability that provides confidence that sufficient safety margin exists against loss of all d.c. power for extended periods of time to allow an orderly examination of safety issues, such as this. However, because of the importance of the a.c. and d.c. power systems, the staff has been expending effort to review the reliability of these systems and shall continue to do so in the future

  18. A re-evaluation of nuclear plant offsite power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William E Berger; Robert E Henry

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: De-regulation of the electric power industry has resulted in separate ownership of the transmission and power generation facilities as well as a revised format for operating the transmission facilities. Currently we see the transfer of large blocks of bulk power between markets which can impact the voltage regulation at the offsite power supply. Where Nuclear Plant operations once knew with a large degree of certainty the operating range of the system supplying the offsite power supply, this may no longer be the case and more challenges to the safety systems could result. These challenges may manifest themselves as either a loss of offsite power or voltage levels approaching the degraded level setpoints. In this paper we will first explore what challenges are caused by deregulation and how they impact offsite power supply operations. Next we will incorporate the knowledge grained regarding accidents and consequences from the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE's) to see how the offsite power supply could be operated to mitigate the challenges and extend the capacity of the auxiliary power system. Various scenarios will be examined using the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) as an integral plant model. MAAP simulations that include both the plant thermal hydraulic responses and corresponding electric power demand are presented to demonstrate the impact of alternate approaches to offsite power system operation. The original design phase of the offsite and onsite power distribution system was based on a criterion relating to the starting of all safety loads if a safety injection signal was present independent of the accident or its progression. The IPE and risk informed insights that are readily available today will be applied in the re-analyses of the offsite distribution system response. (authors)

  19. Transient evaluation using EMTP at one phase opening of the offsite power transformer of the emergency power supply systems for nuclear power plants. This report is a follow-up the last year's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    The emergency power supply systems of nuclear power plants, as the objects of this research, are critical to supplying stable electric power to such systems as the emergency core cooling system (ECCS), and to maintaining the safety of the nuclear power reactor; this was apparent from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The USNRC issued regulatory documents (BL 2012-01, IN 2012-03), and has commenced to review those problems which cannot be detected by degraded-voltage protection relays such as new design vulnerability of the power supply systems that are certain kinds of winding structures and iron core structures when the one-phase open fault occurs without a ground fault of the transformer connected to the offsite power supply system, including when the offsite power supply side is a wye connection and the load side is a delta connection etc. The report of the INSS JOURNAL 2013 used simulation by the electro-magnetic transients program (EMTP) and obtained findings that clearly specified the response at the time of the power supply side one-phase open without ground fault of various winding structures and various iron core structures of the three-phase transformer and identified the important issues for the response of emergency power supply systems and the safety related components of representative domestic PWR plants when the one-phase open fault occurred without ground fault. In a continuation of the previous report, this paper summarizes the previous results, and then presents the principles by which normal voltages are maintained by both the primary and the secondary sides when the one-phase open failure without ground fault occurs on the primary side of the transformer, and the results of the analysis of operations of the protection relays of the emergency power systems and the safety related components of representative a domestic PWR plant by the simulation using EMTP. (author)

  20. Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Projects 3 and 5 (Docket Nos. STN 50-508 and 50-509): Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Washington Public Power Supply System for the construction of the Washington Nuclear Projects 3 and 5 (WNP 3 and 5). The 2170-acre site is predominately forest. Construction-related activities on the site would disturb about 300 acres. The portion of this land not to be used for the plant facilities, parking lots, roads, etc., will be restored by seeding and landscaping. The temporary removal of vegetation will tend to promote erosion. Increased siltation and turbidity can be expected in local rivers and streams during construction, but stringent measures will be undertaken to minimize these effects. A maximum of 72.5 cfs of cooling water will be withdrawn from the Chehalis River of which 12.5 cfs will be returned to the river via pipeline with the dissolved solids concentration increased by a factor of about 6. About 60 cfs will be evaporated to the atmosphere by the cooling towers. Minor and temporary impacts to the biota of the river and its south bank will result from construction activities. The volume of thermal discharge (12.5 cfs) is small compared with the river flow (annual mean is about 6600 cfs) and the effect on the river ecosystem is not expected to be significant. Chemical discharges from the plant, including chlorine, will be diluted to concentrations below those which might adversely affect aquatic biota. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure will be very low. 37 figs., 58 tabs

  1. Sustainablility of nuclear and non-nuclear energy supply options in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the course of the current discussion on promoting the economical competitiveness of sustainable energy systems, especially renewable and non-CO 2 -intensive ones, interest in nuclear energy has re-awakened in Europe (''nuclear renaissance''). This paper starts with presenting the concept of energy sustainability and its main elements. Next, an overview of the main results of sustainability assessments for different energy supply options (nuclear, fossil, renewables) covering full energy chains is given. Nuclear energy's typical strong and weak points are identified from a sustainability point of view. On the basis of these results, it is argued that more emphasis on nuclear energy's (very good) total cost performance, i.e. incl. externalities, rather than on its (very good) contribution to combating climate change would stronger benefit its ''renaissance''. Finally, the development of an overall EU-wide framework is proposed in order to assess the sustainability performance of alternative energy supply options, incl. nuclear, across their lifecycle and thus support decision making on developing sustainable energy mixes. (orig.)

  2. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  3. Sources of supply for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    In a general form, the conditions for the development of nuclear energy are discussed, e.g. market development, State participation, questions concerning safety, licences, financing, fuel cycle, competition. (UA) [de

  4. Nuclear energy and the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2005-01-01

    Security of energy supply was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. In this paper, the author discusses the problem of energy supply security. Can security of supply be measured? What is the role of government and of nuclear energy? And what are measures for ensuring security of supply? (A.L.B.)

  5. How can nuclear phaseout and climate protection be combined? Sustainable power supply in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear phaseout and the resulting energy turnaround will bring about changes in the power supply systems, especially if climate protection goals are to be reached. The author presents the example of a housing development in Germany which mirrors the private households sector. It is shown that the only way to achieve sustainable power supply is by consequently enhancing efficiency and by decarbonizing heat and power supply. The next two decades will be decisive.

  6. Forecasting nuclear power supply with Bayesian autoregression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Solow, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the possibility of forecasting the quarterly US generation of electricity from nuclear power using a Bayesian autoregression model. In terms of forecasting accuracy, this approach compares favorably with both the Department of Energy's current forecasting methodology and their more recent efforts using ARIMA models, and it is extremely easy and inexpensive to implement. (author)

  7. Nuclear safety and energy supply security: conflict or goal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy generation and safety problems at the nuclear power plant have been analysed. Nuclear power plants are operated on the commercial basis in many countries today. Safety and security in energy generation and distribution is a complex problem. Energy supply reliability, security energy price and other issues should be co-ordinated and solved at the same time. Decentralisation and deregulation means new challenges for regulatory bodies and assurance of security. International co-operation in this field is very important. Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) consolidates efforts of regulatory bodies of European countries in order to harmonize approaches of nuclear safety. Nuclear Safety, and security of energy supply is the task and goal at the same time. (author)

  8. Future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The world energy needs will still increased during the next few decades. To limit the use of fossil fuel and the dangerous consequences of greenhouse effect, it will be necessary to develop every use of renewable sources as well as nuclear energy. Facing the challenge of a strong increase of the worldwide demand for nuclear energy, we have a rather large industrial offer of Gen III reactors, which rely on the large experience with light water reactors and bring new improvements in safety. The back end of the fuel cycle for these Gen III reactors should be improved to answer the public concern on waste management and proliferation risks. We have also the beginning of an international cooperation for the development of Gen IV systems aiming to sustain ability of the nuclear energy production. In addition to economy and safety, an efficient use of resources, waste minimization and security, including proliferation resistance, are to be considered. Diversity will also be a necessity when considering an important growth of the share of nuclear fission in the world energy mix. Besides a large part of electricity production, direct uses of the heat produced with nuclear energy should be considered in industrial applications In particular, a great attention is given to the possibility of a massive production of hydrogen extracted from water using nuclear energy to bring a solution for the energy supply of transportations. The six concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum are presently at quite different stages of development. All of them require large amounts of R and D satisfy the criteria of Gen IV systems

  9. The importance of nuclear power to energy supply in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of nuclear power is a matter of dispute also in Switzerland. The first opposition to plans for the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station near Basel sprang up in the seventies. In Switzerland, referenda are a popular expression of political disputes. On a federal level, a total of six referenda have been conducted about nuclear power since 1979. As a rule, antinuclear projects were rejected by a slim majority, except for the 1990 moratorium initiative. As a consequence, there was a ten-year ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants. Despite efforts by many parties it was not possible to develop a general consensus on an energy supply strategy. Because of the considerable importance to the power economy, and the economy at large, of nuclear power in Switzerland, where the five nuclear power plants in operation generate approx. 38% of the country's electricity, while 58% is produced in hydroelectric plants, a new Nuclear Power Act was adopted by Parliament in late February 2001. It constitutes the framework for the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants, keeps the nuclear option open for future planning, and handles spent fuel and waste management, final storage, and decommissioning. Also possible international solutions of final storage outside of Switzerland are taken into account. In this way, the Swiss government and parliament have advocated the continued use of nuclear power as one element of energy supply. (orig.) [de

  10. 77 FR 48177 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ] requirements regarding fuel oil systems for safety-related emergency diesel generators and oil-fueled gas... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft Regulatory Guide, DG- 1282, ``Fuel Oil Systems for...

  11. Sources of supply for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1975-01-01

    In a competitive commercial market situation, such as the one which now exists for nuclear power plants, it is necessary for each prospective buyer to make his own judgements as regards the risks and benefits, advantages and disadvantages of the different suppliers. These judgements should be based on factual data and on some firm criteria supplemented by considerations stemming from the local situation. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss these criteria and considerations and how they can be applied to the data basis. (orig./FW) [de

  12. A valuation study of fuel supply stability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji; Nagata, Yutaka; Hitomi, Kazumi; Hamagata, Sumio; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess potential benefits of nuclear power with regard to its characteristics of fuel supply stability, the following three aspects are valuated under the Japanese energy and electricity mix: a) economic stability; i.e. nuclear power's contribution to the whole energy and electricity mix in terms of resistance to fluctuation and/or fuel price hikes, b) procurement stability; i.e. natural uranium, the raw fuel material for nuclear power generation, is being imported from more reliable sources through adequately diverse markets than in the cases of oil and natural gas, and, c) passive reserve effect; i.e. fuel materials as running stocks at power stations and fuel service facilities could maintain nuclear power generation running for a certain duration under unexpected disruption of fuel supply. (author)

  13. Supply of Prague with heat from a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poul, F.

    1976-01-01

    The proposals are discussed of supplying Prague, the Czechoslovak Capital, with nuclear reactor-generated heat energy. The proposals meet the requirements of the general urban plan of development. The first nuclear heating plant is to be sited in the Kojetice locality, in the northern Prague suburb. It will be commissioned by 1984 and 1985. It is estimated that the maximum heat output in form of hot water will be 821 MW. By 1995 the construction of the second nuclear heating plant should be started southeast or east of Prague. The connection of these two nuclear plants to the hot water mains together with other conventional heating plants will secure the heat supply for Prague and its new housing estates and industrial works. (Oy)

  14. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  15. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  16. 77 FR 39745 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-fueled gas turbine generators, including assurance of adequate fuel oil quality. DATES: Submit comments...] [FR Doc No: 2012-16426] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0159] Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency... comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1282, ``Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies.'' This...

  17. Reliability of dc power supplies in nuclear power plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhut, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    In June 1977 the reliability of dc power supplies at nuclear power facilities was questioned. It was postulated that a sudden gross failure of the redundant dc power supplies might occur during normal plant operation, and that this could lead to insufficient shutdown cooling of the reactor core. It was further suggested that this potential for insufficient cooling is great enough to warrant consideration of prompt remedies. The work described herein was part of the NRC staff's efforts aimed towards putting the performance of dc power supplies in proper perspective and was mainly directed towards the particular concern raised at that time. While the staff did not attempt to perform a systematic study of overall dc power supply reliability including all possible failure modes for such supplies, the work summarized herein describes how a probabilistic approach was used to supplement our more usual deterministic approach to reactor safety. Our evaluation concluded that the likelihood of dc power supply failures leading to insufficient shutdown cooling of the reactor core is sufficiently small as to not require any immediate action

  18. Tree Seed and Seedling Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyoka, Betserai I.; Roshetko, James M.; Jamnadass, Ramni

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews tree seed and seedling supply systems in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Across these regions, the review found that some of the germplasm supply systems do not efficiently meet farmers’ demands and environmental expectations in terms of productivity, species...... African countries play a prominent role in the supply of germplasm which is usually given to farmers without charge. The practice of giving farmers free germplasm by NGOs in many African countries and also government participation in germplasm supply in some Asian countries has been blamed for crowding...

  19. New nuclear projects: structure, supply chain and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Cometto, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015 there were 68 reactors being constructed throughout the world and 159 projects were planned. The projects for the construction of nuclear reactors face challenging issues like financing and management. The NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency) has analysed the feedback experience on a sample of reactor projects and of reactors recently commissioned in order to draw lessons on 3 issues: financing, long-term electricity price, and project management including the supply chain. It is already known that technologies requiring high initial capital like nuclear power or renewable energies, are very sensitive to the long-term price of electricity. The study shows that for a debt ratio below 60%, the risk for the investor is low even if the long-term electricity price drops by 30 %. Because of the complexity of the construction of a nuclear power plant there are mainly 3 types of project management: the turnkey project, the split package approach (a relatively low number of suppliers) and the multi-contract approach. The turnkey approach is favoured by the new entrants in the nuclear world. The harmonization of regulations and the convergence of the safety requirements are necessary to build an efficient and competitive supply chain. (A.C.)

  20. Nuclear applications for steam and hot water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    An increase in the heat energy needs underlined by the potential increase in fossil fuel prices, particularly in oil supplies, and by the necessity for an improvement of the environment worldwide, as signalized by the IAEA Member States, prompted the decision to start a programme leading to this report. This document is intended to help to identify the experience of Member States where nuclear power plants or specialized nuclear heat plants are employed or envisaged to be used for distribution of steam or hot water to industrial or residential consumers, covering low and medium temperature ranges. 25 refs, 33 figs, 15 tabs

  1. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  2. Quick discharge circuit for pacer nuclear power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A quick discharge circuit for a pacer's nuclear power supply is described. A pacer capable of implantation within the body of a patient and capable of being powered by at least one nuclear battery is disclosed. Voltage from a single nuclear battery is increased by a factor of about 25 to 30 in order to provide a voltage level adequate to power pacer circuitry. A restartable DC--DC converter is used for this purpose. But if the converter malfunctions the load voltage must be reduced below a certain level for the converter to be automatically restarted. The present invention relates to means for reducing the time from converter malfunction to resumption of converter operation in order to reduce the corresponding inoperative pacer time period. (U.S.)

  3. Nuclear energy in Canada: the CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear electricity in Canada is generated by CANDU nuclear power stations. The CANDU reactor - a unique Canadian design - is fuelled by natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. The system has consistently outperformed other comparable nuclear power systems in the western world, and has an outstanding record of reliability, safety and economy. As a source of energy it provides the opportunity for decreasing our dependence on dwindling supplies of conventional fossil fuels. (auth)

  4. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  5. Understanding Supply Networks from Complex Adaptive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamur Johnas Marchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper is based on complex adaptive systems (CAS that integrate dynamic and holistic elements, aiming to discuss supply networks as complex systems and their dynamic and co-evolutionary processes. The CAS approach can give clues to understand the dynamic nature and co-evolution of supply networks because it consists of an approach that incorporates systems and complexity. This paper’s overall contribution is to reinforce the theoretical discussion of studies that have addressed supply chain issues, such as CAS.

  6. Development of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Electrical Supply in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin Jaafar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Mohd Hanafiah Chik

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power supplies in Malaysia supplied from the power utility company Tenaga Nasional Berhad through several substations before reaching the building and equipment. The power supply is received and passed down through the 11000 V high voltage switch gears to 415 V 3-phase or 1-phase 240 V. The equipment used in this process is dangerous and monitoring hardware operating remotely (remote) is the best as only guard machinery may engage in business operations. Similarly, the supply of electrical parameters should be monitored to ensure safe and continuous supply of and according to the appropriate voltage for record and analysis when needed. This paper discusses the monitoring and data acquisition is performed using the system 'Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) was developed. (author)

  7. The Regulation of Nuclear Trade: Non-Proliferation-Supply-safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Volume II of the study on the regulation of nuclear trade deals with the national legislation of OECD countries with significant nuclear programmes and regulations in that field and, in essence, covers two aspects. The first concerns political and administrative controls over imports and exports of sensitive products, namely fissile materials and large nuclear equipment as well as technology transfers. In most cases, this description of the provisions applicable is completed with the list of nuclear items whose export is restricted. The second aspect concerns the licensing system governing trade in as well as the import and export of nuclear material to protect users and the public against the hazards created by its radioactive properties. This volume also contains information on regulations concerning physical protection, industrial property and transport, as well as on multilateral and bilateral agreements involving nuclear trade. (NEA) [fr

  8. New supply for canyon fire foam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    The raw water supply for the B-Plant Canyon fire foam system is being replaced. The 4 inche water supply line to the foam system is being rerouted from the 6 inches raw water line in the Pipe Gallery to the 10 inches raw water main in the Operating Gallery. This document states the acceptance criteria for the flushing and testing to be performed by the contractor

  9. Assessments of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, R.

    1978-01-01

    Assessments of competing energy systems are gaining increased importance as a means for an optimal choice of energy source for each specific major application considering the growing energy needs and the shortage of supply. However it is important to make sure that the assessments reflect scientific facts rather than private interests. If this is not achieved, scientists will lose credibility and one will lose the basis for political decisions. It is concluded that to accomplish the globally justified needs for thousands of nuclear reactors soon after the year 2000 and to save a maximum of lives with a minimum of environmental impact, emphasis must be put on low energy costs and on a good fuel and capital resource utilization. This goal can be best accomplished by expendient introduction of the fast breeders and of promising advanced reactors. The gas cooled breeder and the high temperature reactor have outstanding short and long terms merits on this respect, but are not enjoying the financial support that they deserve. (UK)

  10. Design of ITER NBI power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Higa, Osamu; Kawashima, Syuichi; Ono, Youichi; Tanaka, Masanobu; Yasutomi, Sei

    1997-07-01

    Power supply system for the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) whose total injection power is 1 MeV, 50 MW from three modules, has been designed. The power supply system consists of a source power supply for negative ion production/extraction and a DC 1 MV, 45 A power supply for negative ion acceleration. An inverter controlled multi-transformer/rectifier system has been adopted to the acceleration power supply. An inverter frequency of 150 Hz was selected to satisfy required specifications which are rise time of <100 ms, voltage ripple of <10% peak to peak and cut off speed of <200{mu}s. It was confirmed that the rise time, the ripple and the cut off speed is about 50 ms, 7% and <200{mu}s respectively by computation. It was also confirmed that a surge current and an energy input to the ion source at the breakdown can be suppressed lower than 3 kA and 10 J, which are considered to be lower than allowable values. A 1 MV transmission line has been designed from a view point of electric field on the inner conductors and grounded conductor. The results from the design study indicate that all the required specification to the power supply system can be satisfied and that R and D on the transmission line is one of the most important subjects. (author)

  11. Design of ITER NBI power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Higa, Osamu; Kawashima, Syuichi; Ono, Youichi; Tanaka, Masanobu; Yasutomi, Sei.

    1997-07-01

    Power supply system for the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) whose total injection power is 1 MeV, 50 MW from three modules, has been designed. The power supply system consists of a source power supply for negative ion production/extraction and a DC 1 MV, 45 A power supply for negative ion acceleration. An inverter controlled multi-transformer/rectifier system has been adopted to the acceleration power supply. An inverter frequency of 150 Hz was selected to satisfy required specifications which are rise time of <100 ms, voltage ripple of <10% peak to peak and cut off speed of <200μs. It was confirmed that the rise time, the ripple and the cut off speed is about 50 ms, 7% and <200μs respectively by computation. It was also confirmed that a surge current and an energy input to the ion source at the breakdown can be suppressed lower than 3 kA and 10 J, which are considered to be lower than allowable values. A 1 MV transmission line has been designed from a view point of electric field on the inner conductors and grounded conductor. The results from the design study indicate that all the required specification to the power supply system can be satisfied and that R and D on the transmission line is one of the most important subjects. (author)

  12. Quality assurance system in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Hoensch, V.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the close connection between the German Atomic Energy Law and the nuclear control regulations, quality systems in nuclear engineering have taken on a special form. Quality assurance systems as a stipulated organisation of structure and procedure to assure quality have implications for the organisation of the electric supply company at the planning, erection and commissioning stage and for the organisation of the nuclear power station facility. To supervise the application and effectiveness of the stipulated organisation of structure and procedure internally and externally among contractors, special organisation units have been set up at the plant suppliers, manufactures, electric supply companies and nuclear power station facilities, which in the electric supply field go by the name of Quality Assurance Supervision. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear Option for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolundzija, V.; Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Present energy policy is required to ensure a balance between security of supply, competitiveness and environmental requirements. Recent changes involved by deregulation and liberalization of electricity and natural gas markets even strengthen such a policy. However, dependency on external energy sources carries risks that have to be managed since a large proportion of both oil and gas reserves are found in politically unstable regions. Electrical energy is a fundamental prerequisite for a civilized life and an essential commodity, but it cannot be stored and this restricts the extent to which there can be a real free market for electricity. Therefore, relying on imports of electricity to a large extent may prove unsecure because this requires a true, completely open market in which the opportunities for cross-border trade are effective and balanced and transport connections are adequate. This is equally applied to the countries in the South-Eastern Europe, despite very good prospects for development of the regional electricity market there. In this regard, the use of nuclear energy has not any risk associated with external dependency because there are abundant quantities of uranium available world-wide from many diverse sources. The inherent mitigation of supply risk associated with the use of uranium should act as an incentive to the further use of nuclear energy. In addition, already very large stocks of fuel assemblies and fuel-making materials available, especially when these are measured in terms of power generating capacity per year at current production rates. It is, therefore, very important for any country to recognize such strategic aspect of nuclear energy when addressing the issue of security of power supply. Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due

  14. Domestic nuclear fuels supply: possibility of an independent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    After considering the different energy sources, their consumption and their respective periods of exploitation, technological considerations in the nuclear fuel field are made. The main subject is the Domestic Supply Project of Embalse Fuel (CANDU type). The different aspects which had to be developed during the realization of this project still under progress, and which are fundamental for the command of the technology, are described: 1) Qualification of the produced fuel elements: fuel elements' characteristics; the reactors' operating parameters, and the prototype fuel elements' characteristics; 2) Development of materials and/or suppliers: the obtainment of UO 2 and its physical properties are considered, as well as those of Zircaloy-4, the development of suppliers and the respective developments for the obtainment of materials such as beryllium, helium and colloidal graphite; 3) Processes development; the following processes are studied and defined: UO 2 pellets fabrication with UO 2 granulated powder; beryllium coating under vaccum; and induction brazing of bearing pads and spacers, end cap and end plate resistance welding and stamping of Zircaloy components, graphite-coating of cladding's internal face; 4) Development of special production equipments; automatic equipment for end cap-to-cladding resistance welding among others. The need for a specific program of quality assurance for nuclear fuels supply is emphasized and the basic criteria are established. The IAEA's quality asssurance requirements are also analyzed. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. An integrated mine development and supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, T. [Brambles Coal Services, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    In the face of intense global competition and other business pressures on coal miners, ongoing quality initiatives and continuous process improvements are needed to enhance business performance. By viewing a minesite interms of key processes, rather than departments, and employing innovative technologies and better applying organisational resources, there exists enormous potential to achieve reductions in process cost and time. The paper identifies and selects one critical coal mining process, namely the supply system, to think about how productivity improvements might occur and what changes might be employed to enhance overall system performance. While the supply system is one of few processes existing at a minesite, the paper addresses only the supply process, but includes interaction across traditional interdepartmental boundaries. The paper has been prepared for a wide audience and is based on experience and observation at several underground mines however some of the concepts are a result of dreaming in the face of global competition. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria

  17. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria.

  18. Uncertainty of Japanese electricity supply after nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the uncertainty of the Japanese energy policy influenced by disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plants. With mounting criticism of nuclear power generation, the pro-nuclear tide which existed prior to the accident will probably end in the newly formulated energy policy. A review of Japan's energy policy is about to start. It is necessary to supply energy that makes us feel safe and secure in order to support people's lives and industrial activities in society. Every energy source entails risks, and we need to develop a concept of allowance that represents what level of energy usage is permissible. This is not a matter of 'making scientific determinations demarcated by the questions of harm versus harmless and risk versus safety', but rather the social concept of 'to what extend can we tolerate the risks while still looking at something as a positive' from the perspective of people's lives. Japanese people have a tendency to judge safety subjectively and demand absolute safety. Various risks have developed in today's globalized society, and it is important to regard permissible levels for each of these risks in an objective fashion. (author)

  19. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... that the increasing world population and the increasing demand for resource intensive food and life style will require a strategy for the future food supply system centred on energy reduction.......Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...

  20. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  1. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Bittsanszky; Nikolett Uzinger; Gábor Gyulai; Alex Mathis; Ranka Junge; Morris Villarroel; Benzion Kotzen; Tamas Komives

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  2. Nuclear fuel supply: Preparing for changed attitudes towards energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, U.; Dibbert, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty about the future course in energy and environmental policy is still considerable. But the following is becoming increasingly clear: In view of the problems of a growing world population, global solutions are needed to safeguard world energy supply. While the possibilities for framing action are already largely beyond the scope of individual states, it is necessary to pursue energy-political courses that are not only humane and sensible but will fully come up to such key demands as economic growth, a clean environment and careful management of resources. Even though opinions and development trends as regards energy production and energy consumption still show wide discrepancies in part in many sectors in the world, a change in attitude towards energy is visible in outline because of the anticipated incalculable impact on climate of increasing levels of trace gases in the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil energy sources. In this connection great store is set by all energy sources and conversion technologies that are apt to drastically curb such emissions world-wide. Current energy shortages in the eastern European countries, which are a consequence of the Gulf crisis in combination with delays in the delivery of fossil fuels by the Soviet Union, as well as the immense environmental problems of these illustrate moreover that nuclear energy certainly is indispensable as an integral part of national schemes for safeguarding energy supply. All the same, vivid public debate about the necessity for and justification of further nuclear energy use is continuing between all groups of society. (orig.) [de

  3. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wredenberg, L.; Billinton, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  4. Bipolar programmable current supply for superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Jaakko; Luusalo, Reeta; Hakonen, Pertti

    1998-09-01

    In high resolution continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) work well-reproducible, linear sweeps of current are needed. We have developed a microcontroller based programmable current supply, tested with superconducting magnets with inductance of 10 mH and 10 H. We achieved a resolution and noise of 4 ppm. The supply has an internal sweep with programmable ramping rate and a possibility for remote operation from a computer with either GPIB or RS232 interface. It is based on an 18-bit D/A converter. The maximum output current is ±10 A, the sweep rate can be set between 1 μA/s-140 mA/s, and the maximum output voltage is ±2.5 V. In work at ultralow temperatures, especially in superconducting quantum interference device NMR, all rf interference to the experiment should be avoided. One of the sources of this kind of unwanted input is the digital switching noise of fast logic devices. We discuss this problem in the context of our design.

  5. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, W.

    2008-01-01

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO 2 -free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  6. INFORMATION SYSTEM OF ENTERPRISE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shatokhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management method for manufacture scheduling and planning basedon APS-algorithm is offered. It . Logistics solutions and inventory management problems are discussed. The structure of automated control system of enterprise is designed and its tasks are described.

  7. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW) [de

  8. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    in the supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply...

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of WPPSS Nuclear Project No. 2. Docket No. 50-397, Washington Public Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for structures, systems, and components; engineered safety features; instrumentation and control; auxiliary systems; conduct of operations; and financial qualifications

  10. The role of nuclear power in securing stable electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. K.; Mun, K. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Market liberalization has an influence on the investment environment. According to the option value analysis, uncertainty in investment decision tends to make small sized power plant more favourable because of its short lead time in construction and of low capital investment. These small sized power plants are largely using fossil fuel under current generation technology. If Korean electric system becomes dependent heavily on fossil fuel fired power plant, stable supply of fossil fuel will be very essential to secure stable electricity supply. Taking into consideration these circumstances, the introduction of additional nuclear power plant is needed, because its fuel cost is small comparing other power options. Therefore, it is required that nuclear sector remain public company as reflected in the current liberalization plan of Korean Electric Power Corporation

  11. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels:(1) individually for each system considered, (2) comparison of systems, (3) comparison of supply options. Results are also provided for these three levels.

  12. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. The work was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), and was supported by the Swiss Association of Producers and Distributers of Electricity (VSE). Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels: 1) individually for each system considered, 2) comparison of systems, 3) comparison of supply

  13. How current are EURATOM provisions on nuclear supply and ownership in view of the European Union's enlargement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is mainly based on two papers presented at nuclear law conferences in 1998 and 2001, respectively setting out the special provisions governing supplies of nuclear fuels to the European Union (Chapter 6 of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, hereinafter referred to as the 'Euratom Treaty') and the right of ownership of the Euratom Community (Chapter 8 of the Euratom Treaty). These special Treaty provisions cannot be compared to anything observed in other legal systems. Hence, with their introduction into the legal systems of the new European Union member states, the question arises as to how current these provisions are and how they have been implemented in practice. Two of the fundamental objectives of the Euratom Treaty most relevant in this field are to ensure that all users in the Community receive a regular and equitable supply of ores and nuclear fuels (Article 2d Euratom) and to exercise the Community's right of ownership with respect to special fissile materials (Article 2f Euratom). Furthermore, the objectives of ensuring the establishment of the basic installations necessary for the development of nuclear energy in the Community (Article 2c Euratom), of safeguarding that material is not diverted from its intended use (Article 2e Euratom), of establishing a common market (Article 2g Euratom) and of maintaining external relations (Article 2h Euratom) can be relevant to nuclear trade and to the Supply Agency's action. The Treaty's philosophy with regard to supply and ownership is the result of a delicate compromise between public authority interventionism and a more free market approach. The interventionism resulted in a monopolistic system of supplies (exclusive right to conclude contracts, right of option, public authority ownership), whereas the free market approach brought about the commercial organisation of the entity responsible for the implementation of supply provisions (separate legal entity, market

  14. Nuclear Systems Kilopower Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Don; Gibson, Marc; Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael; McClure, Patrick; Robinson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project was initiated by NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program in fiscal year 2015 to demonstrate subsystem-level technology readiness of small space fission power in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level 5) for space science and human exploration power needs. The Nuclear Systems Kilopower Project consists of two elements. The primary element is the Kilopower Prototype Test, also called the Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology(KRUSTY) Test. This element consists of the development and testing of a fission ground technology demonstrator of a 1 kWe fission power system. A 1 kWe system matches requirements for some robotic precursor exploration systems and future potential deep space science missions, and also allows a nuclear ground technology demonstration in existing nuclear test facilities at low cost. The second element, the Mars Kilopower Scalability Study, consists of the analysis and design of a scaled-up version of the 1 kWe reference concept to 10 kWe for Mars surface power projected requirements, and validation of the applicability of the KRUSTY experiment to key technology challenges for a 10 kWe system. If successful, these two elements will lead to initiation of planning for a technology demonstration of a 10 kWe fission power capability for Mars surface outpost power.

