WorldWideScience

Sample records for supply source employment

  1. Nuclear steam supply system KLT-40 enhanced safety as independent power supply source. Employment prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunichev, V.I.; Sayanov, D.G.; Ardabievsky, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality of KLT-40 nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) providing enhanced safety is attained owing to the development and operation experience of equipments and systems in Soviet nuclear icebreakers. First of all they are the operating nuclear-powered icebreakers open-quotes Arktikaclose quotes, open-quotes Sibirclose quotes, open-quotes Rossiyaclose quotes, open-quotes Sovetsky Soyuzclose quotes, the limited draught icebreakers of joint Soviet-Finnish manufacturing open-quotes Taimyrclose quotes open-quotes Vaigachclose quotes. 30-years trouble-free operation of icebreaker open-quotes Leninclose quotes, the ancestor of nuclear powered fleet, is unprecedented. Operation life of individual equipment items amounts to 107000 hours, that testifies to high reliability and life characteristics of NSSS. Trouble-free operation of the nuclear-powered icebreakers' reactor plants (RPs) exceeded 130 reactor years, that proves high quality of design decisions being underlain in the basis of the KLT-40 NSSS for the lighter-cargo carrier open-quotes Sevmorputclose quotes, which was put into operation into 1988. Besides it testifies to the expediency of KLT-40 NSSS employment as a power source in different power installations. The KLT-40 is a reactor plant with a pwr type reactor. The design is described in detail with diagrams

  2. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  3. Logistics Sourcing Strategies in Supply Chain Design

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    A company's logistics sourcing strategy determines whether it structures and organizeslogistics within the company or company group or integrates logistics upstream and downstreamin the supply chain. First, three different types of logistics sourcing strategies in supply chaindesign are described and the theoretical background for the development of these strategies,including both transaction cost theory and network theory, is analyzed. Two special casesabout logistics sourcing strategy decis...

  4. Public water supply sources - the practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)

  5. Optimization of heat supply systems employing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Decision making on the further development of heat supply systems requires optimization of the parameters. In particular, meeting the demands of peak load ranges is of importance. The heat supply coefficient α and the annual utilization of peak load equipment τ FS have been chosen as the characteristic quantities to describe them. The heat price at the consumer, C V , offers as the optimization criterion. The transport distance, temperature spread of the heating water, and different curves of annual variation of heat consumption on heat supply coefficient and heat price at the consumer. A comparison between heat supply by nuclear power plants and nuclear heating stations verifies the advantage of combined heat and power generation even with longer heat transport distances as compared with local heat supply by nuclear district heating stations based on the criterion of minimum employment of peak load boilers. (author)

  6. Hospital employment of physicians and supply chain performance: An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gary J; Nyaga, Gilbert N; Zepeda, E David

    2016-01-01

    As hospital employment of physicians becomes increasingly common in the United States, much speculation exists as to whether this type of arrangement will promote hospital operating efficiency in such areas as supply chain management. Little empirical research has been conducted to address this question. The aim of this study was to provide an exploratory assessment of whether hospital employment of physicians is associated with better supply chain performance. Drawing from both agency and stewardship theories, we examined whether hospitals with a higher proportion of employed medical staff members have relatively better supply chain performance based on two performance measures, supply chain expenses and inventory costs. We conducted the study using a pooled, cross-sectional sample of hospitals located in California between 2007 and 2009. Key data sources were hospital annual financial reports from California's Office of Statewide Health Policy and Development and the American Hospital Association annual survey of hospitals. To examine the relationship between physician employment and supply chain performance, we specified physician employment as the proportion of total employed medical staff members as well as the proportion of employed medical staff members within key physician subgroups. We analyzed the data using generalized estimating equations. Study results generally supported our hypothesis that hospital employment of physicians is associated with better supply chain performance. Although the results of our study should be viewed as preliminary, the trend in the United States toward hospital employment of physicians may be a positive development for improved hospital operating efficiency. Hospital managers should also be attentive to training and educational resources that medical staff members may need to strengthen their role in supply chain activities.

  7. Tetrode bias power supply for Indus-1, synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tyagi, R.; Upadhyay, R.; Bohrey, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    An AC regulator based 7 kV, 3 A high voltage DC power supply is designed, fabricated and tested on dummy load for BEL make Tetrode type 15000CX, used in the high power RF amplifier at 31.613 MHz employed with INDUS-1, Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS). Various protections features like over voltage, under voltage, over current, phase failure and phase reversal are incorporated in this power supply and presented in this paper. As Tetrode amplifier requires various other power supplies in addition to this bias power supply and they are operated in a particular sequence for its healthy operation, suitable interlock arrangements have been incorporated and also presented in this paper. The reliable operation of protection and interlock features incorporated in this power supply has been checked with dummy load under simulated conditions. Three numbers of series limiting inductors, one in each phase, have been incorporated in this power supply to limit fault currents under unfavourable conditions and there by increasing the overall life of this power supply. It will replace existing 7 kV, 3 A HVDC power supply, which is in operation for more than fifteen years with Indus-1 SRS and is likely to be helpful in reducing the down time of Indus-1 SRS. It has better performance features than the existing power supply. The long term voltage stability better than 0.3 % and output ripple less than 0.3 % have been achieved for this Tetrode bias power supply. This power supply is likely to be integrated with INDUS-1 SRS soon. (author)

  8. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  9. The Functions of Sourcing Intermediaries in Global Supply Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Ellegaard, Chris

    The aim of this work-in-progress paper is to uncover the supply risk management functions performed by sourcing intermediaries. The purchasing and supply chain management literature, including the part of it concerned with supply risk, pays little attention to sourcing intermediaries....... But the fields of marketing and international business have investigated the intermediary including its high supply risk reducing potentials, suggesting that this supply chain entity may be highly relevant to supply risk management. In order to get a better understanding of the supply risk reducing properties...... of sourcing intermediaries, we perform a study of the Danish clothing industry. The study incorporate interviews across a range of functions and companies in this industry including retailers, producers, suppliers, and various types of intermediaries. We contribute by coupling the supply risk management...

  10. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  11. High precision power supplies for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Langenbach, H.

    1987-04-01

    Since beam stability depends to a considerable degree on the stability of the magnet power supplies, and it is desired to push for 3 GeV operation, it was required that new power supplies be obtained for the quadrupoles and sextupoles. These power supplies were to have the lowest ripple that could be reasonably achieved, and were to have a current regulation of better than 10 PPM. In addition, since they operate over a 5 : 1 voltage range, it was considered desirable to ensure that they operated with a good power factor over the operating range. The dipole power supply was modified to use the techniques employed in the smaller supplies

  12. Employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities 2010; Sysselsatte i kraftnaeringen og kraftrelatert virksomhet 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoen, Haavard

    2011-07-01

    The report's main objective is to investigate employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities. The report will describe the composition of employees in regard to sex, age and education. The power supply industry is defined in Statistics Norway's Standard Industrial Classification, as 'Production and distribution of electricity'. The group of companies related to power supply related activities employ similar persons in regard to education and occupation, typical to companies in the power supply industry. In the report, these two groups make up the power supply sector. In 2010 there were 18215 employees in the power supply sector. This constitutes an increase of nearly 12 per cent since 2004 and 1,7 per cent since 2008. The sex distribution of about 80 per cent men and 20 per cent women has been fairly stable since 2004. Compared to the private sector in general the power supply sector has a low share of women among its employees. In 2009 the level of education in the power supply sector was higher than for the private sector in general. Since 2004, the share of persons with higher education has increased from 27 to 33 per cent. Employees in the power supply sector are on an average older than the employees in the private sector. The employees have matured since 2004, but in the last few years, there have also been signs of fresh recruitment. The power supply industry had a net influx of 347 new employees, or 2 percent, in the period between 2009 and 2010. There were 1522 new employees and 1175 employees lost in the sector due to attrition, which gives a turnover rate of 20 percent. If we look at the supply of new employees who were also employed in 2009, 19 percent of female employees worked in temporary staff recruitment agencies. This indicates that temporary work was an entry gate to the power supply industry for many women. Among men, the building- and construction sector was the most common background for

  13. Library Employment Sources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of online resources for library job seekers. This includes general sites/portals like American Library Association (ALA): Education & Careers and Canadian Library Association: Library Careers. It also includes sites by sector, employment agencies/commercial services, listservs and networking sites.

  14. Employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities; Sysselsatte i kraftnaeringen og kraftrelatert virksomhet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoen, Haavard

    2012-07-01

    The report's main objective is to investigate employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities. The report will describe the composition of employees in regard to sex, age and education. The power supply industry is defined in Statistics Norway's Standard Industrial Classification, as 'Production and distribution of electricity'. The group of companies related to power supply related activities employ similar persons in regard to education and occupation, typical to companies in the power supply industry. These two groups make up the power supply sector in this report. In 2011 there were 18 450 employees in the power supply sector. This constitutes an increase of nearly 13.5 per cent since 2004 and 1.1 per cent since 2010. The sex distribution of about 80 per cent men and 20 per cent women has been fairly stable since 2004. The power supply sector has a low share of women among its employees compared to the private sector in general. In 2011 the level of education in the power supply sector was higher than for the private sector in general. Since 2004, the share of persons with higher education has increased from 27 to 33 per cent. Employees in the power supply sector are on average older than employees in the private sector. The employees have matured since 2004, but in the last few years, there have also been signs of fresh recruitment. The power supply industry had a net influx of 380 new employees, in the period between 2009 and 2011. There were 1678 new employees and 1298 employees lost in the sector due to attrition. If we look at the supply of new employees who were also employed in 2010, 14.2 percent of female employees worked in temporary staff recruitment agencies. Temporary work seems to be an important entry gate to the power supply industry for women. Among men, the building- and construction sector was the most common background for new employees in the power supply industry. Among people who quit

  15. Middle east gas: supply source of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivies, P. de

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of gas demand, the decreasing of reserves leads to the question of European future needs satisfaction. The european market can call on the russian production or middle east production. Iran has the most important reserves but the needs of the population can limit the gas supply. Yemen and Oman which have less important reserves but also less important needs to satisfy can be a serious alternative; Abu dhabi reserves are destined to asia market. The qatar has the most important gas offshore field in the world. The LNG (liquefied natural gas) seems to have a better position than gas pipeline to dispatch gas towards Europe

  16. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  17. Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess whether an existing sourcing strategy can effectively supply products of appropriate quality with acceptable levels of product waste if applied to an international perishable product supply chain. The authors also analyse whether the effectiveness of

  18. Electricity supply, employment and real GDP in India: evidence from cointegration and Granger-causality tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    This study probes nexus between electricity supply, employment and real GDP for India within a multivariate framework using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Long-run equilibrium relationship has been established among these variables for the time span 1970-71 to 2005-06. The study further establishes long- and short-run Granger causality running from real GDP and electricity supply to employment without any feedback effect. Thus, growth in real GDP and electricity supply are responsible for the high level of employment in India. The absence of causality running from electricity supply to real GDP implies that electricity demand and supply side measures can be adopted to reduce the wastage of electricity, which would not affect future economic growth of India.

  19. Improvement of ionizer and power supply of 860 A sputtering negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Kun; Yu Lingda; Wu Bingbing; Wang Guangfu

    2014-01-01

    A transmission surface type ionizer was developed with a φ2.5 mm stainless steel sheath core heating cable, and the ion source power supply was also improved. A continuous adjustable DC switching power supply was employed instead of the original AC power supply as the ionizer power supply, and a 0 - -20 kV DC power supply at the ground potential as the power of the immersion lens replaced the original 10 kV DC power supply suspended in -20 kV. The variation of the beam intensity of H"- in the front Faraday cup of the GIC4117 2 × 1.7 MV tandetron with the ionizer heating current was also shown. (authors)

  20. An improved electron impact ion source power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, E.M.

    1974-01-01

    An electron impact ion source power supply has been developed that offers improved ion beam stability. The electrical adjustments of ion source parameters are more flexible, and safety features are incorporated to protect the electron emitting filament from accidental destruction. (author)

  1. Magnet power supplies for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.; Lutz, I.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is building an Advanced Light Source (ALS) to produce synchrotron radiation. An electron linear accelerator, and a booster synchrotron are used to accelerate the electron beam to 1.5 GeV to fill the storage ring. This paper describes the power supplies used for the magnets in the booster and the storage ring and the interface requirements for computer control and monitoring the power supplies and magnet currents. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azarmehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.

  3. Supply and distribution for γ-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    Japan Atomic energy Research Institute (JAERI) is the only facility to supply and distribute radioisotopes (RI) in Japan. The γ-ray sources for medical use are 192 Ir and 169 Yb for non-destructive examination and 192 Ir, 198 Au and 153 Gd for clinical use. All of these demands in Japan are supplied with domestic products at present. Meanwhile, γ-ray sources imported are 60 Co sources for medical and industrial uses including sterilization of medical instruments, 137 Cs for irradiation to blood and 241 Am for industrial measurements. The major overseas suppliers are Nordion International Inc. and Amersham International plc. RI products on the market are divided into two groups; one is the primary products which are supplied in liquid or solid after chemical or physical treatments of radioactive materials obtained from reactor and the other is the secondary product which is a final product after various processing. Generally these secondary products are used in practice. In Japan, both of the domestic and imported products are supplied to the users via JRIA (Japan Radioisotope Association). The association participates in the sales and the distributions of the secondary products and also in the processings of the primary ones to their sealed sources. Furthermore, stable supplying systems for these products are almost established according to the half life of each nuclide only if there is no accident in the reactor. (M.N.)

  4. A stochastic inventory management model for a dual sourcing supply chain with disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, Eleftherios; Vlachos, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulos, Anastasios

    2010-03-01

    As companies continue to globalise their operations and outsource significant portion of their value chain activities, they often end up relying heavily on order replenishments from distant suppliers. The explosion in long-distance sourcing is exposing supply chains and shareholder value at ever increasing operational and disruption risks. It is well established, both in academia and in real-world business environments, that resource flexibility is an effective method for hedging against supply chain disruption risks. In this contextual framework, we propose a single period stochastic inventory decision-making model that could be employed for capturing the trade-off between inventory policies and disruption risks for an unreliable dual sourcing supply network for both the capacitated and uncapacitated cases. Through the developed model, we obtain some important managerial insights and evaluate the merit of contingency strategies in managing uncertain supply chains.

  5. Saturable reactor-controlled power supply system for TCT/TFTR neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Hopkins, D.B.; Dexter, W.L.; Kuenning, R.W.; Smith, B.J.

    1975-11-01

    Each neutral beam source requires one major power supply, the acceleration supply, and four auxiliary power supplies. The power supplies are designed to permit independent interruption of current to any source and crowbarring within 20 μsec, in the event of a source spark, while not disturbing the normal pulsing of all other adjacent sources. The sources are described

  6. Forecasting supply and demand in nursing professions: impacts of occupational flexibility and employment structure in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of Germany's ageing society, demand for nursing professionals is expected to increase in the coming years. This will pose a challenge for policy makers to increase the supply of nursing professionals. Methodology To portray the different possible developments in the supply of nursing professionals, we projected the supply of formally trained nurses and the potential supply of persons who are able to work in a nursing profession. This potential supply of nursing professionals was calculated on the basis of empirical information on occupational mobility provided by the German Microcensus 2005 (Labour Force Survey). We also calculated how the supply of full-time equivalents (FTEs) will develop if current employment structures develop in the direction of employment behaviour in nursing professions in eastern and western Germany. We then compared these different supply scenarios with two demand projections ('status quo' and 'compression of morbidity' scenarios) from Germany's Federal Statistical Office. Results Our results show that, even as early as 2005, meeting demand for FTEs in nursing professions was not arithmetically possible when only persons with formal qualification in a nursing profession were taken into account on the supply side. When additional semi-skilled nursing professionals are included in the calculation, a shortage of labour in nursing professions can be expected in 2018 when the employment structure for all nursing professionals remains the same as the employment structure seen in Germany in 2005 (demand: 'status quo scenario'). Furthermore, given an employment structure as in eastern Germany, where more nursing professionals work on a full-time basis with longer working hours, a theoretical shortage of nursing professionals could be delayed until 2024. Conclusions Our analysis of occupational flexibility in the nursing field indicates that additional potential supply could be generated by especially training more young people

  7. Forecasting supply and demand in nursing professions: impacts of occupational flexibility and employment structure in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Tobias; Afentakis, Anja

    2013-06-05

    In light of Germany's ageing society, demand for nursing professionals is expected to increase in the coming years. This will pose a challenge for policy makers to increase the supply of nursing professionals. To portray the different possible developments in the supply of nursing professionals, we projected the supply of formally trained nurses and the potential supply of persons who are able to work in a nursing profession. This potential supply of nursing professionals was calculated on the basis of empirical information on occupational mobility provided by the German Microcensus 2005 (Labour Force Survey). We also calculated how the supply of full-time equivalents (FTEs) will develop if current employment structures develop in the direction of employment behaviour in nursing professions in eastern and western Germany. We then compared these different supply scenarios with two demand projections ('status quo' and 'compression of morbidity' scenarios) from Germany's Federal Statistical Office. Our results show that, even as early as 2005, meeting demand for FTEs in nursing professions was not arithmetically possible when only persons with formal qualification in a nursing profession were taken into account on the supply side. When additional semi-skilled nursing professionals are included in the calculation, a shortage of labour in nursing professions can be expected in 2018 when the employment structure for all nursing professionals remains the same as the employment structure seen in Germany in 2005 (demand: 'status quo scenario'). Furthermore, given an employment structure as in eastern Germany, where more nursing professionals work on a full-time basis with longer working hours, a theoretical shortage of nursing professionals could be delayed until 2024. Our analysis of occupational flexibility in the nursing field indicates that additional potential supply could be generated by especially training more young people for a nursing profession as they tend to

  8. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  9. Survey of sources of manpower supply for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The following is a report of a survey designed to determine sources of manpower supply available to the Nuclear Power Industry. The survey is part of a larger research effort which is also designed to investigate occupational employment and training in the Nuclear Power Industry and competing sources of demand for technically qualified manpower. The results of those other studies have been published separately and are available upon request. This report includes a brief discussion of the background of the study, the research methods employed, the results obtained, and some implications of those findings. The appendices contain copies of the questionnaires used in the survey as well as some additional related data

  10. Recent helicity source and power supply improvements in CTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henins, I.; Knox, S.O.; Jarboe, T.R.; Barnes, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Since the last CT Symposium, two major changes in CTX have been the introduction of pulse forming networks (PFNs) to drive the coaxial electrode helicity source, and the very recent installation of a larger source with electrode diameters about twice of the previous ones. The power supplies used for CTX have ranged from the simple connection of the capacitor bank across the electrode collector plates (slow mode) to the more sophisticated PFNs, described here, which optimize the energy transfer from the capacitor bank to the magnetic fields of the spheromak. Using the PFNs, the formation and sustainment phase to peak toroidal plasma current lasts longer (approx. =0.7 ms) than in the slow mode (approx. =0.05 ms), thus lowering the peak current that must flow through the electrode surfaces. Also, by supplying the source electrodes with both a square pulse current waveform and a quasi-steady source flux, phi/sub g/, one can generate helicity at a constant source lambda/sub g/ parameter. The use of a larger diameter helicity source will improve the energy efficiency of helicity injection and allow higher source current for the same surface current density because of the larger electrode surface area

  11. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K. G.; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ~5 × 1012 cm-3, from which ~ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (~15 to 35kV), and high current (~ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (~50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (~ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall present the

  12. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K G; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density ∼5 x 10 12 cm -3 , from which ∼ 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage (∼15 to 35kV), and high current (∼ 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< ±1%), low ripple (< ±2%), isolation (∼50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100μs). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically (∼ 50kV) isolated from the system. The paper shall

  13. Demand grows in N. America as gas supply sources shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Growing demand for gas as a power-generation fuel is combining with changing patterns of gas transportation to present North American producers and pipelines with a series of new challenges. Results of a recent Enron study show how natural gas supplies available to US markets continue to shift their center of gravity toward Canadian and western sources. These changes--demand growth paced by electricity generation and supply source relocation--plus extraordinary gas basin price differentials this winter, point to (a) the opportunities for and risks of adding pipeline capacity in the US and Canada, on the one hand, and (b) tough decisions that may need to be made by Gulf of Mexico and Midcontinent area producers, on the other, to compete in an environment of changing economics and infrastructure

  14. Employment effects through enhanced use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelbroenner, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Bonn-based association Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., (forum for energies of the future), carried out a study investigating whether and to what extent enhanced use of renewable energy sources may contribute to improving in the future the employment situation in Germany. Taking as a basis the current conditions determining expenses and profits in the energy sector and the related employment situation, the study elaborates several scenarios and analyses their conceivable effects. The objective of the study presented in this issue was to assess the gross and net employment effects possibly to be achieved by programmes fostering power generation from renewable sources, and the financial input required in form of investments by industry and governmental grants. (orig./CB) [de

  15. SELECTION OF HEAT SUPPLY SOURCE FOR MOBILE BUILDING STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Dolgikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a vortex heat generator with energy transformation of the highest  state  of matter motion  into  the  lowest  one  as  a  heat  supply  source  for a mobile object. Energy transformation coefficient indices close or equal to 1 have been obtained as a result of experiments on efficiency of the vortex heat generator. Such results can be explained with the help of the 2nd Bohr quantum postulate. Standard series of certified VTG heat generators has been proposed for heat supply of the mobile object (field hospital.

  16. Effect of Prior Health-Related Employment on the Registered Nurse Workforce Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-kwan; Lin, Tzu-chun; Kim, Minchul; Sasaki, Tomoko; Spetz, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Registered nurses (RN) who held prior health-related employment in occupations other than licensed practical or vocational nursing (LPN/LVN) are reported to have increased rapidly in the past decades. Researchers examined whether prior health-related employment affects RN workforce supply. A cross-sectional bivariate probit model using the 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses was esti- mated. Prior health-related employment in relatively lower-wage occupations, such as allied health, clerk, or nursing aide, was positively associated with working s an RN. ~>Prior health-related employ- ment in relatively higher-wage categories, such as a health care manager or LPN/LVN, was positively associated with working full-time as an RN. Policy implications are to promote an expanded career ladder program and a nursing school admission policy that targets non-RN health care workers with an interest in becoming RNs.

  17. SELECTION OF HEAT SUPPLY SOURCE FOR MOBILE BUILDING STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. I. Dolgikh; S. V. Morozov; Yu. P. Orlov; A. B. Reis; A. Yu Yakovlev

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a vortex heat generator with energy transformation of the highest  state  of matter motion  into  the  lowest  one  as  a  heat  supply  source  for a mobile object. Energy transformation coefficient indices close or equal to 1 have been obtained as a result of experiments on efficiency of the vortex heat generator. Such results can be explained with the help of the 2nd Bohr quantum postulate. Standard series of certified VTG heat generators has been proposed for heat suppl...

  18. Hybrid district heating system with heat supply from nuclear source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, Z.; Petrovsky, I.

    1987-01-01

    Several designs are described of heat supply from large remote power sources (e.g., WWER-1000 nuclear power plants with a 1000 MW turbine) to localities where mainly steam distribution networks have been built but only some or none networks for hot water distribution. The benefits of the designs stem from the fact that they do not require the conversion of the local steam distribution system to a hot water system. They are based on heat supply from the nuclear power plant to the consumer area in hot water of a temperature of 150 degC to 200 degC. Part of the hot water heat will be used for the production of low-pressure steam which will be compressed using heat pumps (steam compressors) to achieve the desired steam distribution network specifications. Water of lower temperature can be used in the hot water network. The hot water feeder forms an automatic pressure safety barrier in heat supply of heating or technological steam from a nuclear installation. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 9 refs

  19. Development of the power supplies of the prototype ion source for the EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhimin; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Song Shihua; Xie Yahong; Sheng Peng

    2011-01-01

    For the neutral beam injector (NBI) of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), a test stand of a high-current ion source has been in construction. The NBI power supply system includes the plasma generator power supply, plasma electrode power supply, high voltage power divider, negative high voltage power supply, and the transmission lines and the snubber. A multi-megawatt prototype ion source was developed. The arc discharge of the prototype ion source was obtained in the test. The test results for the ion source power supplies and the arc discharge of the ion source are presented. (authors)

  20. Social Sustainability in Apparel Supply Chains—The Role of the Sourcing Intermediary in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Köksal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After considering significant literature on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM, it is evident that research has neglected the social dimension and still lacks in highlighting the role of sourcing intermediaries in supply chains. The apparel supply chain has increased enormously in length and complexity, driving apparel retailers to employ sourcing intermediaries who manage their sourcing activities with suppliers from developing countries overseas. Thus, the purpose of this study is to enrich existing findings on SSCM by exploring the management of social sustainability when sourcing intermediaries are in between the focal company and the respective developing country factories. More specifically, this study aims to understand the role of apparel sourcing intermediaries for the implementation of social management strategies based on the perception of multiple supply chain actors. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews conducted in Vietnam and Europe. Ultimately ten propositions are presented, all explicitly concentrating on the apparel intermediary’s role as a significant enabler for social sustainability in apparel supply chains. The roles are social sustainability, supplier developer and coordinator, gatekeeper and safeguard, cultural broker, and social risk manager. The social sustainability roles assumed by the apparel sourcing intermediary offer great opportunities to both apparel retailers and developing country factories.

  1. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

  2. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far

  3. Identifying sources of uncertainty to generate supply chain redesign strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic demands and constraints imposed by a rapidly changing business environment make it increasingly necessary for companies in the food supply chain to cooperate with each other. The main questions individual (food) companies face are whether, why, how and with whom they should start supply

  4. Contract Coordination in Dual Sourcing Supply Chain under Supply Disruption Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a coordination model for a three-echelon supply chain including two different manufacturers, one distributer and one retailer via the combined option and back contracts. And one manufacturer provides the high wholesale price with low supply disruption risk and the other is completely the opposite. This differs from the previous supply chain coordination model. Firstly, supply disruption is added to the three-echelon supply chain. Secondly, considering the coordination of the supply chain, we deploy the combined option and back contracts which are seldom used in the previous study. Furthermore, it is interesting that supply disruption risk and buyback factor do not affect the distributor’s order quantity from the manufacturer who has low product price and unreliable operating ability, while the order quantity increases with the rise of option premium and option strike price. The distributor’s order quantity from the manufacturer, which has high product price and reliable operating ability, increases with the rise of supply disruption risk but decreases when the buyback factor, option premium, and option strike price decrease.

  5. Primary energy sources for electricity supply in the FRG - demand and requirements as seen by the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhoff, R.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the present energy supply situation in the FRG, the attempt is made to elucidate basic tendencies for its development until 1990. The author pleads for the necessary growth by means of a series of theses. The supply with electric power being in the foreground can only be secured in the long run by means of greater utilization of coal and nuclear energy. Due to costs, other energy sources - playing a major role - will contribute less to the supply of electric power. (UA) [de

  6. Forecasting supply and demand in nursing professions: impacts of occupational flexibility and employment structure in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Tobias; Afentakis, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of Germany's ageing society, demand for nursing professionals is expected to increase in the coming years. This will pose a challenge for policy makers to increase the supply of nursing professionals. Methodology To portray the different possible developments in the supply of nursing professionals, we projected the supply of formally trained nurses and the potential supply of persons who are able to work in a nursing profession. This potential supply of nursing professiona...

  7. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (5) Loss of water supply is not a basis for assistance under this authority. (6) Water will not be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency water supplies due to... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61 Emergency...

  8. Klystron bias power supplies for Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    The functioning of an alternating current (AC) voltage regulator based high voltage direct current (HVDC) power supplies with better input and output performances has been presented in this paper. The authors have incorporated a 3-phase series limiting inductor, along with detuned passive filter in each power supply, to take care of line harmonics and the input power factor (IPF), which is simple, cost effective, reliable and provides input performance matching that of an equivalent active filter. Such arrangement has special significance for controlled HVDC power supplies supplying to fixed load but operated from widely varying input voltages. It achieves line voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) below 4% and IPF better than 0.97, for 415 V - 30% to 415 V + 10% variations in 3-phase input voltages. A properly designed crowbar, along with suitable limiting elements, is incorporated in each power supply and stringent wire survivability tests were carried out to limit klystron fault energy below 10 Joules. Several simulated waveforms and experiment results are also presented. (author)

  9. Employer Branding - Source of Competitiveness of the Industrial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babčanová, Dagmar; Babčan, Miroslav; Odlerová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the concept of employer branding, which is very important to follow, as an employer brand represents the core values of an organization. Organizations considered good employers have a strong identity and a positive image in the marketplace. To be successful, organizations need to attract the employee market. Marketing tools associated with Brand Management have been applied by the HR (Human Resources) in order to attract, engage and retain employees in the same way as marketing applies such tools to attract and retain customers.

  10. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  11. Supply of Prague with heat from a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poul, F.

    1976-01-01

    The proposals are discussed of supplying Prague, the Czechoslovak Capital, with nuclear reactor-generated heat energy. The proposals meet the requirements of the general urban plan of development. The first nuclear heating plant is to be sited in the Kojetice locality, in the northern Prague suburb. It will be commissioned by 1984 and 1985. It is estimated that the maximum heat output in form of hot water will be 821 MW. By 1995 the construction of the second nuclear heating plant should be started southeast or east of Prague. The connection of these two nuclear plants to the hot water mains together with other conventional heating plants will secure the heat supply for Prague and its new housing estates and industrial works. (Oy)

  12. Cross-functional Sourcing Teams – A Purchasing and Supply Management Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Peder Lysholm

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of scientific papers on cross-functional sourcing teams in top journals within Purchasing and Supply Management. The review identifies four common research topics within the field; Determining factors of sourcing team success, Performance...... management/goals of sourcing teams, Behavior and decisions in sourcing teams and Involvement of purchasing in sourcing teams. Further research on Performance Management and how to create a holistic, teams based perspective in cross-functional sourcing teams is suggested....

  13. Brookhaven National Laboratory source water assessment for drinking water supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.B.; Paquette, D.E.; Klaus, K.; Dorsch, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  14. Availability of the electrical supply system of emergency sources of 900-MW pressurized water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, A.

    A study made by CEA and EDF on the time-dependent probability of simultaneous loss of the electrical supply system from emergency sources is reported. Aspects covered include the availability of the electrical supply system in all possible conditions (2 available external sources, 1 available external source...) and the probability for repair after total loss of supply sources

  15. The gender composition of the medical profession in Mexico: implications for employment patterns and physician labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, F; Frenk, J; Aguilar, A M

    2000-01-01

    The gender composition of the medical profession is changing rapidly in many parts of the world, including Mexico. We analyze cross-sectional and longitudinal data on sex differences in physician employment from household employment surveys. The results suggest that Mexico is a particularly interesting example of the feminization of physician employment. Female enrollment in medical school increased from 11% in 1970 to about 50% in 1998. The increased participation of women in medicine seems to be accompanied by differences in employment patterns that could generate significant reductions in the total supply of physician hours of service. Women physicians are unemployed at a much higher rate than men and hence account for half of underused physician human capital. The results suggest that improved educational opportunities do not translate automatically into equal employment opportunities.

  16. Source of high-voltage power supply for ozone generators at glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruev, A.A.; Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Taran, G.V.

    2000-01-01

    High-voltage power supply source on quasi-resonance inverter base which works at direct current regime is described. This source forms 20 kV voltage with 0 - 10 mA current regulation. It protects the source from current break-downs and feeds ozone generators at glow discharge

  17. Subcarrier multiplexing tolerant dispersion transmission system employing optical broadband sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-16

    This paper presents a novel SCM optical transmission system for next-generation WDM-PONs combining broadband optical sources and a Mach-Zehnder interferometric structure. The approach leeds to transport RF signals up to 50 GHz being compatible with RoF systems since a second configuration has been proposed in order to overcome dispersion carrier suppression effect using DSB modulation. The theoretical analysis validates the potentiality of the system also considering the effects of the dispersion slope over the transmission window. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  18. Prototype tests on the ion source power supplies of the TEXTOR NI-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goll, O.; Braunsberger, U.; Schwarz, U.

    1987-01-01

    The PINI ion source for the TEXTOR neutral injector is fed by a new modular transistorized power supply. All modules are located in a high voltage cage on 55 kV dc against ground. The normal operation of the injectors includes frequent grid breakdowns causing transient high voltage stresses on the ion source power supplies. These stresses must not disturb the safe operation of the power supplies. The paper describes the set up for extensive testing of a supply prototype module under the expected operating conditions. The main features of this test program are reviewed and the measures taken for a safe operation are discussed. As a result of the investigations, recommendations for the installation of the power supplies at the TEXTOR NI system are given

  19. Employer-Supported Training in Australia: Participation, Demand and Supply. NCVER Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of employer-supported training in Australia. Employer-supported training is the largest share of adult education and training in all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. It has benefits for individuals, firms, and society. Cross-country studies have shown a positive association…

  20. Comparing sourcing strategies in two-echelon supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen S.; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    at a constant rate, and an (r, Q) policy is used to generate replenishment orders. The vendors have a finite production rate and ship to the buyer in equal-sized batches. The delivery lead time is stochastic. Shortages are allowed at the buyer's side and are fully backordered. The cost function comprises five...... elements: inventory holding costs at the buyer and the vendors, backorder costs and ordering costs at the buyer, and setup costs at the vendors. The objective is to minimize the total system costs incurred by the buyer and the vendors. As there is no dominating combined strategy, a major finding...... is that determining the best strategy requires a detailed analysis. Furthermore, when total system costs are taken into account, dual sourcing does not appear as beneficial as sometimes claimed in the literature on lot splitting....

  1. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks.

  2. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  3. Line-Interactive Transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a Fuel Cell as the Primary Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iftikhar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents line-interactive transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a fuel cell as the prime energy source. The proposed UPS consists of three major parts (i.e., an output inverter, a unidirectional DC–DC converter, and a battery charger/discharger. Non-isolated topologies of both the unidirectional converter and battery charger/discharger ensure transformerless operation of the UPS system. A new topology of high gain converter is employed for boosting the low voltage of the fuel cell to a higher DC link voltage, with minimum semiconductor count, and high efficiency. A high-gain battery charger/discharger realizes the bidirectional operation between the DC link and the battery bank. Besides, it regulates the DC link voltage during the cold start of fuel cells and keeps the battery bank voltage to only 24 V. A new inverter control scheme is introduced that regulates the output voltage and minimizes the total harmonic distortion for non-linear loading condition. The proposed control scheme integrates proportional-resonant control with slide mode control, which improves the controller’s performance in transient conditions. The proposed UPS system is validated by developing a 1-kVA experimental prototype.

  4. Power supply for the LBL 40 keV neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.; Honey, V.J.

    1975-11-01

    A 20 keV, 50 Amp, 10 millisec pulse D 0 Neutral Beam Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory that serves as the prototype for 12 similar sources now in operation on the 2XIIB Mirror Machine at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has been recently upgraded to operate at 40 keV. The system of electronically regulated and controlled power supplies that drive the Source is described

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.505-3 - Requests to procure similar items from sources other than GSA supply sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requests to procure... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26...

  6. Implementations of Riga city water supply system founded on groundwater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lāce, I.; Krauklis, K.; Spalviņš, A.; Laicāns, J.

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water for Riga city is provided by the groundwater well field complex “Baltezers, Zakumuiza, Rembergi” and by the Daugava river as a surface water source. Presently (2016), the both sources jointly supply 122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water. It seems reasonable to use in future only groundwater, because river water is of low quality and its treatment is expensive. The research on this possibility was done by scientists of Riga Technical university as the task drawn up by the company “Aqua-Brambis”. It was required to evaluate several scenario of the groundwater supply for Riga city. By means of hydrogeological modelling, it was found out that groundwater well fields could provide 120-122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water for the Riga city and it is possible further not to use water of the Daugava river. However, in order to provide more extensive use of groundwater sources, existing water distribution network shall be adapted to the change of the water sources and supply directions within the network. Safety of water supply shall be ensured. The publication may be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of water supply for large towns.

  7. The economics of supplying the supplementary heat in a closed loop water source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Bartkus, V.E.; Singh, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the details of a research and demonstration project that will be completed in August 1992 at a healthcare facility in northeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of the project is to compare the economics of several methods of supplying the supplementary heating in a facility served by a closed loop water source heat pump system. The systems being tested include a storage hot water tank with electric resistance heaters and three air source heat pumps that have the ability to supply the same heat during on-peak hours as well as off-peak hours. The paper compares the projected operating costs of the following: (1) Gas boiler supplying the supplementary heat. (2) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat which is generated and stored during off-peak hours using resistance heat on PP ampersand L's offpeak rate. (3) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat generated during off-peak hours using the air source heat pumps on PP ampersand L's off-peak rate. (4) Hot water generated by the air source heat pumps supplying the supplementary loop heating on PP ampersand L's general service and time-of-day electric rates. It is generally known in the HVAC industry that a closed loop water source heat pump system can provide one of the most efficient means of space conditioning to a building with high internal gains by transferring the excess heat available in one part of the building to another part of the building where it may be needed for heating. The following flow diagram depicts the relationship of the air source heat pumps with the storage tanks and the building closed water loop

  8. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  9. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan

    2013-01-01

    management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  10. Supply risk management functions of sourcing intermediaries – an investigation of the clothing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Ellegaard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to uncover how buying companies use sourcing intermediaries to manage supply risks in global sourcing. Design/methodology/approach: We carry out an explorative qualitative study of the clothing industry, interviewing key respondents that occupy different...... intermediary types, characterised by the set of functions they handle. Research limitations/implications: By analysing a limited set of in-depth interviews in one industry we have traded off broader analytical generalization for in-depth exploration and theory building. Therefore, future research should test...... by identifying the supply risk management functions that sourcing intermediaries carry out for buying companies. We also contribute by uncovering different types of sourcing intermediaries, determined by the collection of functions handled....

  11. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g.,

  12. Analysis and control of induction generator supplying stand-alone AC loads employing a Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedha Mahajan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Capacitor Excited Induction Generator (CEIG-Matrix Converter (MC system for feeding stand-alone AC loads. The variable output voltage magnitude and frequency from CEIG is converted into a constant voltage magnitude and frequency at the load terminals by controlling MC using Space Vector Modulation (SVM technique. This single-stage MC is turned up as a good alternative for the proposed system against commonly used AC/DC/AC two stage power converters. The configuration and implementation of the closed-loop control scheme employing dSPACE 1103 real time controller have been fully described in the paper. The proposed closed-loop controller regulates the AC load voltage irrespective of changes in the prime mover speed and load. A method for predetermining the steady-state performance of the proposed system has been developed and described with relevant analytical expressions. The effectiveness of the proposed system is exemplified through simulation results for various operating conditions. The proposed control technique is further validated using an experimental setup developed in the laboratory.

  13. The Concept of Autonomous Power Supply System Fed with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Fedak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires the use of renewable energy sources in a rational and thoughtful way. In Polish conditions the use of several types of renewable energy sources on a single setup is a new issue. In particular, hybrid devices in conjunction with intelligent energy systems, such as lighting systems are generally not used. Therefore, the Polish energy production still relies on the burning of coal. Despite their advantages, renewable energy sources are characterized by seasonality and considerable instability. Access to renewable energy varies daily and seasonally, hence activities promoting the use of autonomous, hybrid power systems must be intensified. The presented research aims at the development of the Autonomous Power Supply (APS system based on the so-called energy mix. Such a system works in an isolated arrangement and serves to reliably supply electricity from renewable sources for small residential or public utility devices in an urban area. Systems with up to 3 kW power consist of modules, whose modular design allows the combination of various power configurations and types of renewable energy used. The basic system consists of a primary power source, additional power source, emergency power source, energy storage device, weather station and controller. The energy mix depends on the geographical location of the system. The emergency source can be implemented as an on-grid connector or fuel power generator with the participation of 100% until the primary or accessory power source failure is removed. The energy storage system consists of batteries or supercapacitors. The proposed system can be combined to create a local network that automatically responds to energy shortages in various network nodes by adjusting the supply of electricity within the network depending on its needs. For Poland realistic solutions in this article are the new and modern answer to these requirements.

  14. Research on Matching Method of Power Supply Parameters for Dual Energy Source Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q.; Luo, M. J.; Zhang, S. K.; Liao, M. W.

    2018-03-01

    A new type of power source is proposed, which is based on the traffic signal matching method of the dual energy source power supply composed of the batteries and the supercapacitors. First, analyzing the power characteristics is required to meet the excellent dynamic characteristics of EV, studying the energy characteristics is required to meet the mileage requirements and researching the physical boundary characteristics is required to meet the physical conditions of the power supply. Secondly, the parameter matching design with the highest energy efficiency is adopted to select the optimal parameter group with the method of matching deviation. Finally, the simulation analysis of the vehicle is carried out in MATLABSimulink, The mileage and energy efficiency of dual energy sources are analyzed in different parameter models, and the rationality of the matching method is verified.

  15. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  16. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  17. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour...... and the covered demand of each heat source as well as required peak unit capacity. The results showed that heat pumps using different heat sources yield better performance than a heat pump based on a single one. The performance was influenced by the composition of the different heat sources. It was found that 78......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  18. An Emulated PV Source Based on an Unilluminated Solar Panel and DC Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on various PV simulator technologies as well as presents a novel equivalent photovoltaic (PV source that was constructed by using un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power supply that operates in current source mode. The constructed PV source was used for testing photovoltaic converters and various maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms required for capturing the maximum possible output power. The mathematical model and electrical characteristics of the constructed PV source were defined and analyzed in detail in the paper. The constructed PV source has the advantages of high bandwidth over the switching circuit based PV simulators. The constructed PV source has been used for testing various power electronics converters and various control techniques effectively in laboratory environments for researchers and university students.

  19. Kickers and power supplies for the Fermilab Tevatron I antiproton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, T.; Bartoszek, L.; Tilles, E.; Petter, J.; McCarthy, J.

    1985-05-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source Accumulator and Debuncher rings require 5 kickers in total. These range in design from conventional ferrite delay line type magnets, with ceramic beam tubes to mechanically complex shuttered kickers situated entirely in the Accumulator Ring's 10 -10 torr vacuum. Power supplies are thyratron switched pulse forming networks that produce microsecond width pulses of several kiloamps with less than 30 nanoseconds rise and fall times. Kicker and power supply design requirements for field strength, vacuum, rise and fall time, timing and magnetic shielding of the stacked beam in the accumulator by the eddy current shutter will be discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g., ‘metal sheets’, ‘leather’, ‘displays’, ‘cables’, etc.). Thus, to achieve cost reduction targets, a tailored mix of tactical sourcing levers for each sourcing category may be required. The fundamental q...

  1. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  2. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...... and the locations of solar powered nodes. Results show a maximum 39% savings in energy consumption with different increases in connection blocking probability....

  3. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  4. 75 FR 15610 - Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 31 Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 30 to 39, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 262, in Sec. 31.3402(o)-3, replace the fifth sentence in paragraph (c...

  5. 78 FR 19100 - Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 31 Employment Taxes and Collection of Income Tax at Source CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 30 to 39, revised as of April 1, 2012, on page 301, in Sec. 31.3406(b)(3)-2, in paragraph (b)(5), the language ``Sec...

  6. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  7. Comparison between Different Power Sources for Emergency Power Supply at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenasson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Swedish nuclear power plants are using diesel generator sets and to some extent gas turbines as their emergency AC power sources and batteries as their emergency DC power sources. In the laws governing Swedish nuclear activity, no specific power sources are prescribed. On the other hand, diversification of safety functions should be considered, as well as simplicity and reliability in the safety systems. So far the choices of emergency power sources have been similar between different power plants, and therefore this project investigated a number of alternative power sources and if they are suitable for use as emergency power on nuclear power plants. The goals of the project were to: - Define the parameters that are essential for rending a power source suitable for use at a nuclear power plant. - Present the characteristics of a number of power sources regarding the defined parameters. - Compile the suitability of the different power sources. - Make implementation suggestions for the less conventional of the investigated power sources. (unconventional in the investigated application) 10 different power sources in total have been investigated and to various degrees deemed suitable Out of the 10 power sources, diesel generators, batteries and to some extent gas turbines are seen as conventional technology at the nuclear power plants. In relation to them the other power sources have been assessed regarding diversification gains, foremost with regards to external events. The power sources with the largest diversification gains are: Internal steam turbine, Hydro power, Thermoelectric generators. The work should first and foremost put focus on the fact that under the right circumstances there are power sources that can complement conventional power sources and yield substantial diversification gains. This paper is a shortened version of the report 'Comparison between different power sources for emergency power supply at nuclear power plants'. The

  8. Basis for the power supply reliability study of the 1 MW neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, D.G.; Fathizadeh, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) upgrade to 1 MW requires new power supply designs. This paper describes the tools and the methodology needed to assess the reliability of the power supplies. Both the design and operation of the power supplies in the synchrotron will be taken into account. To develop a reliability budget, the experiments to be conducted with this accelerator are reviewed, and data is collected on the number and duration of interruptions possible before an experiment is required to start over. Once the budget is established, several accelerators of this type will be examined. The budget is allocated to the different accelerator systems based on their operating experience. The accelerator data is usually in terms of machine availability and system down time. It takes into account mean time to failure (MTTF), time to diagnose, time to repair or replace the failed components, and time to get the machine back online. These estimated times are used as baselines for the design. Even though we are in the early stage of design, available data can be analyzed to estimate the MTTF for the power supplies

  9. Electricity supply for remote places in the Danube Delta using non-conventional sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaides, E.P.