  15. Evaluation of a seafloor nuclear power supply and its potential applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The seafloor nuclear power supply (SNPS) concept has been proposed by Atomics International (AI) and Lockheed Petroleum Services, Ltd. (LPS) as a source of electrical energy for subsea pumping of petroleum products. It consists of a small nuclear reactor, moderated by zirconium hydride (ZrH) and cooled by liquid metal (NaK), which drives a 3-MW turbine/generator system using toluene as the working fluid. Arthur D. Little, Inc., was selected to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a SNPS, and to determine if potential applications for a SNPS might exist in offshore-oil-field development schemes where conventional power supplies could not be used. It was determined that the concept is technically feasible, with regard to the nuclear, marine, electrical, and petroleum engineering aspects. However, its initial cost of $14 million and operating expenses of $900,000 per year are considerably more in each case than the costs of conventional alternative power supplies. For the type of field development proposed as an example by LPS, a combination of gas turbines and dc cables would cost about $8 million. Fuel in the form of gas from the wells would be available at near-zero cost in almost all cases of field development, so that operating expenses would be minimal. Other power supply and cable systems were investigated, up to lengths of 200 miles. Alternating-current systems are preferred at distances less than 20 miles; direct current is more economical at greater distances. No set of circumstances was found in which oil field development is likely to occur and for which the SNPS offers uniquely attractive capabilities

  16. Nuclear supplier assessment how to control the nuclear supply chain quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henckes, A.

    2010-01-01

    With a road map of 84 (low scenario) to 198 (high scenario)* nuclear power plants to be build in the coming decade arise with intensity safety concerns. The challenge for governments and for nuclear companies as they increase construction is to manage a growing army of contractors and subcontractors worldwide and the quality of their production as well as their ability to deliver in time considering the speed-up and increasing pace of project development. Moreover by the last few years, the scope of needs for nuclear companies to set a QA/QC plan all along the supply chain has been increasingly enlarged with new stakes such as cost savings, social responsibilities and technical compliance. At last, with 'nuclear renaissance', the path to renew accreditation of existing suppliers facing international and domestic law/regulations combinations after a long period of low tide is now clear and wide. Nuclear operating companies and EPIC contractors now face a complex situation where on one side political pressure is hugely strong for a zero incident status to be considered as on the contrary the 'renaissance' will be suddenly stopped, on the other the status of 'industrial' maturity of the supply chain candidates is difficult to assess in a uniform and 'fair' way. Through this paper, the speaker will explain the full size supplier assessment strategy from paper to field which has been implemented in the Oil and Gas sector whose requirements of quality is high too. The speaker will present the key practices of this initiative from which the nuclear market can find more than a source of inspiration. (authors)

  17. Supply Chain Systems Architecture and Engineering Design: Green-field Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Radanliev, Petar

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineer...

  18. The logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The paper describe the logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant, located in Juzbado in the province of Salamanca. In the the article are described the principal elements in the supply chain and the difficulties of its management derived from the short period for the manufacturing of the nuclear fuel. It's also given a view in relation to the transportation by land sea of the nuclear components, uranium oxide powder and the manufactured fuel. The characteristics of the supply chain are determined by the plant production forecast, by the origin and high technology of the raw materials and by nuclear fuel delivery site locations. (Author)

  19. Nuclear fuel supply and demand in Western Europe 1991-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusa, L.

    1992-01-01

    For the past ten years, Unipede and Open have jointly conducted an annual survey among their respective European members about nuclear programmes and nuclear fuel cycle requirements and supplies (uranium and enrichment). Its geographical scope is Western Europe, restricted to those countries having a current nuclear power programme. The respondents are the electric utilities in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany (western Laender only), Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Exclusively electric utilities are surveyed here, i.e. excluding national procurement organizations, traders, brokers, financial institutions, etc. For those countries where more than one utility is active, the responses covers the whole of the country electrical system and not only that of the respondents. The data, obtained from the individual utilities in the same format, are aggregated and form the basis of the report. This surveys cover uranium and enrichment requirements and supplies, recycling of uranium and plutonium, inventories; the quality of the data is guaranteed by the fact that the respondents are generally those people who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the nuclear fuel cycle in their country. The 1991 survey was launched in early June and replies were received between late June and September. This report aims at analysing the aggregated results of the survey and at providing some comments on the evolution of major parameters from the previous years. (author) 13 figs., refs

  20. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  1. Ultracapacitor-Based Uninterrupted Power Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    The ultracapacitor-based uninterrupted power supply (UPS) system enhances system reliability; reduces life-of-system, maintenance, and downtime costs; and greatly reduces environmental impact when compared to conventional UPS energy storage systems. This design provides power when required and absorbs power when required to smooth the system load and also has excellent low-temperature performance. The UPS used during hardware tests at Glenn is an efficient, compact, maintenance-free, rack-mount, pure sine-wave inverter unit. The UPS provides a continuous output power up to 1,700 W with a surge rating of 1,870 W for up to one minute at a nominal output voltage of 115 VAC. The ultracapacitor energy storage system tested in conjunction with the UPS is rated at 5.8 F. This is a bank of ten symmetric ultracapacitor modules. Each module is actively balanced using a linear voltage balancing technique in which the cell-to-cell leakage is dependent upon the imbalance of the individual cells. The ultracapacitors are charged by a DC power supply, which can provide up to 300 VDC at 4 A. A constant-voltage, constant-current power supply was selected for this application. The long life of ultracapacitors greatly enhances system reliability, which is significant in critical applications such as medical power systems and space power systems. The energy storage system can usually last longer than the application, given its 20-year life span. This means that the ultracapacitors will probably never need to be replaced and disposed of, whereas batteries require frequent replacement and disposal. The charge-discharge efficiency of rechargeable batteries is approximately 50 percent, and after some hundreds of charges and discharges, they must be replaced. The charge-discharge efficiency of ultracapacitors exceeds 90 percent, and can accept more than a million charges and discharges. Thus, there is a significant energy savings through the efficiency improvement, and there is far less

  2. RI Mapping System for Identification of Radiological Contamination in Environmental Water Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Teresa W.; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hyun; Na, Teresa W.; Lee, Rena

    2012-01-01

    The interest of radiation protection has risen due to accidents of the Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear terrorism, and the radiological contamination in the city, In this respect, the development of environmental radiation monitoring for the radiological contaminants has been studied. In this study, the experiment for the radiological contamination in the water supply pipe line system has been simulated and preliminarily tested. The CsI(Tl)-PIN diode detectors were used and the preliminary test of radiation monitoring system was performed as multi detection system. The 2D image reconstruction algorithm was also developed for feasibility of the constructed multi-detection system

  3. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  4. Problems in producing nuclear reactor for medical isotopes and the Global Crisis of molybdenum supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiarrain, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses drugs that incorporate a radioactive isotope radiopharmaceuticals. Every year are performed, worldwide, 35 million nuclear medicine procedures, of which 80% are done with radiopharmaceuticals containing the isotope, molybdenum-99, produced in nuclear reactors. In recent years, there have been several supply crisis of molybdenum-99, which have hampered diagnostic procedure with technitium-99m. (Author)

  5. Fuel supply investment cost: coal and nuclear. Commercial electric power cost studies (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This study presents an accounting model for calculating the capital investment requirements for coal and nuclear fuel supply facilities. The study addresses mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of coal and nuclear fuels. A generic example is provided, for coal from different sources, and for nuclear fuel. The relationship of capital investment requirements to delivered prices is included in each example

  6. Labor supply of engineers and scientists for nuclear electric utilities, 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of the adequacy of the supply of health physicists, nuclear engineers, and other engineers for the nuclear electric utility industry is based on job openings for scientists and engineers in broader nuclear-power-related fields, which include engineering and design, manufacturing, fabrication, supporting services, and government. In assessing the likely adequacy of labor supplies for commercial nuclear power job openings over the next 5 yr, consideration has been given to competing sources of labor demands, including nuclear energy research and development activities, nuclear defense, and the total US economy, and to the likely supply of new graduates. In particular, over the last 3 yr, the number of degrees awarded and enrollments in nuclear engineering programs have declined 12 and 14%, respectively, and in health physics programs, 5 and 14%, respectively. For health physics and nuclear engineers, tight labor market conditions (i.e. labor supplies and demand balanced at relatively high salaries) are expected over the next 5 yr because of declining enrollments and slowly growing employment levels plus job replacement needs. The commercial nuclear power field is expected to face tight labor markets for electrical and materials engineers because of strong competing demands in the economy. Other engineering occupations are likely to have adequate supplies for the nuclear power field but at salaries that continue to be relatively higher than salaries for other professional occupations

  7. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems

  8. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon

    2006-01-01

    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10 th survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering

  9. Proposal for a district heat supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alefeld, G.

    1976-01-01

    A district heating scheme is proposed which makes it possible to use the waste heat from power stations for the supply of households and industry. The heat is stored by evaporation of ammonia salts or liquids with dissolved salts. Both substances are transported on existing rail- or waterways to heating stations near the consumers, and the heat recovered by reaction of the two components. Then the product of reaction is transported back to the power stations, and reactivated by heat again. Based on a cost estimation, it can be shown that the proposed heat transport with heat trains or ships, at distances up to 100 km, results in heat costs which are to-day already below that of heat from fuel oil. The investment required for the heat transport system is unusually low due to the use of transport ways which already exist. The district heating system is not only favourable in respect of the environment, but actually reduces its present strain, both at the consumer and at the power stations. The technical advantages of the suggested concept, especially the possibility of introducing it in stages, are discussed. The consequences for the national economy regarding the safety of supply and the trade balance, as well as for the public transport undertakings, are obvious, and therefore not included in the paper. (orig.) [de

  10. Bibliography: books and articles on nuclear waste, nuclear power and power supply during the years 1971-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djerf, M.; Hedberg, P.

    1988-06-01

    The bibliography provides a list of the supply published Swedish books and articles in periodicals on nuclear waste and nuclear power. Regarding book publication the bibliography comprises publications on questions of nuclear power and nuclear waste on the whole, whereas the bibliography on the periodical articles solely comprises nuclear waste questions. The book bibliography consists of a selective choice of publications, identified by a mapping of the total supply of information on energy- and nuclear power issues in articles and other publications in Sweden. The literature inventory as a whole is part of a grater research project aiming at a study of the role of mass media in forming public opinion about the nuclear power waste question. (O.S.)

  11. The supply contract of nuclear fuel and replacement of nuclear reactor core in Yonggwang - 3. 4 nuclear power plant in 1995 - 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document is supply contract of replacement of nuclear reactor core and nuclear fuel. It consists of 28 clauses which are definition of the terms, price-fixing, payment, schedule, guarantee, exchange and extra service, cancellation of a contract, insurance, sanction, tax, grievance mediation, responsibility, notice and down payment. It has 5 appendixes that lists additional supply contract of extra service and procedures.

  12. Composite type nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Koichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention realizes a high thermal efficiency by heating steams at the exit of a steam generator of a nuclear power plant to high temperature by a thermal super-heating boiler. That is, a thermal superheating boiler is disposed between the steam generator and a turbogenerator to heat steams from the steam generator and supply them to the turbogenerator. In this case, it may be possible that feedwater superheating boiler pipelines to the steam generator are caused to pass through the thermal superheating boiler so that they also have a performance of heating feedwater. If the system of the present invention is used, it is possible to conduct base load operation by nuclear power and a load following operation by controlling the thermal superheating boiler. Further, a hydrogen producing performance is applied to the thermal superheating boiler to produce hydrogen when electric power load is lowered. An internally sustaining type operation method can be conducted of burning hydrogen by the superheating boiler upon increased electric power load. As a result, a power generation system which has an excellent economical property and can easily cope with the load following operation can be attained. (I.S.)

  13. Nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A safety system for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is described. The system includes a series of parallel-connected computer memory type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter and in each of which a precalculated functional value for that parameter is stored indicative of the percentage of maximum reactor load that the parameter contributes. The various functional values corresponding to the actual measured parameters are added together to provide a control signal used to shut down the reactor under overload conditions. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a safety system for a nuclear reactor which uses a parallel combination of computer type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular parameter (from transducers located in the reactor system) and each of which produces the functional counterpart of that particular parameter. The various functional counterparts are then added together to form a control signal for shutting down the reactor. The functional counterparts are developed by analysis of experimental thermal and hydraulic data, which are used to form expressions that define safe conditions

  15. Nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules

  16. Design considerations for micro nuclear reactors to supply power to off-grid mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gihm, B.; Cooper, G.; Morettin, D.; De Koning, P.; Carreau, M.; Sarvinis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear technology vendors have been proposing to develop small scale nuclear reactors to supply power and heat to remote industrial operations such as a mining site. Based on extensive experience in integrating different power generation technologies with captive mining power systems, Hatch examined the technical requirements of small scale nuclear reactor application in remote mine power generation. Mining power systems have unique characteristics and challenges that set them apart from utility grid connected power systems. Key examples of such unique characteristics are: A small number of large motor loads such as hoists, pumps, shovels, pumps and crushers represent a large fraction of the peak load. These equipment may cause significant load fluctuations and put the power systems under high stress; There is no organic demand growth (i.e., the load growth occurs as a step increase); and, The extreme environmental conditions and remoteness of the sites introduce a set of operational challenges and require specialized planning. This paper presents real remote mine operation data to demonstrate the load profile of remote mining sites. The operation characteristics and performance requirements of diesel reciprocating engines are discussed, which have to be matched or exceeded by a small scale nuclear power plant if it is to be a viable technical alternative to diesel power. The power quality control options from wind power integration in isolated grids are discussed as a parallel can be drawn between wind and nuclear power application in remote mine power systems. Finally the authors provided a list of technical constraints and design considerations for very small modular reactor development. (author)

  17. Nuclear criticality information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety program at LLNL began in the 1950's with a critical measurements program which produced benchmark data until the late 1960's. This same time period saw the rapid development of computer technology useful for both computer modeling of fissile systems and for computer-aided management and display of the computational benchmark data. Database management grew in importance as the amount of information increased and as experimental programs were terminated. Within the criticality safety program at LLNL we began at that time to develop a computer library of benchmark data for validation of computer codes and cross sections. As part of this effort, we prepared a computer-based bibliography of criticality measurements on relatively simple systems. However, it is only now that some of these computer-based resources can be made available to the nuclear criticality safety community at large. This technology transfer is being accomplished by the DOE Technology Information System (TIS), a dedicated, advanced information system. The NCIS database is described

  18. Study of the supply chain of the Brazilian Nuclear Program: partial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document aims to contextualize the impact of the nuclear sector retaking national and internationally, on the productive phases, identifying the supply chain, analyzing the actual situation as well as the favorable perspectives and existing critical points

  19. Supply guarantee initiatives for nuclear fuel materials and services and their compatibility with the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2009-01-01

    This paper first discusses where and why those ideas for nuclear fuel supply assurance and guarantee mechanisms came out, and attempts to draw a comparison among the proposed schemes and thereby examine possible steps forward. (author)

  20. Demand for and supply of nuclear fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, M.

    1995-01-01

    The overall European nuclear generating capacity appears fairly stable during the study period, at around 170 GWe. This apparent stability is hiding larger local variations. In western Europe the main decrease of nuclear capacity is attributable to Sweden due to the choice made to retain as achieved by 2010 the officially announced country decision to close down all its nuclear reactors. On the contrary France has planned to increase its capacity by another 15%. Nuclear capacity will as well increase in UK with a follow-up to Sizewell scheduled. In eastern Europe, the nuclear capacities should increase by about 10% during the forecast period, once the economic situation is settled in the two main nuclear countries: Russia and Ukraine. (orig.)

  1. Addressing the supply security of the nuclear fuel cycle: a US merchant generator risk acceptance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R. P.; Benavides, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    With the current rising markets across the nuclear fuel supply spectrum, understanding and managing nuclear fuel cycle supply security risk becomes an increasingly important consideration. In addressing this area, Constellation Energy is implementing an integrated multifaceted approach as consistent with a comprehensive risk profile covering the nuclear fuel supply industry. This approach is founded on use of a utility traditional procurement strategy, as dependent on the qualitative parameters of supply origination diversification, geopolitical stability, contracting duration and individual supplier financial bases. However, Constellation also adds an additional consideration into development of this nuclear fuel supply risk profile. To do such, qualitative assessments covering specific supplier risks, as based on the parameters of supplier management and organizational structure, design capacities (applicable to fabrication and enrichment only), operational history as applicable to forward-looking performance, regulatory or legal history and financial performance are also considered. Constellation overlays the risks of future availabilities, catastrophic occurrences and prices for each nuclear fuel material and service component onto a quantitative set of results. The overall focus of these assessments is the creation of a risk management perspective directed towards determining the potential loss or delay of nuclear fuel supply for our operating reactors. The conclusion of this effort is an integrated assessment of the nuclear fuel supply security as applicable to the Constellation-specific structured risk profile. Use of this assessment allows Constellation to target appropriate suppliers of interest in the marketplace and form the fundamental bases for the Constellation procurement strategy while managing risks associated with nuclear fuel cycle supply security. (authors)

  2. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system is disclosed. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel

  3. Prospects of an integrated nuclear desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Hwang, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    Currently over one billion persons suffer from water shortages, unreliable water supplies, and unsanitary conditions related to inadequate water supplies. Hence the global need and demand for clean fresh water is increasing. Seawater desalination has become a proven and reliable process to produce clean fresh water. Since 1950, a large number of seawater desalination plants have been installed and it is projected to continue to increase. Seawater desalination requires energy in the form of heat or electricity or both. Fossil fuels have been the energy source for desalination and they are expected to remain the main energy source for desalination in the future. However, many concerns from using fossil fuels as an energy source have been raised such as air pollution, the greenhouse effect, and depletion of valuable natural energy resources. Several alternative energy sources can be considered to partly replace the fossil fuels used for seawater desalination. One of the potentially rewarding alternatives is nuclear energy. Nuclear power plants are well suited to supply the energy needed. Also, nuclear desalination has economic advantages over the alternative energy options. Nuclear reactors are used mainly for the production of either heat or electricity. The steam may be used for supplying the energy to produce potable water. The electricity generated can be used to drive the high pressure pumps of the reverse osmosis desalination plants. A coupling of the nuclear system is not difficult but needs some special considerations. Technical feasibility of integrated nuclear desalination plants has been proven through worldwide operating experience for over 150 reactor-years. Economic competitiveness has been demonstrated through the IAEA's desalination economic evaluation program

  4. Why nuclear geostorage systems for petroleum?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harst, L. van der; Knutson, C.F.

    1970-01-01

    The objective of any kind of storage system in general is to act as a buffer between cyclical changes in supply and demand of the stored commodities. Since the advent of nuclear explosives engineering the possibility of constructing large-scale underground storage systems by means of contained nuclear explosions, for which the name nuclear geostorage has been coined, should be regarded as a valid alternative to the conventional storage systems currently in existence. Limiting this discussion to systems for storing crude oil, various options are available. The choice of any particular storage method depends, of course, on the circumstances surrounding each particular storage requirement; however, in many cases and for a variety of reasons, nuclear geostorage can be preferable to conventional solutions. Economic considerations are clearly among the most important ones. In this respect an increase in storage capacity will tend to favor the nuclear approach. Besides the economics, however, other considerations are important and may in some cases swing the balance in favor of nuclear geostorage plants, for instance: safety and strategic values, aesthetics, ease of access, lack of suitable tank farm space or lack of suitable geologic conditions for natural reservoirs. It should be borne in mind that the decision to use the nuclear approach to solve a storage problem can only be taken after satisfactory evaluation of the geological and geographical characteristics of the site, and when the technical, safety, political, and public relations factors can be handled adequately. (author)

  5. The nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various nuclear reactor systems, starting with the Generation II, then the present development of the Generation III and the stakes and challenges of the future Generation IV. Some have found appropriate to oppose reactor systems or generations one to another, especially by minimizing the enhancements of generation III compared to generation II or by expecting the earth from generation IV (meaning that generation III is already obsolete). In the first part of the document (chapter 2), some keys are given to the reader to develop its proper opinion. Chapter 3 describes more precisely the various reactor systems and generations. Chapter 4 discusses the large industrial manoeuvres around the generation III, and the last chapter gives some economical references, taking into account, for the various means of power generation, the impediments linked to climate protection

  6. Supply chain of steel industries for the nuclear power plant construction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharu Dewi; Sahala M Lumbanraja

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Construction needs steel materials for the manufacturing of heavy components and civil work construction. National industries is expected to supply steel components especially for non nuclear component needs. Supply chain of steel industries is required to know the potency of steel industries from upstream to downstream industries which can support the NPP construction sustainability. The type of steel needed in the NPP construction consist of structure steel, rebar, steel plate, etc. The aim of the study is to identify supply chain of steel industries from upstream industries to downstream industries so that they can supply steel needs in the NPP construction. The methodology used are literature review and industries survey by purposive sampling test which sent questionnaires and carrying out technical visits to the potential industries to supply steel components for NPP construction. From the analysis of the questionnaires and survey, it has been obtained that the Indonesian steel industries capable of supplying steel for construction materials of non-nuclear parts are PT. Krakatau Steel, PT. Gunung Steel Group (PT Gunung Garuda and PT. Gunung Raja Paksi), PT. Cilegon Fabricators and PT. Ometraco Arya Samanta. While steel materials for primary components with nuclear grade, such as steel materials for reactor vessels and pressure vessels, the Indonesian steel industry has not been able to supply them. Therefore, the Indonesian steel industries must improve its capability, both in raw material processing and fabrication capability in order to meet the requirements of specifications, codes and standards of nuclear grade. (author)

  7. Which way are energy supply and nuclear power going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    The attitude of and opinions expressed by Hannes Alfven at the Salzburg conference are criticised. The general opinion is expressed that much of the attitude amongst adherents of the new technology, alternative science and so forth, is due to a mystic-religious need, no longer satisfied by science and technology as a substitute for religion. This has resulted in an anti-technological wave, focussed largely on nuclear power. The conference, however, was primarily technical, and much progress was reported. The opinion is also expressed, based on early reactor and reprocessing work in Norway that the majority of the member states of the U.N. could in the course of a few years themselves produce unaided the raw materials for nuclear weapons. Diversion of nuclear materials from civil power programs qraws attention from the real problem, nuclear disarmament. A minor episode involving an Austrian opponent of nuclear power is described. (JIW)

  8. Systems integration processes for space nuclear electric propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.S.; Rice, J.W.; Stanley, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The various components and subsystems that comprise a nuclear electric propulsion system should be developed and integrated so that each functions ideally and so that each is properly integrated with the other components and subsystems in the optimum way. This paper discusses how processes similar to those used in the development and intergration of the subsystems that comprise the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System concepts can be and are being efficiently and effectively utilized for these purposes. The processes discussed include the development of functional and operational requirements at the system and subsystem level; the assessment of individual nuclear power supply and thruster concepts and their associated technologies; the conduct of systems integration efforts including the evaluation of the mission benefits for each system; the identification and resolution of concepts development, technology development, and systems integration feasibility issues; subsystem, system, and technology development and integration; and ground and flight subsystem and integrated system testing

  9. Nuclear power supplies: their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B.W.; Brehm, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The anticipated growth of the space station power requirement provides a good example of the problem the space nuclear power supply developers have to contend with: should a reactor power supply be developed that attempts to be all things to all missions, i.e., is highly flexible in its ability to meet a wide variety of missions, or should the development of a reactor system await a specific mission definition and be customized to this mission. This leads, of course, to a chicken-and-egg situation. For power requirements of several hundreds of kilowatts or more, no nuclear power source exists or is even far enough along in the definition stage (much less the development stage) for NASA to reasonably assume probable availability within the next 10 years. The real problem of space nuclear power is this ''chicken-and-egg'' syndrome: DOE will not develop a space reactor system for NASA without a firm mission, and NASA will not specify a firm mission requiring a space reactor because such a system doesn't exist and is perceived not to be developable within the time frame of the mission. The problem is how to break this cycle. The SP-100 program has taken an important first step to breaking this cycle, but this program is much more design-specific than what is required to achieve a broad technology base and latitude in achievable power level. In contrast to the SP-100 approach, a wider perspective is required: the development of the appropriate technologies for power levels can be broken into ranges, say, from 100 kWe to 1000 kWe, and from 1000 kWe to 10,000 kWe

  10. Effect of Information System Strategies on Supply Chain Strategies and Supply Chain Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M. Torabizadeh; M. Khatami Rad; A. Noshadi

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve competitive advantage and better performance of firm, supply chain management (SCM) strategy should support and drive forward business strategy. It means that supply chain should be aligned with business strategy, at the same time supply chain (SC) managers need to use appropriate information system (IS) solution to support their strategy, which would lead to stay competitive. There are different kinds of IS strategies which enable managers to meet the...

  11. Pollution-free energy supply system. Mukogai energy kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Tsukamoto, M.; Hayashibara, M. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-19

    This invention aims to solve the problems of stable supply of natural energy and the construction cost, enhancing the power output per unit area, producing a hydrogen gas which is free from pollution, thus stably supplying power and hydrogen fuel. In this invention, integration is made of the systems such as a light/heat collection system wherein the solar light is collected and converted into heat, a thermal power generating system which converts the heat into electricity, a wind power generating system wherein a wind receiving blade is rotated by the wind power and the rotation force is converted into electricity and a wave power generating system which converts the tidal force into electricity and a current power generating system. By this arrangement, the take out of electric energy per unit area was increased. In addition, hydrogen is produced by an electrolysis of water by utilizing this electric power. 3 figs.

  12. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  13. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-11-14

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  14. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beam of about1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I /SUB max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has /SUP max/ left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of about20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems

  15. Arterial supply of the thumb: Systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletin, J; Sukop, A; Baca, V; Kachlik, D

    2017-10-01

    We offer a complete systemic review of the anatomy of arteries of the thumb, including their sources in the first web space. Eleven studies were selected from the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and Ovid databases. Data about each artery of the thumb were obtained; in particular, the incidence and dominance of each of these arteries were calculated. The ulnopalmar digital artery of the thumb (UPDAT) was found in 99.63%, the radiopalmar digital artery of the thumb (RPDAT) in 99.26%, the ulnodorsal digital artery of the thumb (UDDAT) in 83.39%, and the radiodorsal digital artery of the thumb (RDDAT) in 70.38%. The sources for the thumb arteries are the first palmar metacarpal artery (for UPDAT in 63.15%, for RPDAT in 78.88%, for UDDAT in 56.95% and for RDDAT in 41.48%), the first dorsal metacarpal artery (for UPDAT in 20.54%, for RPDAT 2.53%, for UDDAT in 20.62%, and for RDDAT in 4.81%) and the superficial palmar arch, either complete or incomplete (for UPDAT in 25.57%, for RPDAT in 23.04%, for UDDAT in 0%, and for RDDAT in 5.19%). The dominant source could be identified in 88.2% of cases: the first palmar metacarpal artery (66.2%), the first dorsal metacarpal artery (15.5%) and the superficial palmar arch, complete or incomplete (8.2%). Four arteries usually supply the thumb. Any artery in the first web space can be a source for the thumb arteries. We propose a new classification of the arteries of the hand, dividing them into three systems (superficial palmar, deep palmar and dorsal system), and suggest that the term "princeps pollicis artery" be reconsidered and systemic anatomical terms of the thumb arteries preferred. Clin. Anat. 30:963-973, 2017. ©2017 Wiley-Liss, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Abort kicker power supply systems at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.

    1985-06-01

    Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beams of approx.1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I/sub max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I/sub max/ for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of approx.20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention is given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades are given for the two operational systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Multiplicity in public health supply systems: a learning agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornbusch, Alan; Bates, James

    2013-08-01

    Supply chain integration-merging products for health programs into a single supply chain-tends to be the dominant model in health sector reform. However, multiplicity in a supply system may be justified as a risk management strategy that can better ensure product availability, advance specific health program objectives, and increase efficiency.

  18. Nuclear technologies for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.; Lynch, G.F.

    1990-03-01

    If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified and appropriate reactors developed. The Canadian program on reactor systems for local energy supply is at the forefront of these developments. This program emphasizes design simplicity, low power density and fuel rating, reliance on natural processes, passive systems, and reduced reliance on operator action. The first product, the SLOWPOKE Energy System, is a 10 MW heat source specifically designed to provide hot water to satisfy the needs of local heating systems for building complexes, institutions and municipal district heating systems. A demonstration heating reactor has been constructed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Manitoba and has been undergoing an extensive test program since first operation in 1987 July. Based on the knowledge learned from the design, construction, licensing and operational testing of this facility, the design of the 10 MW commercial-size unit is well advanced, and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is prepared to commit the construction of the first commercial unit. Although the technical demonstration of the concept is important, it is recognized that another crucial element is the public and regulatory acceptance of small nuclear systems in urban areas. The decision by a community to commit the construction of a SLOWPOKE Energy System brings to a sharp focus the current public apprehension about nuclear technologies

  19. Can Slovakia secure reliable electricity supply without nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pnacek, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with structure of electricity production in the Slovak republic in 2006 and perspectives of electricity supply up to 2020 year. Decommissioning of Unit 1 and Unit 2 of the Bohunice NPP and completion of Unit 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP are discussed

  20. Heat supply analysis of steam reforming hydrogen production process in conventional and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2015-01-01

    Tile analysis of heat energy supply in the production of hydrogen by natural gas steam reforming process has been done. The aim of the study is to compare the energy supply system of conventional and nuclear heat. Methodology used in this study is an assessment of literature and analysis based on the comparisons. The study shows that the heat sources of fossil fuels (natural gas) is able to provide optimum operating conditions of temperature and pressure of 850-900 °C and 2-3 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by radiation heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved on the catalyst tube relatively high (50-80 kW/m 2 ) and provide high thermal efficiency of about 85 %. While in the system with nuclear energy, due to the demands of safety, process operating at less than optimum conditions of temperature and pressure of 800-850 °C and 4.5 MPa, as well as the heat transfer is dominated by convection heat transfer, so that the heat flux that can be achieved catalyst tube is relatively low (1020 kW/m 2 ) and it provides a low thermal efficiency of about 50 %. Modifications of reformer and heat utilization can increase the heat flux up to 40 kW/m 2 so that the thermal efficiency can reach 78 %. Nevertheless, the application of nuclear energy to hydrogen production with steam reforming process is able to reduce the burning of fossil fuels which has implications for the potential decrease in the rate of CO2 emissions into the environment. (author)

  1. Present state of the perception gap of nuclear energy between Japanese nuclear energy supplying region and an energy consuming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2002-01-01

    Public opinion surveys have been carried out since 1998 on what phase and on what extent of the perception of nuclear energy differs between Japanese dwelling in energy supplying region and an energy-consuming region. Southern Fukui rural district where 15 nuclear reactors are now installed and Osaka urban region of about 100 km apart from Fukui were selected as the respective targets for the energy supplying and consuming regions. Analyses of the data of about 3000 samples have revealed the followings. (1) The public in the nuclear energy supplying region are very friendly to nuclear energy so that only about 20 and 39 of the public are resistive to the general promotion of nuclear energy in Japan and to the construction of another nuclear reactor in their dwelling region, respectively. (2) On the other hand, in the energy-consuming region those respective fractions are 41 and 70 implying strong resistance to nuclear energy in the urban region. (3) Both the degree of interest in and the degree of knowledge on nuclear energy are very low, whereas the extent of fear to nuclear is high for the urban public. (4) Not only the fraction of the public who are satisfied with their present life, but the public fraction who is eagerly support the thought of return-to-nature are very high in the urban region. (5) On the other hand, in the energy supplying region, many peoples eagerly want their life to become more convenient than it is now, and 6) all those trends (I)-(5) are revealed more pronouncedly in the woman than the man. The perception gap of nuclear energy thus became clear between Japanese dwelling in rural and urban regions. On the basis of this knowledge, discussions on the nature of the so-called NIMBY will be made from the socio-psychological viewpoint and propositions will also be made on the methods to dissolve the perception gap of that soft. (author)

  2. Issues Associated with IAEA Involvement in Assured Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.

    2008-02-08

    Assured nuclear fuel supply has been discussed at various times as a mechanism to help limit expansion of enrichment and reprocessing (E&R) capability beyond current technology holders. Given the events in the last few years in North Korea and Iran, concern over weapons capabilities gained from acquisition of E&R capabilities has heightened and brought assured nuclear fuel supply (AFS) again to the international agenda. Successful AFS programs can be valuable contributions to strengthening the nonproliferation regime and helping to build public support for expanding nuclear energy.