    1993-06-01

    The results of the theoretical studies and experiments performed by the author during the last years, the testing of the technical solutions based on PV and wind turbines, are the premises which allow the start of a new project regarding the electricity supply for remote places in the Danube Delta using non-conventional sources of energy. The aim of the project is to supply electricity to remote places such as: schools, medical centers, telecommunications, data logging equipment for floods preventing. The technical solutions envisage the design of a hybrid systems based on PVs and WTs. The paper emphasizes the elements of progress, the general concept of the design and is looking forward to raise the interest of other research teams which might take part into such project. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Status of magnet power supply development for the APS [Advanced Photon Source] storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, D.

    1989-01-01

    To simplify installation and speed testing of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring magnets, vacuum chambers and magnet power supplies, a modular approach was developed. All but the dipole magnets are independently controlled. Pulse width modulated dc-to-dc converters are used to power the individual magnets, with 12-pulse power supplies providing the raw dc to the converters. A magnet support base is the heart of a module and may hold as many as 7 magnets with 8 individually powered coils. The dc-to-dc converters are part of each magnet base module. This paper will show the modular approach which is used for the storage ring magnet systems and will give the test results of the prototype topology for the dc-to-dc converters that are being built and tested to power 680 quadrupole and sextupole magnets. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  11. Levels and sources of fat in the U.S. food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, N R; Marston, R M

    1986-01-01

    The amount of fat in the U.S. food supply increased one-third between 1909-13 and 1984, from 124 grams to 166 grams per capita per day. Also, the proportion of food energy provided by fat increased from 32 to 43 percent. The gain in fat in the food supply was due to an increase in fat from vegetable sources. The share of fat from vegetable sources increased from 17 to 42 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Although animal fats provided the largest share of fat, their proportionate contribution declined from 83 to 58 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Three food groups--fats and oils; meat, poultry, and fish; and dairy products--provided about 90 percent of the fat in the food supply throughout the past 75 years. However, the shares of fat provided by these groups changed. The share from the fats and oils group increased from 37 to 44 percent between 1909-13 and 1984, while the share from the meat, poultry, and fish group declined from 37 to 34 percent, and the share from the dairy products group declined from 15 to 12 percent. Fat from the fats and oils group increased 59 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Most of the gain in fat from this group was due to increased use of edible oils. Margarine replaced much of the butter and shortening replaced much of the lard as sources of fat. Fat from the meat, poultry, and fish group increased 24 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Pork accounted for the largest proportion of fat from this group and beef ranked second. The share of fat from poultry, although much smaller than either pork or beef, almost tripled. Fat from dairy products was about the same in 1984 as in 1909-13. Cheese was the leading source of fat from dairy products by 1984. Until recent years, whole milk was the leading source, although its share declined substantially after the late 1950's. Despite their low fat content, the share of fat from skim and lowfat milks increased as use increased, particularly in the past 25 years. The proportion of fat provided by

  12. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  13. Design of power supply system for the prototype RF-driven negative ion source for neutral beam injection application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Caichao; Hu, Chundong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, Jianglong, E-mail: jlwei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xie, Yahong; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yuanlai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A supporting power supply system was designed in details for a RF-driven prototype negative ion source at ASIPP. • The RF power supply for plasma generation adopts an all-solid-state power supply structure. • The extraction grid power supply adopts the pulse step modulator (PSM) technology. - Abstract: In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a prototype RF-driven negative ion source and the corresponding test bed are under construction at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The target of the negative ion source is extracting a negation ion beam of 350 A/m{sup 2} for 3600 s plasma duration and 100 s beam duration. According to the required parameters of test bed, the design of power supply system is put forward for earlier study. In this paper, the performance requirements and design schemes of RF power supply for plasma generation, impedance matching network, bias voltage power supply, and extraction voltage power supply for negative beam extraction are introduced in details. The schemes provide a reference for the construction of power supply system and lay a foundation for the next phase of experimental operation.

  14. Development of microcontroller based remote control system for HV power supply of ECR ion source for ADSS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Thakur, S.K.; Pandey, H.K.; Pandit, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the design and development of the microcontroller based interface card used to control and monitor the operation of High Voltage Power supply 120kV/50mA (HVPS). This power supply is deployed for the extraction of proton beam from the microwave ion source in the ADSS project. (author)

  15. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  16. Lead isotopes in tap water: implications for Pb sources within a municipal water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhongqi; Foland, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Residential tap waters were investigated to examine the feasibility of using isotopic ratios to identify dominant sources of water Pb in the Columbus (Ohio, USA) municipal supply system. Overall, both the concentrations, which are generally low (0.1-28 μg/L), and isotopic compositions of tap water Pb show wide variations. This contrasts with the situation for a limited number of available service lines, which exhibit only a limited Pb-isotope variation but contain Pb of two very different types with one significantly more radiogenic than the other. Most tap water samples in contact with Pb service lines have Pb-isotope ratios that are different from the pipe Pb. Furthermore, the Pb isotope compositions of sequentially drawn samples in the same residence generally are similar, but those from separate residences are different, implying dominant Pb sources from domestic plumbing. A separate pilot study at two residences without Pb service lines shows isotopic similarity between water and solders in each house, further suggesting that the major Pb sources are domestic in these cases and dominated by Pb from solder joints. Although complicated by the broad range of overall Pb-isotope variations observed and limited by sample availability, the results suggest that Pb isotopes can be used effectively to constrain the sources of Pb in tap waters, especially for individual houses where multiple source candidates can be identified

  17. Pulse explosion ion beam source with one pulse regime supply for surface modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    A variant of explosion ion beam source with one positive pulse supply for surface modification of materials is described. Ion source consists of vacuum diode and pulse generator Arcadiev-Marx type. Residual gas pressure was p∼5x10 -5 torr in the diode. The sort of ions was fixed by materials initiator anode plasma. The produce carbon ions a carbon-fibrous initiator is used for niobium and titanium-niobium-titanium cable with picking copper matrix. The ions density current regulation is realized by by change of diode gap in the correspondence with Child-Langmuir law. For carbon ions the current density is j∼6A/cm 2 for voltage U∼100kV and j∼32A/cm 2 for voltage U∼300 kV. 7 refs.; 1 fig

  18. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  19. Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO 2 -certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO 2 -emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO 2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

  20. Photosynthate supply and utilization in alfalfa: a developmental shift from a source to a sink limitation of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysdorfer, C.; Bassham, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term carbon dioxide enrichment, 14 CO 2 feeding, and partial defoliation were employed as probes to investigate source/sink limitations of photosynthesis during the development of symbiotically grown alfalfa. In the mature crop, long-term CO 2 enrichment does not affect the rates of net photosynthesis, relative growth, 14 C export to nonphotosynthetic organs, or the rates of 14 C label incorporation into leaf sucrose, starch, or malate. The rate of glycolate labeling is, however, substantially reduced under these conditions. When the mature crop was partially defoliated, a considerable increase in net photosynthesis occurred in the remaining leaves. In the seedling crop, long-term CO 2 enrichment increased dry matter accumulation, primarily as a result of increases in leaf starch content. Although the higher rates of starch synthesis are not maintained, the growth enhancement of the enriched plants persisted throughout the experimental period. These results imply a source limitation of seedling photosynthesis and a sink limitation of photosynthesis in more mature plants. Consequently, both the supply and the utilization of photosynthate may limit seasonal photosynthesis in alfalfa

  1. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  2. Two Functionally Distinct Sources of Actin Monomers Supply the Leading Edge of Lamellipodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitriol, Eric A.; McMillen, Laura M.; Kapustina, Maryna; Gomez, Shawn M.; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Zheng, James Q.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lamellipodia, the sheet-like protrusions of motile cells, consist of networks of actin filaments (F-actin) regulated by the ordered assembly from and disassembly into actin monomers (G-actin). Traditionally, G-actin is thought to exist as a homogeneous pool. Here, we show that there are two functionally and molecularly distinct sources of G-actin that supply lamellipodial actin networks. G-actin originating from the cytosolic pool requires the monomer binding protein thymosin β4 (Tβ4) for optimal leading edge localization, is targeted to formins, and is responsible for creating an elevated G/F-actin ratio that promotes membrane protrusion. The second source of G-actin comes from recycled lamellipodia F-actin. Recycling occurs independently of Tβ4 and appears to regulate lamellipodia homeostasis. Tβ4-bound G-actin specifically localizes to the leading edge because it doesn’t interact with Arp2/3-mediated polymerization sites found throughout the lamellipodia. These findings demonstrate that actin networks can be constructed from multiple sources of monomers with discrete spatiotemporal functions. PMID:25865895

  3. Sources of well-being and commitment of staff in the Australian Disability Employment Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Andrew; Graffam, Joseph; McWilliams, John

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the role of working conditions in predicting the psychological health, job satisfaction and organisational commitment of personnel responsible for helping people with disabilities gain employment in the mainstream Australian labour market. The working conditions were assessed using two theories: the Job Strain Model (job demand, social support and job control) and Psychological Contract Theory (unwritten reciprocal obligations between employers and employees). In the case of the Job Strain Model, the generic dimensions had been augmented by industry-specific sources of stress. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in June and July 2005 with 514 staff returning completed questionnaires (representing a response rate of 30%). Comparisons between respondents and non-respondents revealed that on the basis of age, gender and tenure, the sample was broadly representative of employees working in the Australian disability employment sector at that time. The results of regression analyses indicate that social support was predictive of all of the outcome measures. Job control and the honouring of psychological contracts were both predictive of job satisfaction and commitment, while the more situation-specific stressors--treatment and workload stressors--were inversely related to psychological health (i.e. as concern regarding the treatment and workload stressors increased, psychological health decreased). Collectively, these findings suggest that strategies aimed at combating the negative effects of large-scale organisational change could be enhanced by addressing several variables represented in the models--particularly social support, job control, psychological contracts and sector-specific stressors.

  4. Ion source for ion beam deposition employing a novel electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. V.; Kanarov, V.; Yevtukhov, R.; Hegde, H.; Druz, B.; Yakovlevitch, D.; Cheesman, W.; Mirkov, V.

    2000-02-01

    A rf inductively coupled ion source employing a novel electrode assembly for focusing a broad ion beam on a relatively small target area was developed. The primary application of this ion source is the deposition of thin films used in the fabrication of magnetic sensors and optical devices. The ion optics consists of a three-electrode set of multiaperture concave dished grids with a beam extraction diameter of 150 mm. Also described is a variation in the design providing a beam extraction diameter of 120 mm. Grid hole diameters and grid spacing were optimized for low beamlet divergence and low grid impingement currents. The radius of curvature of the grids was optimized to obtain an optimally focused ion beam at the target location. A novel grid fabrication and mounting design was employed which overcomes typical limitations of such grid assemblies, particularly in terms of maintaining optimum beam focusing conditions after multiple cycles of operation. Ion beam generation with argon and xenon gases in energy ranges from 0.3 to 2.0 keV was characterized. For operation with argon gas, beam currents greater than 0.5 A were obtained with a beam energy of 800 eV. At optimal beam formation conditions, beam profiles at distances about equal to the radius of curvature were found to be close to Gaussian, with 99.9% of the beam current located within a 150 mm target diameter. Repeatability of the beam profile over long periods of operation is also reported.

  5. Study on Utilization of an Artesian Well as a Source of Water Supply at Raw Water Backup System (GBA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa Pujiarta; Yuyut Suraniyanto; Amril; Setyo Budi Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Raw water supply system (GBA01) is a unit of ponds used as a provider of raw water for secondary cooling system and free mineral water production systems. Source of raw water pond has been supplied from PAM Puspiptek with water conductivity between 126-310 μS / cm and a pH of 6 to 8, and this condition is maintained because there is no other source that is used to supply water to the reactor cooling water supply. This conductivity is always unstable, if during the dry season the conductivity is low trend, but in the rainy season the conductivity will be increase because the water contains a lot of mud. And one more problem that is important is if the PAM Puspiptek failed to supply fresh water to the reactor. So to handling and anticipate these things, necessary to optimize the deep well former Interatom legacy as a backup water supply for raw water supply system of the reactor. With a conductivity of 136 μS / cm, pH 7,4 and total hardness 37 ppm, the water from deep wells can be used as a backup supply of secondary raw water cooling system. (author)

  6. Global dual-sourcing strategy: is it effective in mitigating supply disruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mustaffa, Nurakmal

    2015-01-01

    Most firms are still failing to think strategically and systematically about managing supply disruption risk and most of the supply chain management efforts are focused on reducing supply chain operation costs rather than managing disruption. Some innovative firms have taken steps to implement supply chain risk management (SCRM). Inventory management is part of SCRM because supply disruptions negatively affect the reliability of deliveries from suppliers and the costs associate...

  7. Estimates of water source contributions in a dynamic urban water supply system inferred via a Bayesian stable isotope mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, M. Y.; Brewer, S.; Fiorella, R.; Tipple, B. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Terry, S.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply systems (PWSS) are complex distribution systems and critical infrastructure, making them vulnerable to physical disruption and contamination. Exploring the susceptibility of PWSS to such perturbations requires detailed knowledge of the supply system structure and operation. Although the physical structure of supply systems (i.e., pipeline connection) is usually well documented for developed cities, the actual flow patterns of water in these systems are typically unknown or estimated based on hydrodynamic models with limited observational validation. Here, we present a novel method for mapping the flow structure of water in a large, complex PWSS, building upon recent work highlighting the potential of stable isotopes of water (SIW) to document water management practices within complex PWSS. We sampled a major water distribution system of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, measuring SIW of water sources, treatment facilities, and numerous sites within in the supply system. We then developed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) isotope mixing model to quantify the proportion of water supplied by different sources at sites within the supply system. Known production volumes and spatial distance effects were used to define the prior probabilities for each source; however, we did not include other physical information about the supply system. Our results were in general agreement with those obtained by hydrodynamic models and provide quantitative estimates of contributions of different water sources to a given site along with robust estimates of uncertainty. Secondary properties of the supply system, such as regions of "static" and "dynamic" source (e.g., regions supplied dominantly by one source vs. those experiencing active mixing between multiple sources), can be inferred from the results. The isotope-based HB isotope mixing model offers a new investigative technique for analyzing PWSS and documenting aspects of supply system structure and operation that are

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of natural... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101...

  9. Long-pulse neutral beam power supply system for LBL 20 kV, 10 A sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey, V.J.; Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.

    1976-05-01

    A description is given of the power supplies and control system for the LBL 20 kV, 10 A, 10 sec long-pulse neutral beam source test facility, now in operation. Such sources are used in a number of existing and planned fusion power experiments

  10. Multi-criteria evaluation of sources for self-help domestic water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, C. C.; Banigo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Two multi-criteria decision analysis methods were employed to evaluate six water sources. The analytical hierarchical process (AHP) ranked borehole highest with a rank of 0.321 followed by water board with a rank of 0.284. The other sources ranked far below these two as follows: water tanker (0.139), rainwater harvesting (0.117), shallow well (0.114) and stream (0.130). The Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) ranked water board highest with a rank of 0.865, followed by borehole with a value of 0.778. Quality and risk of contamination were found to be the most influential criteria while seasonality was the least.

  11. The growth of GaN films by alternate source gas supply hot-mesh CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Yasuaki; Saitou, Takeshi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endoh, Tetsuo [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Yasui, Kanji, E-mail: kyasui@vos.nagaokaut.ac.j [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films and Aluminium nitride (AlN) layers were deposited on SiC/Si (111) substrates by an alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of a source gas such as ammonia (NH{sub 3}), trimethylgallium (TMG) or trimethylaluminum (TMA) in a hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) apparatus. The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and TMA on a SiC layer grown by carbonization on Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). GaN films were grown on an AlN layer by a reaction between NH{sub x} radicals generated on a ruthenium (Ru) coated tungsten (W)-mesh and TMG molecules. An alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of one of the source gases during the film growth are expected to be effective for the suppression of gas phase reactions and for the enhancement of precursor migration on the substrate surface. By the intermittent supply of alkylmetal gas only during the growth of the AlN layer, the defect generation in the GaN films was reduced. GaN film growth by intermittent supply on an AlN buffer layer, however, did not lead to the improvement of the film quality.

  12. Free electron laser facilities employing a 150-MeV linac injector for Saga synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, T.; Yasumoto, M.; Ochiai, Y.; Ishibashi, M.; Murayama, T.

    1999-01-01

    Free electron laser (FEL) facilities as the FELI FEL Facility are proposed, for which a 150-MeV linac type injector for a Saga synchrotron light source (SLS) is employed in FEL mode. The linac has two operating modes; short macropulse mode a 1 μs at 150 MeV for injection to a 1 - 1.3-GeV third generation type storage ring and long macropulse mode of 12 μs at 100 MeV for four FEL Facilities. The macropulse beam consists of a train of several ps, 0.6 nC microbunches (peak current 100 A) repeating at 89.25 MHz. We are aiming to supply high power level photon beams covering an attractive wavelength range from 0.05 nm (25 keV) to 200 μm (0.006 eV) for scientific researches, bio-medical and industrial applications, using the Saga third generation type SLS with a superconducting wiggler and the proposed four FEL Facilities. (author)

  13. Geogenic sources of benzene in aquifers used for public supply, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of two large statewide data sets from the California State Water Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program (1973 wells) and the California Department of Public Health (12417 wells) reveals that benzene occurs infrequently (1.7%) and at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration of 0.024 μg/L) in groundwater used for public supply in California. When detected, benzene is more often related to geogenic (45% of detections) than anthropogenic sources (27% of detections). Similar relations are evident for the sum of 17 hydrocarbons analyzed. Benzene occurs most frequently and at the highest concentrations in old, brackish, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 13.0% in groundwater with tritium 1600 μS/cm, and anoxic conditions. This groundwater is typically deep (>180 m). Benzene occurs somewhat less frequently in recent, shallow, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 2.6% in groundwater with tritium ≥1 pCi/L, depth <30 m, and anoxic conditions. Evidence for geogenic sources of benzene include: higher concentrations and detection frequencies with increasing well depth, groundwater age, and proximity to oil and gas fields; and higher salinity and lower chloride/iodide ratios in old groundwater with detections of benzene, consistent with interactions with oil-field brines.

  14. Scrap supply in Bosnian after war situation - sources, quality, regulation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihura, Dervis

    1999-01-01

    Before the war, the Bosnian foundry and steel industry were supplied with scrap partly from domestic sources but mainly from foreign market. The annual steel production before the war recorded 130,000 tonnes of casting and 2,000.000 tonnes of crude steel. Most of the scrap was imported to secure and stabilize the production. During and after the war, despite a significant loss of production, efforts have been made to return to the normal production level in many ways. In the wake of the war, there has been a growing concern over the import of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap or low quality raw materials which are uncontrolled or of unidentified sources. In this regard, it is urgently required to establish an effective system to prevent from, to detect and to control the flow of the radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap. The system should be established in such a way that all sorts of radioactive metallurgical elements should be controlled and prevented from use in all the metallurgical manufacturing processes, ferrous and non-ferrous alike. The coverage of control should start from the border or (air) port checkpoint where the flow of the scrap begins to the final steel product. The control system should take a form of internationally common and acceptable standards and regulations. Equipments and measurement techniques should also be internationally common. (author)

  15. Analysis of the Degradation of MOSFETs in Switching Mode Power Supply by Characterizing Source Oscillator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS has been widely applied in aeronautics, nuclear power, high-speed railways, and other areas related to national strategy and security. The degradation of MOSFET occupies a dominant position in the key factors affecting the reliability of SMPS. MOSFETs are used as low-voltage switches to regulate the DC voltage in SMPS. The studies have shown that die-attach degradation leads to an increase in on-state resistance due to its dependence on junction temperature. On-state resistance is the key indicator of the health of MOSFETs. In this paper, an online real-time method is presented for predicting the degradation of MOSFETs. First, the relationship between an oscillator signal of source and on-state resistance is introduced. Because oscillator signals change when they age, a feature is proposed to capture these changes and use them as indicators of the state of health of MOSFETs. A platform for testing characterizations is then established to monitor oscillator signals of source. Changes in oscillator signal measurement were observed with aged on-state resistance as a result of die-attach degradation. The experimental results demonstrate that the method is efficient. This study will enable a method to predict the failure of MOSFETs to be developed.

  16. Open-Source ERP: Is It Ripe for Use in Teaching Supply Chain Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh Q.; Chu, Hung W.

    2011-01-01

    The field of supply chain management has changed greatly and rapidly. With the advent of enterprise systems, supply chains are now operating with up-to-the-minute information. The value of the information flow is marked by speed, accessibility, accuracy, and most of all relevancy. As it continually evolves, the supply chain management curriculum…

  17. Solid core dipoles and switching power supplies: lower cost light sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, J.; Philip, S.

    2015-05-01

    As a result of improvements in power semiconductors, moderate frequency switching supplies can now provide the hundreds of amps typically required by accelerators with zero-to-peak noise in the kHz region ~ 0.06% in current or voltage mode. Modeling was undertaken using a finite electromagnetic program to determine if eddy currents induced in the solid steel of CEBAF magnets and small supplemental additions would bring the error fields down to the 5ppm level needed for beam quality. The expected maximum field of the magnet under consideration is 0.85 T and the DC current required to produce that field is used in the calculations. An additional 0.1% current ripple is added to the DC current at discrete frequencies 360 Hz, 720 Hz or 7200 Hz. Over the region of the pole within 0.5% of the central integrated BdL the resulting AC field changes can be reduced to less than 1% of the 0.1% input ripple for all frequencies, and a sixth of that at 7200 Hz. Doubling the current, providing 1.5 T central field, yielded the same fractional reduction in ripple at the beam for the cases checked. A small dipole was measured at 60, 120, 360 and 720 Hz in two conditions and the results compared to the larger model for the latter two frequencies with surprisingly good agreement. For light sources with aluminum vacuum vessels and full energy linac injection, the combination of solid core dipoles and switching power supplies may result in significant cost savings. The work may also be used to guide retrofit of existing machines to reduce the level of ripple in the particle beam path.

  18. Radio over fiber transceiver employing phase modulation of an optical broadband source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-10-11

    This paper proposes a low-cost RoF transceiver for multichannel SCM/WDM signal distribution suitable for future broadband access networks. The transceiver is based on the phase modulation of an optical broadband source centered at third transmission window. Prior to phase modulation the optical broadband source output signal is launched into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure, as key device enabling radio signals propagation over the optical link. Furthermore, an optical CWDM is employed to create a multichannel scenario by performing the spectral slicing of the modulated optical signal into a number of channels each one conveying the information from the central office to different base stations. The operation range is up to 20 GHz with a modulation bandwidth around of 500 MHz. Experimental results of the transmission of SCM QPSK and 64-QAM data through 20 Km of SMF exhibit good EVM results in the operative range determined by the phase-to-intensity conversion process. The proposed approach shows a great suitability for WDM networks based on RoF signal transport and also represents a cost-effective solution for passive optical networks.

  19. Brachytherapy source calibration, reviews, and consistency of 192Ir high-dose rate afterloading sources supplied over the period of 10 years: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagappan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Yogesh; Patel, Narayan P.; Dhull, Anil Kumar; Kaushal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Measurement and verification of strength of monomodal high-dose rate (mHDR) 192 Ir source supplied by the vendor is a major part of quality assurance program. Reference air kerma rate (RAKR) or air kerma strength (AKS) is the recommended quantity to specify the strength of gamma emitting brachytherapy sources. Physicist in our institution performed the source calibration as soon as each 192 Ir new source was loaded on the mHDR afterloading machine. The AKS accurately measured using a physikalisch technische werkstatten (PTW) re-entrant chamber-electrometer system in a scatter-free geometry was used to compute the air kerma rate (AKR) at one-meter distance in the air. To ensure accurate dose delivery to brachytherapy patients, measured AKS or RAKR should be entered correctly in both HDR treatment console station (TCS) as well as treatment planning system (TPS) associated with it. The clinical outcome mainly depends not only on the accuracy of the source strength measurement in the hospital but also on the correct source strength entered into both TCS and TPS software. A retrospective study on 22 mHDR V2 sources supplied by the vendor for the period of 10 years was taken up to access the accuracy of source strength supplied to the Radiotherapy department. The results are analyzed and reported. The accuracy in measured RAKR of all 22 sources supplied by vendor was well within the tolerance limits set by the national regulatory body and international recommendations. The deviations observed between measured RAKR versus manufacturer's quoted RAKR were in the range from -1.71% to +1.15%. In conclusion, the measured RAKR have good agreement with vendor quoted RAKR values. (author)

  20. An open source hydroeconomic model for California's water supply system: PyVIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M. S.; White, E.; Herman, J. D.; Hart, Q.; Merz, J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Models help operators and decision makers explore and compare different management and policy alternatives, better allocate scarce resources, and predict the future behavior of existing or proposed water systems. Hydroeconomic models are useful tools to increase benefits or decrease costs of managing water. Bringing hydrology and economics together, these models provide a framework for different disciplines that share similar objectives. This work proposes a new model to evaluate operation and adaptation strategies under existing and future hydrologic conditions for California's interconnected water system. This model combines the network structure of CALVIN, a statewide optimization model for California's water infrastructure, along with an open source solver written in the Python programming language. With the flexibilities of the model, reservoir operations, including water supply and hydropower, groundwater pumping, and the Delta water operations and requirements can now be better represented. Given time series of hydrologic inputs to the model, typical outputs include urban, agricultural and wildlife refuge water deliveries and shortage costs, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater systems, and insights into policy and management decisions, such as capacity expansion and groundwater management policies. Water market operations also represented in the model, allocating water from lower-valued users to higher-valued users. PyVIN serves as a cross-platform, extensible model to evaluate systemwide water operations. PyVIN separates data from the model structure, enabling model to be easily applied to other parts of the world where water is a scarce resource.

  1. A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system using a strontium heat source of high-level radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system with radioactive strontium in high-level radioactive waste has been proposed. A combination of Alkali Metal Thermo-Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and a strontium fluoride heat source can provide a compact and long-lived power supply system. A heat source design with strontium fluoride pin bundles with Hastelloy cladding and intermediate copper has been proposed. This design has taken heat transportation into consideration, and, in this regard, the feasibility has been confirmed by a three-dimensional thermal analysis using Star-CD code. This power supply system with an electric output of 1 MW can be arranged in a space of 50 m 2 and approximately 1.1 m height and can be operated for 15 years without refueling. This compact and long-lived power supply is suitable for powering sources for remote places and middle-sized ships. From the viewpoint of geological disposal of high-level waste, the proposed power supply system provides a financial base for strontium-cesium partitioning. That is, a combination of minor-actinide recycling and strontium-cesium partitioning can eliminate a large part of decay heat in high-level waste and thus can save much space for geological disposal. (author)

  2. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  3. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact...

  4. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  5. Power supply for nuclear power plant home consumption using inverter sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepar, V.; Tvrdik, J.

    1988-01-01

    A description is presented of the system configuration of a nuclear power plant with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 units and of a system of guaranteed power supply for the plant home consumption network for a WWER-440 power plant. The power supply network consists of 6 inverter supplies for safety systems, 4 supplies for nonsystem facilities and of a minimum of three power supplies for facilities outside the units. A diagram is shown and the principle described of the currently used ABP 1500 power supply system of Soviet origin. Using the experience from its operation, a Czechoslovak inverter supply system was designed featuring parallel operation of the inverter units. The principles are given for the design of a power supply system of an output of 75 kVA, the diagram is shown and the principle described. The design allows implementing and using the system without redundancy or in redundant operation of the 2 from 3 type at an installed capacity of 66%, or of the 1 from 2 type at an installed capacity of 50% of the output. The system is undergoing tests that should verify its reliability. (J.B.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Regional power supply with decentral and renewable energy sources; Regionale Energieversorgung mit dezentralen und erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonow, Martin [Genossenschaftsverband, Neu-Isenburg/Zeppelinheim-Ost (Germany); George, Wolfgang [GenoPortal, Neu-Isenburg (Germany); Klement, Martin [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 6 - Architektur, Stadtplanung, Landschaftsplanung

    2009-04-15

    The contribution starts by assuming a region as a business organisation; on this basis, the authors develop the idea of a regional value-adding chain with regard to regional power supply. After presenting the central actors and their manner of integration, the contribution discusses concepts for sustainable power supply as well as the central parameters of such a development in terms of quality of life, attractivity of the region, future success of technologies, and criteria of value-adding. Finally, the implementation of regional power supply with the aid of a so-called 'balanced scorecard' is explained, which involves balancing of the various perspectives of the process up to the establishment of the final regional power supply concept. Finally, the contribution briefly discusses co-operative models for the establishment of a regional power supply concept. (orig.)

  7. Ground Source Heat Supply in Moscow Oblast: Temperature Potential and Sustainable Depth of Heat Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G. P.; Gornov, V. F.; Dmitriev, A. N.; Kolesova, M. V.; Yurchenko, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a problem of increasing the efficiency of low-potential geothermal heat in heat pump systems of residential buildings the Moscow oblast of Russia, including Moscow. Estimates of a natural geothermal potential in the Moscow oblast (based on climatological data for the period from 1982 to 2011) are presented and a "Typical climatic year of natural soil temperature variations for the geoclimatic conditions of the Moscow oblast, including the city of Moscow" is proposed. Numerical simulation of the influence of geothermal energy potential and the depth of heat wells on the efficiency of ground source heat pump systems for the heat supply of residential buildings is carried out. Analysis of the numerical simulation showed that the operation of a heat pump system in a house heating mode under the geoclimatic conditions of the Moscow oblast leads to a temperature drop of the heat-exchange medium circulating through heat wells to 5-6°C by the end of the first 10 years of operation, and the process stabilizes by the 15th year of operation, and further changes in the heat-exchange medium temperature do not any longer significantly affect the temperature of the heat-exchange medium in the heat well. In this case, the exact dependence of the heat-exchange medium temperature drop on the depth is not revealed. Data on the economically expedient heat well depth for the conditions of the Moscow oblast ensuring a net present value for the whole residential building life cycle are presented. It is found that the heat well depth of 60 m can be considered as an endpoint for the Moscow oblast, and a further heat well deepening is economically impractical.

  8. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  9. Constant-current charging supplies for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.E.; Meyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    The APS linac beam energy must be stable to within ±1% to match the energy acceptance of the positron accumulator ring. The klystron pulse modulators must therefore provide a pulse-to-pulse repeatability of 0.1% in order for the beam to have the required energy stability. The modulators have had difficulty achieving the necessary repeatability since the pulse forming network (PFN) charging scheme does not include a deQing circuit. Several of the major charging circuit components are also less reliable than desired. In order to increase operating reliability and to improve pulse-to-pulse stability, it is planned to replace the high voltage power supplies in all modulators with constant-current power supplies. A new modulator charging supply that contains two EMI series 303 constant-current power supplies was constructed. Each of these EMI supplies delivers 1.5 A at up to 40 kV. One supply is sufficient for linac operation at up to 45 Hz, and two supplies in parallel enable linac operation at the nominal rf repetition rate of 60 Hz. This paper discusses test results from the new modulator, and also describes the existing modulators and their performance limitations

  10. Metallic vapor supplying by the electron bombardment for a metallic ion production with an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Muramatsu, Masayuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Jincho, Kaoru; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-11-19

    To produce the metallic ion beam for the injection into the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a new gas supply method has been developed for an 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC). A metallic target rod at a high positive potential is melted by the electron bombardment technique. The evaporated gas with a maximum flow rate of 50A/sec is supplied into the ECR plasma in case of Fe metal. (author)

  11. Metallic vapor supplying by the electron bombardment for a metallic ion production with an ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Jincho, Kaoru; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu

    2001-01-01

    To produce the metallic ion beam for the injection into the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a new gas supply method has been developed for an 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC). A metallic target rod at a high positive potential is melted by the electron bombardment technique. The evaporated gas with a maximum flow rate of 50A/sec is supplied into the ECR plasma in case of Fe metal. (author)

  12. Analyzing Student and Employer Satisfaction with Cooperative Education through Multiple Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuheng Helen; Lee, Sally Wai Yin; Golab, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of three years research of undergraduate cooperative work term postings and employer and employee evaluations. The objective of the analysis was to determine the factors affecting student and employer success and satisfaction with the work-integrated learning experience. It was found that students performed…

  13. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, Marco; Rinaldi, Luigi; Simon, Muriel; Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino; Decamps, Hans; Luchetta, Adriano; Meddour, Abdelraouf; Moressa, Modesto; Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio; Recchia, Mauro; Wagner, Uwe; Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m"2 Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  14. Design, manufacture and factory testing of the Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigi, Marco, E-mail: marco.bigi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Rinaldi, Luigi [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Simon, Muriel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sita, Luca; Taddia, Giuseppe; Carrozza, Saverino [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Decamps, Hans [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Luchetta, Adriano [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Meddour, Abdelraouf [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Moressa, Modesto [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Morri, Cristiano; Musile Tanzi, Antonio [OCEM Energy Technology, Via della Solidarietà 2/1, 40056 Valsamoggia (località Crespellano), Bologna (Italy); Recchia, Mauro [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wagner, Uwe [HIMMELWERK Hoch- und Mittelfrequenzanlagen GmbH, Jopestr. 10, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Zamengo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 5 MVA ion source power supplies effectively integrated in 150 m{sup 2} Faraday cage. • Load protection and performance requirements met of custom design high voltage power supplies. • 200 kW tetrode oscillator with 200 kHz frequency range successfully tested. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment, currently under construction at the Neutral Beam Test Facility in Padua, Italy, is a full-size prototype of the ion source for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors. The Ion Source and Extraction Power Supplies (ISEPS) for SPIDER are supplied by OCEM Energy Technology s.r.l. (OCEM) under a procurement contract with Fusion for Energy (F4E) covering also the units required for MITICA and ITER injectors. The detailed design of SPIDER ISEPS was finalized in 2011 and manufacture of most components completed by end 2013. The Factory Acceptance Tests took place early 2014. ISEPS, with an overall power rating of 5 MVA, form a heterogeneous set of items including solid state power converters and 1 MHz radiofrequency generators of 200 kW output power. The paper presents the main features of the detailed design developed by OCEM, focusing in particular on the high output voltage pulse step modulators, the high output current resonant converters, the radiofrequency generators by HIMMELWERK GmbH and the architecture and implementation of the complex control system. Details are given on non-standard factory tests verifying the insulation requirements specific to this application. Performance of ISEPS during the factory acceptance tests is described, with emphasis on demonstration of the load protection requirements, a crucial point for all neutral beam power supplies. Finally, key dates of SPIDER ISEPS installation and site testing schedule are provided.

  15. Hydrodynamic analysis of the interaction of two operating groundwater sources, case study: Groundwater supply of Bečej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polomčić Dušan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing groundwater source 'Vodokanal' for the public water supply of Bečej city in Serbia tapping groundwater from three water-bearing horizons over 15 wells with summary capacity of 100 l/s. Near the public water source of Bečej exists groundwater source 'Soja Protein' for industry with current capacity of 12 l/s which tapped same horizons. In the coming period is planned to increase summary capacity of this groundwater source up to 57 l/s. Also, the increase of summary city's source capacity is planned for 50 l/s in the next few years. That is means an increase of groundwater abstraction for an additional 84 % from the same water-bearing horizons. Application of hydrodynamic modeling, based on numerical method of finite difference will show the impact of increasing the total capacity of the source 'Soja Protein' on the groundwater level in groundwater source 'Vodokanal' and effects of additional decrease in groundwater levels, in all three water-bearing horizons, on the wells of the 'Vodokanala' groundwater source due to operation of industrial source. It was done 7 variant solutions of the extensions of groundwater sources and are their effects for a period of 10 years with the aim of the sustainable management of groundwater.

  16. Packaging as source of efficient and sustainable advantages in supply chain management. An analysis of briks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus García-Arca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In higher competitive markets, the suitable supply chain management (particularly, in logistic processes and the adoptionof sustainability programs are strategic points in companies. In this context, no many companies have devoted special attentionto the impact of packaging design on logistic efficiency and sustainability.Thus, the integration of logistics and the packaging design has been conceptualized in the term «packaging logistics», par ticularly emphasizing its operational and organizational impact on supply chain performance. Going beyond, authors consider that a greater emphasis should be given to the important strategic connotations to do with packaging design,in many cases this being one of the supports of competitive advantages in the supply chain management from an overall perspective of efficiency and sustainability.To illustrate this statement, in this paper, not only the conceptual field of this concept is developed, but also in its application, analysing a case study in dairy sector, particularly, focused on brik products .

  17. Learning at the workplace and sustainable employability: a multi-source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjan Gorgievski; Annet de Lange; Beatrice van der Heijden

    2015-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning

  18. Learning at the workplace and sustainable employability: A multi-source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Gorgievski, M.J.; Lange, A.H. de

    2016-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning

  19. Learning at the workspace and sustainable employability: a multi source model moderated by age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet de Lange; Beatrice van der Heijden; Marjan Gorgievski

    2015-01-01

    This study, among 330 pairs of employees and their supervisors, tested whether self- versus supervisor ratings of five employability dimensions (occupational expertise, corporate sense, personal flexibility, anticipation and optimization, and balance) are associated with different learning

  20. The impact of dual sourcing on food supply chain networks: the case of Egyptian strawberries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Rijpkema, W.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management for fresh produce differs significantly from that of other products. Similarly to other products, fresh produce quality plays a key role in consumer selection behavior. The key difference consists in the fact that, for fresh produce, quality varies over time and it is

  1. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  2. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat......- and electricity supply of typical urban communities is possible and can be implemented in a cost-efficient way, if the energy planning is done systematically and in coherence with urban planning....

  3. Automatic sup sup 1 sup sup 8 F positron source supply system for a monoenergetic positron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, F; Itoh, Y; Goto, A; Fujiwara, I; Kurihara, T; Iwata, R; Nagashima, Y; Hyodo, T

    2000-01-01

    A system which supplies an intense sup sup 1 sup sup 8 F (half life 110 min) positron source produced by an AVF cyclotron through sup sup 1 sup sup 8 O(p,n) sup sup 1 sup sup 8 F reaction has been constructed. Produced sup sup 1 sup sup 8 F is transferred to a low background experiment hall through a capillary. It is electro-deposited on a graphite rod and used for a source of a slow positron beam. In the meantime the next batch of target sup sup 1 sup sup 8 O water is loaded and proton irradiation proceeds. This system makes it possible to perform continuous positron beam experiments using the 18 F positron source.

  4. On the Development of Fuel-Free Power Supply Sources on Pneumatic Energy Conversion Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E. E.; Nikolaev, V. G.; Kudryashov, Yu. I.; Nikolaev, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the evaluation of capabilities and problems of creation of fuel-free power supply of isolated and autonomous Russian consumers of low (up to several hundreds kW) power based on the joint use of wind power plants and progressive systems of pneumatic accumulation and conversion of energy. The basic and functional schemes and component structure of the system prototype are developed and proposed, the evaluations of the expected technical and economic indicators of system are presented, and the ways of its further practical implementation are planned.

  5. A formal guidance for handling different uncertainty sources employed in the level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    The methodological framework of the level 2 PSA appears to be currently standardized in a formalized fashion, but there have been different opinions on the way the sources of uncertainty are characterized and treated. This is primarily because the level 2 PSA deals with complex phenomenological processes that are deterministic in nature rather than random processes, and there are no probabilistic models characterizing them clearly. As a result, the probabilistic quantification of the level 2 PSA CET/APET is often subjected to two sources of uncertainty: (a) incomplete modeling of accident pathways or different predictions for the behavior of phenomenological events and (b) expert-to-expert variation in estimating the occurrence probability of phenomenological events. While a clear definition of the two sources of uncertainty involved in the level 2 PSA makes it possible to treat an uncertainty in a consistent manner, careless application of these different sources of uncertainty may produce different conclusions in the decision-making process. The primary purpose of this paper is to characterize typical sources of uncertainty that would often be addressed in the level 2 PSA and to provide a formal guidance for quantifying their impacts on the PSA level 2 risk results. An additional purpose of this paper is to give a formal approach on how to combine random uncertainties addressed in the level 1 PSA with subjectivistic uncertainties addressed in the level 2 PSA

  6. Transition to a Source with Modified Physical Parameters by Energy Supply or Using an External Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    A study has been made of the possibility for the physical parameters of a source/sink, i.e., for the enthalpy, temperature, total pressure, maximum velocity, and minimum dimension, at a constant radial Mach number to be changed by energy or force action on the gas in a bounded zone. It has been shown that the parameters can be controlled at a subsonic, supersonic, and transonic (sonic in the limit) radial Mach number. In the updated source/sink, all versions of a vortex-source combination can be implemented: into a vacuum, out of a vacuum, into a submerged space, and out of a submerged space, partially or fully.

  7. A Fuzzy Logic Based Three phase Inverter with Single DC Source for Grid Connected PV System Employing Three Phase Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, venkatesan; Ramachandran, Rajeswari; N, Deverajan

    2016-01-01

    A fuzzy based three phase inverter with single DC source for grid connected photo voltaic (PV) system employing three phase transformer is presented in this paper. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) control scheme is effectively used to generate the appropriate switching sequences to the inverter switches. The intend of the fuzzy logic approach is to meet high quality output, fast response and high robustness. Finally Total Harmonics Distortion (THD) generated by the inverter is comp...

  8. Surface wastewater in Samara and their impact on water basins as water supply sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Shuvalov, Mikhail; Gridneva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives an overview of surface wastewater outlets in Samara through the rainwater sewer system into the Saratov water reservoir and the Samara river. The rainwater sewer system in Samara is designed and executed according to a separate scheme, except for the old part of the city, where surface run-off is dumped into the sewer system through siphoned drain. The rainwater system disposes of surface, drainage, industrial clean-contamined waters, emergency and technology discharges from the city’s heat supply and water supply systems. The effluent discharge is carried out by means of separate wastewater outlets into ravines or directly into the Samara river and the Saratov water reservoir without cleaning. The effluent discharge is carried out through the rainwater sewer system with 17 wastewater outlets into the Saratov water reservoir. In the Samara river, surface runoff drainage and clean-contamined water of industrial enterprises is carried out through 14 wastewater outlets. This study emphasizes the demand to arrange effluent discharge and construction of sewage treatment plants to prevent contamination of water objects by surface run-off from residential areas and industrial territories.

  9. High-Bandwidth, High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking Power Supply for 40W RF Power Amplifier Using Paralleled Bandpass Current Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a high-performance power conversion scheme for power supply applications that require very high output voltage slew rates (dV/dt). The concept is to parallel 2 switching bandpass current sources, each optimized for its passband frequency space and the expected load current....... The principle is demonstrated with a power supply, designed for supplying a 40 W linear RF power amplifier for efficient amplification of a 16-QAM modulated data stream...

  10. GIS Based Distributed Runoff Predictions in Variable Source Area Watersheds Employing the SCS-Curve Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Mendoza, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Gerard Marchant, P.; Walter, M. T.; Schneiderman, E.

    2003-04-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be ubiquitously used in GIS-BASED water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed within an integrated GIS modeling environment a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Spatial representation of hydrologic processes is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point source pollution. The methodology presented here uses the traditional SCS-CN method to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and uses a topographic index to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was incorporated in an existing GWLF water quality model and applied to sub-watersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. We found that the distributed CN-VSA approach provided a physically-based method that gives realistic results for watersheds with VSA hydrology.

  11. Multivariate Analysis of the Effect of Source of Supply and Carrier on Processing and Shipping Times for Issue Priority Group One Requisitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sagara, Gavan M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of source of supply and carrier on the delivery times of high-priority requisitions to primary destinations of Navy, Military Sealift Command, USMC ground forces, and select U.S...

  12. 78 FR 80376 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Prioritizing Sources of Supplies and Services for Use by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... disadvantaged business (including 8(a) participants), and women-owned small business concerns. Use of these... to using certain existing non-mandatory sources to leverage agency buying power and achieve..., there is no need to conduct additional economic impact analysis and other research called for by the...

  13. All solid state high voltage power supply for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual design of a high frequency solid state, high power, high voltage, power system that reacts fast enough to be compatible with the requirements of a neutral beam source is presented. The system offers the potential of significant advantages over conventional power line frequency systems; such as high reliability, long life, relatively little maintenance requirements, compact size and modular design

  14. Comparing Four Sourcing Scenarios in a Two-echelon Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Mohsen Sheikh; Thorstenson, Anders; Akbari Jokar, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    is to minimize the total system costs incurred by the buyer and the vendor(s). A major finding is that determining the best strategy among those considered requires a detailed analysis in each case. Furhtermore, when the total system costs are taken into account, dual sourcing may not be as beneficial...