  3. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  4. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

  5. Multipurpose nuclear process heat for energy supply in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, U.; Inden, P.; Oesterwind, D.; Hukai, R.Y.; Pessine, R.T.; Pieroni, R.R.; Visoni, E.

    1978-11-01

    The industrialized nations require 75% of the energy as heat and it is likely that developing countries in the course of industrialization will show a comparable energy consumption structure. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) allows the utilization of nuclear energy at high temperatures as process heat. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the development in the relevant technical areas is well advanced and warrants investigation as a matter for transfer to Brazil. In Brazil nuclear process heat finds possible applications in steel making, shale oil extraction, petroleum refining, and in the more distant future coal gasification with distribution networks. Based on growth forecasts for these industries a theoretical potential market of 38-53 GW (th) can be identified. At present nuclear process heat is marginally more expensive than conventional fossil technologies but the anticipated development is expected to add an economic incentive to the emerging necessity of providing a sound energy base in the developing countries. (author)

  6. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  7. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  8. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  9. The future energy supply in Germany in a common Europe with special emphasis on the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, G.

    2003-01-01

    The decision by the red-green federal government to opt out of the use of nuclear power has considerable consequences for the power industry and the national economy of Germany. In addition, there are additional burdens resulting from the Renewable Energies Act and the Cogeneration Act. Besides economic aspects, there are ecological benefits to be considered in favor of nuclear power. In addition to renewable energy sources, it is one of the important sources of energy which are free from CO 2 emissions. In opt-out decision also jeopardizes the role of Germany as a partner in international cooperation, with an acknowledged standard of nuclear know-how and a cutting-edge position in technical safety. The approaches towards a future energy supply system were put into specific terms together with the CDU/CSU within the activities of the parliamentary committee of inquiry on 'sustainable Energy Supply Under Conditions of Globalization and Deregulation'. The growing dependence on external energy sources, and the goals of climate protection, are other important tasks of future energy policy within the European framework. The Green Book by the EU Commission constitutes a remarkable basis for discussion in this respect. Current problems connected with nuclear power should be discussed seriously in order for nuclear power to continue successfully to contribute to energy supply in Europe. (orig.) [de

  10. Role of nuclear power in securing future energy supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, J.

    1982-01-01

    Status of nuclear power engineering development in the FRG is considered. The problems of NPP waste and spent fuel reprocessing and problems of fast and high-temperature reactor design are discussed. It is noted that in 1980 the NPP registered power in the FRG amounted to about 9300 MW, that corresponds to approximately 14% of power production in the country. NPPs with power of 30000 MW (el.) are under construction or prepared for it at present. It is concluded that the prospects of nuclear power engineering development in the FRG are good now though in the past it developed too slowly

  11. The power supply of the future - sustainable or nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the available contribution the author directs the view of the complexity as a neglected peculiarity of the large technology. Many elements of the energy conflicts and dangers of the energy supply are explainable only by the uncritical attitudes in relation to the associated and not sufficiently solvable complexity problems. The criticism to it is directed not alone against the atomic energy, but more generally against the heedless technique philosophy of the power suppliers

  12. Systems thinking benefits in supply change management:an illustration of the viable systems model in a supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chronéer, Diana; Mirijamdotter, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Existing product development models are solely an organisational matter. They do not take into consideration the whole supply chain and its different actors. We investigate in this paper how Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Viable System Model (VSM) can support and create an effective use of information in product development and hence identify critical linkages in the supply chain. The aim is to introduce VSM as a framework that enable an analysis of company's supply chains and visualize vi...

  13. Monitoring the Vulnerability of Energy Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansonounou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of the world evolution, the public decision makers, the energy supply industry and the consumers in industrialised countries are more and more sensitive to the vulnerability of energy supply. The emergence of new big consumer countries and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about how to share fairly the remaining resources for the common and sustainable development of the mankind. Erratic energy prices discourage investment and delay the energy transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources and to avoid world struggle for energy procurement. In this contribution a synthetic energy vulnerability index is defined for monitoring energy supply vulnerability. The proposed index is based on energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply vulnerability and non-diversity in transport fuels. The preliminary assessment of this synthetic index for selected industrialised countries provides promising results that need however further refinement.(author)

  14. Financial community's perceived impacts which could result from default or successful legal challenge by participants in Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Project Nos. 4 and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-02

    Views and opinions were gathered from financial experts on the possible financial impacts and consequences that a Supply System bond default or successful legal challenge could have on the region's future ability to raise capital. Information is presented concerning power development in the Northwest; termination of WNP-4 and WNP-5 reactors; impact and consequences of default; and impact of successful legal challenge to take or pay contracts.

  15. Supply and demand estimates for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussermann, W.; Hogroian, P.; Krymm, R.; Cameron, J.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the nuclear power growth forecasts described in the papers for Session I.B., estimates of requirements in the nuclear fuel cycle are given, notably concerning: - natural uranium, - enriched uranium, - fuel fabrication services, and - reprocessing services. The influence of realistic scenarios of uranium and plutonium recycling on fuel cycle requirements is discussed. Furthermore, the known plans for uranium and related fuel cycle production capacities are compared with the foreseeable demand. These estimates cover the period between now and the year 2000. However, in order to determine the influence of possible variations in reactor strategies on uranium demand, notably the introduction of breeder reactors, power growth projections and resulting fuel cycle requirements beyond the year 2000 are also briefly considered [fr

  16. Power supply devices and systems of relay protection

    CERN Document Server

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Power Supply Devices and Systems of Relay Protection brings relay protection and electrical power engineers a single, concentrated source of information on auxiliary power supply systems and devices. The book also tackles specific problems and solutions of relay protection power supply systems and devices, which are often not dealt with in the literature. The author, an experienced engineer with more than 100 patents, draws on his own experience to offer practical, tested advice to readers. A Guide to Relay Protection Power Supply for Engineers and Technicians The first chapter reviews the ele

  17. Developing performance management systems for the green supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mutingi, Michael; Mapfaira, Herbert; Monageng, Robert

    2014-01-01

    As 'green' issues continue to become a global concern in the manufacturing supply chain, developing appropriate performance measurement systems for specific supply chains is imperative. Various green supply chain management strategies have been proposed in different contexts. On the other hand, a number of performance management systems (PMS) have been proposed. However, given the variations in the contexts of the available green strategies and the performance measurement approaches, selectin...

  18. Probabilistic safety analysis of DC power supply requirements for nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowsky, P.W.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Fedele, M.A.

    1981-04-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment was performed as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission generic safety task A-30, Adequacy of Safety Related DC Power Supplies. Event and fault tree analysis techniques were used to determine the relative contribution of DC power related accident sequences to the total core damage probability due to shutdown cooling failures. It was found that a potentially large DC power contribution could be substantially reduced by augmenting the minimum design and operational requirements. Recommendations included (1) requiring DC power divisional independence, (2) improved test, maintenance, and surveillance, and (3) requiring core cooling capability be maintained following the loss of one DC power bus and a single failure in another system

  19. Maintaining a balanced electricity supply favours increased nuclear capacity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahti, Toivola

    2001-01-01

    Finland's electricity supply is based on a balanced mix of energy sources to maximize the security of supply and to keep the volatility of electricity price at a minimum. One third of electricity is obtained from domestic sources hydro, wood and peat. Nuclear power provides one quarter and fossil fuels slightly over one fifth. Electricity imports from neighbour countries cover the rest of the consumption. It is important to maintain this balanced structure also when electricity supply is being increased. Domestic renewable sources are not enough to cover the predicted future needs, and increasing imports would risk the security of supply. Increasing the proportion of fossil fuels is not a generally desired option. Therefore, balanced increase of nuclear capacity has to be included among the choices of future electricity generation. (author)

  20. Supply system with microprocessor control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplin, N.I.; Sergeev, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Precision supply system for electron gun used in Auger-spectrometer is described. The supply system consists of control and high-voltage parts, made as separate units. Supply high-voltage unit includes system supply module, filament module to supply electron gun cathode and 6 high-volt modules to supply accelerating, modulating and three focusing electrodes of the gun. High-voltage modules have the following characteristics: U-(100-1000)V output voltage, 5x10 -5 U stability, 10 -5 xU pulsation amplitude, J-(0-5)A filament current change range at 10 -4 xJ stability. Control unit including microprocessor, timer and storage devices forms control voltage for all modules and regulates voltage and current of filament at electrodes

  1. [Design and research of hospital medical supplies management information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-lin

    2009-03-01

    This paper introduces an advanced means to confirm management objective, analyze management need, reduce purchase and operating cost, optimize the flow management and establish a medical supplies management information system in purchasing, using, maintaining and disposing step. The system has advantage in realizing efficiency analyze, improving service and quality, guaranteeing safely use of medical supplies.

  2. A supply chain approach to biochar systems [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Richard D. Bergman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Biochar systems are designed to meet four related primary objectives: improve soils, manage waste, generate renewable energy, and mitigate climate change. Supply chain models provide a holistic framework for examining biochar systems with an emphasis on product life cycle and end use. Drawing on concepts in supply chain management and engineering, this chapter presents...

  3. Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azarmehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.

  4. Innovative nuclear energy systems roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Developing nuclear energy that is sustainable, safe, has little waste by-product, and cannot be proliferated is an extremely vital and pressing issue. To resolve the four issues through free thinking and overall vision, research activities of 'innovative nuclear energy systems' and 'innovative separation and transmutation' started as a unique 21st Century COE Program for nuclear energy called the Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, COE-INES. 'Innovative nuclear energy systems' include research on CANDLE burn-up reactors, lead-cooled fast reactors and using nuclear energy in heat energy. 'Innovative separation and transmutation' include research on using chemical microchips to efficiently separate TRU waste to MA, burning or destroying waste products, or transmuting plutonium and other nuclear materials. Research on 'nuclear technology and society' and 'education' was also added in order for nuclear energy to be accepted into society. COE-INES was a five-year program ending in 2007. But some activities should be continued and this roadmap detailed them as a rough guide focusing inventions and discoveries. This technology roadmap was created for social acceptance and should be flexible to respond to changing times and conditions. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  6. Application of self-assessment in the nuclear fuel supply activities of Siemens AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, F.; Schaule, B.

    2000-01-01

    The quality of fuel assemblies supplied to our customers is defined by more than just their expected functionality (performance) during reactor operation and beyond but also by their cost (price) and the timeliness of their supply (including related services). This perspective implies a comprehensive view of the quality of business, - the same focus that the IAEA Code, Basic Requirement 9, addresses regarding management self-assessment. Siemens has adopted a comprehensive management philosophy in the Nuclear Fuels Business in the early Nineties under the header of 'TQM' that is similar to the one mentioned above. For this approach we found valuable guidance in the Business Excellence model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) which is comparable to the self-assessment criteria listed by IAEA. In this contribution we are presenting examples and experiences of how such system of self-assessment and continuous improvement was implemented by senior management. Our experience of more than 6 years of TQM and 4 years of self-assessment yielded an increasing alignment and focus of our organization and all its members on the continuous improvement of our processes (business, management and support) - on the way to a learning organization. (author)

  7. System Approach of Logistic Costs Optimization Solution in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Majerčák, Peter; Masárová, Gabriela; Buc, Daniel; Majerčáková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on the possibility of using the costs simulation in supply chain, which are on relative high level. Our goal is to determine the costs using logistic costs optimization which must necessarily be used in business activities in the supply chain management. The paper emphasizes the need to perform not isolated optimization in the whole supply chain. Our goal is to compare classic approach, when every part tracks its costs isolated, a try to minimize them, with the system (l...

  8. Monitoring support system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, Yuichi; Kubota, Rhuji; Tanaka, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in Japan reach to 49 plants and supply 41.19 million kW in their installed capacities, which is equal to about 31% of total electric power generation and has occupied an important situation as a stable energy supplying source. As an aim to keeping safe operation and working rate of the power plants, various monitoring support systems using computer technology, optical information technology and robot technology each advanced rapidly in recent year have been developed to apply to the actual plants for a plant state monitoring system of operators in normal operation. Furthermore, introduction of the emergent support system supposed on accidental formation of abnormal state of the power plants is also investigated. In this paper, as a monitoring system in the recent nuclear power plants, design of control panel of recent central control room, introduction to its actual plant and monitoring support system in development were described in viewpoints of improvement of human interface, upgrade of sensor and signal processing techniques, and promotion of information service technique. And, trend of research and development of portable miniature detector and emergent monitoring support system are also introduced in a viewpoint of labor saving and upgrade of the operating field. (G.K.)

  9. Comparison between Different Power Sources for Emergency Power Supply at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenasson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Swedish nuclear power plants are using diesel generator sets and to some extent gas turbines as their emergency AC power sources and batteries as their emergency DC power sources. In the laws governing Swedish nuclear activity, no specific power sources are prescribed. On the other hand, diversification of safety functions should be considered, as well as simplicity and reliability in the safety systems. So far the choices of emergency power sources have been similar between different power plants, and therefore this project investigated a number of alternative power sources and if they are suitable for use as emergency power on nuclear power plants. The goals of the project were to: - Define the parameters that are essential for rending a power source suitable for use at a nuclear power plant. - Present the characteristics of a number of power sources regarding the defined parameters. - Compile the suitability of the different power sources. - Make implementation suggestions for the less conventional of the investigated power sources. (unconventional in the investigated application) 10 different power sources in total have been investigated and to various degrees deemed suitable Out of the 10 power sources, diesel generators, batteries and to some extent gas turbines are seen as conventional technology at the nuclear power plants. In relation to them the other power sources have been assessed regarding diversification gains, foremost with regards to external events. The power sources with the largest diversification gains are: Internal steam turbine, Hydro power, Thermoelectric generators. The work should first and foremost put focus on the fact that under the right circumstances there are power sources that can complement conventional power sources and yield substantial diversification gains. This paper is a shortened version of the report 'Comparison between different power sources for emergency power supply at nuclear power plants'. The

  10. Pickering NGS emergency water supply system emergency start flow simulation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidge, E.; Misra, A. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Nuclear Safety Analysis & Technology Department, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A proposed modification to the OPG Pickering Nuclear Generation Station Emergency Water Supply (EWS) system was analyzed using the Industry Standard Toolset code GOTHIC to determine the acceptability of the proposed system configuration during pump start-up. The new configuration of the system included a vertical dead-ended pipe, initially filled with air. The simulation demonstrated that no significant water hammer effects were predicted and tests performed with the new configuration confirmed the analysis results. (author)

  11. Knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty: case from automotive battery supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I. A.; Sugiarto, D.; Surjasa, D.; Witonohadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Automotive battery supply chain include battery manufacturer, sulphuric acid suppliers, polypropylene suppliers, lead suppliers, transportation service providers, warehouses, retailers and even customers. Due to the increasingly dynamic condition of the environment, supply chain actors were required to improve their ability to overcome various uncertainty issues in the environment. This paper aims to describe the process of designing a knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty. The design methodology began with the identification of the knowledge needed to solve the problems associated with uncertainty and analysis of system requirements. The design of the knowledge management system was described in the form of a data flow diagram. The results of the study indicated that key knowledge area that needs to be managed were the knowledge to maintain the stability of process in sulphuric acid process and knowledge to overcome the wastes in battery manufacturing process. The system was expected to be a media acquisition, dissemination and storage of knowledge associated with the uncertainty in the battery supply chain and increase the supply chain performance.

  12. Nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union. Opening address at the 2004 winter meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maichel, G.

    2004-01-01

    The EU expansion in 2004 will completely change the face of the European community of states. The structure of the power supply system, too, will undergo major changes. Both the expansion of the EU and the reliability of electricity supply are topical problems in need of perspectives of solutions. Nuclear power can and will contribute to these solutions. For Germany, it is imperative that an energy consensus be worked out and put into effect across all party lines in an effort to create reliable framework conditions for the next twenty or thirty years. The goal must be a balanced energy mix also ensuring the competitiveness of Germany as an industrialized country. The individual strengths of each of the energy sources must be pooled so as to result in an optimum. Foregoing the use of nuclear power in the future is wrong in respect of the national economy, power economy, and climate policy. Developments in the neighboring countries in Europe and worldwide document that the opting-out policy of the German federal government is an approach peculiar to Germany. The final storage of radioactive waste in Germany is a topic to be finalized speedily. The Konrad and Gorleben mines constitute a promising concept of final storage of all types of radioactive waste in Germany. This goal must be pursued further in a firm policy and must not be delayed by new site selection procedures. In the field of nuclear research, Germany must not be separated from international developments. Nuclear competence must be preserved and promoted. The future power supply situation in Europe is characterized by the need for a considerable addition of generating capacity. As is demonstrated by the project of the new nuclear power plant to be built in Finland, nuclear power is going to play an important role in meeting this need.(orig.) [de

  13. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  14. Optimal Design of a Standalone Photovoltaic Power Supply System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to optimally design a stand alone photovoltaic power supply system for air conditioning application at Samara University to be used as an alternative to diesel generator supply. Samara University is established in samara town, Afar region and has an average daily radiation of 6.10kwh/m2, sun shine ...

  15. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sound decision-making processes for investments in water supply systems need to be developed. This need arises from the problem observed in developing countries of a growing demand for water supply projects coupled with a lack of financial resources available to invest in them. A second problem is the selection of a ...

  16. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY OF RAILWAYS TRACTION SUBSTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Domansky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A system analysis of external power supply circuits of railways traction substations over the period of 1993 through 2011 and power supply circuits projects up to 2016 in the market economy environment and under standard requirements of the power industry of Ukraine is conducted

  17. Development of an integrated medical supply information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Eric; Wermus, Marek; Blythe Bauman, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    The integrated medical supply inventory control system introduced in this study is a hybrid system that is shaped by the nature of medical supply, usage and storage capacity limitations of health care facilities. The system links demand, service provided at the clinic, health care service provider's information, inventory storage data and decision support tools into an integrated information system. ABC analysis method, economic order quantity model, two-bin method and safety stock concept are applied as decision support models to tackle inventory management issues at health care facilities. In the decision support module, each medical item and storage location has been scrutinised to determine the best-fit inventory control policy. The pilot case study demonstrates that the integrated medical supply information system holds several advantages for inventory managers, since it entails benefits of deploying enterprise information systems to manage medical supply and better patient services.

  18. Political and legal problems of international nuclear supply agreements: the Euratom experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses the Chapters in the Euratom Treaty which are relevant to uranium supply agreements and the European Community's powers in international relations as conferred by the Treaty. It also examines the agreements concluded by Euratom with the US, Canada and Australia respectively with emphasis on their nuclear non-proliferation aspects. (NEA) [fr

  19. International symposium concluded that uranium supply for nuclear power is secure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs that stable uranium supply to fuel nuclear power plants will continue to be available according to the conclusion reached at the International Symposium on the Uranium Production Cycle and the Environment held from 2 to 6 October 2000 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting included specialists from about 40 countries, in addition to the Arab Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Office of Supervising Scientist (OSS)/Environment Australia, United Nations, Uranium Institute, World Bank, the World Energy Council and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)

  20. Nuclear Medicine National Headquarter System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Nuclear Medicine National HQ System database is a series of MS Excel spreadsheets and Access Database Tables by fiscal year. They consist of information from all...

  1. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Quality Assurance Plan used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements. This document replaces the contents of Chapter 17 Safety Analysis Reports, except for any special or unique requirements. (auth)

  2. Potential contamination of surface water supplies by atmospheric releases from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric releases of radionuclides, which might result from severe accidents at nuclear power plants, have the potential for contaminating drinking water supplies. The probability and consequences of the contamination of a water supply for a large city is explored using the Indian Point Nuclear Station and New York City as an example. Techniques are developed to calculate the deposition of radionuclides onto the watersheds of the New York City reservoirs, and the extent to which the run-off from the watersheds would contaminate drinking water. It is possible to demonstrate that the supplies could be contaminated above 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 20 drinking water limits and that population doses on the order of millions of person-rem could result from severe accidents. The relative (latent) risk of this pathway, however, would be small compared to other airborne pathway risks calculated for the same accidental release

  3. The Complex Economic System of Supply Chain Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yan, Guangle

    Supply Chain Financing (SCF) refers to a series of innovative and complicated financial services based on supply chain. The SCF set-up is a complex system, where the supply chain management and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing services interpenetrate systematically. This paper establishes the organization structure of SCF System, and presents two financing models respectively, with or without the participation of the third-party logistic provider (3PL). Using Information Economics and Game Theory, the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors is analyzed, and the economic mechanism of development and existent for SCF system is demonstrated. New thoughts and approaches to solve SMEs financing problem are given.

  4. C-E Nuclear Power Businesses Quality Management of Manufacturing and Design and its impact on Reliability of C-E Supplied Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawhinney, D.

    1989-01-01

    To attain and sustain this objective, Nuclear Power Businesses has established a quality system for design and manufacturing of Nuclear Steam Supply System components, nuclear fuel and operating plant systems and services. Today's quality system has been designed, developed and refined over the past forty (40) years. This system is a dynamic one, based on solid quality principles, accepted industry standards and practices, complies with the ASME Code and 10 CFRP 50, Appendix B, but within the bounds of mandated requirements is adaptable to unique client needs. Nuclear Power Businesses is successfully implementing its quality philosophy through management and organizational commitment, strong leadership, teamwork and use of modern quality techniques. The quality system at C-E Nuclear Power Businesses has been developed in response to changing requirements over the past forty years. It is still changing today. The effectiveness of the system is evidenced by the superior performance of C-E Nuclear Power Businesses supplied Ness's. The system includes management involvement and awareness involvement and awareness and ensures that all employees are aware of Nuclear Power Businesses' quality goals. The system has a strong quality organization that establishes uniform policies and assures compliance. In addition, the system promotes open communication and prompt, permanent corrective action. Although we believe our system, as they exist today, meet or exceed client requirements, they are continuously reviewed and adjusted to improve their usefulness to make them more cost effective

  5. New concepts of energy supply for sustainable agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Frerichs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of future agricultural production systems requires innovative approaches. For creating a more productive, resource-efficient and low-emission agriculture the systemic development of the agricultural processes, the operating conditions and the organizational processes is necessary. Fundamentally new approaches can be found by defining scenarios. Such a hypothetic concept does field operation without using internal combustion engines. Instead of this the power supply of performant machines can be done by electric direct supply systems or for small machines by battery systems with charging points. However, all this requires the electrical energy supply of agricultural fields. A direct electric energy supply utilizing the Center Pivot approach via rotating structures enables new production systems. Using innovative technologies new solutions with great potential for automation and a productive precision agriculture can be designed. This paper highlights an unconventional approach stimulating the discussion about future developments in agricultural engineering.

  6. Securing a safer, greener, expandable nuclear fuel cycle supply chain for future power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, Georges

    2009-01-01

    After looking at what is necessary to sustainably ensure the global nuclear power plant fleet expansion, it becomes appearant that advanced reactor design should be accompanied with a greener and more flexible fuel cycle capability. The financial crisis has invaded all the front pages and our thoughts. However it has not rescheduled the growth of world population or reduced the desire of people in emerging economies to achieve a higher level of 'development'; nor has it alleviated climate change issues that demand CO2 constrained power sources. What is the outlook for nuclear power? On a worldwide basis, we have today a significant fleet of nuclear power plants, operating well, upgrading output, extending lifetime, and producing not only a safe reliable flow of electricity but a good flow of cash as well. For the countries hosting significant shares of this fleet, their nuclear power plants are increasingly precious assets, and despite the financial crisis, most of them are considering expansion of their nuclear fleets. For the others, the desire to access such a reliable and ultimately cheap source of energy will last longer than the temporary difficulties to get its financing. In short, the outlook for a massive phase of new nuclear builds remains very likely. Then comes the consequential issue of the nuclear fuel supply chain. From uranium exploration and production to back end solutions, most of the existing facilities were designed and startup decades ago. The question is therefore, does this supply chain offer the requested characteristics to sustain the nuclear power plants fleet for the long run? By requested characteristics, it is meant not only adequate capacity and improvement of quality, but also environmentally friendly new designs and processes. This paper is aimed at recalling the current situation of the supply chain, then at describing the status of major projects, and finally at identifying some gaps and issues

  7. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  8. Carbon negative energy systems using biomass and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2015-01-01

    To cope with both the global warming issue and sustainable world energy supply issue, a Carbon Negative Energy System is investigated, which accomplishes the carbon dioxide removal and the hydrocarbon fuel supply integrally by the synergistic biomass-nuclear process. A vision for the Carbon Negative Energy System in Year 2065 is presented quantitatively, as follows; Primary Energy: Renewables and nuclear energy (No fossil fuels) 20.8 GtonOE, Electricity: 75% of the primary energy used for electricity generation, Fuel supply: 25% of the primary energy used for biomass-nuclear hydrocarbon fuel production, Carbon dioxide removal: 1.1 ∼ 4.5 GtonC removed from the global carbon cycle. (author)

  9. Nuclear system test simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, S.D.; Hill, W.D.; Wilson, P.A.; Steiner, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    A transportable test simulator is described for a nuclear power plant. The nuclear power plant includes a control panel, a reactor having actuated rods for moving into and out of a reactor for causing the plant to operate, and a control rod network extending between the control panel and the reactor rods. The network serially transmits command words between the panel and rods, and has connecting interfaces at preselected points remote from the control panel between the control panel and rods. The test simulator comprises: a test simulator input for transport to and connection into the network at at least one interface for receiving the serial command words from the network. Each serial command includes an identifier portion and a command portion; means for processing interior of the simulator for the serial command words for identifying that portion of the power plant designated in the identifier portion and processing the word responsive to the command portion of the word after the identification; means for generating a response word responsive to the command portion; and output means for sending and transmitting the response word to the nuclear power plant at the interface whereby the control panel responds to the response word

  10. Study on the establishment of effective nuclear export system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Koo; So, Dong Sup; Baik, Dae Hyun; Kwack, Eun Ho; Shin, Jang Soo; Yoon, Wan Ki; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae.

    1997-02-01

    To improve Korean nuclear export control system, the modification of the present export license procedure for the nuclear equipment and materials and the classification of control items and their related technologies are required. And it is also necessary to make a database of the original countries who have the right of prior consent. For the efficient export control of LWR items to DPRK, it is desirable to manage the export license scheme of nuclear reactor facility as a total package, and to prepare a control regime for the retransfer of nuclear reactor component such as reactor coolant pump and nuclear fuel whose technologies are not self-reliant. It is especially essential to prepare a systematic procedure for the supply of nuclear equipment and materials to DPRK in order to meet international guidelines of NSG and others through an accord on the nuclear cooperation between Republic of Korea (ROK) and DPRK. The principal elements to be included in the accord are the range of cooperation, the restriction within the peaceful uses, prior consent right in case of retransfer of important nuclear reactor components and of storage, transfer and changes of nuclear fuels, application of safeguards to the supplied Trigger list items, physical protection of nuclear material, requirement of the return of nuclear equipment and materials, and restriction right for the suspension or termination of the agreement. (author). 40 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  11. Financing of power supply systems and pollution control equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, G.; Raabe, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors explain the bankers' point of view of the financial and economic aspects of developments in the energy sector, discussing the financing of natural gas pipelines (Muro, Megal, etc.), of nuclear power plant construction, of projects in the oil supply sector, and of pollution abatement measures and equipment for the power industry and other industries. The different financial situations of small firms or large firms supplying pollution control equipment are discussed referring to the financing schemes to be set up, explaining among other things the profitability assessment taking into account long-term development or delays in return on capital investment from borrowed funds as induced, e.g., by delays in the licensing procedure. Future demand for borrowed capital for pollution control or nuclear power plant development is difficult to assess by the banking circles. (orig./RST) [de

  12. Thermal coupling system analysis of a nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    When a nuclear reactor is used to supply steam for desalination plant, the method of coupling has a significant technical and economic impact. The exact method of coupling depends upon the type of reactor and type of desalination plant. As a part of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), BARC has successfully commissioned a 4500 m 3 /day MSF desalination plant coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) at Kalpakkam. Desalination plant coupled to nuclear power plant of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type is a good example of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plant. This paper presents the thermal coupling system analysis of this plant along with technical and safety aspects. (author)

  13. [The development of hospital medical supplies information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoping; Gu, Hongqing; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Qiang

    2010-05-01

    The information management of medical materials by using high-tech computer, in order to improve the efficiency of the consumption of medical supplies, hospital supplies and develop a new technology way to manage the hospital and material support. Using C # NET, JAVA techniques to develop procedures for the establishment of hospital material management information system, set the various management modules, production of various statistical reports, standard operating procedures. The system is convenient, functional and strong, fluent statistical functions. It can always fully grasp and understand the whole hospital supplies run dynamic information, as a modern and effective tool for hospital materials management.

  14. Dimensioning aspects of 48 V telecommunications power supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, L. [Siemens Telefongyar Kft (Hungary)

    2000-07-01

    Considering the reliable operation of the 48 V telecommunications power supply systems it is essential the appropriate dimensioning. The basic elements of the power supply systems, i.e. batteries, rectifiers, DC/AC cabling, fuses, etc., should be defined by exact calculation. The presentation reviews the main questions and problems of dimensioning. It lays a special emphasis on the optimized planning procedure, further it also deals with the economical impacts of the dimensioning parameters. (orig.)

  15. Optimization of Temperature Schedule Parameters on Heat Supply in Power-and-Heat Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning optimization of a temperature schedule in the district heating systems with steam-turbine thermal power stations having average initial steam parameters. It has been shown in the paper that upkeeping of an optimum network water temperature permits to increase an energy efficiency of heat supply due to additional systematic saving of fuel. 

  16. Low energy booster resonant power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jach, C.

    1990-01-01

    During the particle-acceleration period, the magnet guide-field intensity, along the equilibrium orbit must rise from a minimum field (corresponding to injection energy) to the peak field, at which the protons attain their maximum energy. The field must then be reduced to its minimum value and the cycle repeated. This operation is achieved by excitation of the guide-field magnets with a 10 Hz sinusoidal waveform, which is biased by superimposing a dc component on the ac component excitation, giving a field variation of the form: b(t) = B dc - B ac sin (2π ft) where f is the magnet excitation frequency (nominally 10 Hz). Aside from saturation effects in the magnets and chokes, b(t) may be considered as a linear function of the magnet current (design of network magnetic elements should not allow more than 1% saturation, i.e., peak field should not exceed 1.25 T). With this assumption, the magnet power supply generates a current of the form (Figure 1) i m (t) = I dc - I ac sin (2π ft). 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  18. Optimization of nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.; Gonzalez, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for selecting the level of ambition of nuclear safety by a process of optimization based on cost-benefit considerations. Optimization has been incorporated as a requirement for radiation protection, to keep doses ''as low as reasonably achievable''. In radiation protection, optimization takes account of the costs of protection and the costs of the detriment, minimizing the sum of both. Optimization of a nuclear safety system could conceptually treat similarly the cost of potential damages from nuclear accidents and the cost associated with achieving a given level of safety. Within the above framework a method of optimizing the design of nuclear safety systems is presented, and a simple case of redundancy by output voting techniques is given. (author)

  19. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed

  20. EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail. (C.J.O.G.)

  1. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  2. Pulse power supply system for the betatron electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.V.; Furman, Eh.G.

    1977-01-01

    The power supply system for a betatron electromagnet is developed on the base of a capacitive energy storage operating in a unipolar mode. A simple and effective circuit for pulsed power input with an intermediate inductive energy storage is used. This permits lowering pulse loads on a supply network and extending the power control range. An electric circuit of a pulse power supply is given and its operation is described in detail. The proposed power supply is used to excite the electromagnet of a 15 MeV betatron with a magnetic field energy of 3.5x10 3 J in the electromagnet. The maximum voltage across the capacitive storage is 2.4x10 3 V, while the maximum pulse repetition rate is 50 Hz. The power supply is simple and reliable in operation; it permits shaping triangular and trapezoidal current pulses with a flat top duration of up to 5x10 -3

  3. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  4. Supplier quality assurance systems: a study in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, A.J.; Churchill, G.F.; Dale, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are reported of a study which investigated the impact of quality assurance on 13 suppliers to the nuclear industry. The purpose of the study was to determine the benefits and problems of applying quality assurance in the supply of high risk plant items and material for nuclear installations. The paper discusses the problems facing the industry including: multiple audits and inspections, the irritation with having to contend with two quality system standards (namely BS 5750 and BS 5882) and the cost effectiveness of the more stringent quality system and quality control surveillance requirements imposed by the nuclear industry. It is also pointed out that companies supplying non-nuclear industrial customers were dissatisfied with the qualifications, experience and professional competence of some auditors and many inspectors. (author)

  5. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ............................................................................................. 62 5.3 Sizing the battery ................................................................................................ 65 5.4 Specifications for the battery bank ..................................................................... 67 5... of the system, the specific components required may include major components such as a DC-AC power inverter, battery bank, system and battery controller, auxiliary energy sources and sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances) The performance...

  6. INIS-International nuclear information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, N.

    1997-01-01

    INIS is the worlds leading decentralized information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the member states and international organisations. Being one of the INIS member states, our country has began co-operation with INIS in 1975. INIS National Centre is acting within the Institute of Nuclear Sciences and according to the strictly defined organisation of the information system supplies the users with the available INIS products, meaning bibliographic data from the INIS data base. At the same time it is responsible for submitting information concerning domestic publications to the INIS Secretariat, including supplying foreign users with non-conventional literature if demanded. During the period 1990 - 1996 co-operation with INIS Secretariat was interrupted due to reasons which are not subject of this paper. Since then collaboration is established again, and updated INIS data base on CD-ROM is available at the National Centre. INIS on-line retrieval is not yet available

  7. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Soft Systems Methodology to Address Supply Chain Management Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulender Gencoglu

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an investigation of if, and how, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM might.be used to facilitate better management of industry supply chains. In two workshops involving supply chain managers from the Textile Clothing and Footwear (TCF industry and industry facilitators, ways in which SSM techniques might supplement existing Supply Chain Management (SCM workshop approaches have been explored. Specifically, the placement of SSM techniques within a workshop setting, reactions to the techniques, perceived reasons for using SSM, together with strengths and difficulties encountered, have been examined.

  9. Accelerator-control-system interface for intelligent power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.

    1992-01-01

    A number of high-current high-precision magnet power supplies have been installed at the proton storage ring at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex. The units replace existing supplies, powering large dipole magnets in the ring. These bending magnets require a high-current supply that is precise and stable. The control and interface design for these power supplies represents a departure from all others on-site. The supplies have sophisticated microprocessor control on-board and communicate with the accelerator control system via RS-422 (serial communications). The units, built by Alpha Scientific Electronics, Hayward, CA use a high-level ASCII control protocol. The low-level ''front-end'' software used by the accelerator control system has been written to accommodate these new devices. They communicate with the control system through a terminal server port connected to the site-wide ethernet backbone. Details of the software implementation for the analog and digital control of the supplies through the accelerator control system will be presented

  10. Nuclear power systems: Their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Mankind utilizes energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. Canada is one of a growing number of countries which have chosen to embrace nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy systems. As of August 1992 there were 433 power reactors operating in 35 countries and accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, thirteen countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with France leading at nearly 70%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 68 power reactors are under construction in 16 countries, enough to expand present generating capacity by close to 20%. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether or not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR has irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety back into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents which have occurred to date. (author). 7 refs

  11. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; Daniel Stevens; Allison Ray; Debor

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  12. Risk analysis of power supply failure of LNQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Xianguo; Kuang Bo; Shang Youming

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces 220 V uninterrupted AC supply system (called LNQ system) of conventional island in NPQJVC, and analyses the aftermath and potential in- fluence to unit due to the failure of LNQ system, so as to find out corresponding countermeasures for operator's to adopt appropriate operation to reduce the consequence. (authors)

  13. Review of nuclear new build in relation to project structure, supply chain and financing - 15106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Cometto, M.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a new nuclear power plant is a major industrial project involving a number of complex economic, technical and regulatory challenges. This article focuses on 2 of the most important among them: first, sustainable financing which is primarily a function of interest rates and the stability of electricity prices and secondly, the management of a complex construction process and its supply chain. The analysis shows the much stronger dependence of nuclear energy on the stability of electricity prices when compared with a gas plant of the same size. Nevertheless the study underlines that at debt ratios below 60%, the risk for a debt-investor in a nuclear project is rather limited even for large electricity and permanent price fall. There exist a wide spectrum of different options for sharing the responsibilities between the ultimate operators of a nuclear power plant and the principal supplier. 3 main categories of contract are used for the construction of NPPs: the turnkey approach, the split-package approach and the multi-contract approach.In construction, where the emergence of a competitive, global supply chain is not yet ensured, the convergence of nuclear engineering codes and quality standards, as well as regulatory harmonisation remain a key step to promote both competition and public confidence

  14. An integrated approach to energy supply and demand: The role of nuclear energy in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neethling, D.C.; Bredell, J.H.; Basson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of an integrated approach to the development of an electricity strategy for Southern Africa is emphasized in view of the numerous options and initiatives that are available for supply and demand side management. Apart from present uncertainties concerning future electricity demand, other factors such as the availability of coal and uranium and the comparative costs of nuclear and coal-based electricity are regarded as the most important parameters which have as yet not been sufficiently quantified to decide on the timing and extent of nuclear energy in Southern Africa. (author)

  15. Survey of sources of manpower supply for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The following is a report of a survey designed to determine sources of manpower supply available to the Nuclear Power Industry. The survey is part of a larger research effort which is also designed to investigate occupational employment and training in the Nuclear Power Industry and competing sources of demand for technically qualified manpower. The results of those other studies have been published separately and are available upon request. This report includes a brief discussion of the background of the study, the research methods employed, the results obtained, and some implications of those findings. The appendices contain copies of the questionnaires used in the survey as well as some additional related data

  16. The best-mix of power demand and supply. Energy system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    In September 2012 after nationwide discussions, Energy and Environmental Council decided 'Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment': (1) Realization of a society not dependent on nuclear power, (2) Realization of green energy revolution, (3) For ensuring stable supply of energy, (4) Bold implementation of reform of electricity power systems and (5) Steady implementation of global warming countermeasures. Energy problem should be considered as supply and demand of whole energy. However, long-term energy problem such as in 2050 should assume global limits of fossil fuel supply and carbon dioxide emission and then in order to realize sustainable demand and supply of energy, maximum deployment of renewable energy power in primary energy and most practicable electrification of final demand for energy conservation should be implemented. Best mix of power and energy demand and supply would be significant to some extent. This article outlined analysis of power demand and supply in a long term, future power technologies and demand side management, and problems of power system operation and their solution, and then described energy system integration to realize power and energy/society best mix. (T. Tanaka)

  17. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTION OF OPTIMUM POWER-SUPPLY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Padalko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main directions of the technological development of the Belarusian power-supply system. Comparative analysis of the economic efficiency of thermal power station modernization on the basis of steam- and gas technology, nuclear technology development and simple renovation of the worn-out generating capacities of thermal power stations has been carried out in the paper. Selection of the priority direction pertaining to optimization of industrial structure of the Belarusian power-supply system has been made on the basis of the presented minimum-specific cost criterion. The paper reveals that in the medium-term period the most optimum development of the Belarusian electrical power engineering is a technological  modernization  due to predicted  changes in natural gas and nuclear fuel costs. The modernization presupposes construction of topping plants in addition to the existing steam- and turbine equipment at thermal power stations. 

  18. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  19. The supply chain of civil construction industries for support the nuclear power plant construction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharu Dewi; Sriyana; Moch-Djoko Birmano; Sahala Lumbanraja; Nurlaila

    2013-01-01

    The use of domestic products for electricity infrastructure has been set out in the Ministerial Decree number: 54/M-IND/PER/3/2012, but the infrastructure of nuclear power plants (NPP) construction has not been included. Therefore, the potential of the local industries needs to be mapped it especially supply chain of civil construction industries to estimate the capability of the local component level (DCL) at the nuclear power plant project in Indonesia. NPP is a high-technology so that if NPP will be constructed, it is necessary to involve the national capability as media technology transfer, especially for EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) services. Civil construction (civil part) play role is very large, about 21%. Therefore it is necessary in particular the role of the national civil construction industry to increase the capability of local content. Preparation of Civil construction infrastructure are depend on the supply chain of raw materials. The aim of the research was to map the supply chain of the civil construction industries. Methodology this study is a survey of national industries, literature review, and searching web site. The result study is a map of civil construction industries with raw material supply chain. (author)

  20. Advanced nuclear systems. Review study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Glaser, Alexander; Pistner, Christoph; Baehr, Roland; Hahn, Lothar

    1999-04-01

    The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

  1. World energy supply and demand and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses the OECD's report ''World Energy Outlook'', which concluded that a severe energy gap could, and probably would, develop by the mid-1980s if present energy policies continue. Should nuclear power fail to make a substantial contribution, this situation is predicted to become even worse. The author states that an energy gap can only be realistically avoided by a combination of (a) deep energy conservation, (b) even greater use of coal, and (c) nuclear power. New energy technologies cannot realistically be expected to make a significant contribution much before the end of the century. Conservation and coal alone, however, will not be sufficient. It is difficult to envisage energy savings of more than 10% without reducing economic activity to a degree that becomes politically unacceptable. Greater use of coal is undoubtedly feasible, but the potential is severely constrained in the medium term for economic, technological and environmental reasons. Nuclear power must also make a significant contribution. However, estimates of OECD nuclear energy supply for 1985 have been scaled drastically downwards during 1976 owing to: uncertainty in the utility sector over future growth in electricity demand; continued, and in some cases increased, opposition to nuclear power; and delays and uncertainties in government nuclear policies and programmes. The author concludes that we cannot afford any further shortfall and we must move urgently to: (a) give strong and unswerving support to thermal nuclear reactor programmes (requiring that governments adopt clear and coherent nuclear policies, taking into account the legitimate concern expressed by the public); (b) develop stable and long-term international arrangements so that the necessary nuclear fuel facilities can be made available on a secure basis for peaceful uses of nuclear power; (c) decide what the real proliferation risk is and agree on action to avoid it; and (d) make renewed and stronger efforts to solve

  2. System design of toroidal field power supply of CDD tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng Zhi

    1996-12-01

    This report deals with system design of Toroidal Field Power Supply of CDD tokamak (CDD-TFPS). The general design philosophy and design variations are introduced. After the outline of CDD-TFPS, the short-circuit calculation, the evaluation of converter parameters, the compatibility of converter and line are carried out. the specifications of major components, semi-conductor devices and accessories are given. High attention is paid to protection system. The design of sub-control and grounding system are described too. Some more general material for power supply design are attached in appendices for reference. (author). 30 tabs., 21 figs.

  3. CANDU nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the components that make up a CANDU reactor. Major emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. The reasons for CANDU's performance and the inherent safety of the system are also discussed

  4. Refurbishment of the power supply and NMR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugay, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the first renovation performed on GANIL power converters, their control system and on magnetic field measurements. Among numerous actions undertaken the most important four, mentioned in the report are: remote control interfaces; current catchers; pulsed supplies; RMN system renovation

  5. The changing logistical system of the building materials supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2000-01-01

    This study analyses how policy measures and technological developments affect the trade-offs between elements of the logistical system of a supply chain. It is assumed that this logistical system consists of the following elements: sourcing, production, inventory, transportation and service. Two

  6. Recent space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Yasuda, Hideshi; Hishida, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    For the advance of mankind into the space, the power sources of large output are indispensable, and it has been considered that atomic energy is promising as compared with solar energy and others. Accordingly in USA and USSR, the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use has been carried out since considerable years ago. In this report, the general features of space nuclear reactors are shown, and by taking the system for the SP-100 project being carried out in USA as the example, the contents of the recent design regarding the safety as an important factor are discussed. Moreover, as the examples of utilizing space nuclear reactors, the concepts of the power source for the base on the moon, the sources of propulsive power for the rockets used for Mars exploration and others, the remote power transmission system by laser in the space and so on are explained. In September, 1988, the launching of a space shuttle of USA was resumed, and the Jupiter explorer 'Galileo' and the space telescope 'Hubble' were successfully launched. The space station 'Mir' of USSR has been used since February, 1986. The history of the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use is described. (K.I.)

  7. INIS - International Nuclear Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents International Nuclear Information System (INIS): history of its development; INIS support products (INIS Reference Series, Friendly Inputting of Bibliographic Records software); INIS output products (INIS Atomindex, magnetic tapes, online service, database on CD-ROM, microfiche service); INIS philosophy; input of INIS database by subject areas; and examples of INIS input

  8. Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems examines its subject in the context of the presence of a variety of uncertainties. Numerous examples with intuitive illustrations and tables are provided, to demonstrate the structural characteristics of the optimal control policies in various stochastic supply chains and to show how to make use of these characteristics to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal policies.                 In Part I, a general introduction to stochastic supply chain systems is provided. Analytical models for various stochastic supply chain systems are formulated and analysed in Part II. In Part III the structural knowledge of the optimal control policies obtained in Part II is utilized to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal control policies for various stochastic supply chain systems accordingly. Finally, Part IV discusses the optimisation of threshold-type control policies and their robustness. A key feature of the book is its tying together of ...

  9. Communication received on 12 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of Japan to the Agency concerning arrangements for the assurance of nuclear fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Secretariat has received on 12 September 2006 a communication from the Permanent Mission of Japan attaching a document entitled 'Japan's Proposal: IAEA Standby Arrangements System for the Assurance of Nuclear Fuel Supply'. As requested by the Permanent Mission, the text of the attachment is herewith reproduced for the information of Member States

  10. Nuclear Science Symposium, 19th, and Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, 4th, Miami, Fla., December 6-8, 1972, Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Major topics covered include radiation monitoring instrumentation, nuclear circuits and systems, biomedical applications of nuclear radiation in diagnosis and therapy, plasma research for fusion power, reactor control and instrumentation, nuclear power standards, and applications of digital computers in nuclear power plants. Systems and devices for space applications are described, including the Apollo alpha spectrometer, a position sensitive detection system for UV and X-ray photons, a 4500-volt electron multiplier bias supply for satellite use, spark chamber systems, proportional counters, and other devices. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  11. Flexibility of Supply Chain in Industrialised Building System (IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is irrefutable that the construction industry is in need of a highly technological construction method or system for the simple aim of giving it a push it deserves. In Malaysia this technologically enhanced method is known as the Indutrialised Building System (IBS. Concerted efforts have been made for the past decade by various responsible parties especially by the government. Therefore, the IBS ‘Road Map’ 2003–2010 was introduced and now continues with the IBS ‘road map’ 2011-2015. However, its performance is still at its infancy, which target is only at an initial stage. This study seeks to identify and analyse the factor of the IBS’ system’s supply chain flexibility as a factor on the success of the system itself. It has been a suspicion that there exists a condition and situation where the supply chain is too rigid and is not flexible in fulfilling the needs and demands of the IBS development in Malaysia. This inflexible situation has brought about a broad range of problems and has stood in the way of the development of the industrialised building system, despite it being introduced since 1964, or 49 years ago. Flexibility in the IBS supply chain is very important and is associated with other industries like transportation, manufacturing industry, and others. Up until now, we have yet to discover any special studies related to the flexibility in the IBS supply chain in this country. Responding to this challenge, this research is hoped to be able to provide sufficient feedback to the solution to the IBS supply chain flexibility issue. The researcher is confident that the poor system flow of supply chain has impeded the advancement of the Industrialised Building System that has long been open to debate.

  12. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  13. Computer controlled multichannel high voltage supply system for GRACE instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, A.; Chakrabarti, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    The high energy gamma ray telescopes being set up by NRL, BARC as part of the GRACE project, require a very large number of (∼ 1000 nos.) programmable high voltage power supplies for biasing photomultiplier tubes for the detection and characterization of the atmospheric Cerenkov events. These H.V. supplies need to be very compact and lightweight, as they will be mounted on moving telescopes. This paper describes the design aspects of the overall HV system and some preliminary results of the prototype HV modules being developed for such applications. In the new design, the switching frequency of the converters in the H.V. supplies has been increased by a factor of three times as compared to the earlier design, and surface mounted devices has been used to achieve size and weight reductions. The HV system that is designed for modular construction consists of multiple HV modules, each containing 16 independently adjustable HV supplies. All the HV modules in the system are interconnected via a serial I 2 C bus. Each HV supply has built in over voltage/current, thermal overload protections with output voltage read back and adjustable slew rate control facilities. (author)

  14. Expert systems and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute have initiated a broad-based exploration of means to evaluate the potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This exploratory effort will assess the use of expert systems to augment the diagnostic and decision-making capabilities of personnel with the goal of enhancing productivity, reliability, and performance. The initial research effort is the development and documentation of guidelines for verifying and validating (V and V) expert systems. An initial application of expert systems in the nuclear industry is to aid operations and maintenance personnel in decision-making tasks. The scope of the decision aiding covers all types of cognitive behavior consisting of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behavior. For example, procedure trackers were designed and tested to support rule-based behavior. Further, these systems automate many of the tedious, error-prone human monitoring tasks, thereby reducing the potential for human error. The paper version of the procedure contains the knowledge base and the rules and thus serves as the basis of the design verification of the procedure tracker. Person-in-the-loop tests serve as the basis for the validation of a procedure tracker. When conducting validation tests, it is important to ascertain that the human retains the locus of control in the use of the expert system

  15. Study on the FBR cycle introduction scenario. 2. A study on the role of nuclear energy under the diversity of energy supply-and-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Akira; Ono, Kiyoshi; Hirao, Kazunori

    2002-03-01

    This report concerns it self with the results of an investigation about the possibility of future nuclear utilization in the part of FBR Cycle Introduction Scenario Study in the JNC's 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System (the F/S)'. We have investigated about the problems that confront energy industries and electric power companies, the capacities of distributed generation, the coexistence method of a distributed generation and large-scale power supply generation, and the development status of a small-scale nuclear reactor from a wide viewpoint. Especially the spread of distributed generation causes the decrease of the electricity demand which the electric power companies supplies. Since introduction scale of a distributed power supply is also expected to increase in the future, it will give some influences to a future nuclear plan and a power supply plan. The hydrogen utilization with out greenhouse gas mission is expected to spread with distributed generation, such as a fuel cell and a micro-gas turbine. Therefore, we proposed the new business model that the hydrogen produced by using nuclear surplus electricity is consumed distributed generation, such as a fuel cell and a micro-gas turbine. We plan to evaluate quantitatively the best power supply composition based on this load stability business model, FBR introduction capacities, the load factor, and the amount of CO 2 reduction. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy in the operation of the spanish electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza, L.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays a basic role in electricity production in Spain. Its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs, with its fuel having low weight in the cost structure, the security of supply that the possibility of storing its fuel on-site in the power plant gives and the absence of CO 2 emissions are some of the advantages nuclear energy presents. Its stiffness for demand variations, its sudden disconnections, which are infrequent but with high impact on System Operation, the social perception and nuclear waste management must also be weighted up. (Author)

  17. Future developments of power supply from nuclear fission and fusion until the middle of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study made by General Technology Systems (Netherlands) is to provide information about nuclear fission and fusion as methods for power generation, with which, in the framework of a study into the possibilities of durable energy sources, choices may be made from the various possibilities for future energy supply. The physical processes upon which the power generation relies are treated briefly. The technologies employed are discussed together with their changes and improvements, now and in the future, and the economic factors by which they are accompanied. How much of this energy will be used in the Netherlands, is discussed. In order to know the opinion of others about these subjects the dealers of the current nuclear power stations were asked to give their opinions which are collected in a supplement. 166 refs.; 18 figs.; 19 tabs

  18. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  19. Coordination in the Decentralized Assembly System with Dual Supply Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a decentralized assembly system that consists of one assembler and two independent suppliers; wherein one supplier is perfectly reliable for the production, while the other generates yield uncertainty. Facing the random market demand, the assembler has to order the components from one supplier in advance and meanwhile requires the other supplier to deliver the components under VMI mode. We construct a Nash game between the supplier and the assembler so as to derive their equilibrium procurement/production strategies. The results show that the channel’s performance is highly undermined by the decentralization between players and also the combination of two supply modes. Compared to the centralized system, we propose an advance payment contract to perfectly coordinate the supply chain performance. The numerical examples indicate some management implications on the supply mode comparison and sensitivity analysis.

  20. Emergency diesel dynamic diagnosis system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, S. M.; Jung, H. S.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, K. J.; Choi, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    An emergency diesel generator of nuclear power plant should supply the rated power to safety class load within a limited time, if a station black out occurs. The emergency diesel generator must have higher reliability than any other industrial diesel generator due to nuclear safety. Most of the problems of the emergency diesel generator were trade off between stability and performance in control system. From the viewpoint of nuclear safety, the performance such as start time and load sequence time was more focused than stability. From the viewpoint of overall reliability, however, performance and stability of control system were equally important. The emergency diesel dynamic diagnosis system was developed in order to tune a dynamic control parameter optimally, verify a static engine parameter, and assist a human decision making. The emergency diesel dynamic diagnosis system really improved the reliability of the emergency diesel generator of the nuclear power plant

  1. Entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system (small scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a system comprising of a renewable source of energy and an energy storage device to smooth the power fluctuations. In order to investigate the performance of the system, an exact mathematical model for the system has been developed. Because of non-linearity of the mathematical model a computational method is used for performance investigation of the system. The objective of the paper is to present an entirely renewable energy based electricity supply system (small scale), to suggest the mathematical model of the system and computational method to analyze the performance of the system.

  2. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  3. Control system of power supply for resistance welding machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the existing methods of heat energy stabilizing, which are realized in thyristor power supplies for resistance welding machines. The advantages and features of thyristor power supplies have been described. A control system of power supply for resistance welding machine with stabilization of heat energy in a welding spot has been developed. Measurements are performed in primary winding of a welding transformer. Weld spot heating energy is calculated as the difference between the energy, consumed from the mains, and the energy losses in the primary and secondary circuits of the welding transformer as well as the energy losses in the transformer core. Algorithms of digital signal processing of the developed control system are described in the article. All measurements and calculations are preformed automatically in real-time. Input signals to the control system are: transformer primary voltage and current, temperature of the welding circuit. The designed control system ensures control of the welding heat energy and is not influenced by the supply voltage and impedance changes caused by insertion of the ferromagnetic mass in the welding circuit, the temperature change during the welding process. The developed control system for resistance welding machine makes it possible to improve the quality of welded joints, increase the efficiency of the resistance welding machine

  4. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  5. The control system of the RFX toroidal power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toigo, V.; Piovan, R.; Zanotto, L.; Perna, M.; Coffetti, A.; Freghieri, M.; Povolero, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the control system of the toroidal power supply of the RFX experiment and outlines its specific hardware and software structure, which allowed to cope with the numerous requirements of the application with a compact hardware arrangement. The active fault protection strategies, implemented in the control system, are also discussed; finally, a special part of the control, which greatly simplified the long and complex commissioning of the power section of the system, is described

  6. Study on the possible consequences of a severe accident in a Swiss nuclear power plant on the drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Kueppers, Christian; Claus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The study on the possible consequences of a severe accident in a Swiss nuclear power plant on the drinking water supply covers the following issues: estimation of possible source terms and radioactive materials release rates, airborne water contamination, water contamination by direct pollution, consequences for the drinking water supply, emergency measures in case of a drinking water contamination, routine surveillance of surface and ground water and improvement possibilities in nuclear power plants.

  7. Aspirations of Jordanians to use nuclear energy for electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jaowny, W.; Al-mur, A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the continuous efforts that exerted by the concerned authorities in Jordan for discovering and local source of energy yet it is still very limited, moreover, what is already known such as oil shale is still not economical to be utilized in the near future. And in light of the continuous increase in energy demand, Jordan looked for the study of different alternatives to cover its electrical energy, one of which is the electrical interconnection where the chance will be available for building big and highly economical stations such as nuclear to operate within the interconnected network and supply the requesting areas with minimum cost. And with the continuous expectations in the increase of oil prices all indications lead for the entry in nuclear energy. In this field Jordan had taken different actions to prepare itself for the use of nuclear energy where, a nuclear energy department was established and issued different laws related to the use of this energy, beside defining planned steps which include developing existing projects and activities, putting plans to establish national research center and develop experience and local industry to be ready for the future management of nuclear power station. (author)

  8. Quantitative modelling in design and operation of food supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van P.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades food supply systems not only got interest of food technologists but also from the field of Operations Research and Management Science. Operations Research (OR) is concerned with quantitative modelling and can be used to get insight into the optimal configuration and

  9. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  10. Mitigating the Cost of Anarchy in Supply Chain Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); W.J. van den Heuvel (Wim); J. Geunes (Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn a decentralized two-stage supply chain where a supplier serves a retailer who, in turn, serves end customers, operations decisions based on local incentives often lead to suboptimal system performance. Operating decisions based on local incentives may in such cases lead to a degree of

  11. Effect of Climate Change on the Food Supply System: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food supply system worldwide has been affected and is also contributing to climate change due to emission of greenhouse gases that results in global warming with its attendant consequences such as floods, drought, forest fires, poverty, malnutrition, health and various socioeconomic problems. Agriculture and food ...

  12. Securing innovation through a differentiated supply system : The fashion industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, Dirk-Jan F.; Steller, Daan; Kaminishi, K; Duysters, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a Situation where next to very innovative goods with short life cycles and volatile demand, rather commodity type goods are carried with more stable demand. A 'Two Lane Strategy' is described, with two different configurations of actors in the company's supply system. In each of

  13. Alternative energy supply system to a rural village in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Background Most households in rural developing countries do not have access to modern energy supply. Household level biogas energy was considered as an option but failed due to lack of sufficient resources for its installation and operation. A community energy system can be an option, but most

  14. Breakdown in the system of learner support materials supply in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we draw on research conducted on the system of supply of learner support materials (LSMs) in Region 2 of the Northern Province of South Africa. The study used a qualitative methodology where a case study design was adopted. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of five schools. Three methods of ...

  15. A strategic decision support system for logistics and supply chain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Biswas

    This paper aims to develop a strategic decision support system for logistics and supply chain network design of a multi-stage, ... strategic decision support model in achieving better utilization of network and resources to fulfil the customer demand is demonstrated ..... planning and multi-period pricing. Transp. Res. E: Logist.

  16. The effect of information systems on supply chain and performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of information systems on supply chain and performance of National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC) ... Sample population of this research is made up of nisoc's managers and experts that are more than 2043 persons.By applying the cochrane's formula,the sample population of this research determined as ...

  17. Design of Intelligent Power Supply System for Expressway Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yutong; Lin, Zimian

    2018-01-01

    Tunnel lighting program is one of the key points of tunnel infrastructure construction. As tunnels tend to handle remote locations, power supply line construction generally has been having the distance, investment, high cost characteristics. To solve this problem, we propose a green, environmentally friendly, energy-efficient lighting system. This program uses the piston-wind which cars within tunnel produce as the power and combines with solar energy, physical lighting to achieve it, which solves the problem of difficult and high cost of highway tunnel section, and provides new ideas for the future construction of tunnel power supply.

  18. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    ...), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear applications, although there is an emphasis placed on the analysis of nuclear systems...