  15. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  16. Electric power supply and the influence of changes on renewable sources' utilisation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    2000-01-01

    Changes expected to occur at the electricity market min the Republic of Croatia will have a considerable influence on the development of renewable sources and on the interest in the rationalisation of electricity consumption. If this area and its significance within the total, not only energy-related but also social relations, is stimulated by the law, the influence will be a positive one. Post-liberalisation experience of developed European countries presented in this paper implies arising problems, which can be partly avoided by means of anticipated legislative alternations. Special attention is paid to the possibility of introducing additional work places through a new market approachz, renewable sources' utilisation and consumption rationalisation. (author)

  17. Foreign ownership of, influence on, and control of domestic energy sources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    The report is divided into six sections: (1) Introduction; (2) The petroleum and natural gas industries; (3) The coal industry; (4) The nuclear fuel cycle; (5) Alternate energy sources; (6) U.S. policies regarding foreign investment. Appendix A lists parent companies, U.S. subsidiaries, percentage of ownership or type of investment in petroleum, natural gas, coal, uranium, and alternative fuels and types of activity. Appendix B contains a summary of 1974 and 1975 U.S. energy statistics

  18. Operational techniques employed for the liquid sodium source term control loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulos, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Four Source Term Control Loops (STCLs) have been designed, constructed, and placed into operation at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) as part of the Radioactivity Control Technology program. The data obtained are used to determine the corrosion and deposition of LMFBR materials, including corrosion product radionuclides, in a non-isothermal flowing sodium system. The paper discusses operation of the STCL Facilities and, in particular, the methods used for controlling the oxygen content of the liquid sodium. These methods include cold trapping techniques, hot trapping, seeding the cold traps with sodium oxide, and precipitating the oxygen in the cold trap in a controlled manner. Operational problems encountered with the STCL Facilities and the techniques for correcting these problems are also discussed

  19. A review of output-only structural mode identification literature employing blind source separation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, A.; Narasimhan, S.; Antoni, J.

    2017-09-01

    Output-only modal identification has seen significant activity in recent years, especially in large-scale structures where controlled input force generation is often difficult to achieve. This has led to the development of new system identification methods which do not require controlled input. They often work satisfactorily if they satisfy some general assumptions - not overly restrictive - regarding the stochasticity of the input. Hundreds of papers covering a wide range of applications appear every year related to the extraction of modal properties from output measurement data in more than two dozen mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering journals. In little more than a decade, concepts of blind source separation (BSS) from the field of acoustic signal processing have been adopted by several researchers and shown that they can be attractive tools to undertake output-only modal identification. Originally intended to separate distinct audio sources from a mixture of recordings, mathematical equivalence to problems in linear structural dynamics have since been firmly established. This has enabled many of the developments in the field of BSS to be modified and applied to output-only modal identification problems. This paper reviews over hundred articles related to the application of BSS and their variants to output-only modal identification. The main contribution of the paper is to present a literature review of the papers which have appeared on the subject. While a brief treatment of the basic ideas are presented where relevant, a comprehensive and critical explanation of their contents is not attempted. Specific issues related to output-only modal identification and the relative advantages and limitations of BSS methods both from theoretical and application standpoints are discussed. Gap areas requiring additional work are also summarized and the paper concludes with possible future trends in this area.

  20. Single Source Applicability Determination for Environmental Wood Supply, LLC and District Energy St. Paul, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Research on supplying potential of uranium source from rocks in western provenance area of Hailaer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Liu Hanbin; Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing

    2006-01-01

    Using U-Pb isotope composition evolution, this paper expounds the initial uranium content in volcanic rocks of provenance area of Xihulitu basin and in granites of provenance area of Kelulun sag, western Hailaer basin. The initial uranium content (U 0 ) in volcanic rocks of provenance area is higher, the average initial uranium content of volcanic rocks is 10.061 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -49.57%; the average initial uranium content of granites is 18.381 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -80%. The results indicate that rocks in provenance area could provide the pre-enrichment of uranium in deposited sandstone. U-Ra equilibrium coefficients of rocks indicate that there is obvious U-Ra disequilibrium phenomenon in volcanic rocks, and the time when granites provided uranium source occurred 16000 a ago. (authors)

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

    2006-04-01

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic

  3. Nitrate Sources, Supply, and Phytoplankton Growth in the Great Australian Bight: An Eulerian-Lagrangian Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; van Sebille, Erik; Matear, Richard J.; Roughan, Moninya

    2018-02-01

    The Great Australian Bight (GAB), a coastal sea bordered by the Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans, sustains one of the largest fisheries in Australia but the geographical origin of nutrients that maintain its productivity is not fully known. We use 12 years of modeled data from a coupled hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model and an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to quantify nitrate supply to the GAB and the region between the GAB and the Subantarctic Australian Front (GAB-SAFn), identify phytoplankton growth within the GAB, and ascertain the source of nitrate that fuels it. We find that nitrate concentrations have a decorrelation timescale of ˜60 days; since most of the water from surrounding oceans takes longer than 60 days to reach the GAB, 23% and 75% of nitrate used by phytoplankton to grow are sourced within the GAB and from the GAB-SAFn, respectively. Thus, most of the nitrate is recycled locally. Although nitrate concentrations and fluxes into the GAB are greater below 100 m than above, 79% of the nitrate fueling phytoplankton growth is sourced from above 100 m. Our findings suggest that topographical uplift and stratification erosion are key mechanisms delivering nutrients from below the nutricline into the euphotic zone and triggering large phytoplankton growth. We find annual and semiannual periodicities in phytoplankton growth, peaking in the austral spring and autumn when the mixed layer deepens leading to a subsurface maximum of phytoplankton growth. This study highlights the importance of examining phytoplankton growth at depth and the utility of Lagrangian approaches.

  4. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  5. The role of the supply chain executive in supply chain integration: a behavioral approach

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA REVILLA; LUIS GOMEZ - MEJIA

    2008-01-01

    Applying a behavioural approach of agency theory, this paper aimed to identify the most appropriate employment and compensation system (ECS) for supply chain executives in order to foster supply chain integration. We attempted to develop a novel approach of how encourages supply chain integration from the perspective of managerial incentives, an enabler that has not been analyzed in the literature. The paper presents the analysis of three sources of risk bearing - compensation risk, employmen...

  6. California GAMA Special Study: An isotopic and dissolved gas investigation of nitrate source and transport to a public supply well in California's Central Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K; Roberts, S K; Hillegonds, D J

    2010-04-14

    This study investigates nitrate contamination of a deep municipal drinking water production well in Ripon, CA to demonstrate the utility of natural groundwater tracers in constraining the sources and transport of nitrate to deep aquifers in the Central Valley. The goal of the study was to investigate the origin (source) of elevated nitrate and the potential for the deep aquifer to attenuate anthropogenic nitrate. The site is ideal for such an investigation. The production well is screened from 165-325 feet below ground surface and a number of nearby shallow and deep monitoring wells were available for sampling. Furthermore, potential sources of nitrate contamination to the well had been identified, including a fertilizer supply plant located approximately 1000 feet to the east and local almond groves. A variety of natural isotopic and dissolved gas tracers including {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He groundwater age and the isotopic composition of nitrate are applied to identify nitrate sources and to characterize nitrate transport. An advanced method for sampling production wells is employed to help identify contaminant contributions from specific screen intervals. Nitrate transport: Groundwater nitrate at this field site is not being actively denitrified. Groundwater parameters indicate oxic conditions, the dissolved gas data shows no evidence for excess nitrogen as the result of denitrification, and nitrate-N and -O isotope compositions do not display patterns typical of denitrification. Contaminant nitrate source: The ambient nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater at the Ripon site ({approx}12 mg/L as nitrate) is typical of shallow groundwaters affected by recharge from agricultural and urban areas. Nitrate concentrations in Ripon City Well 12 (50-58 mg/L as nitrate) are significantly higher than these ambient concentrations, indicating an additional source of anthropogenic nitrate is affecting groundwater in the capture zone of this municipal drinking water well. This

  7. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  8. Quasielastic high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometers employing multi-disk chopper cascades for spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of multi-disk chopper time-of-flight (MTOF) spectrometers for high-resolution quasielastic and low-energy inelastic neutron scattering at spallation sources is discussed in some detail. A continuously variable energy resolution (1 μeV to 10 meV), and a large dynamic range (1 μeV to 100 meV), are outstanding features of this type of instrument, which are easily achieved also at a pulsed source using state-of-the-art technology. The method of intensity-resolution optimization of MTOF spectrometers at spallation sources is treated on the basis of the requirement of using (almost) 'all the neutrons of the pulse', taking into account the constant, but wavelength-dependent duration of the source pulse. It follows, that the optimization procedure (which is slightly different from that employed in the steady-state source case) should give priority to the highest resolution, whenever such a choice becomes necessary. This leads to long monochromator distances (L l2 ) of the order of 50 m, for achieving resolutions now available at reactor sources. A few examples of spectrometer layout and corresponding design parameters for large-angle and for small-angle quasielastic scattering instruments are given. In the latter case higher energy resolution than for large-angle scattering is required and achieved. The use of phase-space transformers, neutron wavelength band-pass filters and multichromatic operation for the purpose of intensity-resolution optimization are discussed. This spectrometer can be designed to make full use of the pulsed source peak flux. Therefore, and because of a number of improvements, high resolution will be available at high intensity: for any given resolution the total intensity at the detectors, when placed at one of the planned new spallation sources (SNS, JSNS, ESS, AUSTRON) will be larger by at least three orders of magnitude than the total intensity of any of the presently existing instruments of this type in routine operation at steady

  9. Nitrogen-source preference in blueberry (Vaccinium sp.): Enhanced shoot nitrogen assimilation in response to direct supply of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Douglas S; Doyle, John W; Malladi, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) is thought to display a preference for the ammonium (NH 4 + ) form over the nitrate (NO 3 - ) form of inorganic nitrogen (N). This N-source preference has been associated with a generally low capacity to assimilate the NO 3 - form of N, especially within the shoot tissues. Nitrate assimilation is mediated by nitrate reductase (NR), a rate limiting enzyme that converts NO 3 - to nitrite (NO 2 - ). We investigated potential limitations of NO 3 - assimilation in two blueberry species, rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei) and southern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) by supplying NO 3 - to the roots, leaf surface, or through the cut stem. Both species displayed relatively low but similar root uptake rates for both forms of inorganic N. Nitrate uptake through the roots transiently increased NR activity by up to 3.3-fold and root NR gene expression by up to 4-fold. However, supplying NO 3 - to the roots did not increase its transport in the xylem, nor did it increase NR activity in the leaves, indicating that the acquired N was largely assimilated or stored within the roots. Foliar application of NO 3 - increased leaf NR activity by up to 3.5-fold, but did not alter NO 3 - metabolism-related gene expression, suggesting that blueberries are capable of post translational regulation of NR activity in the shoots. Additionally, supplying NO 3 - to the cut ends of stems resulted in around a 5-fold increase in NR activity, a 10-fold increase in NR transcript accumulation, and up to a 195-fold increase in transcript accumulation of NITRITE REDUCTASE (NiR1) which codes for the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of NO 2 - to NH 4 + . These data indicate that blueberry shoots are capable of assimilating NO 3 - when it is directly supplied to these tissues. Together, these data suggest that limitations in the uptake and translocation of NO 3 - to the shoots may limit overall NO 3 - assimilation capacity in blueberry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. A model for reliability avaliation of the electrical supply source of the 1A3 and 1A4 control rods assemblies of Angra I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of the electrical power supply to the 4.16KV buses for the safety system operation of a nuclear power plant was studied. Particularly, Angra Unit I system was focused. Initially, reliability of each electrical supply source was estimated. Using a probabilistic approach based on the Markov processes, the system reliability was evaluated in terms of frequency and duration of loss of power supply and of the system failure probability evolution when one or more sources remained unavailable. Based on these results, certain reactor operating rules were proposed concerning later shutdown of the plant without compromising the nuclear reactor safety. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to show the different reliability parameter influences on final results. This analysis showed that the diesel system performs an important role in the power supply for a nuclear power plant [pt

  11. An experimental study on defrosting heat supplies and energy consumptions during a reverse cycle defrost operation for an air source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jiankai; Deng Shiming; Jiang Yiqiang; Xia Liang; Yao Yang

    2012-01-01

    For a space heating air source heat pump (ASHP) unit, when its outdoor coil surface temperature is below both the air dew point temperature and the freezing point of water, frost will form on its outdoor coil surface. Frosting affects its operational performance and energy efficiency. Therefore, periodic defrosting is necessary. Currently, the most widely used standard defrosting method for ASHP units is reverse cycle defrost. The energy that should have been used for space heating is used to melt frost, vaporize the melted frost off outdoor coil surface and heat ambient air during defrosting. It is therefore necessary to study the sources of heat supplies and the end-uses of the heat supplied during a reverse cycle defrost operation. In this paper, firstly, an experimental setup is described and experimental procedures are detailed. This is followed by reporting the experimental results and the evaluation of defrosting efficiency for the experimental ASHP unit. Finally, an evaluation of defrosting heat supplies and energy consumptions during a revere cycle defrost operation for the experimental ASHP unit is presented. The experimental and evaluation results indicated that the heat supply from indoor air contributed to 71.8% of the total heat supplied for defrosting and 59.4% of the supplied energy was used for melting frost. The maximum defrosting efficiency could be up to 60.1%. - Highlights: ► Heat supply and consumption during reverse cycle defrost was experimentally studied. ► Indoor air contributed to >70% of total heat supply when indoor fan was turned on. ► ∼60% of the supplied energy was used for melting frost. ► Alternate heat supply other than indoor air should be explored.

  12. The evolution of Tibetan representation and preferentiality in public employment during the Post-fenpei period in China: Insights from new data sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín); A. Zenz (Adrian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper exploits a new and exciting source of data on public employment recruitment in order to analyse the evolution of Tibetan representation and preferential hiring practices in public employment in all Tibetan areas from 2007 to 2015. Despite the limitations of these data, they

  13. Monitoring the size and protagonists of the drug market: combining supply and demand data sources and estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The size of the illicit drug market is an important indicator to assess the impact on society of an important part of the illegal economy and to evaluate drug policy and law enforcement interventions. The extent of illicit drug use and of the drug market can essentially only be estimated by indirect methods based on indirect measures and on data from various sources, as administrative data sets and surveys. The combined use of several methodologies and data sets allows to reduce biases and inaccuracies of estimates obtained on the basis of each of them separately. This approach has been applied to Italian data. The estimation methods applied are capture-recapture methods with latent heterogeneity and multiplier methods. Several data sets have been used, both administrative and survey data sets. First, the retail dealer prevalence has been estimated on the basis of administrative data, then the user prevalence by multiplier methods. Using information about behaviour of dealers and consumers from survey data, the average amount of a substance used or sold and the average unit cost have been estimated and allow estimating the size of the drug market. The estimates have been obtained using a supply-side approach and a demand-side approach and have been compared. These results are in turn used for estimating the interception rate for the different substances in term of the value of the substance seized with respect to the total value of the substance to be sold at retail prices.

  14. Towards ethical and sustainable supply chains: Promoting decent ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Towards ethical and sustainable supply chains: Promoting decent work for homeworkers in South Asia. Global supply chains are an engine of economic growth and job creation for many countries in South Asia. However, they can also be sources of inequality and social exclusion in the absence of sound employment ...

  15. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  16. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech; Hajslova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  17. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hajslova, Jana, E-mail: jana.hajslova@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-10

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  18. Edible wild mushroom tourism as a source of income and employment in rural areas. The case of Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos Madrazo, P. de; Martinez Pena, F.; Esteban Laleona, S.

    2012-11-01

    Edible wild mushroom picking is becoming an important source of income in rural areas. The wide range of activities which add value to mycological production (initial sale, transformation, marketing, etc.) include those related to tourism which can attract visitors to mushroom producing areas, leading to so-called mycological tourism. To date, no research exists quantifying the importance thereof in rural areas endowed with such resources. The present research provides the first model to estimate this activity contribution to the economy of rural areas in the region of Castilla y Leon. The main finding to emerge evidences a close link between influx of visitors, who come principally to pick, and mycological productivity in the region. Based on this relation, we estimate four key variables to determine the impact which said activity has on the regional economy as a whole: the number of overnight stays and trips made by mycological tourists, as well as associated expenditure and employment created. Findings underscore the importance of this activity in the regional tourism industry and point to its significance as a major market niche, particularly during the hotel low season. The need for public administrators to implement a related management policy is also inferred. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. Structural change of the mining components supplying industry, and innovative employment and qualification policies. A special study prepared on behalf of IKS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.

    1992-01-01

    The potentials and deficiencies of the mining components supplying industry are assessed by means of an industry study. Development prospects are derived for the mining sector. While individual solutions are neglected, methods which support the mining companies' efforts at diversifying and at opening up new markets are discussed placing emphasis on a sociocompatible implementation of the inevitable structural change and on the maintenance of a qualified industrial basis in communities dominated by the mining components supplying industry. The possibilities of cooperation between the companies are discussed, and conceivable future prospects are derived for the mining sector. (HS) [de

  20. Monitoring of Hazardous Inorganic Pollutants and Heavy Metals in Potable Water at the Source of Supply and Consumers end of a Tropical Urban Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A. B.; Singh, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    River water is not only an indispensable source for irrigation but also plays a vital role for drinking water supply for most of the urban municipalities. Water from rivers is pumped at specific sites and after treatment at municipal water treatment plants supplied as domestic potable water supply. The present study was undertaken to assess the suitability of Gomti river water at Gaughat being used as the source of water supply for Lucknow city and to evaluate post-treatment potable water quality at the consumer end by monitoring the levels of inorganic pollutants (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate) and heavy metals. Municipal water supply at Gaughat showed marked variations in the levels of p H (7.13-8.63) and electrical conductivity (375.66-571.67μS/cm). The amount of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate was observed 26.25, 0.082, 6.9 and 1.82 mg/l respectively at Gaughat. Also, the levels of heavy metals in the municipal water source at Gaughat varied significantly for Fe (0.33-1.65 mg/l), Cu (0.077-0.108 mg/l), Cd (0.03-0.052 mg/l), Pb (0.68-0.96 mg/l) and Cr (0.036-0.065 mg/l). Water at the user end was also contaminated as the concentration of analysed inorganic pollutants and heavy metals were correspondingly higher than observed at the source. While comparing potable water at the user end of Lucknow municipality with the BIS (Drinking Water Specifications) and WHO standards for drinking water, the concentration of all studied heavy metals and other inorganic contaminants were much above the permissible levels, thus posing a serious threat to the public health.

  1. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  2. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-06-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  3. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  4. The geopolitics of natural gas. The countries bordering the Caspian viewed as new sources of supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Caspian region could constitute an additional source of supply of natural gas for Europe, in addition to the imports currently obtained from Northern Europe (Norway) North-Eastern Europe (North Russia) and from the South (Algeria and Libya). Although the producer nations concerned, (Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Iran), have expressed a wish to export their gas to Europe, the means of getting this gas to the end-destination are not yet in place and certain geopolitical factors will have an influence when it comes to investment in infrastructure and transportation contracts. The disagreements concerning the status of the Caspian Sea, something which has been argued over since the independence gained by the republics of the former Soviet Union, has created a climate which is not particularly favourable to multilateral agreements, and makes it highly unlikely that Turkmenistan will be able to export its gas to Europe via Azerbaijan, without passing via Russia. The most likely scenario is that Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan will remain within Russia's orbit, with the latter creating a common market for gas also including the Ukraine and Belarus. For European buyers, purchasing gas in Turkmenistan actually means buying the gas in Russia, which will give Russia increasing negotiating power vis-a-vis Europe. Iran also has ambitions to export gas to Europe, and should gradually manage this despite the slow pace of political and industrial processes. The key problem for Iran will be reaching an agreement with Turkey in order to be able to sell its gas to Europe under satisfactory conditions. It should be possible to export Azeri gas to Europe thanks to a gas pipeline running alongside the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline which is currently under construction. As a result, Azerbaijan is gradually continuing with its process of emancipation from Russia and turning directly towards Turkey and Europe. Turkey should become a key country for the transportation of gas from

  5. Planning method for integration and expansion of renewable energy sources with special attention to security supply in distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Arias, Jose Luis

    2012-07-01

    Today's structure of power systems with competitive wholesale markets for electricity encourages the introduction of new agents and products, customers with self-generating capacity and the specialization of generators, network operators and power suppliers. Furthermore one has to take into account the variation of the fossil fuel prices in the world market, which even anticipates the closeness of its scarcity, the instability of the fulfilment of contracts, and the existence of import restrictions. In addition the implementation of policies aiming to control CO{sub 2} emissions, and efficient use of energy plus the advent of more efficient technologies have to be incorporated in new network expansion projects. These are forcing utilities and society to seek new forms of electric system expansion without affecting their economic growth. This expresses a challenge to sustain such a growth changing the vision for the power system and the required security of electricity supply, usually based on internal factors of the electric sector, without considering the connection between the current transmission and distribution networks, the uncertainties related to the competition in the electricity market and the effect of distributed generation units. The high penetration of distributed generation resources, based on renewable energy sources, is increasingly observed worldwide and it depends on the cost of the technologies, market design, and subsidies. On that account, it is necessary to find alternatives and offers to develop a sustainable strategic plan for power system expansion. Currently, efforts are oriented to develop planning models which consider the income of power generation based on renewable energy sources founded on these new requirements, bearing in mind the relationship between the competitive markets and the power system planning. In this Thesis a general planning method for the expansion of the power grids is proposed. This planning method should

  6. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  7. Advantages of geosynchronous solar power satellites for terrestrial base-load electrical supply compared to other renewable energy sources - or why civilization needs solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.K. Jr. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The arguments in favour of using solar power satellites for primary base-load electrical supply are presented and compared with the advantages and drawbacks of other renewable energy sources, especially ground solar and wind systems. Popular misconceptions about energy use and the importation of space solar energy to the Earth`s surface are examined and discounted. Finally an optimal mix of space solar (focusing on geosynchronous solar power satellites), ground solar, and other energy sources is described which, it is argued, would be capable to meet future global energy demand. (UK)

  8. Brushless DC motor drives supplied by PV power system based on Z-source inverter and FL-IC MPPT controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari Niapour, S.A.KH.; Danyali, S.; Sharifian, M.B.B.; Feyzi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Employing the BLDC motor in water pumping systems. → Utilizing the ZSI as a single-stage power converter in the PV water pumping systems based on BLDC motor. → Improvement of the conventional IC MPPT method with the fuzzy logic control scheme to save more energy from the PV array. → Taking the advantages of the DTC drive of the BLDC motor. → Optimizing the water pumping system speed response characteristic by PSO. - Abstract: This paper discusses operation performance of a water pumping system consist of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor coupled a centrifugal pump and accompanying a Z-source inverter (ZSI) fed by a photovoltaic (PV) array, to be improved. Despite conventional double-stage power converters, this paper proposes utilizing a single-stage ZSI to extract the maximum power of the PV array and supply the BLDC motor simultaneously. Utilizing the ZSI provides some inherent advantages such as high efficiency and low cost, which is very promising for PV systems due to its novel voltage buck/boost capability. In addition, in order to precisely perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV array the fuzzy logic-incremental conductance (FL-IC) MPPT scheme is proposed. The proposed FL-IC MPPT scheme provides enough modification to the conventional IC method to enjoy an appropriate variable step size MPPT control signal for the ZSI. Moreover, direct torque control (DTC) is found more effective in comparison with hysteresis current control with current shaping to drive the BLDC motor, because it benefits from faster torque response, reduced torque ripple, less sensitivity to parameters variations, and simple implementation. In the mean time, due to the frequently variations of the PV power generation; delivered mechanical power to the centrifugal pump is variable. Thus, the BLDC motor should be driven with variable reference speed. In order to improve the speed transient response of the BLDC motor and enhance the energy saving aspect of

  9. On the legal nature of electricity supply contracts concluded by electricity companies and power stations generating electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Section 2 of the German Act for enhanced use of electricity from renewable energy sources (StEG) defines the obligation to contract but not the contractual obligations, i.e. the conditions of performance of the contract (supply and purchase of electricity and the legal obligations of contractors). The analysis here shows that characterising this mandatory contract required by the act as an agreement of purchase and sale more appropriately describes the legal nature of the contract and the intent of the legislator than other contracts for supply and purchase of electricity, as for instance those concluded by electric utilities and their customers. One specific aspect elaborated by the author is that the StEG does not constitute an obligation to supply on the part of the renewable energy generating power station, so that the power station operator is not obliged to ensure availability of the electricity at any time or in terms of supplies that can be called off by the purchasing utility, whereas the electric utility is obliged by section 2 of the StEG to purchase the contractual amounts from the generating station. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Open Source Software Development Experiences on the Students' Resumes: Do They Count?--Insights from the Employers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ju

    2009-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) is a major force in today's Information Technology (IT) landscape. Companies are increasingly using OSS in mission-critical applications. The transparency of the OSS technology itself with openly available source codes makes it ideal for students to participate in the OSS project development. OSS can provide unique…

  11. Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reductions in additional costs for inventory management; 50% of the resources used for loading the containers; and an 11.4% increment in the efficiency of operations. In addition, the new planning strategy was also evaluated with either a positive or negative variation of the demand. It should be underscored that the improved scenarios (out of those simulated do not involve investments in facilities or in machinery purchasing.  