  19. Accumulation of 137Cs in commercial fish of the Belyarsk nuclear power station cooling supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeznikova, V.N.; Kulikov, N.V.; Trapeznikov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the accumulation of 137 Cs in basic species of commercial fish of the Beloyarsk reservoir which is used as the cooling supply for the Beloyarsk nuclear power station. Possible reasons for interspecies differences in accumulation of the radionuclide are indicated, and the increased accumulation of 137 Cs by free-living fish in the zone of heated water effluent from the station and the reduced accumulation of the emitter in carp, which are cultivated on artificial food in cages, are noted. Levels of the content of the radionuclide are compared in roach and farm carp from the cooling supplies of the Beloyarsk station and the Reftinsk power plant in the Urals

  20. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  1. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    , Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community......The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual...

  2. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    in capacity but can be characterised as a complex set of affected electricity and heat supply technologies. A long-term YAM technology is identified for the Danish BAU2030 system in the case of three different long-term marginal changes in capacity, namely coal, natural gas or wind power. Discussion Four...... of four different situations are provided. We suggest that the technology mix with the installation of natural gas or coal power plant is applied as the marginal capacity. Conclusions The environmental consequences of marginal changes in electricity supply cannot always be represented solely by long......Background, aim and scope This paper discusses the identification of the environmental consequences of marginal electricity supplies in consequential life cycle assessments (LCA). According to the methodology, environmental characteristics can be examined by identifying affected activities, i...

  3. Outlook for world nuclear power generation and long-term energy supply and demand situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuhji

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a long-term outlook for the world's nuclear generating capacity, taking into account the nuclear policy changes after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. World primary energy demand will grow from 11.2 billion tons of oil equivalent (toe) in 2009 to 17.3 billion toe in 2035. Along with this rapid increase in global energy consumption, the world's nuclear generating capacity will grow from 392 GW in 2010 to 484 GW in 2020 and 574 GW in 2035 in the 'Reference scenario'. Even in the 'Low nuclear scenario', where the maximum impact of Fukushima accident to the nuclear policies of each government is assumed, it will continue to grow in the future, exceeding 500 GW in 2035. In particular, Asian countries such as China and India will lead the growth both in the energy demand and in the nuclear power capacity. Therefore, it is essential to better ensure the safety of nuclear power generation. It is important for technologically developed countries, including Japan, to make active contributions to the establishment of a global nuclear safety control system. On the other hand, energy security and global warming will continue to be major issues, which will make it indispensable to make the best effort to save energy and expand renewable energy utilization. Japan is competitive in energy-saving and environmental conservation technologies, thus further development and utilization of there technologies should be a key option of Japan's growth growth strategy in the future. (author)

  4. Social side issues of the energy supply; criteria for estimating the consequences of energy supply systems on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Abich, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of the question concerning the benefit of an energy system, teh development tendencies of demand and supply are discussed. The social expense for an energy supply system is characterized by economy, international compatibility, environmental consideration, and social suitability. (UA) [de

  5. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  6. NCIS - a Nuclear Criticality Information System (overview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1983-07-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is being established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to serve personnel responsible for safe storage, transport, and handling of fissile materials and those concerned with the evaluation and analysis of nuclear, critical experiments. Public concern for nuclear safety provides the incentive for improved access to nuclear safety information

  7. High-Voltage Power Supply System for Laser Isotope Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketaily, E.C.; Buckner, R.P.; Uhrik, R.L.

    1979-06-26

    This report presents several concepts for Laser High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) Systems for a Laser Isotope Separation facility. Selection of equipments and their arrangement into operational systems is based on proven designs and on application concepts now being developed. This report has identified a number of alternative system arrangements and has provided preliminary cost estimates for each. The report includes a recommendation for follow-on studies that will further define the optimum Laser HVPS Systems. Brief descriptions are given of Modulator/Regulator circuit trade-offs, system control interfaces, and their impact on costs.

  8. Power modulation for nuclear power stations supplying electric power or heat distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacault, P.; Tillequin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of the thermal energy storage are presented. The heat is stored in a liquid having a high-boiling point. It is possible to use low-cost materials having an excellent stability during the temperature cycles. The application of the process to the power modulation of generating plants has been studied. Linking up heat accumulators to a nuclear power station makes it possible for the latter to supply variable amounts of electric and thermal power while keeping the reactor at constant power [fr

  9. Nuclear maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Yoshihiro; Abe, Norihiko

    2000-01-01

    The Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. has developed to introduce various computer systems for desk-top business assistance in a power plant such as system isolation assisting system, operation parameter management system, and so on under aiming at business effectiveness since these ten and some years. Recently, by further elapsed years of the plants when required for further cost reduction and together with change of business environment represented by preparation of individual personal computer, further effectiveness, preparation of the business environment, and upgrading of maintenance in power plant business have been required. Among such background, she has carried out various proposals and developments on construction of a maintenance and management system integrated the business assistant know-hows and the plant know-hows both accumulated previously. They are composed of three main points on rationalization of business management and document management in the further effectiveness, preparation of business environment, TBM maintenance, introduction of CBM maintenance and introduction of maintenance assistance in upgrading of maintenance. Here was introduced on system concepts aiming at the further effectiveness of the nuclear power plant business, preparation of business environment, upgrading of maintenance and maintenance, and so on, at a background of environment around maintenance business in the nuclear power plants (cost-down, highly elapsed year of the plant, change of business environment). (G.K)

  10. Total energy supply for remote human habitations: nuclear north of 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will examine the direct application of nuclear energy solutions in the north, and remote areas of Canada. Further it will challenge the existing energy network based on the shipment of fossil fuels to remote areas, and examine the use of small, modular, and/or deployable nuclear plants in these communities. The use of these small reactors and some newly emerging technologies will likely provide a near total energy supply for these communities. In particular low grade heat processes, district heating, the 'local' production of motive fuels, and local food production will be examined. Additionally the economic and social impact of moving the value added side of many of these processes to the local communities will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Total energy supply for remote human habitations (Or 'Nuclear North of 60')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will examine the direct application of nuclear energy solutions in the north, and remote areas of Canada. Further it will challenge the existing energy network based on the shipment of fossil fuels to remote areas, and examine the use of small, modular, and/or deployable nuclear plants in these communities. The use of these small reactors and some newly emerging technologies will likely provide a near total energy supply for these communities. In particular low grade heat processes, district heating, the 'local' production of motive fuels, and local food production will be examined. Additionally the economic and social impact of moving the value added side of many of these processes to the local communities will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions: water supplies and the nuclear licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, F.S.

    1977-07-01

    The Interstate Conference on Water Problems (ICWP) is a national association of State, intrastate, and interstate officials concerned with water resources administration and related matters. The Conference was established in 1959 as an outgrowth of regional conferences on water problems as recognized in the same year by action of the General Assembly of the States. This report was produced by the Interstate Conference on Water Problems in an effort to provide a compilation and summary of the views of selected States regarding relationships of water supplies to the nuclear power plant licensing process. This publication does not represent the official position of the U.S Water Resources Council, or the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor does it represent the position of any single state or the ICWP

  13. A methodology for the design of photovoltaic water supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, O.C.; Fraidenraich, N.

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic pumping systems are used nowadays as a valuable alternative to supply water to communities living in remote rural areas. Owing to the seasonal variation and the stochastic behavior of solar radiation, at certain times the supply of water may not be able to meet demand. A study has been made of the relationship between water pumping capacity, reservoir size and water demand, for a given water deficit. As a result, curves of equal water deficit (iso-deficit lines) can be obtained for various combinations of PV pumping capacity and reservoir size. A methodology to generate those curves is described, using as its main tool the characteristic curve of the system, that is, the relationship between water flow and collected solar radiation. The characteristic curve represents the combined behavior of the water pumping system and the well. The influence of the minimum collected solar radiation level, necessary to start the system's operation (the critical radiation level I C ). is also analyzed. Results show that PV pumping systems with different characteristic curves, but with the same critical levels, yield the same set of iso-deficit lines. This drastically reduces the number of necessary solutions to those corresponding to a few values of I C . Iso-deficit lines, calculated for the locality of Recife (PE), Brazil, are used to illustrate the sizing procedure PV water supply systems. (author)

  14. Combined prediction model for supply risk in nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry based on support vector machine and decision tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunsheng; Meng Dapeng

    2011-01-01

    The prediction index for supply risk is developed based on the factor identifying of nuclear equipment manufacturing industry. The supply risk prediction model is established with the method of support vector machine and decision tree, based on the investigation on 3 important nuclear power equipment manufacturing enterprises and 60 suppliers. Final case study demonstrates that the combination model is better than the single prediction model, and demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of this model, which provides a method to evaluate the suppliers and measure the supply risk. (authors)

  15. Economic feasibility of heat supply from nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, K.K.; Oliker, I.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear energy is regarded as competitive for urban district heating applications. Hot water heat transoport systems of up to 50 miles are feasible for heat loads over 1500 MWt, and heat load density of over 130 MWt/mi 2 is most suitable for nuclear applications. An incremental approach and a nuclear plant design provision for future heat extraction are recommended. Nuclear district heating technology status is discussed, particularly turbine design. Results of a study for retrofitting a major existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration operation are presented. The study indicates that for transmission distances up to 20 miles it is economical to generate and transport between 600 and 1200 MWt of district heat (author)

  16. Simulation and assessment of agricultural biomass supply chain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pavlou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biomass supply chain consists of a number of interacted sequential operations affected by various variables, such as weather conditions, machinery systems, and biomass features. These facts make the process of biomass supply chain as a complex system that requires computational tools, e.g. simulation and mathematical models, for their assessment and analysis. A biomass supply chain simulation model developed on the ExtendSim 8 simulation environment is presented in this paper. A number of sequential operations are applied in order biomass to be mowed, harvested, and transported to a biorefinery facility. Different operational scenarios regarding the travel distance between field and biorefinery facility, number of machines, and capacity of machines are analyzed showing how different parameters affect the processes within biomass supply chain in terms of time and cost. The results shown that parameters such as area of the field, travel distance, number of available machines, capacity of the machines, etc. should be taken into account in order a less time and/ or cost consuming machinery combination to be selected.

  17. BORILAIN. Mobile device for automatic continuous supply of liquid injection system backup of a nuclear plant in emergency; BORILAIN. Dispositivo movil para el abastecimiento automatico en continuo del sistema de inyeccion del liquido de reserva de una central nuclear en situacion de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, J.; Traino, J.; Troeung, J.; Arnaldos, A.; Alcaraz, D. A.; Lopez, B.; Ponce, A. T.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the first automatic mobile device for the preparation of a neutron absorbing solution, and providing continuous, 30 days, of the injection system liquid reserve of a nuclear emergency. The work has been developed by GD Energy Services (GDES) for Electricite de France (EDF). (Author)

  18. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  19. Electrical supply for MFTF-B superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimer, D.W.; Owen, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    The MFTF-B magnet system consists of 42 superconducting magnets which must operate continuously for long periods of time. The magnet power supply system is designed to meet the operational requirements of accuracy, flexibility, and reliability. The superconducting magnets require a protection system to protect against critical magnet faults of quench, current lead overtemperature, and overcurrent. The protection system is complex because of the large number of magnets, the strong coupling between magnets, and the high reliability requirement. This paper describes the power circuits and the components used in the design

  20. Components and system tests on the RFX toroidal power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toigo, V.; Zanotto, L.; Gaio, E.; Perna, M.; Bordignon, P.; Coffetti, A.; Novaro, R.; Bertolotto, P.; Rinaldi, E.; Villa, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the component and system tests performed on the new toroidal power supply system of the RFX experiment. The high technological innovation of the system required a deep experimental characterization and validation campaign; special factory tests were performed on prototypes of single components aimed at verifying the most critical design aspects. Consequently an articulated series of tests were performed, based on a step-by-step approach to achieve the desired coordinate operation of the whole system. The test procedures and the most significant results are described in the paper

  1. Nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables: two compatible supply options? The case of the French power mix

    OpenAIRE

    Cany, Camille; Mansilla, Christine; Da Costa, Pascal; Mathonnière, Gilles; Duquesnoy, Thierry; Baschwitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The complementary features of low-carbon power sources are a central issue in designing energy transition policies. The French current electricity mix is characterised by a high share of nuclear power which equalled 73% of the total electric production in 2013. With the increase of non-dispatchable renewable resources, nuclear flexibility is examined as part of the solution to balance electricity supply and demand. Our proposed methodology involves designing scenarios of nuclear and non-dispa...

  2. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  3. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K G; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun, E-mail: agrajit@ipr.res.i [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat - 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density {approx}5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, from which {approx} 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage ({approx}15 to 35kV), and high current ({approx} 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< {+-}1%), low ripple (< {+-}2%), isolation ({approx}50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100{mu}s). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically ({approx} 50k

  4. Defining regulatory requirements for water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors offer their suggestions for improving the reliability of the standardization requirements for water supply facilities in Vietnam, as an analog of building regulations of Russia 31.13330.2012. In Russia and other advanced countries the reliability of the designed water supply systems is usual to assess quantitatively. Guidelines on the reliability assessment of water supply systems and facilities have been offered by many researchers, but these proposals are not officially approved. Some methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities are informally used in practice when describing their quality. These evaluation methods are simple and useful. However, the given estimations defy common sense and regulatory requirements used by all the organizations, ministries and departments, for example, of Russia, in the process of allowances for restoration and repair of water supply facilities. Inadequacy of the water supply facilities assessment is shown on the example of assessing the reliability of pipeline system. If we take MTBF of specific length of the pipeline as reliability index for a pipeline system, for example, 5 km, a pipeline of the similar gauge, material and working conditions with the length of 5 m, according to the estimation on the basis of non-official approach, must have a value of MTBF 1000 times greater than with the length of 5 km. This conclusion runs counter to common sense, for the reason that all the pipes in the area of 5 km are identical, have the same load and rate of wear (corrosion, fouling, deformation, etc.. It was theoretically and practically proved that products of the same type in the same operating conditions (excluding determined impact of a person, work as an entity, which MTBF is equal to the average lifetime. It is proposed to take the average service life as a reliability indicator of a pipeline. Durability, but not failsafety of the pipe guarantees pipeline functioning

  5. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the

  6. A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

  7. Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Systems Used in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Michał; Rzepecki, Łukasz

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important factors which have an effect on the cost and time of the building process is the organization of physical resources and the information flow structure. Depending on how effective this system is, a building project may end with a success or a failure. Because of many conditions of the construction executing and different needs of the contractors, there are different Supply Chain Management (SCM) systems connected with supplying construction projects: single-stage, multi-stage or combined. The article presents a comparative analysis of construction SCM systems based on a modified fuzzy AHP. The modification of this method is based on the use of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to aggregate evaluation according to the idea proposed by Mikhailov. The use of such a model of group preferences of decision-makers, makes it possible to take into consideration both the linguistic imprecision of an evaluation and the small number of experts. The weight values of specific criteria and the final scale vector of considered variants are obtained during the analysis. This may give a recommendation to general contractors in construction projects about which evaluation criteria and supply systems are preferred.

  8. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  9. Smart Power Supply Systems for Mission Critical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Keiichi; Babasaki, Tadatoshi

    To develop the advanced and rich life, and the also economy and social activity continuously, various types of energy are necessary. At the same time, to protect the global environment and to prevent the depletion of natural resources, the effective and moreover efficient use of energy is becoming important. Electric power is one of the most important forms of energy for our life and society. This paper describes topics and survey results of technical trends regarding the electric power supply systems which are playing a core role as the important infrastructure to support the emergence of information-oriented society. Specifically, the power supply systems that enhance high power quality and reliability (PQR) are important for the steady growth of information and communication services. The direct current (DC) power, which has been used for telecommunications power systems and information and communications technologies (ICT), enables existing utilities' grid and distributed energy resources to keep a balance between supply and demand of small-scaled power systems or microgirds. These techniques are expected to be part of smartgrid technologies and facilitate the installation of distributed generators in mission critical facilities.

  10. Climate change benefits and energy supply benefits as determinants of acceptance of nuclear power stations: Investigating an explanatory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several countries are currently discussing whether they will rebuild their nuclear power stations in order to continue this type of energy production in the future. The public, with its own opinion about nuclear power stations, has an influential voice in this discussion. As a result, policy makers and nuclear scientists are interested in the public's perception of nuclear power and in what determines this perception. We therefore examined an explanatory model of the public's acceptance of nuclear power based on a telephone survey among a representative sample in Switzerland. The model included such factors as risk perception, benefit perception, affective feelings, and social trust. Moreover, we distinguished between two types of benefit perception: benefit for the climate and a secure energy supply. The model fitted very well to our data and explained acceptance very well. Acceptance was mainly influenced by perceived benefits for a secure energy supply and, to a lesser extent, both by perceived benefits for the climate and by risk perception. Affective feelings about nuclear power appeared to be a central factor in the model. Implications for communication about nuclear power stations and for further research are discussed. - Highlights: → Explanatory model of determinants of nuclear power acceptance was studied in the representative survey. → Perceived benefits for a secure energy supply had the largest influence on acceptance. → Perceived benefits for the climate seemed less influential on acceptance. → Affect had a central role in the explanatory model. → Implications for communication about nuclear power plants are discussed.

  11. Development of operating conditions of power supply system in Czechoslovakia and their effect on cooperation of various types of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencz, I.

    1984-01-01

    The major factors are given which influence the operation of the power supply system in Czechoslovakia in a 10 to 15-year perspective. The decisive share of capacity and production will be assumed by nuclear power plants. No new thermal power plants burning fossil fuel will be opened and the existing thermal power plants will be reconstructed, modernized and used for heat supply. Nuclear power plants cannot be incorporated in the system frequency and power control and therefore specific flexible sources will have to be built to cope with the dynamic needs of the power supply system and to create immediate reserves. (M.D.)

  12. Establishment of nuclear data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Kim, J. D.; Oh, S. Y.; Lee, Y. O.; Gil, C. S.; Cho, Y. S.

    1997-01-01

    Fission fragment data have been collected and added to the existing nuclear database system. A computer program was written for generating on-line graphs of energy-dependent neutron reaction cross section. This program deals with about 300 major nuclides and serves on the internet. As a part of nuclear data evaluation works, the covariance data for neutron cross section of structural nuclides were evaluated. Also the elastic and inelastic cross sections were evaluated by using ABAREX and EGNASH2 code. In the field of nuclear data processing, a cross section library for TWODANT code for liquid metal reactor was generated and validated against Russian and French critical reactors. The resonance data for Pu-242 in CASMO-3 library were updated. In addition, continuous-energy libraries for MCNP were generated from ENDF/B-VI.2, JEF-2.2 and JENDL-3.2. These libraries were validated against the results from a series of critical experiments at HANARO. (author). 87 refs., 29 tabs., 23 figs.

  13. National supply of reactivity control rods for Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, C.D.; Carloni, J.G.; Aba, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The manufacture and supply on industrial scale of reactivity control rods for CNE (Embalse nuclear power plant) were developed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) together with the private industry, as part of a program aimed to the substitution of imported supplies used in the operation of power plants by materials manufactured in Argentina. So far, the control rods were imported from Canada. In this work, the different development stages performed by CNEA and CONUAR S.A. are described, leading to the supply of a set of 21 cobalt rods to be included in a reactor of CNE in order to qualify this component. Among the main activities performed, the following stand out: specifications development, particularly those concerning to cobalt cores, evaluation of design documentation and elaboration of bidding conditions and a plan of manufacture and control. According to the results obtained during the service and the post-irradiation measurements, the design will be reviewed in order to undertake new manufacturing plans. (Author)

  14. Optimization of energy cost in water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimoch, Izabela; Bartkiewicz, Ewelina

    2017-11-01

    The decreasing amount of fossil fuels and deteriorating air quality forces the governments to introduce a rational energy management in all sectors of economy. At the beginning of the twenty-first century many water supply systems (WSSs) were oversized because of the reduction of water consumption, especially in industry. This resulted in high energy consumption in the pumping stations. Improving pumps operation will decrease energy consumption and also the water prices. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of energy optimization in WSSs. This paper presents an analysis of energy consumption in a selected water supply system. In this study pumps located in water treatment plants and pumping station cooperating with the tanks are analyzed. The study used hydraulic model of the WSS created in MOSKAN-W, which defines pumpś parameters such as flow, head, and efficiency. Using optimization options of calculation software several scenarios of energy costs were prepared.

  15. A study of industrial hydrogen and syngas supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, W. J.; Solomon, J.; Eliezer, K. F.

    1979-01-01

    The potential and incentives required for supplying hydrogen and syngas feedstocks to the U.S. chemical industry from coal gasification systems were evaluated. Future hydrogen and syngas demand for chemical manufacture was estimated by geographic area and projected economics for hydrogen and syngas manufacture was estimated with geographic area of manufacture and plant size as parameters. Natural gas, oil and coal feedstocks were considered. Problem areas presently affecting the commercial feasibility of coal gasification discussed include the impact of potential process improvements, factors involved in financing coal gasification plants, regulatory barriers affecting coal gasification, coal mining/transportation, air quality regulations, and competitive feedstock pricing barriers. The potential for making coal gasification the least costly H2 and syngas supply option. Options to stimulate coal gasification system development are discussed.

  16. Operation analysis of integrated energy supply systems with energy hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Андрійович Веремійчук

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operation properties of integrated intelligent energy supply systems that provide integration of self-organizing systems of electricity and heat consumption is conducted. Possibility of using energy hub models that combine disparate generate sources of heat and electricity energy for the consumers’ demand for energy is considered. The feasibility estimation of implementing energy hubs in terms of interaction of local energy systems in Ukraine at different levels of the organizational structure of the energetics in the energy market liberalization is made

  17. Nuclear material statistical accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentest, F.; Casilli, T.; Franklin, M.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical accountancy system developed at JRC Ispra is refered as 'NUMSAS', ie Nuclear Material Statistical Accountancy System. The principal feature of NUMSAS is that in addition to an ordinary material balance calcultation, NUMSAS can calculate an estimate of the standard deviation of the measurement error accumulated in the material balance calculation. The purpose of the report is to describe in detail, the statistical model on wich the standard deviation calculation is based; the computational formula which is used by NUMSAS in calculating the standard deviation and the information about nuclear material measurements and the plant measurement system which are required as data for NUMSAS. The material balance records require processing and interpretation before the material balance calculation is begun. The material balance calculation is the last of four phases of data processing undertaken by NUMSAS. Each of these phases is implemented by a different computer program. The activities which are carried out in each phase can be summarised as follows; the pre-processing phase; the selection and up-date phase; the transformation phase, and the computation phase

  18. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-04

    Jul 4, 2005 ... HASL (2001) Impacto do saneamento básico na saúde da popu- lação. Proc. 21st Cong. Bras. Eng. Sanitária e Ambiental. João Pes- soa, Paraíba, Brasil. MORAIS DC and ALMEIDA AT (2002) Multicriteria decision-aid for implementation of water supply system. Proc. MIM 2002: 5th Int. Conf. on Managing ...

  19. The ITER poloidal field system: control and power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, P.L.; Benfatto, I.; Gribov, Y.; Matsukawa, M.; Odajima, K.; Portone, A.; Roshal, A.; Bareyt, B.; Bertolini, E.; Bottereau, J.M.; Huart, M.; Maschio, A.; Bulgakov, S.; Kuchinski, V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reports the preliminary scenario of the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) system operation, the method used to evaluate the installed power, the basic structure of the circuits and finally the concepts of the preliminary design of control and power supply. The superconducting coils are energized from the HV Grid with conventional AC/DC converters. R and D is required for circuit breakers, make switches and resistors, the basic components of both the switching networks and the discharge circuits. (orig.)

  20. Systems for uninterrupted power supply; USV - ein starkes Stueck Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.; Soelter, W. [AEG SVS GmbH, Warstein-Belecke (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    The millennium bug is only one of the many potential hazards in information technology. Systems for uninterrupted power supply offer a solution. [German] Alle Welt spricht vom Jahr-2000-Problem (Y2K). Die Meinungen dazu reichen von Horror-Szenarien bis hin zum Ignorieren dieses Problems. Dabei steht fest: Das Jahr-2000-Problem ist nur eines unter vielen Gefahrenpotentialen fuer die Informationstechnik. Dabei lassen sich alle Stoerfaktoren, die aus der Energieversorgung resultieren mit einer USV beseitigen. USV sichern Geschaeftsablaeufe und Fertigungsprozesse. (orig.)

  1. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  2. Modeling and simulation of the power demand and supply of a hydrothermal power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronini, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Security of supply of electric energy is measured by the capacity to cover the energy demand and power of a supply grid. This coverage is important because the winter peak load period in Switzerland will become problematical in the near future. The objective of this research project is to analyze the ability of a power generating system to satisfy the power requirements of the corresponding supply network. The behaviour of the energy system in critical cases (loss of the largest generator, lack of available power from an external supplier or reduced capacity for energy storage) is tested for the present situation and for the rise in the annual load. The simulation of the load of the supply network is carried out by using a model developed for this project. This model is based on the analysis of half-hourly changes of load and on the statistical maximum values. The power generating system consists of nuclear generating units, hydro units with large reservoirs, run of the river installations and imported energy. Standby units such as gas turbines, spot market and coal-fired power stations are also available. Stochastic and deterministic energy and power models have been developed for the various power stations of the hydrothermal power system. In the case of nuclear power stations, a model has been developed on the basis of the output level, production losses and time and length of outages. The possible feeder streams of the run of the river installations and of the hydro units with a large reservoir are simulated using stochastic methods based on the historical values of the last 35 years. The commitment of the hydro units depends on the peak load requirements. The load and capacity over a period of several days and weeks have been simulated with stochastic models based on the Monte Carlo method and constantly (by half hour intervals) compared. In this manner each month can be simulated. (author) figs., tabs., 46 refs

  3. Nuclear Systems (NS): Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nuclear Systems Project demonstrates nuclear power technology readiness to support the goals of NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate. To this end, the...

  4. Developing the Water Supply System for Travel to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance D.; Flynn, Michael T.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    What water supply method should be used on a trip to Mars? Two alternate approaches are using fuel cell and stored water, as was done for short missions such as Apollo and the Space Shuttle, or recycling most of the water, as on long missions including the International Space Station (ISS). Stored water is inexpensive for brief missions but its launch mass and cost become very large for long missions. Recycling systems have much lower total mass and cost for long missions, but they have high development cost and are more expensive to operate than storage. A Mars transit mission would have an intermediate duration of about 450 days out and back. Since Mars transit is about ten times longer than a brief mission but probably less than one-tenth as long as ISS, it is not clear if stored or recycled water would be best. Recycling system design is complicated because water is used for different purposes, drinking, food preparation, washing, and flushing the urinal, and because wastewater has different forms, humidity condensate, dirty wash water, and urine and flush water. The uses have different requirements and the wastewater resources have different contaminants and processing requirements. The most cost-effective water supply system may recycle some wastewater sources and also provide safety reserve water from storage. Different water supply technologies are compared using mass, cost, reliability, and other factors.

  5. Nitrogen Gas Heating and Supply System for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; George, Siju; Ramesh, Gattu; Bindu, Hima; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Steady State Tokamak (SST-1) vacuum vessel baking as well as baking of the first wall components of SST-1 are essential to plasma physics experiments. Under a refurbishment spectrum of SST-1, the nitrogen gas heating and supply system has been fully refurbished. The SST-1 vacuum vessel consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible eight modules and eight sectors. Rectangular baking channels are embedded on each of them. Similarly, the SST-1 plasma facing components (PFC) are comprised of modular graphite diverters and movable graphite based limiters. The nitrogen gas heating and supply system would bake the plasma facing components at 350°C and the SST-1 vacuum vessel at 150°C over an extended duration so as to remove water vapour and other absorbed gases. An efficient PLC based baking facility has been developed and implemented for monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents functional and operational aspects of a SST-1 nitrogen gas heating and supply system. Some of the experimental results obtained during the baking of SST-1 vacuum modules and sectors are also presented here. (fusion engineering)

  6. An approach for high voltage power supply system for HCAL of LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, A.; Dumitru, D.; Kluger, A.; Magureanu, C.; Tarta, D.; Coca, C.; Orlandea, M.; Popescu, S.

    2003-01-01

    The main aim of the calorimeter system of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider Beauty) experiment dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare phenomena is to provide identification of the electrons, hadrons and photons, for the level-0 trigger and offline analysis with measurements of position and energy. The system consists in a scintillator pad/preshower (SPD/PS) detector, an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and a hadron calorimeter (HCAL), all the sub-detectors having a similar technology with scintillating tiles as active material and being read out via wavelength-shifting fibers and with an identical readout electronics for ECAL and HCAL and similar electronics for the PS. During 1997-1999 a computer controlled High Voltage (HV) distribution scheme was developed by Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) group and used to supply the PMTs of half HCAL prototype during the beam tests (1998-2000). This scheme consisted of three parts: 1) a control box which includes low voltage power supply, the RS232 interface to a PC and three modules of high voltage power supply; 2) two types of multichannel HV distributors with an individual voltage setting; 3) a software package to control all settings and refresh them periodically. Based on the acquired experience, a new design for a High Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) which satisfies the LHCb requirements has been developed for PMTs of the hadron calorimeter. The demands of this system are simplicity and low cost. This HVPS with multiple outputs (HV for photocathode and D1 - D4 dynodes) is destined to supply, with the same high voltage, groups of PMTs sorted by similar characteristics as gain and sensitivity. Because of the high rates (∼ 40 MHz) supported by PMTs, booster voltage sources are necessary to supply current for the last 4 dynodes. The box has 5 HV power supplies for photocathodes and the last 4 dynodes, each HV power supply being followed by a 4 channel

  7. Argentina's operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.; Palamidessi, H.

    1996-01-01

    The development of operator support systems for nuclear power plants started in Argentina a few years ago. Four systems are at present deployed or under development. The participation of utility personnel in the co-ordinated research program has helped in revising the current experience and in selecting and specifying the systems to be developed and the resources needed for their implementation. Main efforts will be aimed to the selection of those systems that can be more easily implemented, to improve the data retrieval and handling, to develop diverse supplies of software products and to promote the understanding of support systems among the potential end users. (author). 12 refs

  8. A Feasibility Study of Optimal Nuclear Desalination Process for Industrial Water Supply in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyunchul; Han, Kiin [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Seawater Desalination can be an alternative technology for water production based on salt separation from seawater. Seawater desalination can produce freshwater with necessary quality by choosing an appropriate desalination process and posttreatment methods of the product water. The commercial seawater desalination processes which are proven and reliable for large scale freshwater production are MSF and MED for evaporative desalination and RO for membrane desalination. Vapor compression plants based on thermal and mechanical compression are also employed for the small and medium capacity ranges. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and cost of each process methods and suggest the most efficient and effective method of desalination for an industrial water supply to the National Industrial Complex nearby Nuclear Power Plant. The costs associated with desalination depend on many factors such as capital, energy, labor, chemicals that are specific to the location, plant capacity, product salinity pre-treatment necessities, and other site-related costs for land, plant and brine disposal. A detailed analysis of each situation is thus required to estimate desalination costs. It could be stated that RO cost is lower than distillation one in energy and environmental terms. The optimal capacity(10,000 m{sup 3}/day) was decided to analyze the estimated water usage in nuclear power plants. And then compared the availability of each process, energy consumption, O and M and economic aspects. In terms of economic feasibility study, RO is the most recommendable process in nuclear power plants in Korea.