  12. When is the liquefaction of coal economic. [Including safe and secure supplies, low interest, multiplier effect of money spent inside the country, employment, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Usually the commercialization of a technology is determined by the economic viability. However, looking at coal conversion we recognize that there is also a strategic factor to be considered. Before entering into what is almost a political debate about the strategic value of coal conversion, let us look at the economic data. Table 2 shows specific cost numbers for coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electricity from coal. When the total cost of the different fuels is calculated with capital charges as would be required by private industry, one would arrive at indeed high figures, high compared to the present day cost of liquid energy. However, in the capital intensive electricity industry, capital can be accounted for on a capital charge basis of 7 to 17%. If this type of soft financing is applied to coal, coal liquids and coal gas, the figures already become much more attractive. Money internally spent within a country will turnover a few times. This is described by economists as the effect of the multiplier. To even further improve the prospects of home-made liquids one can add the value of avoiding unemployment. A labor intensive industry like the coal gasification and liquefaction industry may give a boost to the number of jobs and as a result have even another additional value to the country involved. Such an analysis leads to the conclusion that coal gasification and liquefaction could develop as a utility type industry under rather tight Government control. This has its strategic advantages with respect to stability and security of supply. On the other hand it may discourage private industry from getting involved in this business. Much will therefore depend on the political decision making process and that maybe is one of the biggest unknowns left in answer to the question when coal conversion will become of economic significance.

  13. Temperature Stabilized Characterization of High Voltage Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Krarup, Ole

    2017-01-01

    High precision measurements of the masses of nuclear ions in the ISOLTRAP experiment relies on an MR-ToF. A major source of noise and drift is the instability of the high voltage power supplies employed. Electrical noise and temperature changes can broaden peaks in time-of-flight spectra and shift the position of peaks between runs. In this report we investigate how the noise and drift of high-voltage power supplies can be characterized. Results indicate that analog power supplies generally have better relative stability than digitally controlled ones, and that the high temperature coefficients of all power supplies merit efforts to stabilize them.

  14. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  15. Use of sediment source fingerprinting to assess the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment in a degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Rowntree, Kate; Kakembo, Vincent; Foster, Ian; Collins, Adrian L

    2017-06-01

    Sediment source fingerprinting has been successfully deployed to provide information on the surface and subsurface sources of sediment in many catchments around the world. However, there is still scope to re-examine some of the major assumptions of the technique with reference to the number of fingerprint properties used in the model, the number of model iterations and the potential uncertainties of using more than one sediment core collected from the same floodplain sink. We investigated the role of subsurface erosion in the supply of fine sediment to two sediment cores collected from a floodplain in a small degraded catchment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The results showed that increasing the number of individual fingerprint properties in the composite signature did not improve the model goodness-of-fit. This is still a much debated issue in sediment source fingerprinting. To test the goodness-of-fit further, the number of model repeat iterations was increased from 5000 to 30,000. However, this did not reduce uncertainty ranges in modelled source proportions nor improve the model goodness-of-fit. The estimated sediment source contributions were not consistent with the available published data on erosion processes in the study catchment. The temporal pattern of sediment source contributions predicted for the two sediment cores was very different despite the cores being collected in close proximity from the same floodplain. This highlights some of the potential limitations associated with using floodplain cores to reconstruct catchment erosion processes and associated sediment source contributions. For the source tracing approach in general, the findings here suggest the need for further investigations into uncertainties related to the number of fingerprint properties included in un-mixing models. The findings support the current widespread use of ≤5000 model repeat iterations for estimating the key sources of sediment samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  16. Water Supply: Management of Water Sources in the City of San Luis Potosí (México, 1831-1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuritzi Hernández Fuentes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach about the management of water sources, hydraulic systems and the measures taken by the city government of San Luis Potosí (México concerning the need of water supply during the years 1831 to 1886. This paper examines two important projects on water management in the city: the aqueduct of La Cañada del Lobo and the policies taken by the authorities on waterways through La Corriente. Both projects faced several problems, including the outbreak of illnesses associated with bodies of water and shortage of liquid flow through the aqueduct of La Cañada del Lobo.

  17. Tracing melioidosis back to the source: using whole-genome sequencing to investigate an outbreak originating from a contaminated domestic water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobb, Evan; Sarovich, Derek S; Price, Erin P; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Keim, Paul; Currie, Bart J

    2015-04-01

    Melioidosis, a disease of public health importance in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, is caused by the Gram-negative soil bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is typically acquired through environmental exposure, and case clusters are rare, even in regions where the disease is endemic. B. pseudomallei is classed as a tier 1 select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; from a biodefense perspective, source attribution is vital in an outbreak scenario to rule out a deliberate release. Two cases of melioidosis within a 3-month period at a residence in rural northern Australia prompted an investigation to determine the source of exposure. B. pseudomallei isolates from the property's groundwater supply matched the multilocus sequence type of the clinical isolates. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed the water supply as the probable source of infection in both cases, with the clinical isolates differing from the likely infecting environmental strain by just one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) each. For the first time, we report a phylogenetic analysis of genomewide insertion/deletion (indel) data, an approach conventionally viewed as problematic due to high mutation rates and homoplasy. Our whole-genome indel analysis was concordant with the SNP phylogeny, and these two combined data sets provided greater resolution and a better fit with our epidemiological chronology of events. Collectively, this investigation represents a highly accurate account of source attribution in a melioidosis outbreak and gives further insight into a frequently overlooked reservoir of B. pseudomallei. Our methods and findings have important implications for outbreak source tracing of this bacterium and other highly recombinogenic pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Microbial ecology of Campylobacter jejuni in a United Kingdom chicken supply chain: intermittent common source, vertical transmission, and amplification by flock propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A D; Greenwood, M H; Feltham, R K; Healing, T D; Donaldson, J; Jones, D M; Colwell, R R

    1996-12-01

    A study of Campylobacter jejuni on a broiler chicken farm between 1989 and 1994 gave an estimated isolation rate of 27% (3,304 of 12,233) from a 0.9% sample of 1.44 million broiler chickens from six to eight sheds over 32 consecutive rearing flocks comprising 251 broiler shed flocks. During the study, C. jejuni was found in 35.5% of the 251 shed flocks but only 9.2% (23 of 251) had Campylobacter isolates in successive flocks, with 9 of those 23 sheds having the same serotype between consecutive flocks, indicating a low level of transmission between flocks. Analysis of a systematic sample of 484 of 3,304 (14.6%) C. jejuni isolates showed that 85% were of 10 serotype complexes but 58% were of 3 serotype complexes, indicating a high degree of strain similarity throughout the entire study. The three commonest types were detected in 8 of 32 flocks during the 5-year study period, suggesting an intermittent common external Campylobacter source. This hypothesis was tested by a retrospective cohort analysis of C. jejuni rates and types by reference to hatchery supplier of the 1-day-old chicks. Isolation rates of C. jejuni and frequency distribution of types were determined in 6-week-old broiler chickens identified by the hatchery supplying the original chicks. The isolation rate of C. jejuni in broilers, supplied by hatchery A, was 17.6%, compared to 42.9% (P hatchery B. In two instances, when both hatcheries were used to stock the same farm flock, Campylobacter isolates were found only in those sheds with chicks supplied by hatchery B. Thus, the frequency distribution of Campylobacter types for chickens supplied by the two hatcheries over the 5-year period showed marked dissimilarity. These findings suggest that the isolation rate and type of Campylobacter isolates in broiler chickens was associated with the hatchery supplying chicks. The lack of diversity of types and the intermittent high positivity of sheds is evidence for a common source of C. jejuni introduced by

  19. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  20. 48 CFR 6.302-1 - Only one responsible source and no other supplies or services will satisfy agency requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... innovative concept (see definition at 2.101), or, demonstrates a unique capability of the source to provide the particular research services proposed; (B) Offers a concept or services not otherwise available to... contract is for construction of a part of a utility system and the utility company itself is the only...

  1. Torque harmonics of an asynchronous motor supplied by a voltage- or current-sourced inverter quasi-square operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Voltage- and current-sourced dc-ac converters operating in quasi-square area are compared. Their characteristics are calculated with switching vector, which is space-vector of switching functions. When the load is an asynchronous motor various analytical equations, including torque, are calculated efficiently. Motor current and torque approximations are compared with the simulated ones. (orig.) 6 refs.

  2. Expert and crowd-sourced validation of an individualized sleep spindle detection method employing complex demodulation and individualized normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eRay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A spindle detection method was developed that: 1 extracts the signal of interest (i.e., spindle-related phasic changes in sigma relative to ongoing background sigma activity using complex demodulation, 2 accounts for variations of spindle characteristics across the night, scalp derivations and between individuals, and 3 employs a minimum number of sometimes arbitrary, user-defined parameters. Complex demodulation was used to extract instantaneous power in the spindle band. To account for intra- and inter-individual differences, the signal was z-score transformed using a 60s sliding window, per channel, over the course of the recording. Spindle events were detected with a z-score threshold corresponding to a low probability (e.g., 99th percentile. Spindle characteristics, such as amplitude, duration and oscillatory frequency, were derived for each individual spindle following detection, which permits spindles to be subsequently and flexibly categorized as slow or fast spindles from a single detection pass. Spindles were automatically detected in 15 young healthy subjects. Two experts manually identified spindles from C3 during Stage 2 sleep, from each recording; one employing conventional guidelines, and the other, identifying spindles with the aid of a sigma (11-16 Hz filtered channel. These spindles were then compared between raters and to the automated detection to identify the presence of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. This method of automated spindle detection resolves or avoids many of the limitations that complicate automated spindle detection, and performs well compared to a group of non-experts, and importantly, has good external validity with respect to the extant literature in terms of the characteristics of automatically detected spindles.

  3. High flux, beamed neutron sources employing deuteron-rich ion beams from D2O-ice layered targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Krygier, A. G.; Ahmed, H.; Morrison, J. T.; Clarke, R. J.; Fuchs, J.; Green, A.; Green, J. S.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Notley, M.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Kar, S.

    2017-06-01

    A forwardly-peaked bright neutron source was produced using a laser-driven, deuteron-rich ion beam in a pitcher-catcher scenario. A proton-free ion source was produced via target normal sheath acceleration from Au foils having a thin layer of D2O ice at the rear side, irradiated by sub-petawatt laser pulses (˜200 J, ˜750 fs) at peak intensity ˜ 2× {10}20 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The neutrons were preferentially produced in a beam of ˜70° FWHM cone along the ion beam forward direction, with maximum energy up to ˜40 MeV and a peak flux along the axis ˜ 2× {10}9 {{n}} {{sr}}-1 for neutron energy above 2.5 MeV. The experimental data is in good agreement with the simulations carried out for the d(d,n)3He reaction using the deuteron beam produced by the ice-layered target.

  4. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 ...

  5. Analysis of the United States Marine Corps Utilization of Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services as a Source of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    initiatives. However, this alignment is difficult within the DoD because “most incentives and motivations are not apparent for either government or industry ...p. 84). 12 Doane and Spencer (1997) stated that industry incentives and motivation seem to be based on the same profit and loss theories that were...clothing and eyewear , plasma televisions, lawn equipment, and so forth. These items could potentially be sourced from DDS on a free-issue basis

  6. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. III. The Reddest Extended Sources in WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Wright, Jason T.; Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Sigurđsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    Nearby Type iii (galaxy-spanning) Kardashev supercivilizations would have high mid-infrared (MIR) luminosities. We have used the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to survey ∼ 1× {{10}5} galaxies for extreme MIR emission, 1 × 103 times more galaxies than the only previous such search. We have calibrated the WISE All-sky Catalog pipeline products to improve their photometry for extended sources. We present 563 extended sources with |b|≥slant 10 and red MIR colors, having visually vetted them to remove artifacts. No galaxies in our sample host an alien civilization reprocessing more than 85% of its starlight into the MIR, and only 50 galaxies, including Arp 220, have MIR luminosities consistent with \\gt 50% reprocessing. Ninety of these (likely) extragalactic sources have little literature presence; in most cases, they are likely barely resolved galaxies or pairs of galaxies undergoing large amounts of star formation. Five are new to science and deserve further study. The Be star 48 Librae sits within a MIR nebula, and we suggest that it may be creating dust. WISE, 2MASS, and Spitzer imagery shows that IRAS 04287+6444 is consistent with a previously unnoticed, heavily extinguished cluster of young stellar objects. We identify five “passive” (i.e., red) spiral galaxies with unusually high MIR and low NUV luminosity. We search a set of H i dark galaxies for MIR emission and find none. These 90 poorly understood sources and 5 anomalous passive spirals deserve follow-up via both SETI and conventional astrophysics.

  7. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  8. Small, mobile, persistent: Trifluoroacetate in the water cycle - Overlooked sources, pathways, and consequences for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Nödler, Karsten; Freeling, Finnian; Janda, Joachim; Happel, Oliver; Riegel, Marcel; Müller, Uwe; Storck, Florian Rüdiger; Fleig, Michael; Lange, Frank Thomas; Brunsch, Andrea; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of trifluoroacetate (TFA) of more than 100 μg/L in a major German river led to the occurrence of more than 20 μg/L TFA in bank filtration based tap waters. Several spatially resolved monitoring programs were conducted and discharges from an industrial company were identified as the point source of TFA contamination. Treatment options for TFA removal were investigated at full-scale waterworks and in laboratory batch tests. Commonly applied techniques like ozonation or granulated activated carbon filtration are inappropriate for TFA removal, whereas TFA was partly removed by ion exchange and completely retained by reverse osmosis. Further investigations identified wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as additional TFA dischargers into the aquatic environment. TFA was neither removed by biological wastewater treatment, nor by a retention soil filter used for the treatment of combined sewer overflows. WWTP influents can even bear a TFA formation potential, when appropriate CF 3 -containing precursors are present. Biological degradation and ozonation batch experiments with chemicals of different classes (flurtamone, fluopyram, tembotrione, flufenacet, fluoxetine, sitagliptine and 4:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate) proved that there are yet overlooked sources and pathways of TFA, which need to be addressed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been an ongoing activity in India since the sixties. Radioisotopes find wide-ranging applications in various fields, including industry, research, agriculture and medicine. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, an industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy is involved in fabrication and supply of wide variety of sealed sources. The main radioisotopes fabricated and supplied by BRIT are Cobalt-60, Iridium-192. These isotopes are employed in industrial and laboratory irradiators, teletherapy machines, radiography exposure devices, nucleonic gauges. The source fabrication facilities of BRIT are located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Project Cobalt-60 Facility (RAPPCOF), Kota, Radiological Laboratories Group (RLG) and High Intensity Radiation Utilization Project (HIRUP) at Trombay

  10. Design and testing of low capacitance, 80-kV source cables for MFTF sustaining neutral beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Shimer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we summarize characteristics of several cable configurations and consider one design in detail, which consists of twelve, 250 MCM arc cables, ten 4/0 filament cables, and accel, gradient grid, control, and instrumentation cables within a circular split Al pipe. The pipe is air insulated from an outer 24-in. x 24-in. steel duct by utility pin insulators. Varying run lengths require adjustment of the arc inductance by variation of cross sectional cable position. Equilibrium heat transfer analysis indicates the pulse-off time for source conditioning must be somewhat greater than 60 s to keep conductor temperatures below 90 0 C. The results of a high voltage test of a model cable are presented

  11. Increasing the supply of kidneys for transplantation by making living donors the preferred source of donor kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-12-01

    At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation. We believe that it is ethically sound to have living kidney donation as the primary source for organs when the mortality and morbidity risks to the donor are known and kept extremely low, when the donor is properly informed and protected from coercion, and when accepted national and local guidelines for living donation are followed.

  12. Detection of Materials Used for Improvised Explosive Devices Employing D-T (14 MeV) Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyam, Anurag; Sharma, Surender Kumar; Das, Basanta

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased use of improvised explosive devices (IED), especially for human targets. One of the substances used in these devices is ammonium nitrate. Since this IED substance also contains elements - hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O). The elemental density (of H, C, O, and N) and elemental density ratio (C/O, N/O, H/N etc) can be used to differentiate it from other substances. Neutrons based techniques are one of the methods for non-destructive these elemental characterization. For our experiments we are using two sealed neutron tubes. First tubes can produce 10 8 (maximum) D-T neutrons in ∼0.8 μs pulse and 100 (maximum) pulses can be generated per second. Second tube can produce (maximum) 10 10 D-T neutrons/s. The neutron output can be pulsed. Pulses of 1.5 μs duration and pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz to 10 kHz can be obtained. D-T neutrons pulses are impinged on ammonium nitrate samples (0.5 to 1.5 kg) and resultant gamma rays (prompt and due to activation) are recorded using sodium iodide (NaI) and bismuth germanium orthosilicate (BGO) scintillation detectors. To facilitate recording of high count rate a 2 GS/s high speed digitizer with large on board memory and high transfer rate has been used (instead of conventional multi channel analyzer). Preliminary results and analysis will be presented at the conference. To further refine the technique we are also developing a D-T neutron generator with associated particle detection facility. For this system we have already developed a penning ion source and a 140 kV battery operated SMPS. (author)

  13. Use of Nitrogen-15 Isotope Method in Soils and Ground Water to Determine Potential Nitrogen Sources Affecting a Municipal Water Supply in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M. A.; Macko, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate-N concentrations have increased to greater than 10 mg/L in a municipal water supply in western Kansas from 1995 to 2002. A study was done by the Kansas Geological Survey using the nitrogen-15 natural abundance isotope method to determine potential sources for the increasing nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results of the isotope analyses on water samples suggest that animal waste and/or denitrification enrichment has affected the water supply. Soil samples from areas near the wells that were not treated with manure show a general increase of nitrogen-15 signature (+9 to +15 \\permil) to a depth of 5 m. Soils are silt loams with measurable carbonate (0.8 to 2 % by weight) in the profile, which may permit volatilization enrichment to occur in the soil profile. Wells in the area range from 11 to 20 m in alluvial deposits with depth to water at approximately 9 m). Nitrate-N values range from 8 to 26 mg/L. Nitrogen-15 values range from (+17 to +28 \\permil) with no obvious source of animal waste near the well sites. There are potential nearby long-term sources of animal waste - an abandoned sewage treatment plant and an agricultural testing farm. One well has a reducing chemistry with a nitrate value of 0.9 mg/L and a nitrogen-15 value of +17 \\permil suggesting that alluvial sediment variation also has an impact on the water quality in the study area. The other wells show values of nitrate and nitrogen-15 that are much greater than the associated soils. The use of nitrogen-15 alone permited limited evaluation of sources of nitrate to ground water particularly in areas with carbonate in the soils. Use of oxygen-18 on nitrate will permit the delineation of the processes affecting the nitrogen in the soil profile and determination of the probable sources and the processes that have affected the nitrogen in the ground water. Final results of the nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 analyses will be presented.

  14. A model for evaluating the three-dimensional groundwater dividing pathline between a contaminant source and a partially penetrating water-supply well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Eric W.; Converse, James C.; Anderson, Mary P.; Hoopes, John A.

    1991-09-01

    Effluent from septic tank-drainfields can degrade groundwater quality and contaminate nearby water-supply wells. Such groundwater contamination is a problem in the unsewered subdivisions of the sand plain of central Wisconsin, for example. To help planners minimize the risk of direct contamination of a water-supply well by a septic system, a model was developed to estimate the location of the critical dividing pathline between a rectangular contaminant source (the septic tank drainfield) and a partially penetrating pumping well. The model is capable of handling three-dimensional, transient flow in an unconfined, homogeneous, anisotropic aquifer of infinite areal extent, under a regional horizontal hydraulic gradient. Model results are in very good agreement with several other numerical and analytical models. Examples are given for which the safe, horizontal and vertical separation distances to avoid well water contamination are determined for typical central Wisconsin sand plain conditions. A companion paper (Harmsen et al., 1991) describes the application of this model, using a Monte-Carlo analysis, to study the variation of these separation distances in the Wisconsin sand plain. The model can also be applied to larger scale problems and, therefore, could be useful in implementing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's new well head protection program.