  9. A Feasibility Study of Optimal Nuclear Desalination Process for Industrial Water Supply in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunchul; Han, Kiin

    2013-01-01

    Seawater Desalination can be an alternative technology for water production based on salt separation from seawater. Seawater desalination can produce freshwater with necessary quality by choosing an appropriate desalination process and posttreatment methods of the product water. The commercial seawater desalination processes which are proven and reliable for large scale freshwater production are MSF and MED for evaporative desalination and RO for membrane desalination. Vapor compression plants based on thermal and mechanical compression are also employed for the small and medium capacity ranges. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and cost of each process methods and suggest the most efficient and effective method of desalination for an industrial water supply to the National Industrial Complex nearby Nuclear Power Plant. The costs associated with desalination depend on many factors such as capital, energy, labor, chemicals that are specific to the location, plant capacity, product salinity pre-treatment necessities, and other site-related costs for land, plant and brine disposal. A detailed analysis of each situation is thus required to estimate desalination costs. It could be stated that RO cost is lower than distillation one in energy and environmental terms. The optimal capacity(10,000 m 3 /day) was decided to analyze the estimated water usage in nuclear power plants. And then compared the availability of each process, energy consumption, O and M and economic aspects. In terms of economic feasibility study, RO is the most recommendable process in nuclear power plants in Korea

  10. 4+ Dimensional nuclear systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully integrated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. This paper proposes digital systems engineering anchored in three dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four plus dimensional (4 + D) Technology TM , a critical know how for digital management. ESSE (Engineering Super Simulation Emulation) features a 4 + D Technology TM for nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4 + D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Dased on an integrated 3D configuration management system, ESSE consists of solutions JANUS (Junctional Analysis Neodynamic Unit SoftPower), EURUS (Engineering Utilities Research Unit SoftPower), NOTUS (Neosystemic Optimization Technical Unit SoftPower), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Neocybernetic Unit SoftPower) and INUUS (Informative Neographic Utilities Unit SoftPower). NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4 + D system. Problems with equipment positioning and manpower congestion in certain areas can be visualized prior to the actual operation, thus preventing accidents and safety problems such as collision between two machines and losses in

  11. Optimisation of the coupling of nuclear reactors and desalination systems in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, M.; Htet, A.; Alami, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study has been undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP on 'Optimisation of the Coupling of Nuclear Reactors and Desalination Systems in Morocco'. Two sites have been selected to host nuclear desalination plants, and different combinations with nuclear reactors have been investigated. Other combinations with fossil fuel plants have been examined for comparison. The results obtained showed the competitiveness of nuclear energy, which could be a solution to supply the region that will suffer from water shortage. On the other hand, this study could help the decision makers in the management and planning of water, energy resources and supply. (author)

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs.

  15. Optimal supply and demand investments in municipal energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfsman, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    In many municipalities, there are district heating networks, which are quite commonly supplied by combined heat and power plants (CHP). A district heating network contains buildings of different types. In this paper, one such municipal energy system is analysed. In order to provide space heating and domestic hot water, investments could be made on the supply side in power plants, or on the demand side in the buildings, for example in the form of extra wall insulation. The electricity from the CHP plants is supplied to the municipality but can also be sold to the electricity market, and electricity can, of course, also be bought from the market. The variation in price on the spot market over any given day is significant. The need for district heat in the building stock also varies, for example due to climatic conditions. The energy system in the case study is analysed with a mixed integer linear programming model. The model has 3 h time steps in order to reflect diurnal variations, and an entire year is analysed. A case study is presented for the city of Linkoeping in Sweden. On the demand side, the options are: extra wall insulation, extra attic insulation and better types of windows. The building stock is divided into nine categories

  16. Alternative power supply systems for remote industrial customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, N. V.; Khalyasmaa, A. I.; Eroshenko, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of alternative power supply of remote industrial clusters with renewable electric energy generation. As a result of different technologies comparison, consideration is given to wind energy application. The authors present a methodology of mean expected wind generation output calculation, based on Weibull distribution, which provides an effective express-tool for preliminary assessment of required installed generation capacity. The case study is based on real data including database of meteorological information, relief characteristics, power system topology etc. Wind generation feasibility estimation for a specific territory is followed by power flow calculations using Monte Carlo methodology. Finally, the paper provides a set of recommendations to ensure safe and reliable power supply for the final customers and, subsequently, to provide sustainable development of the regions, located far from megalopolises and industrial centres.

  17. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  18. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives, packages, instruments, and different mechanisms to promote solar photovoltaics and its effectiveness.

  19. Advanced nuclear systems in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Foskolos, K.; Goetzmann, C.; Kroeger, W.; Stanculescu, A.; Wydler, P.

    1996-09-01

    This study aims at a comparison of future reactor concepts, paying particular attention to aspects of safety, of the fuel cycle, the economics, the experience-base and the state of development. Representative examples of typical development lines, that could possibly be 'of interest' within a time horizon of 50 years were selected for comparison. This can be divided into three phases: - Phase I includes the next 10 years and will be characterised mainly by evolutionary developments of light water reactors (LWR) of large size; representative: EPR, - Phase II: i.e. the time between 2005 and 2020 approximately, encompasses the forecasted doubling of today's world-wide installed nuclear capacity; along with evolutionary reactors, innovative systems like AP600, PIUS, MHTGR, EFR will emerge, - Phase III covers the time between 2020 and 2050 and is characterised by the issue of sufficient fissile material resources; novel fast reactor systems including hybrid systems can, thus, become available; representatives: IFR, EA, ITER (the latter being). The evaluated concepts foresee partly different fuel cycles. Fission reactors can be operated in principle on the basis of either a Uranium-Plutonium-cycle or a Thorium-Uranium-cycle, while combinations of these cycles among them or with other reactor concepts than proposed are possible. With today's nuclear park (comprising mainly LWRs), the world-wide plutonium excess increases annually by about 100 t. Besides strategies based on reprocessing like: - recycling in thermal and fast reactors with mixed oxide fuels, - plutonium 'burning' in reactors with novel fuels without uranium or in 'hybrid' systems, allowing a reduction of this excess, direct disposal of spent fuel elements including their plutonium content ('one-through') is being considered. (author) figs., tabs., 32 refs

  20. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.

    1976-01-01

    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  1. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  2. Moderate glucose supply reduces hemolysis during systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jägers J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Jägers,1 Stephan Brauckmann,2 Michael Kirsch,1 Katharina Effenberger-Neidnicht1,3 1Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany; 2Clinic for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany; 3Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany Background: Systemic inflammation alters energy metabolism. A sufficient glucose level, however, is most important for erythrocytes, since erythrocytes rely on glucose as sole source of energy. Damage to erythrocytes leads to hemolysis. Both disorders of glucose metabolism and hemolysis are associated with an increased risk of death. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of intravenous glucose on hemolysis during systemic inflammation.Materials and methods: Systemic inflammation was accomplished in male Wistar rats by continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS infusion (1 mg LPS/kg and h, 300 min. Sham control group rats received Ringer’s solution. Glucose was supplied moderately (70 mg glucose/kg and h or excessively (210 mg glucose/kg and h during systemic inflammation. Vital parameters (eg, systemic blood pressure as well as blood and plasma parameters (eg, concentrations of glucose, lactate and cell-free hemoglobin, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were measured hourly. Clot formation was analyzed by thromboelastometry.Results: Continuous infusion of LPS led to a so-called post-aggression syndrome with disturbed electrolyte homeostasis (hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and hypernatremia, changes in hemodynamics (tachycardia and hypertension, and a catabolic metabolism (early hyperglycemia, late hypoglycemia, and lactate formation. It induced severe tissue injury (significant increases in plasma concentrations of transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase, alterations in blood coagulation (disturbed clot formation, and massive hemolysis. Both moderate and excessive glucose supply reduced LPS

  3. Recirculation system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H. E.; Dollard, W. J.; Tower, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    A recirculation system for use in pressurized water nuclear reactors to increase the output temperature of the reactor coolant, thereby achieving a significant improvement in plant efficiency without exceeding current core design limits. A portion of the hot outlet coolant is recirculated to the inlets of the peripheral fuel assemblies which operate at relatively low power levels. The outlet temperature from these peripheral fuel assemblies is increased to a temperature above that of the average core outlet. The recirculation system uses external pumps and introduces the hot recirculation coolant to the free space between the core barrel and the core baffle, where it flows downward and inward to the inlets of the peripheral fuel assemblies. In the unlikely event of a loss of coolant accident, the recirculation system flow path through the free space and to the inlets of the fuel assemblies is utilized for the injection of emergency coolant to the lower vessel and core. During emergency coolant injection, the emergency coolant is prevented from bypassing the core through the recirculation system by check valves inserted into the recirculation system piping

  4. 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009. Abstracts. Part 1. Session: Safety of nuclear technology; Innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycle; Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of the 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009 (29 Sep - 2 Oct, 2009, Obninsk). Problems of safety of nuclear technology are discussed, innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles are treated. Abstracts on professional education for nuclear power and industry are presented. Nuclear knowledge management are discussed

  5. Advanced power supply and distribution systems for Columbus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes power supply and distribution systems to be used on unmanned/man-tended Columbus elements, capable of supplying 10 kW to 30 kW to a variety of users in low earth orbits (LEO's). For the definition of the Electrical Power System (EPS) challenging requirements as the provision of high power levels under hard LEO conditions, maintainability, commonality etc. are to be taken into account. These requirements are to be seen in conjunction with the Columbus IOC (initial operational capability) scenario stipulating that EPS hardware shall be used on the Polar Platform, the Pressurized Module attached to the U.S. Space Station and the Man-Tended Free Flier. According to the availability of European technologies, the baseline in the power generation area is a photovoltaic system which provides three regulated main buses (150 V d.c.) to the users. In order to maintain power supply during eclipse phases, nickel hydrogen batteries will be used for energy storage purposes with nickel cadmium as back-up solution. The power distribution system needs special attention. Due to the elevated voltage levels mechanical switch gear cannot be used any longer. It is to be replaced by solid state power controllers (SSPC). Because these devices show a totally different behaviour with regard to conventional relay contacts, new approaches in the area of switching and protection are necessary. In view of the crucial role of this new technology for the realization of medium voltage d.c. systems, it is of great importance for Columbus and, hence will receive adequate consideration in the paper. In order to cater for effective management and control of the power supply and distribution hardware, a so called power system internal data processing assembly (PINDAP) has been introduced in the EPS. PINDAP is the key to reduced dependence on ground stations (alleviated ground support requirements); it keeps crew involvement in the EPS control process to as minimum and provides

  6. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  7. Analysis of public consciousness structure and consideration of information supply against the nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    The Energy Engineering Research Institute carried out six times of questionnaire on analysis of public consciousness structure for fiscal years for 1986 to 1999, to obtain a lot of informations on public recognition against the nuclear power generation. In recent, as a feasibility on change of consciousness against the power generation was supposed by occurrence of the JCO critical accident forming the first victim in Japan on September, 1999 after investigation in fiscal year 1998, by carrying out the same questionnaire as one in previous fiscal year to the same objects after the accident, to analyze how evaluation, behavior determining factor and so forth on the power generation changed by the accident. In this paper, on referring to results of past questionnaires, were introduced on the questionnaire results and their analysis carried out before and after the JCO critical accident, to consider on information supply referred by them. (G.K.)

  8. Proposal on concept of security of energy supply with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Yamada, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply (SoS) was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. SoS concept has been proposed which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide meaning SoS consists of narrow meaning SoS of short-term energy crisis, which is the traditional concept, and long-term global energy problem, which has become important recently. Three models have been proposed here for evaluating SoS. A method to estimate energy security level in a quantitative manner by comparing with various measures has been also proposed, in which nuclear energy contribution onto SoS can be further measured. (author)

  9. A study on expert system applications for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Young Hwan; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Soon Ju; Park, Nam Seok; Ryu, Chan Ho; Choi, In Seon; Chung, Young Moo; Chung, Tae Eon; Yim, Chang Jae; Lee, Yoon Sang.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are 1) to develop an expert system which can automatically evaluate eddy current (EC) signal during an eddy current test (ECT) of SG U tube inspection, 2) to build an effective data base management system for ECT data. By this expert system the reliability in EC signal evaluation can be improved, and the required man-power can be reduced. And this expert system can supply a stable ECT and contribute to a safe operation of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  10. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  11. Applications of Expert Systems within the Scottish Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the areas of application of Expert Systems within the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB). The SSEB interest in Expert Systems was initiated by a fault in a conventional power station however the paper describes how the development associated with that work, has resulted in applications for the Nuclear Power Stations. The paper contrasts the cost benefits and project risks associated with the uses of probabilistic systems and concludes that the cost benefits of these are at present too low to justify their use in on-line applications

  12. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  13. DITE Mk2 bundle divertor power supplies and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayes, D.V.; Bell, D.; Gray, J.W.; Browning, J.L.; Poole, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The power supplies and control system currently being constructed for the DITE Tokamak MK 2 Bundle Divertor Field System meet the following specifications: maximum current 20 kA; rise time 25 ms; flat top time 200 ms; load parameters 2.0 mH, 21 mΩ. This is accomplished by a 2.5 kV, 800 kJ electrolytic 'start' bank of dimensions 2.9 m x 1.8 m x 4.4 m high, and a 1080 V, 2.8 MJ electrolytic 'sustain' bank of dimensions 3.4 m x 1.8 m x 5.7 m high. The start bank is discharged into the load to establish the current and the 8 'sustain' bank sections are fired sequentially to maintain the 'flat top'. The power supply and load assembly is controlled by a microprocessor based Programmable Logic System, which is a logical progression from the modular hard-wired, DITE system using solid state elements. (author)

  14. Considerations on Risk in Supply Chain Management Information Systems Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin-Petru Măzăreanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in information and communication technologies resulted in the digital revolution. This kind of revolution is changing the way people work, learn, communicate and manage their businesses. Due to the need to achieve the competitive advantage and to meet the business requirements, we are witnessing an increasing shift from business to e-business and mobile business. In this kind of world solutions like Supply Chain Management (SCM are increasingly appearing. The business success depends on how effective the information system works. Any interruption of the information system will inevitably lead to business loss. To ensure the successful implementation of a SCM project it is necessary to study even from the early stages which are the possible actions / risks / obstacles which might damage in one way or another the execution of the project. The role of the literature and case studies review in the field of interest is undeniable because it provides us with access to the so-called lessons-learned. By using this approach, in this paper, we present the most common risks and risk sources encountered in the implementation projects of SCM type information systems. We also propose a risk identification framework that can be used in the early stages of the implementation project of a Supply Chain Management information system.

  15. Remote system for counting of nuclear pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves V, J.A.; Garcia H, J.M.; Aguilar B, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, it is describe technically the remote system for counting of nuclear pulses, an integral system of the project radiological monitoring in a petroleum distillation tower. The system acquires the counting of incident nuclear particles in a nuclear detector which process this information and send it in serial form, using the RS-485 toward a remote receiver, which can be a Personal computer or any other device capable to interpret the communication protocol. (Author)

  16. Integrated nuclear and radiation protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, V.; Cerga, V.; Pirvu, V.; Badea, E.

    1993-01-01

    A multifunctional radiation monitoring equipment, flexible and capable to meet virtually environmental radiation monitoring, activity measurement and computational requirements, for nuclear laboratories has been designed. It can be used as a radiation protection system, for radionuclide measurement in isotope laboratories, nuclear technology, health physics and nuclear medicine, nuclear power stations and nuclear industry. The equipment is able to measure, transmit and record gamma dose rate and isotope activities. Other parameters and functions are optionally available, such as: self-contained alarm level, system self-test, dose integrator, syringe volume calculation for a given dose corrected for decay, calibration factor, 99 Mo assays performing and background subtraction

  17. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  18. Supply and cost factors for metals in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste immobilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1982-11-01

    Estimates have been made of the demand for immobilization containers to accommodate the irradiated fuel bundles arising from Canadian nuclear generating stations to the year 2020. The resulting estimates for container shells and container-filling alloys were compared to estimates for Canadian and Western World production of the candiate metals. The results indicate that, among the container shell metals, supply difficulties might arise only for Grade 7 titanium. Among the filling metals, only lead-antimony alloy might present supply problems. Current cost figures for plate made of each shell metal, and bulk quantities of filling metals, were compared. Materials costs would be least for a supported shell of stainless steel, followed by copper, titanium alloys Grades 2, 12 and 7, and Inconel 625. Aluminum-silicon is the lowest-cost filling matrix, followed by zinc, lead, and lead-antimony. Container durability, vault conditions, groundwater composition and other factors may play an overriding role in the final selection of materials for container construction

  19. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  20. The Supply Chain System of Cassava on the Tapioca Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hardoyo,; Safrudin, Ahmad; Komara, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The quantity, quality and continueity guarantee of raw material supply is a one of define factor for the succesfull of production process. To solve the problems of raw material supply on tapioca industry, it is important to develop a correct raw material supply management. That management must be accurate on quantity, quality, continuity and price. One of the developed management is supply chain managementThe purpose of this paper is to make a cassava raw material supply chain on 100 ton prod...

  1. Nuclear data evaluation method and evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation methods and Nuclear Data Evaluation System have been developed in China. A new version of the system has been established on Micro-VAX2 computer, which is supported by IAEA under the technology assistance program. The flow chart of Chinese Nuclear Data Evaluation System is shown out. For last ten years, the main efforts have been put on the double differential cross section, covariance data and evaluated data library validation. The developed evaluation method and Chinese Nuclear Data Evaluation System have been widely used at CNDC and in Chinese Nuclear Data Network for CENDL. (1 tab., 15 figs.)

  2. Analysis of supply chain management of N1-EAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jize; Liu Xujia; Liu Huanhuan

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management directly affect the safe and stable operation of nuclear power plants. China's nuclear power production management information system N1-EAM covers supply chain management business. This paper firstly N1-EAM supply chain management functions, advanced analysis of business processes, Qinshan area combined with supply chain management situation, the initial application of the proposed solutions. (authors)

  3. Automated accounting systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.

    1994-01-01

    History of the development of nuclear materials accounting systems in USA and their purposes are considered. Many present accounting systems are based on mainframe computers with multiple terminal access. Problems of future improvement accounting systems are discussed

  4. Nuclear Power Introduction in Indonesia : Securing the National Energy Supply for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana; Sudi Ariyanto; Arnold Y Soetrisnanto

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power construction planning study has already done by BATAN. The studies that cover various aspects have also done related to this preparation. The research centers in BATAN that have activities in energy application are directed to this preparation. This paper will generally describe the activities and result of the preparation study, especially related to technology aspect, site aspect, and social-economic impact. The preparation study has taken into account of some aspects, but still need updated and some more complementary study. The choice of technology will determine the ability for technology transfer. Industrial infrastructure and the design and engineering capability are the key role for self reliance in nuclear power technology. But the technology transfer will not succeed without government support. Muria Peninsula, precisely in Ujung Lemahabang has become the first candidate site, while Ujung Grenggengan and Ujung Watu as a second and third candidate sites. Though site could accommodate 7.000 MWe installed capacity, but are need to consider stability and capacity of transmission line to channeling the nuclear power out put in Jawa-Madura-Bali grid interconnection. From the economic impact aspect, nuclear power is competitive among other power plant system in order the role of nuclear power to give a solution in energy optimum mix policy and will reduce oil fuel consumption. (author)

  5. Configuration complexity assessment of convergent supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrak, Vladimir; Marton, David

    2014-07-01

    System designers usually generate alternative configurations of supply chains (SCs) by varying especially fixed assets to satisfy a desired production scope and rate. Such alternatives often vary in associated costs and other facets including degrees of complexity. Hence, a measure of configuration complexity can be a tool for comparison and decision-making. This paper presents three approaches to assessment of configuration complexity and their applications to designing convergent SC systems. Presented approaches are conceptually distinct ways of measuring structural complexity parameters based on different preconditions and circumstances of assembly systems which are typical representatives of convergent SCs. There are applied two similar approaches based on different preconditions that are related to demand shares. Third approach does not consider any special condition relating to character of final product demand. Subsequently, we propose a framework for modeling of assembly SC models, which are dividing to classes.

  6. Space shuttle electrical power generation and reactant supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design philosophy and development experience of fuel cell power generation and cryogenic reactant supply systems are reviewed, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. Technology advancements span a period of 10 years from initial definition phase to the most recent space transportation system (STS) flights. The development program encompassed prototype, verification, and qualification hardware, as well as post-STS-1 design improvements. Focus is on the problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches employed to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained. Major technology barriers are discussed, and the evolving technology development paths are traced from their conceptual beginnings to the fully man-rated systems which are now an integral part of the shuttle vehicle.

  7. Inductive-pulsed power supplying system for a betatron electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otrubyannikov, Yu.A.; Safronov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Circuit of producing quasitriangular current pulses designed for the pulsed power supply system of betatron electromagnet is described. Introduction of additional winding into electromagnet provides circuit galvanic isolation, artificial commutation of basic circuit thyristors and inductive power input to the winding during thyristor commutation. The considered system is used for excitation of betatron electromagnet up to 18 MeV. Magnetic field energy equals 1100 Y. The maximal voltage in energy storage capacitor - 4.8 kV. Current amplitude in basic winding - 335 A. The number of loops in basic winding equals 80, in additional one - 32. Current pulse duration in electromagnet-3.8 ms. The system provides operation with controlled current pulse frequency from 0 up to 150 Hz. The maximal consumption power - 18 kW

  8. Study on intermediate frequency power supply automatic monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuntong; Xu Bin

    2007-06-01

    A new design project of the automatic monitor system for the intermediate frequency power supply system by using the communication server is put for- ward and the realizing principle method and the key technique are clarified in detail. This system made use of the conversion function with the series communication server's control, realized the data collecting function by the double machine backup and redundancy. The new network system adopted the photoelectric-insulated-communication connect device and the diagnosis technique, increased the anti-interference ability, the communication adopted the technique by the alarm information sending out in first and circularly repeating, the slowly speed is overcame in the original monitor network system, and strengthened the celerity of the monitor system and the reliability of the alarm report. After the new monitor system running, the result shows that the functions is more perfect than the original monitor system, the usage is more convenient, have the higher and dependable stability, the report of alarm is more quickly, and is convenient for the analysis after the trouble, at the same time, the system still have the strong ability and value to expand. (authors)

  9. Roles and prospect of nuclear power in China's energy supply strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong; Lu Yingyun

    2002-01-01

    China's annual energy demand is expected to amount to 3360 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) in 2050, the target year for the nation's economic development to reach the level of medium-developed countries in the middle of this century. The future energy supply, doubtless to go through a substantial increase and necessary mix shift with potential significant environmental impacts, will continue to rely on the domestic sources with coal-dominance but diversified mixes, in which nuclear power makes up a reasonable share. The large-scale development of nuclear energy is essential and promising, with the total installed capacity expectedly over 200-300 GW around 2050, and will be an effective response measure to mitigate the energy-derived environmental pollution and guarantee the national energy security. China is a developing country with the largest population in the world. The energy production had achieved remarkable progress over the last half century, particularly since the initiatives of reform and opening to the outside world in the late 1970s, and energy demand to fuel the continued socio-economic growth has been largely met. The current energy consumption of China is 896 Mtoe (China Stat. Abs. (2001) 130), accounting for about 11% of the world's total, the second largest energy consumer in the globe. However, the energy supply will face even tougher challenges in terms of demand increase, mix shift and potential environmental impacts to be posed by a sustained fast-growing economy in light of China's blueprint for future development. With the switch-over from the centrally planned economy to the socialist market economy and the gradual integration of China's energy trade into the international markets, the imported crude oil in 2000 amounted to 70.265 Mt (Int. Petrol. Econ. 9 (2000) 5), about 3.5% of the global petroleum trade, the long-term energy security for China would have great regional and global implications. It is, therefore, of great significance

  10. Nuclear power plants in electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicman, J.; Vokurka, F.

    1985-01-01

    The paper analyzes the demands placed by the power system on operating qualities of nuclear power plants with regard to the prospective tasks of nuclear power in the Czechoslovak power system. The characteristics of the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear plants are given taking into account the frequency and voltage deviations of the network, operating and control properties of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors considering the technical conditions of operation, the required operating schedule of a nuclear power plant unit. For comparison, the demands are summed up of foreign power systems as are the control properties of foreign nuclear power units in regulating output, regulating delivered electric power and in emergency states of the system. Recommendations for further research and development are drawn from the data. (author)

  11. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Konishi, S.; Nishio, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-01-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO 2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO 2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW -1 h -1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO 2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW -1 h -1 . Uncertainties resulting from the CO 2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10-30 mill kW -1 h -1 , (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70-130 mill kW -1 h -1 ) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and

  12. Nuclear materials management and safeguards system (NMMSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, P.W.; Jacobsen, S.E.; Matthews, W.B. III; Pedigo, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) which is sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The system serves national security and program management interests, and international interests in the programs for the peaceful application of nuclear energy and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. Within the scope of the NMMSS are found all nuclear materials applied and controlled under United States law and related international agreements, including U.S. nuclear materials production programs and U.S. private nuclear industrial activities. In addition, its national and international scope enables it to provide services to other organizations such as the Arms Control and Disarmamanent Agency, the Department of State, and the U.S. Congress

  13. World's trend of national nuclear power policy and long-term perspective of nuclear power and supply and demand of uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Nishida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Shimogoori, Kei; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Based on perspective of nuclear power reflecting latest trend of national nuclear policy, supply and demand of uranium resources until 2035 was evaluated based on latest data. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Germany and Italy dramatically changed nuclear power to phase out, while United States, Russia, France and Korea as well as China and India continued to promote nuclear power with no essential change of policy. Thus world's nuclear power capacity was foreseen to expand from 389 GW (2010) to 471 GW (2035, low growth case) and 760 GW (2035, high growth case). Following sharp increase of uranium cost after 2005, investment on natural uranium development became active and new operation start of uranium enrichment plants was anticipated in US and Europe, and then both supply and demand of natural uranium and uranium enrichment service would tend to relax until around 2020 and until 2035 extreme tightness of supply and demand might not occur even for high growth case. Uranium demand of Asian region including China and India would be largely expanded with natural uranium from Africa and Australia and uranium enrichment services from US, and Asian high overseas dependence would be continued. (T. Tanaka)

  14. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  15. Remote handling systems for nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, J.; Kuhn, R.; Weis, O.

    1990-01-01

    To protect the personnel handling radioactive substances in nuclear installations, especially shielding and suitable equipment, machines or systems for remote handling are used nowadays. The state of the art reached in remote handling in the Federal Republic of Germany is described on the basis of remote handling machines for nuclear power plants, remote handling systems in waste management plants and nuclear fusion installations, and of universal remote handling equipment. (orig.)

  16. The electricity supply options in Cuba and the potential role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, D.; Lopez Lopez, I.

    2000-01-01

    Cuba is poor in primary energy resources. After an economic crisis initiated in 1990, a recuperation process began in 1994, but in the electric sector we could not reach the 1989 generation level. A comparative assessment of different options to cover electricity demand until 2015 performed using DECADES tools shows that the most important options are: hydro, nuclear, biomass, combined cycle and combustion turbines. The nuclear power option in the evaluated electric system expansion cases can play an important economic and environment role. The introduction of one nuclear power plant will save 330 million dollars in the expansion of the national electricity system. Environment emissions calculations during the study period, taking into consideration only the generation step, show that only the introduction of one NPP until 2015 will produce significant environment benefits. With the assumption that in generation step hydro, nuclear and biomass plants do not produce emissions, if the amount of electricity generated by these plants during study period would be generated in conventional Oil Steam Boilers with typical emission factors for Cuban conditions, the CO 2 emissions would increase in 26 millions tonnes, 576 thousand tonnes of SO x and 102 thousand tonnes of NO x . The NPP cover 80% of these reductions. (author)

  17. External costs and taxes in heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Aasa; Gustavsson, Leif

    2003-01-01

    A systems approach was used to compare different heating systems from a consumer perspective. The whole energy system was considered from natural resources to the required energy services. District heating, electric heat pumps, electric boilers, natural-gas-, oil- or pellet-fired local boilers were considered when supplying heat to a detached house. The district heat production included wood-chip-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants. Electricity other than cogenerated electricity was produced in wood-chip- and natural-gas-fired stand-alone power plants. The analysis includes four tax scenarios, as well as the external cost of environmental and health damage arising from energy conversion emission based on the ExternE study of the European Commission. The most cost-efficient systems were the natural-gas and oil boiler systems, followed by the heat pump and district heating systems, when the external cost and taxes were excluded. When including the external costs of CO 2 emission, the wood-fuel-based systems were much more cost efficient than the fossil-fuel-based systems, also when CO 2 capture and storage were applied. The external costs are, however, highly uncertain. Taxes steer towards lowering energy use and lowering CO 2 emission if they are levied solely on all the fossil-fuel-related emission and fuel use in the systems. If consumer electricity and heat taxes are used, the taxes have an impact on the total cost, regardless of the fuel used, thereby benefiting fuel-based local heating systems. The heat pump systems were the least affected by taxes, due to their high energy efficiency. The electric boiler systems were the least cost-efficient systems, also when the external cost and taxes were included

  18. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  19. OVERVIEW OF THE RHIC INSERTION REGION, SEXTUPOLE, AND SNAKE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRUNO, D.; ENG, W.; GANETIS, G.; LAMBIASE, R.F.; SANDBERG, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was commissioned in 1999 and 2000. RHIC requires power supplies to supply currents to highly inductive superconducting magnets. The RHIC Insertion Region (IR) contains many shunt power supplies to trim the current of different magnet elements in a large superconducting magnet circuit. There are a total of 237 Insertion Region power supplies in both RHIC rings. RHIC also requires sextupole power supplies. One sextupole power supply is connected across 12 sextupole magnets. There are a total of 24 sextupole power supplies in both rings. Snake magnets are also a part of the RHIC ring, and these snake magnets also require power supplies. There shall be a total of 24 snake power supplies in both rings. Power supply technology, connections, control systems and interfacing with the Quench Protection System will be presented

  20. Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Tarawneh, Tarek; Abdel-Khaleq, Rania; Lund, Jay R.

    2007-07-01

    We apply systems analysis to estimate household water use in an intermittent supply system considering numerous interdependent water user behaviors. Some 39 household actions include conservation; improving local storage or water quality; and accessing sources having variable costs, availabilities, reliabilities, and qualities. A stochastic optimization program with recourse decisions identifies the infrastructure investments and short-term coping actions a customer can adopt to cost-effectively respond to a probability distribution of piped water availability. Monte Carlo simulations show effects for a population of customers. Model calibration reproduces the distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration for conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, and finance conservation.