  15. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant finite control set-model predictive control of a multiphase voltage-source inverter supplying BLDC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehifar, Mehdi; Moreno-Equilaz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Due to its fault tolerance, a multiphase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor can meet high reliability demand for application in electric vehicles. The voltage-source inverter (VSI) supplying the motor is subjected to open circuit faults. Therefore, it is necessary to design a fault-tolerant (FT) control algorithm with an embedded fault diagnosis (FD) block. In this paper, finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) is developed to implement the fault-tolerant control algorithm of a five-phase BLDC motor. The developed control method is fast, simple, and flexible. A FD method based on available information from the control block is proposed; this method is simple, robust to common transients in motor and able to localize multiple open circuit faults. The proposed FD and FT control algorithm are embedded in a five-phase BLDC motor drive. In order to validate the theory presented, simulation and experimental results are conducted on a five-phase two-level VSI supplying a five-phase BLDC motor. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspectives of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  17. D. C. power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M

    1978-04-01

    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  18. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Molares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60% in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species, mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.

  19. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species), mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts. PMID:22194774

  20. Integrated Fuzzy ANP, Fuzzy VIKOR and goal programming for sourcing in a supply chain: A case study from cable industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive business environment, companies strive to increase their market shares. All companies clearly understand that they have to reach this goal by implementing cost effective methods and increase profits as much as possible. The cost of purchasing raw materials and component parts are significant portion of products in most manufacturing firms. Supplier selection and evaluation have been widely recognized to be one of the most substantial issues on material purchasing. In order to choose reliable suppliers it is necessary to have a trade-off between some tangible and intangible factors where some of them are in serious conflict. In this paper, an integrated technique of analytical network process improved by VIKOR and fuzzy sets theory and multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming is proposed to determine the appropriate suppliers. The proposed model of this paper also determines the order quantity allocated to each supplier in the case of multiple sourcing, multiple products and multi-period time horizon for an Iranian cable company.

  1. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  2. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-02, ground-water samples were collected from 117 public-supply wells distributed throughout Illinois to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and their transformation products in the State?s source-water aquifers. Wells were selected using a stratified-random method to ensure representation of the major types of source-water aquifers in the State. Samples were analyzed for 18 herbicides and 18 transformation products, including 3 triazine and 14 chloroacetanilide products. Herbicide compounds (field-applied parent herbicides and their transformation products) were detected in 34 percent of samples. A subset of samples was collected unfiltered to determine if analytical results for herbicides in unfiltered samples are similar to those in paired filtered samples and, thus, can be considered equally representative of herbicide concentrations in ground water supplied to the public. The study by the U.S. Geological Survey was done in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Parent herbicides were detected in only 4 percent of all samples. The six most frequently detected herbicide compounds (from 5 to 28 percent of samples) were chloroacetanilide transformation products. The frequent occurrence of transformation products and their higher concentrations relative to those of most parent herbicides confirm the importance of obtaining information on transformation products to understand the mobility and fate of herbicides in ground-water systems. No sample concentrations determined during this study exceeded current (2003) Federal or State drinking-water standards; however, standards are established for only seven parent herbicides. Factors related to the occurrence of herbicide compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers include unconsolidated and unconfined conditions, various hydrogeologic characteristics and well-construction aspects at shallow depths, and proximity to streams. Generally, the closer an aquifer (or well location) is

  3. Source and transport controls on the movement of nitrate to public supply wells in selected principal aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P. B.; BöHlke, J. K.; Kauffman, L. J.; Kipp, K. L.; Landon, M. K.; Crandall, C. A.; Burow, K. R.; Brown, C. J.

    2008-04-01

    In 2003-2005, systematic studies in four contrasting hydrogeologic settings were undertaken to improve understanding of source and transport controls on nitrate movement to public supply wells (PSW) in principal aquifers of the United States. Chemical, isotopic, and age tracer data show that agricultural fertilizers and urban septic leachate were the primary sources of large nitrate concentrations in PSW capture zones at Modesto, California (Central Valley aquifer system) and York, Nebraska (High Plains aquifer). Urban septic leachate and fertilizer (possibly nonfarm) were the primary sources of large nitrate concentrations in PSW capture zones at Woodbury, Connecticut (glacial aquifer system), and Tampa, Florida (Floridan aquifer system), respectively. Nitrate fluxes to the water table were larger in agricultural settings than urban settings, indicating that it would be beneficial to reduce PSW capture zone areas in agricultural regions. Mixing calculations indicate that about 50 to 85% of the nitrate in water from the PSW could be from those modern anthropogenic sources, with the remainder coming from sources in old (>50 years) recharge or sources in young recharge in undisturbed settings such as forests. Excess N2 concentrations and age tracers showed that denitrification at Modesto occurred gradually (first-order rate constant of 0.02/a) in a thick reaction zone following a ˜30-year lag time after recharge. Denitrification generally was not an important nitrate sink at Woodbury. At York and Tampa, denitrification occurred rapidly (0.5 to 6/a) in thin reaction zones in fine-grained sediments that separated the anoxic PSW producing zones from overlying oxic, high-nitrate ground water. Particle tracking showed that a major pathway by which anthropogenic nitrate reached the York and Tampa PSW was by movement through long well screens crossing multiple hydrogeologic units (York) and by movement through karst features (Tampa), processes which reduced ground water

  4. Renewable Energy Sources Act and Trading of Emission Certificates: A national and a supranational tool direct energy turnover to renewable electricity-supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsten, Selder

    2014-01-01

    Aim: After the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in 2011, Germany decided to phase out atomic energy, without producing new CO 2 emissions. The article discusses the promotion systems that are used. Scope: The percentage of renewable energies in Germany's electricity consumption increased from 3 in 1990 to 23 in 2012. This development was introduced and guided by a law called Renewable Energy Sources Act. It guarantees a privileged acceptance of electricity and a fixed gratification for 20 years to the operators of regenerative power plants. It allows the operators to install regenerative power plants at a reduced risk. By contrast, the international means for CO 2 reduction is the trading of emission certificates, which is also valid for Germany. The article discusses how the promotion of the Erneuerbar-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) and other plant-based promotion systems fit into this condition. It also elucidates the actual decline of promotion, its problems to the country’s environmental economy and the approach of decentralized photovoltaic (PV) energy plants towards economical efficiency. Conclusions: Germany’s energy turnaround to a regenerative energy supply is characterized by a strong and differentiated promotion system. Substantial efforts have to be made as the percentage of the renewable energy sources has significantly increased but is still under 25%

  5. Are Public-Private Partnerships a Source of Greater Efficiency in Water Supply? Results of a Non-Parametric Performance Analysis Relating to the Italian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the outcome of a performance study of the water service provision industry in Italy. The study evaluates the efficiency of 21 “private or public-private” equity and 32 “public” equity water service operators and investigates controlling factors. In particular, the influence that the operator typology and service management nature - private vs. public - has on efficiency is assessed. The study employed a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis methodology. In the first stage, the operational efficiency of water supply operators is calculated by implementing a conventional BCC DEA model, that uses both physical infrastructure and financial input and output variables to explore economies of scale. In the second stage, bootstrapped DEA and Tobit regression are performed to estimate the influence that a number of environmental factors have on water supplier efficiency. The results show that the integrated water provision industry in Italy is characterized by operational inefficiencies of service operators, and scale and agglomeration economies may have a not negligible effect on efficiency. In addition, the operator typology and its geographical location affect efficiency.

  6. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources. Final report; Foerderung der Direktvermarktung und der bedarfsgerechten Einspeisung von Strom aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-23

    The study investigates the promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources in Germany. the study shows that renewable energy sources are a good option for facing the challenges of the future. However, the potential is often left unused because of a lack of incentives in the current pricing system. To solve this problem, the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety authorized two studies that are to enable or improve the utilization of the integration potentials of the renewable energy sources. Two model proposals based on these studies are presented here. The model proposing a bonus for combined-cycle power plants is to ensure supply on demand of electric power from renewables with the aid of integrated power storage systems. However, it is found that this model will not generate significant effects for power supply on demand. The second model proposes financial incentives; it will work well for renewable power supply systems that can be controlled, e.g. bioenergy, run-of-river power plants with power storage, and biogas plants. On the other hand, supply-dependent technologies like wind power, photovoltaic power, run-of-river power plants without power storage, and geothermal power plants with very low variable cost, the goal is not fully reached. In contrast to the first model, the market incentives model will enhance the integration of renewable energy sources in the competitive market by largely eliminating market risks. (orig./RHM)

  8. Influence of ammonia on forming the toxicity of waters from the surface sources of water supply determined on Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Arystarkhova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the influence of ammonia in waters from surface sources of water supply of Zhytomyr city on forming the toxicity of these waters determined by test-reactions of atypical motor activity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 with the use of the «time sampling» method during 2012–2014. Methodology. Biotesting was performed at the Municipal Enterprise "Zhytomyrvodokanal". Water samples were taken once a month time from the Teteriv river reservoirs and tap water network and then placed into aquaria (8 dm3 on a group. Control and experimental groups of fish were formed according to the following scheme: control group — samples of settled (24 hours tap water; experimental group D-1 — water samples from the Denyshivske reservoir; experimental group D-2 — water samples from the Vidsichne water intake. Test specimens were females of C. auratus gibelio. Biotesting was conducted using the «time sampling» method by keeping fish (n=30 in water for 12 hours. The toxicity indexes of waters were calculated on the basis of the following test-reactions: spiral-like and vector movements, jumping out from water, immobilization and death of fish. Statistical processing of study results were performed using cross-correlation and regression analysis in MS Excel 2007 and Statistica-6. Findings. The study showed an effect of ammonia on the toxicity of waters from reservoirs of the Teteriv river that was determined by atypical motor activity with the use of the «time sampling» method, which consisted in the instantaneous fixation of the number of individuals that favored one or another act of behavior. It was shown that females not adapted to the action of ammonia reacted to its concentration in water of more than 0.55 mg/dm3 by disorders in movements. Unlike fish of experience groups, only single pathological acts were observed in the control group. A positive moderate relationship, which had a tendency to an increase, was

  9. Options for new Swiss energy supply strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Jakob, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ecologically neutral, cost efficient, without supply shortages, independent from foreign countries, risk- and waste-free - that is the image of an ideal future energy supply. But even if considerable ecological and economical improvements of various energy supply options can be achieved, the next generation of heat and power plants with the associated up- and down-stream parts of energy chains, will not comply with all such idealistic requirements. As research in the framework of the GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' has shown, among the reasons for this are the limited medium term potential of renewable energy sources, and the necessity to employ primarily non-renewable energy carriers for the emerging more efficient energy conversion processes. (author)

  10. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  11. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of public health through quality public ground-water systems is the responsibility of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri, through the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Program. Approximately 95 percent of the public-water supplies in Missouri use ground water as their source of drinking water through more than 3,700 public wells. Karst terrain, intensive agricultural operations, extensive numbers of on-site sewage systems, and poor well construction can lead to chemical and microbiological contamination of the contributing aquifers. Sitespecific studies and routine regulatory monitoring have produced information on the overall quality and potability of the State's public-drinking-water supplies, but little is known about the presence of viruses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, sampled 109 public-water supplies to characterize the physical, chemical, bacterial, and viral conditions in southern Missouri. During April to July 1998, these wells were sampled for nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, indicator bacteria, enteric viruses, and ribonucleic acid and somatic coli phages. These constituents indicate possible surface contamination of the sampled aquifer. Selection of the wells to be sampled depended on the age of the well (pre-1970), land use, geohydrology, and well construction. None of the physical or chemical constituents measured or analyzed exceeded Missouri's Drinking Water Standards set by the Public Drinking Water Program of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The majority of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite, and phosphorus concentrations were below the laboratory's minimum reporting levels. There were a greater number of detects above the minimum reporting level with respect to the nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and total organic carbon concentrations. Analyses

  12. Impact of nitrogen source and supply level on growth, yield and nutritional value of two contrasting ecotypes of Cichorium spinosum L. grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigianni, Martina; Alkhaled, Bara'a; Livieratos, Ioannis; Stamatakis, Aristidis; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, two contrasting stamnagathi (Cichorium spinosum L.) ecotypes originating either from a mountainous or from a seaside habitat were grown hydroponically and supplied with a nutrient solution differing in the total-N level (4 or 16 mmol L -1 ) and the N source (NH 4 + -N/total-N: 0.05, 0.25 or 0.50). The aim was to search for genotypic differences in nitrogen nutrition. At commercial maturity, the dry weight of mountainous plants was higher than that of seaside plants. The shoot mineral concentrations were higher in seaside plants than in mountainous plants in both harvests. The leaf nitrate concentration was influenced by the levels of both total-N and NH 4 + -N/total-N at both harvests, whereas plants with a seaside origin exhibited higher nitrate concentrations than those originating from a mountainous site in all total-N and NH 4 + -N/total-N treatments. The two stamnagathi ecotypes differed considerably in their responses to nitrogen nutrition and tissue nitrate content. The mountainous ecotype was superior in terms of growth, tissue nitrate concentration and antioxidant capacity, whereas the seaside ecotype accumulated more nutrient microcations in leaves. A low total-N concentration (up to 4 mmol L -1 ) combined with a high NH 4 + -N/total-N ratio (up to 0.05) could minimize tissue NO 3 - concentrations without compromising yield. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Study of long-term loss of all AC power supply sources for VVER-1000/V320 in connection with application of new engineering safety features for SAMG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Evgeni; Grigorov, Dobrin; Mancheva, Kaliopa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • In this study we presented analysis for a new SAMG approach. • The approach is applicable for all PWR reactors from 2nd generation. • We investigated two scenarios with total black out. • The RELAP/MOD 3.2 computer code is used in performing the analyses. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of analysis for application of a new Severe Accident Management Guideline (SAMG) approach which is specifically applied for VVER-1000/B320 reactor installations. In general, this innovative approach is fully applicable for all the pressurized water reactors from second generation. The purposes of the analysis for the new SAMG approach application are as follows: • To represent suggestions for new engineering safety features application for SAMG strategies. • To assess the applicability of the new engineering safety features and means for SAMG strategies in case of loss of all off-site power supply sources for VVER-1000/B320 reactor installations. • To represent important operator actions and to analyse the effectiveness of these actions for accidents management in compliance with the new approach. • The RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code has been used in performing the analyses in a VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) model. The input data deck for the analysis is optimized, verified and validated

  14. Hexavalent and total chromium at low reporting concentrations in source-water aquifers and surface waters used for public supply in Illinois, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Cobb, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of their recent review of the human health effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in public drinking water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is considering the need for Federal regulation of Cr(VI). Presently, only total chromium is regulated, at a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 100 micrograms per liter (µg/L). The occurrence of Cr(VI) in groundwater and surface waters generally is attributed to industrial sources, but can be of natural origin. California’s recently established MCL for Cr(VI) of 10 µg/L illustrates the drinking-water concerns associated with Cr(VI). To improve understanding of the possible impact of a Cr(VI)-specific standard that approximates the California level on the management of Illinois’ public drinking water, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, assessed the occurrence and distribution of Cr(VI) in the State’s public-water supplies.

  15. The eGo grid model: An open-source and open-data based synthetic medium-voltage grid model for distribution power supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amme, J.; Pleßmann, G.; Bühler, J.; Hülk, L.; Kötter, E.; Schwaegerl, P.

    2018-02-01

    The increasing integration of renewable energy into the electricity supply system creates new challenges for distribution grids. The planning and operation of distribution systems requires appropriate grid models that consider the heterogeneity of existing grids. In this paper, we describe a novel method to generate synthetic medium-voltage (MV) grids, which we applied in our DIstribution Network GeneratOr (DINGO). DINGO is open-source software and uses freely available data. Medium-voltage grid topologies are synthesized based on location and electricity demand in defined demand areas. For this purpose, we use GIS data containing demand areas with high-resolution spatial data on physical properties, land use, energy, and demography. The grid topology is treated as a capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) combined with a local search metaheuristics. We also consider the current planning principles for MV distribution networks, paying special attention to line congestion and voltage limit violations. In the modelling process, we included power flow calculations for validation. The resulting grid model datasets contain 3608 synthetic MV grids in high resolution, covering all of Germany and taking local characteristics into account. We compared the modelled networks with real network data. In terms of number of transformers and total cable length, we conclude that the method presented in this paper generates realistic grids that could be used to implement a cost-optimised electrical energy system.

  16. Sources of Water Supply and Water Quality for Local Consumption: The Case Study of Eco-Tourism Village, Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Paiboon Jeamponk; Tasanee Ponglaa; Patchapon Srisanguan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research paper was based on an examination of sources of water supply and water quality for local consumption, conducted at eco- tourism villages of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province. The study incorporated both questionnaire and field work of water testing as the research tool and method. The sample size of 288 households was based on the population of the district, whereas the selected sample water sources were from 60 househo...

  17. Predicting gross wages of non-employed persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Bezeredi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the findings of a study aimed at building a model for predicting wages of non-employed persons in Croatia. The predictions will be used in the calculation of marginal effective tax rate at the extensive margin and in labour supply modelling. The database used is 2012 “EU statistics on income and living conditions”. The paper comprehensively explains the data source, variables, subgroups of employed and non-employed, and the results of the linear regression model, the Heckman selection model and the quantile regression model. The quality of predictions obtained by different models is compared and discussed.

  18. Certification of Public Librarians in the United States. A Detailed Summary of Legally Mandated and Voluntary Certification Plans for Public Librarians Based on Information Supplied by the Various Certificating State Agencies or Other Appropriate Sources. 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Mary J., Ed.

    This report contains summaries of legally mandated and voluntary certification plans for public librarians in the United States based on information supplied by the various certifying state agencies or other appropriate sources in April 1979. Each plan is identified by the descriptive terms "mandatory" (certification required by law--23 states),…

  19. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  20. Mixed phase evaporation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus for reducing convection current heat loss in electron beam evaporator is described. A material to be evaporated (evaporant) is placed in the crucible of an electron beam evaporation source along with a porous mass formed of a powdered or finely divided solid to act as an impedance to convection currents. A feed system is employed to replenish the supply of evaporant as it is vaporized

  1. The Polyvalent Heat Supply System for Experimental Building of the Passive Type (area of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the development and implementation of heat supply system for experimental building of the passive type are presented, optimal operating conditions are investigated, guidelines for the creation of heat supply systems for passive type buildings are provided.

  2. Case studies to assess and compare different energy sources in sustainable energy and electricity supply strategies. Final report of a co-ordinated project 1997-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    The IAEA offers its Member States a comprehensive programme of technical assistance and co-operation, which covers many diverse areas related to peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In the area of comparative assessment, the objective of assistance is to strengthen national capabilities for informed decision making, and for elaborating sustainable choices among alternative options for energy supply and use. In the past, the planning process was designed to meet the future demand for energy at the least engineering cost. However, the pursuit of increasingly sustainable energy options over time has required a broader comparative assessment that addresses economic, social, health and environmental factors. To support this need, in 1992 the IAEA initiated an inter-agency project on databases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation (DECADES). Under the project, nine international organizations, European Commission (EC), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), agreed to pool their efforts to achieve the common objective of enhancing capabilities for comparative assessment of different energy chains in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. DECADES was initially conceived as a set of generic and national databases detailing the environmental impacts, costs and characteristics of various generating and fuel chain technologies which could be used for comparative assessment by investors and policy makers. These databases were linked to software permitting their

  3. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 2: Controlled floods of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Caster, Joshua; Kasprak, Alan; East, Amy E.

    2018-06-01

    In the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in the Grand Canyon, USA, controlled floods are used to resupply sediment to, and rebuild, river sandbars that have eroded severely over the past five decades owing to dam-induced changes in river flow and sediment supply. In this study, we examine whether controlled floods, can in turn resupply aeolian sediment to some of the large source-bordering aeolian dunefields (SBDs) along the margins of the river. Using a legacy of high-resolution lidar remote-sensing and meteorological data, we characterize the response of four SBDs (a subset of 117 SBDs and other aeolian-sand-dominated areas in the canyon) during four sediment-laden controlled floods of the Colorado River in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016. We find that aeolian sediment resupply unambiguously occurred in 8 of the 16 instances of controlled flooding adjacent to SBDs. Resupply attributed to individual floods varied substantially among sites, and occurred with four, three, one, and zero floods at the four sites, respectively. We infer that the relative success of controlled floods as a regulated-river management tool for resupplying sediment to SBDs is analogous to the frequency of resupply observed for fluvial sandbars in this setting, in that sediment resupply was estimated to have occurred for roughly half of the instances of recent controlled flooding at sandbars monitored separately from this study. We find the methods developed in this, and a companion study, are effective tools to quantify geomorphic changes in sediment storage, along linked fluvial and aeolian pathways of sedimentary systems.

  4. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 2: Controlled floods of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Caster, Joshua; Kasprak, Alan; East, Amy

    2018-01-01

    In the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in the Grand Canyon, USA, controlled floods are used to resupply sediment to, and rebuild, river sandbars that have eroded severely over the past five decades owing to dam-induced changes in river flow and sediment supply. In this study, we examine whether controlled floods, can in turn resupply aeolian sediment to some of the large source-bordering aeolian dunefields (SBDs) along the margins of the river. Using a legacy of high-resolution lidar remote-sensing and meteorological data, we characterize the response of four SBDs (a subset of 117 SBDs and other aeolian-sand-dominated areas in the canyon) during four sediment-laden controlled floods of the Colorado River in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016. We find that aeolian sediment resupply unambiguously occurred in 8 of the 16 instances of controlled flooding adjacent to SBDs. Resupply attributed to individual floods varied substantially among sites, and occurred with four, three, one, and zero floods at the four sites, respectively. We infer that the relative success of controlled floods as a regulated-river management tool for resupplying sediment to SBDs is analogous to the frequency of resupply observed for fluvial sandbars in this setting, in that sediment resupply was estimated to have occurred for roughly half of the instances of recent controlled flooding at sandbars monitored separately from this study. We find the methods developed in this, and a companion study, are effective tools to quantify geomorphic changes in sediment storage, along linked fluvial and aeolian pathways of sedimentary systems.