  1. A hybrid decision support system for iron ore supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samolejová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European metallurgical companies are forced to import iron ore from remote destinations. For these companies it is necessary to determine the amount of iron ore that will have to be ordered and to create such a delivery schedule so that the continuous operation of blast-furnace plant is not disrupted and there is no exceedingly large stock of this raw material. The objective of this article is to design the decision support system for iron ore supply which would effi ciently reduce uncertainty and risk of that decision-making. The article proposes a hybrid intelligent system which represents a combination of diff erent artifi cial intelligence methods with dynamic simulation technique for that purpose.

  2. Key features of INTOR nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1981-05-01

    The conceptual design effort for INTOR was broadly defined in three areas: (1) Plasma Physics, (2) Engineering, and (3) Nuclear Systems. This paper is devoted to a summary of the Nuclear Systems effort. The emphasis is placed on the First Wall, Breeding Blanket, and Divertor

  3. International Nuclear Information System in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsurdin Ahamad

    1984-01-01

    Practice of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) in Malaysia is reviewed. The Nuclear Energy Unit, a participating representative of Malaysia, holds the responsibilities of disseminating information through this system. Its available services relevant to the aims of INIS are discussed

  4. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail

    2016-01-01

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  5. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2016-04-15

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  6. Development of nuclear power plant automated remote patrol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, R.; Kubo, K.; Sato, K.; Taguchi, J.

    1984-01-01

    An Automated Remote Patrol System was developed for a remote inspection, observation and monitoring of nuclear power plant's components. This automated remote patrol system consists of; a vehicle moving along a monorail; three rails mounted in a monorail for data transmission and for power supply; an image fiber connected to a TV camera; an arm type mechanism (manipulator) for moving image fiber; a computer for control and data processing and operator's console. Special features of this Automated Remote Patrol System are as follows: The inspection vehicle runs along horizontal and vertical (up/down) monorails. The arm type mechanism (manipulator) on the vehicle is used to move image fiber. Slide type electric collectors are used for data transmission and power supply. Time-division multiplexing is adapted for data transmission. Voice communication is used for controlling mechanisms. Pattern recognition is used for data processing. The experience that has been obtained from a series of various tests is summarized. (author)

  7. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  8. Structure optimization of energy supply systems in tertiary sector buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Miguel A.; Ramos, Jose C.; Carvalho, Monica; Serra, Luis M. [Grupo GITSE - I3A, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Trigeneration systems, also known as Combined Heat, Cooling and Power (CHCP) systems, are interesting alternatives to supply different energy services in urban districts and in large buildings, particularly in warm areas such as Mediterranean countries. These systems can provide substantial benefits from economic, energetic, and environmental viewpoints, since the cogenerated heat can be used for heating in winter as well as cooling in summer with an absorption refrigerator. This paper develops an optimization model using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) to determine the type, number and capacity of equipment in CHCP systems installed in the tertiary sector as well as to establish the optimal operation mode for the different plant components on an hour-by-hour basis throughout the year. The objective function to be minimized is the annual total cost. The optimization model considers the legal constraints imposed to feed the surplus autogenerated electricity into the grid at a regulated feed-in tariff. The optimization model is applied to design a system providing energy services for a hospital located in the city of Zaragoza (Spain). The effects of the financial market conditions and energy prices in the optimal structure of the system are analyzed. (author)

  9. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability. Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM. Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them

  10. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM.Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to

  11. Modeling of vehicular storage and supply systems for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, J.; Venter, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bose, T.; Benard, P. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene

    2002-07-01

    In order for fuel cells to reach widespread commercial use to power vehicles, improvements need to be made in the area of hydrogen storage because of the low energy density of hydrogen. Several options exist for storing hydrogen, each being at a different stage of development. The main challenge, however, lies in the required infrastructure to supply the fuel. This paper defines the groundwork for the development of a complete model that defines the characteristics in vehicles and in various stages in the supply of fuel. This model considers the consequences involved when making the choice of a hydrogen storage method for on-board storage applications with particular attention to issues of safety. The model tabulates the parameters that are considered to be critical to both the vehicle and necessary support systems depending on the choice of hydrogen storage technology. The overall requirements are analyzed in a separate subsystem, and the model can then build a relationship between those subsystems. Interpretations are performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Experience with Nuclear Medicine Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Volkan-Salanci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Radiology information system (RIS is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system, radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex© for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. (MIRT 2012;21:97-102

  13. Experience with Nuclear Medicine Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkan-Salanci, Bilge; Şahin, Figen; Babekoğlu, Vahide; Uğur, Ömer

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Radiology information system (RIS) is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS) that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven) and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system), radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex©) for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487446

  14. Critical success factors for implementing supply chain information systems : insights from the pork industry

    OpenAIRE

    Denolf, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Critical success factors for implementing supply chain information systems – Janne M. Denolf Due to intensified competition, companies realize that they should closely collaborate with their supply-chain partners to further cut costs and stay competitive. To do so, supply-chain partners should intensify information sharing, which is often facilitated through supply chain information systems (SCIS). Implementation of such a system is a complex undertaking due to the umpteen technical and...

  15. The expansion of nuclear energy in industrialized and developing countries: Reasons, market shares, fissile material supply and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.

    1992-01-01

    At present there are more ethical-anthropological reasons than economic ones which speak for an expansion of nuclear energy: Ecological, climatic, peace and resource policy problems which most porbably will be unsolvable by real human beings and expensive methods leaving out nuclear energy. The risks resulting from that exceed by several orders of magnitude the risk which would be involved in the operation of various thousands of modern nuclear power plants. Most of the nuclear power plants are and will be operated today and tomorrow in industrialized countries; however, some of them are running already today in several threshold countries. Therefore the safety of nuclear power plants must be such as to permit their construction anywhere. Together with intensified saving, nuclear energy can solve energy policy problems in all sectors of the energy market predominantly in a non-fossil way, namely by taking over almost the entire power generation, by economical application of power instead of fossil fuels, rendering at the same time a large number of energy services, and supplying process and heating heat. Uranium supply will be solved internationally by prospection and increased uranium exploitation, or by the breeder, at economically reasonable cost. Safe waste management is technically feasible. Lack of acceptance neccessitates at present safe intermediate storage at reasonable cost. When discussing this question the ethical aspect of nuclear energy expansion should be stressed. (orig./UA) [de

  16. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions

  17. Development of nuclear material accountancy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Naonori; Kashima, Sadamitsu; Akiba, Mitsunori

    1992-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to various inquiries can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. (author)

  18. A study on the nuclear computer codes installation and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Seung; Huh, Young Hwan; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kang, Byung Heon; Kim, Ko Ryeo; Suh, Soong Hyok; Choi, Young Gil; Lee, Jong Bok

    1990-12-01

    From 1987 a number of technical transfer related to nuclear power plant had been performed from C-E for YGN 3 and 4 construction. Among them, installation and management of the computer codes for YGN 3 and 4 fuel and nuclear steam supply system was one of the most important project. Main objectives of this project are to establish the nuclear computer code management system, to develop QA procedure for nuclear codes, to secure the nuclear code reliability and to extend techanical applicabilities including the user-oriented utility programs for nuclear codes. Contents of performing the project in this year was to produce 215 transmittal packages of nuclear codes installation including making backup magnetic tape and microfiche for software quality assurance. Lastly, for easy reference about the nuclear codes information we presented list of code names and information on the codes which were introduced from C-E. (Author)

  19. The role of the Commission of the European Communities in the supply of nuclear fuel and the development of the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Orlowski, S.

    1977-01-01

    Together with the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the Court of Justice, the Commission is one of the institutions set up by the Treaties establishing the European Communities. Within this original institutional framework the Commission is at the same time custodian of the Treaties, executive organ of the Communities and initiator of common policies. With regard to nuclear fuel, the role of the Commission derives mainly from the Euratom Treaty and relates more especially to the supply and control of nuclear materials, together with the conditions governing ownership of special fissionable materials. Possessed of a broad institutional basis, the Commission also engages in promotional activity in various sectors associated with nuclear fuel in order, first, to ensure a supply for users and, second, to increase the technological capital and strengthen the industrial infrastructure within the European Community. (author)

  20. The future supply of and demand for candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a literature survey carried out to assess the future world supply of and demand for titanium, copper and lead. These metals are candidate materials for the fabrication of containers for the immobilization and disposal of Canada's nuclear used-fuel waste for a reference Used-fuel Disposal Centre. Such a facility may begin operation by approximately 2020, and continue for about 40 years. The survey shows that the world has abundant supplies of titanium minerals (mostly in the form of ilmenite), which are expected to last up to at least 2110. However, for copper and lead the balance between supply and demand may warrant increased monitoring beyond the year 2000. A number of factors that can influence future supply and demand are discussed in the report

  1. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs.

  2. The role of the Commission of the European Community in the satisfactory development of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Orlowski, S.

    1977-01-01

    The present situation of the nuclear fuel industry and supply is said to be unsatisfactory in many parts of the world; as far as the European Community is concerned, the main facts or expectations are: - a global policy aiming at diversification of energy sources and, subsequently, at a rapidly increasing demand for nuclear fuel; - a large natural uranium dependency from foreign sources and possible supply problems in the late eighties if the discovery of new deposits is not increased and encouraged; enriched uranium needs already covered by contracts till the middle of the next decade, with an increasing participation of the two European industrial groupings Eurodif and Urenco; - a shortage of reprocessing capacities beginning the next decade due to some technical problems, but mainly due to the recently confirmed non-profit character of reprocessing for the years to come; - general safety and environmental problems linked with the closure of the fuel cycle, like an adequate management and disposal of the radioactive waste and a safe Plutonium industry; and - an increased international control on special fissile materials and strategic nuclear equipment. The Euratom treaty provides procedures and instruments to deal with a large part of these questions. The CEC role in promoting a continous and adequate development of the European nuclear fuel industry is presented and its different aspects analysed. Coordinated Research and Development efforts with convenient CEC budget allocations or within the Joint Research Center of the Commission, harmonization and setting of health normes and safety rules and international conventions, special loans or financial procedures to ease shortage of money for industrial high risk or low-return nuclear investments, promotion of industrial cooperation, the special role of the CEC supply Agency in the supply of fissile materials, and Euratom safeguards activities are reported. They form a comprehensive set of actions at the Community

  3. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  4. Distribution-Based Supply System: Will It Provide More Effective Support to the Warfighter?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wade, Steven

    1999-01-01

    ... Vision 2010's focused logistics. The primary research question answered is: Will a distribution-based supply system provide more effective supply support to the warfighter in a major theater of war scenario...

  5. Risk of the Maritime Supply Chain System Based on Interpretative Structural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine transportation is the most important transport mode of in the international trade, but the maritime supply chain is facing with many risks. At present, most of the researches on the risk of the maritime supply chain focus on the risk identification and risk management, and barely carry on the quantitative analysis of the logical structure of each influencing factor. This paper uses the interpretative structure model to analysis the maritime supply chain risk system. On the basis of comprehensive literature analysis and expert opinion, this paper puts forward 16 factors of maritime supply chain risk system. Using the interpretative structure model to construct maritime supply chain risk system, and then optimize the model. The model analyzes the structure of the maritime supply chain risk system and its forming process, and provides a scientific basis for the controlling the maritime supply chain risk, and puts forward some corresponding suggestions for the prevention and control the maritime supply chain risk.

  6. Integrated engineering system for nuclear facilities building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Futami, F.; Yasuda, S.; Ohtomo, T.

    1995-01-01

    In the construction of buildings for nuclear facilities in Japan, construction companies are generally in charge of the building engineering work, coordinating with plant engineering. An integrated system for buildings (PROMOTE: PROductive MOdeling system for Total nuclear Engineering) described here is a building engineering system including the entire life cycle of buildings for nuclear facilities. A Three-dimensional (3D) building model (PRO-model) is to be in the core of the system (PROMOTE). Data sharing in the PROMOTE is also done with plant engineering systems. By providing these basic technical foundations, PROMOTE is oriented toward offering rational, highquality engineering for the projects. The aim of the system is to provide a technical foundation in building engineering. This paper discusses the characteristics of buildings for nuclear facilities and the outline of the PROMOTE. (author)

  7. Centralized operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Sato, Hideyuki; Murata, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    According to the prospect of long term energy demand, in 2000, the nuclear power generation facilities in Japan are expected to take 15.9% of the total energy demand. From this fact, it is an important subject to supply nuclear power more stably, and in the field of instrumentation and control, many researches and developments and the incessant effort of improvement have been continued. In the central operation and monitoring system which is the center of the stable operation of nuclear power plants, the man-machine technology aiding operators by electronic and computer application technologies has been positively developed and applied. It is considered that hereafter, for the purpose of rationally heightening the operation reliability of the plants, the high quality man-machine system freely using the most advanced technologies such as high reliability digital technology, optical information transmission, knowledge engineering and so on is developed and applied. The technical trend of operation and monitoring system, the concept of heightening operation and monitoring capability, the upgrading of operation and monitoring system, and the latest operation, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants and waste treatment facilities are described. (K.I.)

  8. DC systems design and research of Hainan Changjiang nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingshui; Wang Yuhan

    2014-01-01

    Hainan Changjiang nuclear power plant is different from the referent power plant, the DC and 220 V AC uninterrupted systems of the nuclear island have been changed since the control system use DCS. It has different design on DC systems, power supply, selectivity of breakers, capacity of equipments and layout. We optimize the design of DC systems at the basement of Fuqing and Fangjiashan project. These are good experiments for the three generation nuclear power project about DC systems design of ACP1000. (authors)

  9. The logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant; Cadena logistica en la fabrica de elementos combustibles de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The paper describe the logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant, located in Juzbado in the province of Salamanca. In the the article are described the principal elements in the supply chain and the difficulties of its management derived from the short period for the manufacturing of the nuclear fuel. It's also given a view in relation to the transportation by land sea of the nuclear components, uranium oxide powder and the manufactured fuel. The characteristics of the supply chain are determined by the plant production forecast, by the origin and high technology of the raw materials and by nuclear fuel delivery site locations. (Author)

  10. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y 2 O 3 ) with 6 LiF (95% 6 Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  11. Semiclassical description of hot nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.

    1984-01-01

    We present semiclassical density variational calculations for highly excited nuclear systems. We employ the newly derived functionals tau[rho] and sigma[rho] of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) model, generalized to finite temperatures. Excellent agreement is reached with Hartree-Fock (HF) results. We also calculated the fission barrier of 240 Pu as a function of the nuclear temperature

  12. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  13. CNE (Embalse nuclear power plant): probabilistic safety study. Electric power supply. Events sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, N.

    1987-01-01

    The plant response to the occurrence of the starting event 'total loss of electric power supply to class IV and class III' is analyzed. This involves the study of automatical actions of safety and process systems as well as the operator actions. The probabilistic evaluation of starting event frequency is performed through fault-tree techniques. The frequency of occurrence 'loss of electric power supply to class IV (λIV = 0.56/year) and the probability of failure to demand of 'reserve' generating groups (Pd III 6.79 x 10 -3 ) contribute to the mentioned frequency. As soon as the starting event occurs, the reactor power must be reduced to 0%, the fuel must be cooled through the thermo siphon and decay heat has to be removed. The events sequence analysis leads to the conclusion that the non shutting down of the reactor with any of the shutdown systems is 'incredible' (10 -6 /year). In all cases the fuel is cooled by building the thermo siphon except when a substantial inventory loss exist due to a closure failure of some valve of pressure and inventory control system. The order of magnitude of the failure of decay heat removal through the steam generators is 4 x 10 -4 . This removal would be assured by the emergency water system. Therefore, the frequency of the sequence of possible core meltdown, when the reactor does not shut down is: λ = 5 x 10 -9 /year and for the failure of heat removal: λ = 2 x 10 -6 /year. (Author)

  14. NuDat system for access to nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.; Kinsey, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    The NuDat program provides a user with access to nuclear properties and to some nuclear reaction data. The program operates on DEC VMS operating systems and on PC's with Microsoft operating systems. The program has four user interfaces, all having the same content and functionality. These interfaces are Web, Video and Sequential for VMS. The PC interface is identical to the VMS Video interface. Forms are used to supply the type of data the user desires, the retrieval parameters, the output format, and the sort order of the data. The program and associated database is used in basic research, particularly for the systematic study of nuclear properties. It is also a useful tool for applied research to identify radiations from radionuclides contained in environmental samples, or from those produced by neutron or charged particle activation. The NuDat database is derived from several databases maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center. The databases are the Adopted Levels and Gammas data sets from ENSDF, the Nuclear Wallet Cards, Decay Radiations derived from ENSDF decay data sets processed by RADLIST, and Thermal Neutron Cross Sections

  15. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  16. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  17. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  18. IAEA activities in the area of emerging nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is a proven technology that already makes a large contribution to energy supply worldwide. At the end of 1999, there were 433 nuclear power plants operating in the world with a total capacity of some 349 GW(e). The average annual growth rate of electricity production from nuclear power is estimated to be about 0.6% per year for the period from now to 2015. One of the greatest challenges facing nuclear energy is the highly radioactive waste, which is generated during power production. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons that are cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). In the frame of the project on Nuclear Systems for Utilisation and Transmutation of Actinides and Long-lived Fission Products the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilisation of plutonium and transmutation of waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel option, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fission/fusion hybrids. (author)

  19. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  20. Private enterprise and state supervision in the sector of nuclear energy generation and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, H.

    1989-01-01

    The paper outlines the economic system and economic order as defined by the Constitution and the regulatory system established by the Atomic Energy Act, and discusses both systems within the framework and in relation to constitutional law and administrative law. Specific aspects examined by the author are the scope of private enterprise allowed by the EURATOM treaty and the Atomic Energy Act in the nuclear sector of the power industry, and the scope and instruments of control by the government as defined by the Atomic Energy Act. The author mentions the distance between the state and the industry and discusses ways leading from control to cooperation, the quality of control standards, and the effects of current practice which, as the author fears, tend to dilute the constitutional principle of separation of legislative from executive functions. (HSCH) [de

  1. Enhancing lean supply chain through traffic light quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazharul Islam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a continuous journey to grow and excel the company. Any company want to develop and cope with the world pace must adopt lean. However, in most of the organizations the management culture or people’s mentality is not so good to embrace change. They have predestined mind set where no change is normally allowed. Lean is a cooperative way of working that involves all departments and all personnel to work together in a team for the betterment of the entire company. Without providing fixed solution of any problem it suggests the best way that people willingly accept to do. Lean normally deals with highest quality, shorter lead time and lowest cost. In Bangladesh, most of the garment manufacturing companies are experiencing a massive quality problem. We describe a case where traffic light, a tool of lean quality system was adopted to a garment manufacturing company in Bangladesh. We also provide the charts to contrast the before and after scenario in detail, in order to illustrate the company benefits. After the traffic light system being implemented, the quality status was improved, production capacity was increased; significant days were saved that enhanced the lead time and thus strengthen the supply chain.

  2. Optimization and decision support systems for supply chains

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas, Albert; Miranda, João

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume presents a collection of materials on supply chain management including industry-based case studies addressing petrochemical, pharmaceutical, manufacturing and reverse logistics topics. Moreover, the book covers sustainability issues, as well as optimization approaches. The target audience comprises academics, industry managers, and practitioners in the field of supply chain management, being the book also beneficial for graduate students.

  3. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an initiative to improve the quality of software used to design and operate their nuclear facilities across the United States. One aspect of this initiative is to revise or create new directives and guides associated with quality practices for the safety software in its nuclear facilities. Safety software includes the safety structures, systems, and components software and firmware, support software and design and analysis software used to ensure the safety of the facility. DOE nuclear facilities are unique when compared to commercial nuclear or other industrial activities in terms of the types and quantities of hazards that must be controlled to protect workers, public and the environment. Because of these differences, DOE must develop an approach to software quality assurance that ensures appropriate risk mitigation by developing a framework of requirements that accomplishes the following goals: (sm b ullet) Ensures the software processes developed to address nuclear safety in design, operation, construction and maintenance of its facilities are safe (sm b ullet) Considers the larger system that uses the software and its impacts (sm b ullet) Ensures that the software failures do not create unsafe conditions Software designers for nuclear systems and processes must reduce risks in software applications by incorporating processes that recognize, detect, and mitigate software failure in safety related systems. It must also ensure that fail safe modes and component testing are incorporated into software design. For nuclear facilities, the consideration of risk is not necessarily sufficient to ensure safety. Systematic evaluation, independent verification and system safety analysis must be considered for software design, implementation, and operation. The software industry primarily uses risk analysis to determine the appropriate level of rigor applied to software practices. This risk-based approach distinguishes safety

  4. Intelligent maintenance system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Tokura, Takehiko.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced Intelligent Maintenance System has been developed to realize highly reliable and efficient maintenance operation in the future for nuclear power plants. This system is equipped with high level sensing and robotic technologies and is composed of the following 4 systems; (1) Common System of Intellectual Maintenance (2) Inspection System in Operating Plants (3) Underwater Inspection System (4) Full-Automated Welding System. This Project is promoted by MITI from FY 1991 to FY 1995. (author)

  5. System Dynamics Model for VMI&TPL Integrated Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes VMI-APIOBPCS II model by extending VMI-APIOBPCS model from serial supply chain to distribution supply chain. Then TPL is introduced to this VMI distribution supply chain, and operational framework and process of VMI&TPL integrated supply chain are analyzed deeply. On this basis VMI-APIOBPCS II model is then changed to VMI&TPL-APIOBPCS model and VMI&TPL integrated operation mode is simulated. Finally, compared with VMI-APIOBPCS model, the TPL’s important role of goods consolidation and risk sharing in VMI&TPL integrated supply chain is analyzed in detail from the aspects of bullwhip effect, inventory level, service level, and so on.

  6. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... material control and accounting performance requirements for special nuclear material at nuclear power... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0109] Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants...

  7. The recent activities of nuclear power globalization. Our provision against global warming by global deployment of our own technologies as integrated nuclear power plant supply company'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Shigemitsu

    2008-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) is striving to expand and spread nuclear power plants as an 'Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Supply Company' based on its engineering, manufacturing, and technological support capabilities. The company also has ample experience in the export of major components. MHI is accelerating its global deployment through the market introduction of large-sized strategic reactor US-APWR, the joint development of a mid-sized strategic reactor ATMEA1 with AREVA, and a small strategic reactor PBMR. The company also plans to internationally deploy technologies for the nuclear fuel cycle. We present here the leading-edge trends in the global deployment of these nuclear businesses, all of which help to solve the energy and environmental issues in the world. (author)

  8. Nuclear power and tomorrow's energy supply. The answer of Jacques Bouchard to Hubert Reeves: ''stop the useless disputes about nuclear power''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    In an interview given in April 2, 2002 to 'Le Monde' newspaper, the astrophysicist Hubert Reeves draws out a list of the constraints which, according to him, will clog the future development of nuclear energy: depletion of uranium reserves, accumulation of radioactive wastes, increase of production costs, public contestation etc.. Jacques Bouchard, president of the French society of nuclear energy (SFEN), and head of the direction of nuclear energy (DEN) of the French atomic energy commission (CEA), contests this analysis and its conclusions and published an answer in the April 11 issue of Le Monde newspaper. This paper is a reprint of J. Bouchard answer who explains why nuclear energy has its place in the world supply of electric power, and how it can contribute to the sustainable development and to the protection of the environment. (J.S.)

  9. The Management System for Nuclear Installations (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Safety Guide is applicable throughout the lifetime of a nuclear installation, including any subsequent period of institutional control, until there is no significant residual radiation hazard. For a nuclear installation, the lifetime includes site evaluation, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. These stages in the lifetime of a nuclear installation may overlap. This Safety Guide may be applied to nuclear installations in the following ways: (a)To support the development, implementation, assessment and improvement of the management system of those organizations responsible for research, site evaluation, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear installation; (b)As an aid in the assessment by the regulatory body of the adequacy of the management system of a nuclear installation; (c)To assist an organization in specifying to a supplier, via contractual documentation, any specific element that should be included within the supplier's management system for the supply of products. This Safety Guide follows the structure of the Safety Requirements publication on The Management System for Facilities and Activities, whereby: (a)Section 2 provides recommendations on implementing the management system, including recommendations relating to safety culture, grading and documentation. (b)Section 3 provides recommendations on the responsibilities of senior management for the development and implementation of an effective management system. (c)Section 4 provides recommendations on resource management, including guidance on human resources, infrastructure and the working environment. (d)Section 5 provides recommendations on how the processes of the installation can be specified and developed, including recommendations on some generic processes of the management system. (e)Section 6 provides recommendations on the measurement, assessment and improvement of the management system of a nuclear installation. (f

  10. The Management System for Nuclear Installations Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is applicable throughout the lifetime of a nuclear installation, including any subsequent period of institutional control, until there is no significant residual radiation hazard. For a nuclear installation, the lifetime includes site evaluation, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. These stages in the lifetime of a nuclear installation may overlap. This Safety Guide may be applied to nuclear installations in the following ways: (a)To support the development, implementation, assessment and improvement of the management system of those organizations responsible for research, site evaluation, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear installation; (b)As an aid in the assessment by the regulatory body of the adequacy of the management system of a nuclear installation; (c)To assist an organization in specifying to a supplier, via contractual documentation, any specific element that should be included within the supplier's management system for the supply of products. This Safety Guide follows the structure of the Safety Requirements publication on The Management System for Facilities and Activities, whereby: (a)Section 2 provides recommendations on implementing the management system, including recommendations relating to safety culture, grading and documentation. (b)Section 3 provides recommendations on the responsibilities of senior management for the development and implementation of an effective management system. (c)Section 4 provides recommendations on resource management, including guidance on human resources, infrastructure and the working environment. (d)Section 5 provides recommendations on how the processes of the installation can be specified and developed, including recommendations on some generic processes of the management system. (e)Section 6 provides recommendations on the measurement, assessment and improvement of the management system of a nuclear installation. (f

  11. Supporting system in emergency response plan for nuclear material transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagome, Y.; Aoki, S.

    1993-01-01

    As aiming to provide the detailed information concerning nuclear material transport accidents and to supply it to the concerned organizations by an online computer, the Emergency Response Supporting System has been constructed in the Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Japan. The system consists of four subsystems and four data bases. By inputting initial information such as name of package and date of accident, one can obtain the appropriate initial response procedures and related information for the accident immediately. The system must be useful for protecting the public safety from nuclear material transport accidents. But, it is not expected that the system shall be used in future. (J.P.N.)

  12. Research on Corporate Social Responsibility of Supply Chain System Based on the Self-organization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Baoying Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of supply chain system are analyzed based on the Self-organization theory from the angle of view of supply chain system. The mathematical models when the system fulfilling social responsibility including self-organization evolution model and self-organization function model are developed to discuss the formation and function of self-organization in supply chain system and coordination. Some basic conditions and tactics about self-organization establishment a...

  13. Investigation on future perspective of nuclear power generation. Countermeasures to global environment problems and role of stable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikami, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the long term energy demand and supply in the world, which was carried out by the Institute of Energy Economics Japan for the purpose of contributing to the deliberation of the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. This perspective of the demand and supply took the ultralong period up to 2100 as the object, and two points of the newest information on energy resources and the greenhouse effect problem due to carbon dioxide are included. The model used for the simulation was the modified Edmond Riley model. Energy consumption was estimated from that per one person and the population classified into nine districts. The assumed conditions for energy demand and supply are explained. The simulation of energy demand and supply was carried out for basic case in which the present state continues, carbon dioxide restriction case and restriction and plutonium utilization case. The results of the simulation on energy demand and supply, the effect to environment and the problems of resources are reported. The energy consumption in the world continues to increase hereafter centering around developing countries, and in 2100, the primary energy supply more than three times as much as that in 1990 becomes necessary. Unless the release of carbon dioxide is restricted, the resolution of environmental problems becomes difficult. Nuclear power generation is affected by uranium resource depletion around 2100, and early countermeasures are necessary. (K.I.)

  14. A Study on Rational Pricing System for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    are important for systematizing pricing mechanism and reasonable use of water resource. The study recommends the institutional structure for efficient water management/use include an integrated river basin management system and establishment of an independent agency for executive function (separation of policy making function and executive function). A corporatized organization for actual water supply function is also recommended (separation of regulation function and supply function). (author). 46 refs., 18 figs., 59 tabs.

  15. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  16. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The paper focuses on examining the degree to which nuclear systems could be used to acquire nuclear weapons material. It establishes a framework for proliferation resistance assessment and illustrates its applicability through an analysis of reference systems for once-through cycles, breeder cycles and thermal recycle. On a more tentative basis, the approach is applied to various alternative technical and institutional measures. This paper was also submitted to Working Groups 5 and 8

  17. Remote nuclear green pellet processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellier, Francis.

    1980-01-01

    An automated system for manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets for use in nuclear fuel elements of nuclear power reactors is described. The system comprises process components arranged vertically but not directly under each other within a single enclosure. The vertical-lateral arrangement provides for gravity flow of the product from one component to the next and for removal of each component without interference with the other components. The single enclosure eliminates time consuming transfer between separate enclosures of each component while providing three-sided access to the component through glove ports. (auth)

  18. Ecology, Economy and security of supply of the Dutch Electricity Supply System. A scenario based future analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch electricity sector has been transformed into a liberalized international energy market. Market players are free to choose from various electricity generation options when replacing or expanding production capacity. However, choices that are made now will influence emissions (ecology), integral costs (economy) and availability (security of supply) for the next 25 - 40 years. This thesis shows if and how, based on the current electricity supply system, an optimal balance of ecology, economy and security of supply can be achieved. First, the current electricity supply system is described to create a frame of reference. Then, future technological developments are described for electricity production options. Four potential scenarios are constructed featuring various uncertainties: the globalising versus the local economy; priority versus subordination for the environment; and the security/insecurity of the fuel supply. These four scenarios are worked out with a specially developed techno-economic simulation model; the results are analysed in terms of ecology, economy and security of supply. The findings indicate that it is impossible to arrive at an optimal balance for the defined scenarios. Scenarios with a low environmental impact lead to high integral costs and vice versa. However, by applying a smart combination of various modern generation technologies, CO2 capture and storage, the deployment of biomass and the re-use of residual heat it is possible to reach an optimal balance whereby the additional integral costs can be kept under control compared with the lowest-cost scenarios. To achieve this, clear growth and incentive guidelines need to be established for the various production options. This thesis will form a good starting point for that exercise

  19. Construction of APR1000 nuclear power information management system based on international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Deok Yong; Han, Byung Sub [Enesys Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); An, Kyung Ik; Hwang, Jin Sang [PartDB Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In recent years, due to speedy rise of international oil prices, orders of nuclear power plant construction have been in progress by many countries to solve the stable supply of power. Our country has continued to perform nuclear power construction. As only a few developed countries like Japan and European countries have its own nuclear power construction technology, competition among them is keen. Our country has awarded the contract of UAE nuclear power plants based on the accumulated nuclear power plant construction technologies so far. In this regard, KEPCO has recognized the needs of information management system to manage nuclear power information and proceeded the implementation of nuclear power information management system for export-model

  20. Research on Knowledge-Oriented Supply ChainRisk Management System Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yingchun Guo

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of supply chain risk management under the influences of knowledge, in this paper integrates basic theories and methods of knowledge management into the process of risk management, builds a knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management system model, and proposes relevant strategies, presenting references for practical application of knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management. By means of acquiring, storing, sharing, and transferring supply chain ri...

  1. Supply strategy configuration in fragmented production systems: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chackelson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Companies survive in saturated markets trying to be more productive and more efficient. In this context, it becomes critical for companies to manage the entire supply network to optimize overall performance.  Hence, the supply strategy plays an important role because it influences the way in which production and logistics network has to be configured and managed. This paper explores the benefits obtained configuring different supply strategies adapted to customer needs.Design/methodology/approach: For this purpose a case research from a Tier 2 point of view of the supply chain has been conducted. Findings and Originality/value: The case research demonstrates that a higher service level, less holding costs and increase turnovers can be obtained implementing the adequate supply strategy. Originality/value: There is a scarcity of research specifically focused on applied Supply Chain Principles within network configuration processes. Moreover, there are few empirical studies of global Tier 2 with multiple decoupling points into its supply chain network.

  2. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-10-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely-activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. A list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (auth)

  3. Understanding Nuclear Safety Culture: A Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afghan, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima accident was a systemic failure (Report by Director General IAEA on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident). Systemic failure is a failure at system level unlike the currently understood notion which regards it as the failure of component and equipment. Systemic failures are due to the interdependence, complexity and unpredictability within systems and that is why these systems are called complex adaptive systems (CAS), in which “attractors” play an important role. If we want to understand the systemic failures we need to understand CAS and the role of these attractors. The intent of this paper is to identify some typical attractors (including stakeholders) and their role within complex adaptive system. Attractors can be stakeholders, individuals, processes, rules and regulations, SOPs etc., towards which other agents and individuals are attracted. This paper will try to identify attractors in nuclear safety culture and influence of their assumptions on safety culture behavior by taking examples from nuclear industry in Pakistan. For example, if the nuclear regulator is an attractor within nuclear safety culture CAS then how basic assumptions of nuclear plant operators and shift in-charges about “regulator” affect their own safety behavior?

  4. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Nikitin, K.

    2007-01-01

    recovery system is also applicable to a fast reactor (FR) with a supercritical CO 2 gas turbine that achieves higher cycle efficiency than conventional sodium cooled FRs with steam turbines. The FR will eliminate problems of conventional FRs related to safety, plant maintenance, and construction costs. The FR consumes efficiently trans-uranium elements (TRU) produced in light water reactors as fuel and reduce long-lived radioactive wastes or environmental loads of long term geological disposal. An Advanced Energy System (AES) with nuclear reactors as an energy source has been proposed which supply electricity and heat to cities. The AES has three objectives: 1. Save energy resources and reduce green house gas emissions, attaining total energy utilization efficiency higher than 85% through waste heat recovery and utilization. 2. Foster a recycling society that produces methane and methanol for fuel cells from waste products of cities and farms. 3. Consume TRU produced in LWRs as fuel for FRs, and reduce long-lived radioactive wastes or environmental loads of long term geological disposal. References 1. Y. Kato, T. Nitawaki and K. Fujima, 'Zero Waste Heat Release Nuclear Cogeneration System, 'Proc. 2003 Intl. Congress on Advanced Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'03), Cordoba, Spain, May 4-7, 2003, Paper 3313. 2. Y. Kato, T. Nitawaki and Y. Muto, 'Medium Temperature Carbon Dioxide Gas Turbine Reactor, 'Nucl. Eng. Design, 230, pp. 195-207 (2004). 3. H. N. Tran and Y. Kato, 'New 2 37Np Burning Strategy in a Supercritical CO 2 Cooled Fast Reactor Core Attaining Zero Burnup Reactivity Loss,' Proc. American Nuclear Society's Topical Meeting on Reactor Physics (PHYSOR 2006), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, September 10-14, 2006

  5. Life cycle assessment of a commercial rainwater harvesting system compared with a municipal water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building upon previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, we conducted an LCA of a commercial rainwater harvesting (RWH) system and compared it to a municipal water supply (MWS) system adapted to Washington, D.C. Eleven life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indi...

  6. Seminar: Network-independent power supply with photovoltaic systems. Papers; Fachseminar: Netzferne Stromversorgung mit Photovoltaik. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Subjects: Detailed description of the projecting, design and construction of network-independent power supply systems; Detailed description of the function and characteristics of decentral power supply systems, i.e. solar, electric motors, wind generators, and fuel cells; Technical details of system components, i.e. batteries, charge control units and current inverters; Energy conservation; Dimensioning of network-independent power supply systems via PC; Design of compact PV hybrid systems; Economic assessment for reduction of investment cost and lifetime cost; Exemplary applications in industrial production, telecommunication, traffic control, measurement, pumping, water treatment and village power supply; Non-technical aspects of rural electrification. (orig.)

  7. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  8. System Dynamic Model for Simulating Demand-Supply Interaction of Railway Express Freight System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Express freight transportation is a rich seam of profit for China railway, and railway express freight system is a complex system with multiple variables and nonlinear feedback loops. This paper presents a System Dynamic Model for simulating the interaction between demand and supply of railway express freight system in China. The model consists of three submodels including economic environment, demand, supply, and investment, and its validity is verified by running in Vensim DDS software using historical data. In the simulation of period 2000–2025, the three variables are taken as control variables including growth rate of the national economy, railway express freight rate, and investment in fixed railway assets. Three scenarios for each control variable are simulated, and their effects are analyzed to provide beneficial reference for regulating the demand-supply gap of railway express freight. The simulation demonstrated that raising freight rate, adding investment in fixed railway assets, and decelerating economic growth rate are all effective ways to shrink the demand-supply gap of railway express freight. The model can be used to forecast the transport demand of railway express freight and test the outcomes of demand-supply regulating measures.

  9. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  10. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  11. The Nuclear Criticality Information System: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) has served the criticality community for the past ten years with publications and with an online information system. NCIS provides a mean for widely distributed nuclear criticality specialists to communicate and work together instantly. Users of the system may receive assistance from all members of the NCIS community, which provides a much broader base of support than is available at any single site. When unified by NCIS, these diverse specialists provide a resource that has proven to be very useful in the safe handling of fissile material. NCIS also is a source of current nuclear criticality safety information; the rapid access of such up-to-date information on the handling of fissile materials outside of nuclear reactors is international in scope, extending beyond political and geographical boundaries

  12. Structural materials for innovative nuclear systems (SMINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Structural materials research is a field of growing relevance in the nuclear sector, especially for the different innovative reactor systems being developed within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), for critical and subcritical transmutation systems, and of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) the Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS) was organised in collaboration with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. The objectives of the workshop were to exchange information on structural materials research issues and to discuss ongoing programmes, both experimental and in the field of advanced modelling. These proceedings include the papers and the poster session materials presented at the workshop, representing the international state of the art in this domain. (author)

  13. Reliability of the electric power supply in the safety apparatus of nuclear power plants: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the risk of total loss of electric power supply to the Class 1E system. Two alternatives are focused: a system with two off-site and two onsite power supplies emergency power supply, as recommended by the American Regulations, and a system with only one off-site and four on-site power supplies, applicable when two off-site are not available. To allow the fact that the equipment can be repaired, the method proper involves use of the Markov model, with which one can find, for each configuration of the system, the change over time of the probability of a simultaneous failure of all power sources. The sensitivity of each parameter is studied in each case and, on the basis of the results of the study, the author conclude that the system with two off-site power supplies is preferable in all alternatives analysed, although the system with one off-site power supply can be adopted with high reliability diesel-generators. (author)

  14. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  15. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, L G

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  16. Personnel supply and demand issues in the nuclear power industry. Final report of the Nuclear Manpower Study Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The anticipated personnel needs of the nuclear power industry have varied widely in recent years, in response to both increasing regulatory requirements and declining orders for new plants. Recent employment patterns in the nuclear energy field, with their fluctuations, resemble those of defense industries more than those traditionally associated with electric utilities. Reactions to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 by industry and regulators have increased the demand for trained and experienced personnel, causing salaries to rise. Industry, for example, has established several advisory organizations like the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). At the same time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed many new construction and operating requirements in an effort to take advantage of lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident and to respond to the perceived public interest in better regulation of nuclear power. Thus, at present, utilities, architect-engineer firms, reactor vendors, and organizations in the nuclear development community have heavy workloads

  17. Personnel supply and demand issues in the nuclear power industry. Final report of the Nuclear Manpower Study Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The anticipated personnel needs of the nuclear power industry have varied widely in recent years, in response to both increasing regulatory requirements and declining orders for new plants. Recent employment patterns in the nuclear energy field, with their fluctuations, resemble those of defense industries more than those traditionally associated with electric utilities. Reactions to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 by industry and regulators have increased the demand for trained and experienced personnel, causing salaries to rise. Industry, for example, has established several advisory organizations like the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). At the same time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed many new construction and operating requirements in an effort to take advantage of lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident and to respond to the perceived public interest in better regulation of nuclear power. Thus, at present, utilities, architect-engineer firms, reactor vendors, and organizations in the nuclear development community have heavy workloads.

  18. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  19. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  20. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  1. Modelling Supply Chain Management in B2B E-Commerce Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Asmuni, Idris

    2014-01-01

    Applying supply chain management in e-commerce systems has been a need for enterprise to win the competition global in a term of customer-oriented market. Although investing in supply chain technology demand high costs and resources, many companies attempt to strengthen business function with systems application under ERP packages and other systems related. This paper discusses about B2B e-commerce modelling as an integral part of E-Business in supply chain company activities. Some critical ...

  2. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies (2012 update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  3. Performance analysis of nuclear materials accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Shipley, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the level of performance of nuclear materials accounting systems in terms of the four performance measures, total amount of loss, loss-detection time, loss-detection probability, and false-alarm probability, are presented. These techniques are especially useful for analyzing the expected performance of near-real-time (dynamic) accounting systems. A conservative estimate of system performance is provided by the CUSUM (cumulative summation of materials balances) test. Graphical displays, called performance surfaces, are developed as convenient tools for representing systems performance, and examples from a recent safeguards study of a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant are given. 6 refs

  4. Expert systems in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Recent developments in expert system technology have led to the question whether such systems could be used for the enhancement of nuclear safety, particularly as advisory system during abnormal plant conditions. This document was produced during the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) to Demonstrate and Review Expert System Prototypes, which was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) and held at the BNFL site in Springfields, United Kingdom, from 30 September to 4 October 1991. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers in this document. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Nuclear power and heating plants in the electric power system. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalincik, L.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures used and results obtained in the following works are described: Incorporation of the nuclear power plants in the power system in the long term perspective; physical limitations on the WWER 440 reactor power changes during fuel campaigns; evaluation of the consumption and start-up characteristics of WWER type nuclear power plants (2x440 MWe); evaluation of refuelling campaigns distribution of nuclear power plant units with regard to comprehensive control properties of nuclear power plants; the possibilities are investigated of the utilization of the WWER type reactor for heat supply in Czechoslovakia. (author)

  6. World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System: Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) is an aggregate demand-based partial equilibrium model used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to project long-term domestic and international nuclear energy requirements. WINES follows a top-down approach in which economic growth rates, delivered energy demand growth rates, and electricity demand are projected successively to ultimately forecast total nuclear generation and nuclear capacity. WINES could be potentially used to produce forecasts for any country or region in the world. Presently, WINES is being used to generate long-term forecasts for the United States, and for all countries with commercial nuclear programs in the world, excluding countries located in centrally planned economic areas. Projections for the United States are developed for the period from 2010 through 2030, and for other countries for the period starting in 2000 or 2005 (depending on the country) through 2010. EIA uses a pipeline approach to project nuclear capacity for the period between 1990 and the starting year for which the WINES model is used. This approach involves a detailed accounting of existing nuclear generating units and units under construction, their capacities, their actual or estimated time of completion, and the estimated date of retirements. Further detail on this approach can be found in Appendix B of Commercial Nuclear Power 1991: Prospects for the United States and the World

  7. The electrical system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga; Gunarwan Prayitno

    2009-01-01

    In these system, electrical power system is supplied from two-offsite transmission system respective main transformer and house service transformer; and reserve transformer. The electrical load in these system consist of safety electrical system and non-safety electrical system, The safety electrical and non safety electrical systems consist of four 6,9 kV AC medium voltage bus and 480 V AC low voltage bus system. The DC power system consist of four safety 125 V DC power system and the two non-safety 125 DC power systems. The equipment in these electrical system is main turbine-generator; GTG safety; GTG alternate; uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and battery system. To protect electrical equipment and building to direct stroke and non direct stroke disturbances is installed netral grounding system and lightning protection and protection the personnel to touch-voltage is installed equipment grounding system and station grounding. The lightning arrester system is connected to station station grounding system. (author)

  8. An overview of the need of manpower supply for a nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper deals with the need for trained manpower and special features of nuclear power affecting manpower requirements and gives a manpower loading schedule for the different nuclear power activities and programmes for manpower development. (orig./RW)

  9. Burnout in a high heat flux boiling system with forced supply of liquid through a plane jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katto, Yoshiro; Ishii, Kazunori.

    1978-01-01

    As for pool boiling, the non-dimensional formula for the burnout heat flux of a simple, basic boiling system has been obtained. On the other hand, in forced convection boiling, the studies on the burnout in forced flow boiling in a channel have been continued, but the derivation of a non-dimensional formula applicable generally is far away from the realization because the phenomena are too complex. Accordingly, in this study, the result of the experiment on the burnout of a boiling system to which liquid is supplied by the plane jet flowing out of a thin rectangular nozzle installed near the front edge of a rectangular heating surface is reported. The experimental apparatus is described, and the experiment was carried out in the ranges of two jet thicknesses at the nozzle outlet, two incident angles of jet and from 1.5 to 15 m/s of jet velocity. Burnout occurs under the situation of sufficiently developed nuclear boiling. A part of the liquid supplied from a plane jet is blown apart by the vapor blowing out of the nuclear boiling liquid layer covering the heating surface in the nuclear boiling with sufficiently developed high heat flux. However, the nuclear boiling liquid layer itself continues to exist on the heating surface till burnout occurs. Only the entering velocity of the plane jet affects burnout heat flux. (Kako, I.)

  10. Non-proliferation and security of nuclear supply (the viewpoint of a developing country)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Tervino Botti, J.J.; Gonzalez Diaz, G.

    1981-10-01

    After discussing the economic, technical and political reasons underlying the slowdown in nuclear development, this paper describes the resulting problems encountered by the nuclear industry. To remedy the situation, the author suggests that in addition to measures to be adopted nationally to ensure more efficient and safer operation of nuclear installations, actions at international level should be implemented to remove obstacles to nuclear trade, bearing in mind the primary importance of non-proliferation. (NEA) [fr

  11. Corrective maintenance support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    With increase of share of nuclear power generation in electric power supply in Japan, requirement for further safe operation and improvement of economics for the nuclear power plants is promoting. The pressed water type (PWR) nuclear power plant in operation in Japan reaches to 22 sets, application rate of the instruments is 74% as mean value for 7 years since 1989 and in high level, which is due to a result of preventive maintenance in ordinary and periodical inspections. The present state of maintenance at the nuclear power plant is mainly preventive maintenance, which is mainly conducted in a shape of time planning maintenance but partially in a shape of state monitoring maintenance for partial rotating appliances. Concretely speaking, the periodical inspection was planned on a base of daily inspection and a long term program on maintenance, and executed on a base of feedback function to think of the long term program again by evaluating the periodical inspection results. Here were introduced on the monitoring diagnosis and periodical inspection regionalization equipment, fatigue monitoring system, automatic supersonic wave damage inspection equipment for reactor, steam evaporator heat conductive tube inspection equipment, automatic testing equipment for measuring controller, air working valve property testing equipment, as maintaining support system in the PW generation plant. (G.K.)

  12. Nuclear power supply. The future perspective; services industries: scope and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbe, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Canadian nuclear industry seems not to have recognized the opportunities that exist in the nuclear service industries. The total market in this area ranges from $1 to $4 billion in the United States alone. The author describes briefly the experiences of his company, London Nuclear. (L.L.)

  13. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Its purpose is to identify existing and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world and to indicate their main parameters. It includes information on facilities for uranium ore processing, refining, conversion and enrichment, for fuel fabrication, away-from-reactor storage of spent fuel and reprocessing, and for the production of zirconium metal and Zircaloy tubing. NFCIS currently covers 271 facilities in 32 countries and includes 171 references

  14. Establishment of nuclear business management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jong Hwan; Cho, Suk Hong; Oh, Du Sub; Kim, Sung Ki; Choi, Young Lok; Kim, Hwa Sup; Jun, Sang Jin; Yoon, Hyung Mo; Park, Jae Hong; Song, Tae Gil

    1991-01-01

    For the formulation of the technology development strategies the nuclear core technology, environmental analysis has been performed in four aspects: ecological environment, energy economy, nuclear policy and R and D environment. After analyzing the environment and identifying the opportunities and threats from the environment, the strategies on individual and organizational level have been developed for both of the short-term and long-term periods. For the betterment of nuclear business management, the management information system, management by objective and the mechanism for the enhancement of negotiation power in the international agreement have been studied. (Author)

  15. The longevity of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speiwak, I.; Livingston, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    It appears likely that nuclear power plants can be operated safely in excess of the licensed 40 years. This conclusion is based on a systematic review of the plant systems and favorable experience in refurbishing old fossil plants, the Savannah River production reactors and the early British Magnox reactors. The technical areas that may present the greatest difficulty are the reactor pressure vessel, the electrical cable, and reinforced concrete structures. Utilities are also concerned about the difficulty of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's relicensing process, which has not as yet been defined. If license extensions can be obtained, utilities can afford to spend many hundreds of millions of dollars to achieve an additional ten or more years of operation. Nuclear plant life extension has favorable implications for the long-term price of electricity in systems containing nuclear power plants

  16. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Master's Degree in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Kizhanatham V.; Boyd, Joseph L.; Desai, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    A graduate curriculum in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management focus is presented. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the fact that the global scope of modern business organizations and the competitive environment in which they operate, requires an information system leveraged supply chain management system (SCM)…

  18. Control system security in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianghai; Huang Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization and networking of control systems in nuclear power plants has brought significant improvements in system control, operation and maintenance. However, the highly digitalized control system also introduces additional security vulnerabilities. Moreover, the replacement of conventional proprietary systems with common protocols, software and devices makes these vulnerabilities easy to be exploited. Through the interaction between control systems and the physical world, security issues in control systems impose high risks on health, safety and environment. These security issues may even cause damages of critical infrastructures and threaten national security. The importance of control system security by reviewing several control system security incidents that happened in nuclear power plants was showed in recent years. Several key difficulties in addressing these security issues were described. Finally, existing researches on control system security and propose several promising research directions were reviewed. (authors)

  19. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  20. Nuclear material safeguards and security system analysis based on measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ign Djoko Irianto

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear material safeguards and security are the important aspect in the nuclear facility management due to the nuclear material could be terrorisms object. The two aspect of nuclear material security are nuclear material safeguards system and physical protection system. The most important in safeguards system is how to report the existence of nuclear material and the quantity of nuclear material. To perform the safeguards system the data of nuclear material are needed. The data of quality and quantity of nuclear material could be found by destructive analysis (DA) technique and non destructive analysis (NDA) technique. The DA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material that forming in powder, the NDA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material in spent fuel. In BATAN, the technique of measurement of nuclear material weight is more dominant than the other technique to be used in nuclear material safeguards and security systems. (author)

  1. AIRCRAFT POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS AS AN AUTOMATION OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Zhmurov

    2018-01-01

    aircraft and take into account all the requirements of the customer and the regulatory and technical documentation is its automation.Automation of the design of EPS aircraft as an optimization task involves the formalization of the object of optimization, as well as the choice of the criterion of efficiency and control actions. Under the object of optimization in this case we mean the design process of the EPS, the formalization of which includes formalization and the design object – the aircraft power supply system.

  2. Improvement of management systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The area of Quality Management/ Quality Assurance has been changed dramatically over the past years. The nuclear facilities moved from the 'traditional' Quality Assurance approach towards Quality Management Systems, and later a new concept of Integrated Management Systems was introduced. The IAEA is developing a new set of Standards on Integrated Management Systems, which will replace the current 50-C-Q/SG-Q1-Q14 Code. The new set of document will require the integration of all management areas into one coherent management system. The new set of standards on Management Systems promotes the concept of the Integrated Management Systems. Based on new set a big number of documents are under preparation. These documents will address the current issues in the management systems area, e.g. Management of Change, Continuous Improvement, Self-assessment, and Attributes of effective management, etc. Currently NPES is providing a number of TC projects and Extra Budgetary Programmes to assist Member States in this area. The new Standards on Management Systems will be published in 2006. A number of Regulatory bodies already indicated that they would take the new Management System Standards as a basis for the national regulation. This fact will motivate a considerable change in the management of nuclear utilities, requiring a new approach. This activity is suitable for all IAEA Members States with large or limited nuclear capabilities. The service is directed to provide assistance for the management of all organizations carrying on or regulating nuclear activities and facilities

  3. Estimation of energy storage capacity in power system in japan under future demand and supply factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ikuo; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1996-01-01

    The desirable capacity of future energy storage facility in power system in Japan is discussed in this paper, putting emphasis on future new electric demand/supply factors such as CO 2 emission problems and social structure change. The two fundamental demand scenarios are considered; one is base case scenario which extrapolates the trend until now and the other is social structure change scenario. The desirable capacity of the energy storage facility is obtained from the result of optimum generation mix which minimizes the yearly expenses of the target year (2030 and 2050). The result shows that the optimum capacity of energy storage facility is about 10 to 15%. The social structure change and demand side energy storage have great influences on the optimum capacity of supply side storage. The former increases storage capacity. The latter reduces it and also contributes to the reduction of generation cost. Suppression of CO 2 emission basically affects to reduce the storage capacity. The load following operation of nuclear plant also reduces the optimum storage capacity in the case it produces surplus energy at night. Though there exist many factors which increase or decrease the capacity of energy storage facility, as a whole, it is concluded that the development of new energy storage technology is necessary for future. (author)

  4. Perishable Foodstuffs Within the System of Supply Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Požar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturers and traders have always had to handle themanagement of supply chains. H01vever, this concept in itspresent meaning has only gained major importance in therecentyears. This is the result of linking supply chains with newtechnologies. The supply chain starts and ends with the endbuyer. The essence of supply elwin management is awarenessof the buyer's wishes and rapid delive1y of the required productsor se1vices. Supply chains play an exceptionally important roleroday. A common strategy for joint projects has ro be workedout wirh partners. In orderro achieve this, a lziglz degree of trustmust exist between them. Partners from various disciplines arenot competitors, but complement, and co-operate with eachother. In cold chains that ensure that perishable goods cover theproducer-consumer route in rlze shortest possible time, co-operationand trust are of key importance since only companies ableto provide the buyer with the right product at the right place andat the right price are successful in the market.

  5. System for selecting a postponement strategy portfolio for supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Simão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stagnation of the economy has increased competition and uncertainty in the industrial sector. Trends such as the increase in the proliferation of the variety of products and the requirement for customization of products has contributed to difficulties in forecasting demand, due to increased uncertainty of demand for final products. In this new competitive environment, it is no longer possible to use the traditional “one size fits all” supply chain process, with unique policies for all products because this practice can lead to significant profitability losses due to the increase in stock levels and lost sales. However, research on supply chains has given relatively little attention to the need to use different, segmented supply chain strategies as well as to develop and manage these multiple supply chains strategies simultaneously. Thus, this paper aims to present an approach for selecting a portfolio of postponement strategies based on segmentation of supply chain, based on analysis of the demand profile (volume-variety analysis and a tool to assist in the selection of postponement strategies driven by the customer-product sector and their respective propositions of value.

  6. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo-Taik

    1987-01-01

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  7. Nuclear plant data systems - some emerging directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.D.; Humphress, G.B.; McCullough, L.D.; Tashjian, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in recent years in the nuclear power industry to accentuate the need for data systems to support information flow and decision making. Economic conditions resulting in rapid inflation and larger investments in new and existing plants and the need to plan further ahead are primary factors. Government policies concerning environmental control, as well as minimizing risk to the public through increased nuclear safety regulations on operating plants are additional factors. The impact of computer technology on plant data systems, evolution of corporate and plant infrastructures, future plant data, system designs and benefits, and decision making capabilities and data usage support are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  9. A New Heat Supply System of Cogeneration for the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideki; Hisazumi, Yoshinori; Asano, Hitoshi; Morita, Hikaru; Hori, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Toshiki; Abiko, Tetsuo

    In order for economically viable distributed generation systems for local communities to be widely accepted, it is essential to develop an efficient and low-cost heat supply system. For this purpose, we propose a new heat supply system which we already presented at the ICOPE-05 Chicago. The key technology for the system is to connect compact heat supply units with a heat storage function installed in all the households of the local community, such as condominiums, by a single-loop of hot water pipe. A phase change material was used for the heat supply unit as the heat storage material. However, for easier handling and reducing the cost of the unit, we have developed a new heat supply unit whose heat storage tank is made of plastic. Hot water for space heating is used as the heat storage material. Further we constructed a heat supply system for 7 lived-in households with a 5 kW gas engine and a 42 kW boiler as the heat sources. Some experiments with a heat supply unit and a heat supply system, such as for heat storage and heat supply for peak demand were conducted. Additionally, dynamic simulations of heat demand by 50 households and a COP evaluation of a new CO2 heat pump system using low-temperature exhaust gas from the gas engine were also conducted.

  10. Nuclear power plant Angra integrated enterprise management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ronaldo Barata de

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics and peculiarities of the Nuclear Power Plant ANGRA 3 enterprise, amongst which its technical complexity, the size of the project and of the supplies of goods and services contracted for for the Brazilian and foreign scopes, the variety of contractors and participants involved in the implementation, associated with the need of integrated management of all the activities of the enterprise, requires the setting of standardized criteria and procedures to be adopted by the enterprise Project Management Team and by all involved ELETRONUCLEAR (ETN) Units, Suppliers and Contractors for Brazilian and foreign goods and services for the execution of the activities related to overall enterprise planning. These criteria and procedures aim at covering the five Project Management Process Groups: Initiating Process Group, Planning Process Group, Execution Process Group, Monitoring and Controlling Process Group and Closing Process Group. For the ANGRA 3 enterprise, ETN developed the Integrated Enterprise Management System - INTEGRA, being the software 'Primavera Enterprise Project Management' a fundamental part of this system. The aim of this paper is to describe the main concepts involving the ANGRA 3 enterprise management, and the integration between the processes, including all disciplines in all phases of the enterprise life cycle, such as: Nuclear and Environmental Licensing, Infrastructure, National and Foreign Engineering, National and Import Supplies, Civil Works, Electromechanical Erection, Commissioning. (author)

  11. DC power supplies power management and surge protection for power electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kularatna, Nihal

    2011-01-01

    Modern electronic systems, particularly portable consumer electronic systems and processor based systems, are power hungry, compact, and feature packed. This book presents the most essential summaries of the theory behind DC-DC converter topologies of both linear and switching types. The text discusses power supply characteristics and design specifications based on new developments in power management techniques and modern semiconductors entering into the portable electronics market. The author also addresses off-the-line power supplies, digital control of power supply, power supply protection

  12. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  13. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  14. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  15. Programmed system for nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, Pierre.

    1980-06-01

    The progress in the field of microprocessors and large scale integration circuits, have incited to introduce this new technologies into nuclear power plant protection system. The hardware and software design principles are briefly listed; then, a quad-redundant protection system for 1300 MWe PWR, developed in France is described [fr

  16. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  17. The Nuclear Employee Data System (NEDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Employee Data System (NEDS) is a centralized, dedicated, computer-based information management system designed to provide participating utilities with information that allows them to grant unescorted access to transient workers. The ability to access security-related information on individuals is one of the most important features of the NEDS. This paper discusses the sponsorship, management, system development activities, and system configuration and provides a cost/benefit ratio

  18. System-level considerations for the front-end readout ASIC in the CBM experiment from the power supply perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Koczon, P.; Ayet, S.; Löchner, S.; Schmidt, C. J.

    2017-03-01

    New fixed target experiments using high intensity beams with energy up to 10 AGeV from the SIS100 synchrotron presently being constructed at FAIR/GSI are under preparation. Most of the readout electronics and power supplies are expected to be exposed to a very high flux of nuclear reaction products and have to be radiation tolerant up to 3 MRad (TID) and sustain up to 1014/cm2 of 1 MeV neutron equivalent in their life time. Moreover, the mostly minimum ionising particles under investigation leave very little signal in the sensors. Therefore very low noise level amplitude measurements are required by the front-end electronics for effective tracking. Sensor and interconnecting micro-cable capacitance and series resistance in conjunction with intrinsic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier are dominant noise sources in the system. However, the single-ended architecture of the amplifiers employed for the charge processing channels implies a potential problem with noise contributions from power supply sources. Strict system-level constraints leave very little freedom in selecting a power supply structure optimal with respect to: power efficiency, cooling capabilities and power density on modules, but also noise injection to the front-end via the power supply lines. Design of the power supply and distribution system of the Silicon Tracking System in the CBM experiment together with details on the front-end ASICs (STS -XYTER2) and measurement results of power supply and conditioning electronics (selected DC/DC converter and LDO regulators) are presented.

  19. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  20. Water supply and disposal in the City of Kiev following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzarik, N.

    1990-01-01

    Kiev is the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and is the USSR's third largest city, with a population of 2.7 million people. The city water supply is dependent on three sources; two surface ones, i.e. the rivers Dniepr and Desna, and one underground one. The average total water consumption of the city amounts to 1.5 x 10 6 m 3 /day. The Chernobyl Power Plant accident posed a threat to the normal operation of the Kiev water supply system. In the circumstances, it became necessary to adopt the most urgent measures aimed at ensuring a continuous delivery of potable water to the city under conditions of the potential radioactive contamination of water supply sources. Round-the-clock monitoring of the radioactivity of the water source has taken place, including the control of water quality at various treatment stages, the variation of radioactivity of different filter loading materials and the radioactivity of waste waters, sludge and silt. The main concern was the threat of contamination of the Kiev reservoir. However the concentration of radionuclides in the drinking water supply has not exceeded the permissible limits. Various requirements for the water supply in the face of radioactive contamination are mentioned such as several water supplies, one of which is preferably an underground source, flexible conditions of water treatment and continuous radiation monitoring of the water supply (UK)