  5. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  6. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  7. Hydrogeology, chemical characteristics, and water sources and pathways in the zone of contribution of a public-supply well in San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Fahlquist, Lynne; Stanton, Gregory P.; Houston, Natalie A.; Lindgren, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells (PSWs). The main goal of the TANC project was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to PSWs in representative aquifers of the United States. Regional- and local-scale study areas were selected from within existing NAWQA study units, including the south-central Texas Edwards aquifer. The local-scale TANC study area, nested within the regional-scale NAWQA study area, is representative of the regional Edwards aquifer. The PSW selected for study is within a well field of six production wells. Although a single PSW was initially selected, because of constraints of well-field operation, samples were collected from different wells within the well field for different components of the study. Data collected from all of the well-field wells were considered comparable because of similar well construction, hydrogeology, and geochemistry. An additional 38 PSWs (mostly completed in the confined part of the aquifer) were sampled throughout the regional aquifer to characterize water quality. Two monitoring well clusters, with wells completed at different depths, were installed to the east and west of the well field (the Zarzamora and Timberhill monitoring well clusters, respectively). One of the monitoring wells was completed in the overburden to evaluate potential hydrologic connectivity with the Edwards aquifer. Geophysical and flowmeter logs were collected from one of the well-field PSWs to determine zones of contribution to the wellbore. These contributing zones, associated with different hydrogeologic units, were used to select monitoring well completion depths and groundwater sample collection depths for depth-dependent sampling. Depth-dependent samples were collected from the PSW from three different

  8. High voltage power supplies for INDUS-2 RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The RF system of Indus-2 employs klystron amplifiers operating at 505.812 MHz. A precession controlled high voltage DC supply of appropriate rating is needed for each klystron amplifier, as its bias supply. Since internal flashover and arcing are common with the operation of these klystrons and stored energies beyond particular limit inside its bias power supply is detrimental to this device, a properly designed crowbar is incorporated between each klystron and its power supply. This crowbar bypass these stored energies and helps protecting klystron under any of these unfavorable conditions. In either case, power supply sees a near short circuit across its load. So, its power circuit is designed to reduce the fault current level and its various components are also designed to withstand these fault currents, as and when it appears. Finally, operation of these high voltage power supplies (HVPS) generates lot of harmonics on the source side, which distort the input waveform substantially and reduces the input power factor also. Source multiplication between two power supplies are planned to improve upon above parameters and suitable detuned line filters are incorporated to keep the input voltage total harmonics distortion (THD) below 5 % and input power factor (IFF) near unity. (author)

  9. Determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers employing direct solid sampling analysis and high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; François, Luciane Luiza; Borges, Aline Rocha; Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    The present study proposes the determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers by direct solid sampling analysis (SS) employing high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). For Cu determination, two analytical lines were used: 327.3960 nm and 249.2146 nm. Hg determination was carried out on the line 253.6521 nm and 100 μg KMnO4 was used as chemical modifier. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for Cu determination was 1300 °C. Atomization temperatures for Cu and Hg were 2400 and 1100 °C, respectively. External calibration with aqueous standard solutions was adopted for both elements. The limits of quantification (LoQs) and characteristic mass (m0) obtained for Cu determination were 0.4 μg g- 1 and 1.12 ng, respectively, on line 249.2146 nm, and 64 μg g- 1 and 25 pg on 327.3960 nm. For mercury, LoQ and m0 were 4.8 ng g- 1 and 39 pg, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed methods was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) of Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer (SRM NIST 695). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was better than 8.2% for Hg and 7.7% for the Cu (n = 5), considered satisfactory for microanalysis in solid sample. Four fertilizer samples acquired in commercial establishments in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed. The optimized analytical methods were simple, fast, accurate, precise and free of spectral interferences for the determination of Cu and Hg in phosphate fertilizer samples by SS-HR-CS GF AAS, avoiding the dissolution of the sample, the use of harmful reagents and the generation of residues.

  10. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  11. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  12. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  13. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  14. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  15. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  16. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  17. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  18. Library/Information Science Education, Placement, and Salaries. Guide to Employment Sources in the Library and Information Professions; Placements and Salaries 2000: Plenty of Jobs, Salaries Flat; Accredited Master's Programs in Library and Information Studies; Library Scholarship Sources; Library Scholarship and Award Recipients, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darlena; Terrell, Tom; Gregory, Vicki L.

    2002-01-01

    Includes five articles that report on employment sources in the library and information professions; placements and salaries, which indicate plenty of jobs and salaries that are flat; accredited master's programs in library and information studies; library scholarship sources; and library scholarship and award recipients. (LRW)

  19. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State health...

  20. Designing a Supply Chain Management Academic Curriculum Using QFD and Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marvin E.; Quesada, Gioconda; Gourdin, Kent; Hartley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilize quality function deployment (QFD), Benchmarking analyses and other innovative quality tools to develop a new customer-centered undergraduate curriculum in supply chain management (SCM). Design/methodology/approach: The researchers used potential employers as the source for data collection. Then,…

  1. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  2. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  3. Catalogue of Workforce Information Sources: Decision Making Assistance for Regional Economic Development. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Labor, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In early 2006, The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Employment and Training Administration (ETA) began an initiative called Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) to help regions create competitive conditions, integrate economic and workforce development activities, and demonstrate that talent development can successfully…

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  5. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  6. Properties of Co-deposited indium tin oxide and zinc oxide films using a bipolar pulse power supply and a dual magnetron sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Man-Soo; Seob Jeong, Heui; Kim, Won Mok; Seo, Yong Woon

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer coatings consisting of metal layers sandwiched between transparent conducting oxide layers are widely used for flat panel display electrodes and electromagnetic shield coatings for plasma displays, due to their high electrical conductivity and light transmittance. The electrical and optical properties of these multilayer films depend largely on the surface characteristics of the transparent conducting oxide thin films. A smoother surface on the transparent conducting oxide thin films makes it easier for the metal layer to form a continuous film, thus resulting in a higher conductivity and visible light transmittance. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) films were co-deposited using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply to decrease the surface roughness of the transparent conducting oxide films. The symmetric pulse mode of the power supply was used to simultaneously sputter an In 2 O 3 (90 wt %) : SnO 2 (10 wt %) target and a ZnO target. We varied the duty of the pulses to control the ratio of ITO : ZnO in the thin films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were studied, and special attention was paid to the surface roughness and the crystallinity of the films. By co-depositing ITO and ZnO at a pulse duty ratio of ITO:ZnO=45:45 using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply, we were able to obtain amorphous transparent conducting oxide films with a very smooth surface which had a Zn-rich buffer layer under a In-rich surface layer. All of the films exhibited typical electrical and optical properties of transparent conducting oxide films deposited at room temperature

  7. Pollutant sources in an arsenic-affected multilayer aquifer in the Po Plain of Italy: Implications for drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotiroti, Marco; McArthur, John; Fumagalli, Letizia; Stefania, Gennaro A; Sacchi, Elisa; Bonomi, Tullia

    2017-02-01

    In aquifers 160 to 260m deep that used for public water-supply in an area ~150km 2 around the town of Cremona, in the Po Plain of Northern Italy, concentrations of arsenic (As) are increasing with time in some wells. The increase is due to drawdown of As-polluted groundwater (As ≤144μg/L) from overlying aquifers at depths 65 to 150m deep in response to large-scale abstraction for public supply. The increase in As threatens drinking-water quality locally, and by inference does so across the entire Po Plain, where natural As-pollution of groundwater (As >10μg/L) is a basin-wide problem. Using new and legacy data for Cl/Br, δ 18 O/δ 2 H and other hydrochemical parameters with groundwater from 32 wells, 9 surface waters, a sewage outfall and rainwater, we show that the deep aquifer (160-260m below ground level), which is tapped widely for public water-supply, is partly recharged by seepage from overlying aquifers (65-150m below ground level). Groundwater quality in deep aquifers appears free of anthropogenic influences and typically water in some, not all, areas are affected by anthropogenic contamination and natural As-pollution (As >10μg/L). Outfalls from sewage-treatment plants and black water from septic tanks firstly affect surface waters, which then locally infiltrate shallow aquifers under high channel-stages. Wastewater permeating shallow aquifers carries with it NO 3 and SO 4 which suppress reduction of iron oxyhydroxides in the aquifer sediments and so suppress the natural release of As to groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Integral Characteristics for the Condenser Setups of Independent Power-Supply Sources with the Closed-Looped Thermodynamic Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysokomorny Vladimir S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes with phase transition is developed. It allows analyzing of integral characteristics for the condenser setup of independent power-supply plant with the organic Rankine cycle. Different kinds of organic liquids can be used as a coolant and working substance. The temperatures of the working liquid at the condenser outlet under different values of outside air temperature are determined. The comparative analysis of the utilization efficiency of different cooling systems and organic coolants is carried out.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Integral Characteristics for the Condenser Setups of Independent Power-Supply Sources with the Closed-Looped Thermodynamic Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Vysokomornaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes with phase transition is developed. It allows analysis of integral characteristics for the condenser setup of independent power-supply plant with the organic Rankine cycle. Different kinds of organic liquids can be used as a coolant and working substance. The temperatures of the working liquid at the condenser outlet under different values of outside air temperature are determined. The comparative analysis of the utilization efficiency of different cooling systems and organic coolants is carried out.

  10. The Effects of Health Shocks on Employment and Health Insurance: The Role of Employer-Provided Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J.; Neumark, David; Motika, Meryl

    2012-01-01

    Background Employment-contingent health insurance (ECHI) has been criticized for tying insurance to continued employment. Our research sheds light on two central issues regarding employment-contingent health insurance: whether such insurance “locks” people who experience a health shock into remaining at work; and whether it puts people at risk for insurance loss upon the onset of illness, because health shocks pose challenges to continued employment. Objective To determine how men’s dependence on their own employer for health insurance affects labor supply responses and health insurance coverage following a health shock. Data Sources We use the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) surveys from 1996 through 2008 to observe employment and health insurance status at interviews two years apart, and whether a health shock occurred in the intervening period between the interviews. Study Selection All employed married men with health insurance either through their own employer or their spouse’s employer, interviewed in at least two consecutive HRS waves with non-missing data on employment, insurance, health, demographic, and other variables, and under age 64 at the second interview. We limited the sample to men who were initially healthy. Data Extraction Our analytical sample consisted of 1,582 men of whom 1,379 had ECHI at the first interview, while 203 were covered by their spouse’s employer. Hospitalization affected 209 men with ECHI and 36 men with spouse insurance. A new disease diagnosis was reported by 103 men with ECHI and 22 men with other insurance. There were 171 men with ECHI and 25 men with spouse employer insurance who had a self-reported health decline. Data Synthesis Labor supply response differences associated with ECHI – with men with health shocks and ECHI more likely to continue working – appear to be driven by specific types of health shocks associated with future higher health care costs but not with immediate increases in morbidity that

  11. dena grid study II. Integration of renewable energy sources into the German power supply system until 2020; dena - Netzstudie II. Integration erneuerbarer Energien in die deutsche Stromversorgung bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agricola, Annegret C.; Seidl, Hannes; Zoch, Immo (comps.)

    2010-12-15

    With its broad system approach, dena Grid Study II describes new ways of developing Germany's integrated grid with regard to the expansion of renewable energy sources and taking not only an economically optimised conventional power generation system but also European power trading into account. Basis for detailed grid planning. Having investigated many different transmission technologies, grid management measures and options for increasing flexibility on both the supply and demand side, the study does much more than simply identify grid expansion requirements, it shows the path towards overall optimisation of the energy supply system. In addition to robustly identifying grid expansion requirements, dena Grid Study II provides a very sound basis for further detailed grid planning and the identification of specific power routes in the German power transmission grid. Increasing grid expansion requirements. dena Grid Study II investigates the expansion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources to 39 percent by 2020. However, this is just an interim goal. By as soon as 2030, the German Federal Government is planning to raise the proportion of renewable electricity generation to 50 percent. This shows that even after 2020, further adaptation of grid infrastructure will still be necessary. Practical action required. If the grid expansion required to integrate renewable energy sources is to be achieved rapidly, there is an urgent need to back up the grid expansion scenarios presented in dena Grid Study II with practical action. (orig.)

  12. Estudo e caracterização da zeólita OFF Tipo T empregando diferentes fontes de silício Study and characterization of zeolite Offretite Type T employing differents silicon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caovilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Offretite T zeolite was synthesized using different source of Si (Ludox AS-30, Ludox LS-30 and Aerosil 200 Degussa. The obtained materials were characterized by different complementary techniques: XRD, textural analysis by N2 adsorption, IV, SEM and chemistry analysis. This zeolite has an intermediary structure between offretite and erionite zeolites. In all experiments offretite T phase was obtained. Offretite phase presenting better crystalility are obtained in synthesis with stirring and employing aerosil as silicon source. This zeolite presents a potencial application as catalyst for hydroisodewaxing process.

  13. Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Azevedo, Susana G.; Carvalho, Helena

    2014-01-01

    elimination," "supply chain risk management" and "cleaner production." The following lean, resilient and green supply chain management practices do not have a significant impact on supply chain sustainability: "flexible transportation," "flexible sourcing," "ISO 14001 certification," and "reverse logistics...

  14. Supply of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Any large-scale atomic energy programme is inherently dependent on the availability of materials that can be used as fuel in reactors, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, at its inception, was intended to act as a bank for the flow of materials between Member States. According to its Statute, one of its primary functions is to provide materials 'to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including the production of electric power, with due consideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. If the Agency is to fulfil its Statutory function, it would be essential for it to have not only some ready sources of supply, but also an established framework of general terms and conditions on which it could secure the supplies. The latter would eliminate the need for going through elaborate procedural formalities whenever the Agency receives a new request for materials. Such a framework has now been established with the signing of broad agreements with three countries which had offered to supply various quantities of special fissionable materials to the Agency. These agreements, signed in Vienna on 11 May 1959, with the USSR, the UK and the USA, lay down the basic terms and conditions on which these three countries will make nuclear materials available when needed by the Agency. The USSR has agreed to make available to the Agency 50 kg of uranium-235, the UK 20 kg and the USA 5 000 kg. The material will be supplied in the form of enriched uranium in any concentration up to 20 per cent; the amounts mentioned relate to the 235-isotope content of the materials. The UK and the USA have agreed that the parties to a particular supply agreement may decide on higher enrichment of uranium to be used for research reactors, material testing reactors or for other research purposes. The USA has also agreed to make available to the Agency such additional supplies as would match in amount

  15. Sustainable Management of Oleaginous Trees as a Source for Renewable Energy Supply and Climate Change Mitigation: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide a range of ecosystem services, including bioenergy supply and carbon sequestration, both contributing to significant climate change mitigation. Oleaginous trees have potential to provide bioenergy supplies through biodiesel-producing seed yield as well as contributing to carbon sequestration. This paper aims to show the provisions of bioenergy and carbon savings through forest rotation management and it will investigate the potential of oleaginous forest management in China. We use the land expectation value (LEV model to calculate the optimal joint values of timber, seed and total carbon savings, including carbon sequestration from forest and carbon reductions through energy substitutions. The results indicate that combining both values of seeds and carbon savings increase the LEV and rotation age (167,611 Yuan/ha, 78 years compared to sole timber value (26,053 Yuan/ha, 55 years. The optimization of the LEVs and the resulting optimal rotation ages are significantly sensitive to the discounting rate. Annual biodiesel potential production from Pistacia chinensis can take up 1.7% of the national diesel consumption in China. We conclude that China can use improved forest rotation management as an effective means for achieving goals in its low-carbon energy strategy.

  16. Laboratory stand for examination of the operational thermal parameters of polyvalent system for heating, cooling and domestic hot water supply using renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, Merima

    2014-01-01

    The report presents the structure of an universal laboratory stand for determine the operating parameters of a polyvalent system for utilization of renewable energy sources. The system is a combination of three modules using different technologies for renewable sources – solar energy, atmospheric air and biomass, incorporated in a common heat accumulator. The structural scheme permits the possibility to use the stand in different operating modes, to demonstrate the feasibility of using any one of the renewable energy sources both individually and in various combinations. The author express gratitude to the partners of the companies Robert Bosch Bulgaria Ltd, Ahi Carrier Bulgaria and Eratermtotal, with whose generous support is build the stand. Key words: Renewable energy sources (RES), Heating with RES, Biomass, Air to Water Heat pumps

  17. A new electronic circuit for NIM rack power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Domienikan, Claudio; Zahn, Guilherme S.

    2013-01-01

    A new and useful electronic circuit designed to substitute the old power supply of IPEN model PM 1212 Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) racks is presented. Originally, these NIM racks were projected by IPEN workshop at 1974 to be used in nuclear research laboratories. The PM1212 provided mounting space and power sources for up to 12 standard nuclear electronic modules and power supply regulated DC voltages of ±24V (2A), ±12V (4A) and unregulated AC 117V (0.5A). Currently, several of these NIM racks are not in use because the electronic components of the original design have become obsolete and are no longer manufactured. The new electronic circuit provides the same original voltages adjusted in the single circuit and, additionally, ±6V. The new power supply was designed and constructed at IPEN-CNEN/SP by employing modern national components and expertise. (author)

  18. A new electronic circuit for NIM rack power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Domienikan, Claudio; Zahn, Guilherme S., E-mail: fatoledo@ipen.br, E-mail: clanikan@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Intituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A new and useful electronic circuit designed to substitute the old power supply of IPEN model PM 1212 Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) racks is presented. Originally, these NIM racks were projected by IPEN workshop at 1974 to be used in nuclear research laboratories. The PM1212 provided mounting space and power sources for up to 12 standard nuclear electronic modules and power supply regulated DC voltages of ±24V (2A), ±12V (4A) and unregulated AC 117V (0.5A). Currently, several of these NIM racks are not in use because the electronic components of the original design have become obsolete and are no longer manufactured. The new electronic circuit provides the same original voltages adjusted in the single circuit and, additionally, ±6V. The new power supply was designed and constructed at IPEN-CNEN/SP by employing modern national components and expertise. (author)

  19. Compliance officers and legal advisers in power supply companies. interactions between compliance, risk management and the employer-employee relationship; Compliance-Beauftragte und Justitiare in EVU. Wechselwirkungen von Compliance, Risikomanagement und Arbeitsverhaeltnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Juergen [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Ralf; Bussmann, Sandra [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    An inevitable task of any employee who has been appointed compliance officer, head of the legal department or internal auditor is to ensure that the company is protected against detriment through breaches of law or regulations. Another of his or her tasks, however, and one which might not be as obvious, is to ensure that parties outside the company are protected against detriment through his or her own employer. In order to deal appropriately with these and related questions some basic considerations on the necessity and function of compliance surveillance and its relationship with risk management must first be made. Using two significant court decisions for illustration the authors make a close examination of the liability issues involved in this area of potential conflict. They identify some salient points which should be considered in framing the contractual relationship between a compliance officer and his or her employer.

  20. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  1. Oil statistics 1976: supply and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Summary tables are included for the period 1960 to 1976. The detailed tables for 1976 cover production, supply and disposal; supply and disposal by product; imports by sources; imports from member countries; exports by destination; exports to member countries; consumption by end-use sectors; and supply and disposal of finished products by country (1975 and 1976). (DLC)

  2. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project alternative energy sources: solar, eolic, shale, ocean, hydrogen, organic wastes, peat and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Several aspects of solar, eolic and ocean energy and shale, peat lignite, hydrogen and organic waste in Brazil are described, including reserves, potential, technology economy and environment. Based in data and information presented in this report, the necessity of a more detailed survey with the potential of alternative energy sources in Brazil, emphasizing the more promiser regions is also mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  3. Analysis of Expediency to Apply LCL Model with Source of Higher Harmonics of Current While Investigating Resonance Condition of Power Supply Network

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pavlovsky; A. Shimansky; Z. Fialkovsky

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.

  4. Analysis of Expediency to Apply LCL Model with Source of Higher Harmonics of Current While Investigating Resonance Condition of Power Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavlovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.

  5. The Design of Hot Water Supply System of Solar Energy and Air Source Heat Pump%太阳能+空气源热泵的热水供应系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢春萍

    2015-01-01

    太阳能集中热水系统受到天气的影响难以全天候运行,需要设置辅助加热装置。以广州市宾馆热水供应为例,对太阳能空气源热泵的热水系统进行设计,包括空气源热泵热水机组选型计算、太阳能集热管面积计算、储热水箱的确定、集热循环水泵的确定。%Influenced by weather condition,it is difficult to run for hot water supply system of solar en-ergy all the time,and the auxiliary heating device need setting.Taking hot water supply in a hotel of Guangzhou city as an example in this paper,the heat pump system of solar energy and air source was designed,including the calculation of equipment selection of the air source heat pump, the calculation of the collector area,the determination of the heat storage tank,and the determina-tion of the circulating pump of the heat collection.

  6. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  7. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  8. Byproduct metals and rare-earth elements used in the production of light-emitting diodes—Overview of principal sources of supply and material requirements for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is expanding because of environmental issues and the efficiency and cost savings achieved compared with use of traditional incandescent lighting. The longer life and reduced power consumption of some LEDs have led to annual energy savings, reduced maintenance costs, and lower emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from powerplants because of the resulting decrease in energy consumption required for lighting applications when LEDs are used to replace less-energy-efficient sources. Metals such as arsenic, gallium, indium, and the rare-earth elements (REEs) cerium, europium, gadolinium, lanthanum, terbium, and yttrium are important mineral materials used in LED semiconductor technology. Most of the world's supply of these materials is produced as byproducts from the production of aluminum, copper, lead, and zinc. Most of the rare earths required for LED production in 2011 came from China, and most LED production facilities were located in Asia. The LED manufacturing process is complex and is undergoing much change with the growth of the industry and the changes in demand patterns of associated commodities. In many respects, the continued growth of the LED industry, particularly in the general lighting sector, is tied to its ability to increase LED efficiency and color uniformity while decreasing the costs of producing, purchasing, and operating LEDs. Research is supported by governments of China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. Because of the volume of ongoing research in this sector, it is likely that the material requirements of future LEDs may be quite different than LEDs currently (2011) in use as industry attempts to cut costs by reducing material requirements of expensive heavy rare-earth phosphors and increasing the sizes of wafers for economies of scale. Improved LED performance will allow customers to reduce the number of LEDs in automotive, electronic

  9. Lithogenic sources, composition and intra-annual variability of suspended particulate matter supplied from rivers to the Northern Galician Rias (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, Patricia; Prego, Ricardo; Filgueiras, Ana Virginia; Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Álvarez-Vázquez, Miguel Angel; Caetano, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Scarce research about small European rivers from non-human impacted areas to determine their natural background state has been undertaken. During the annual hydrological cycle of 2008-9 the patterns of particulate supply (SPM, POC, PON, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) from the rivers Sor, Mera Landro, Lourido and Landoi to the Northern Galician Rias (SW Bay of Biscay) were tackled. No differences in the composition of the SPM were detected for the studied rivers regarding Al, Fe and POC but the relative percentage of particulate trace elements (PTE) discriminate the rivers. So, Cr, Co and Ni in the Lourido, and Landoi rivers, and Cu in the Mera River, are controlled by watershed minerals of Ortegal Geological Complex while for the rest rivers PTE are by granitic and Ollo de Sapo bedrock watershed. Therefore, the imprint of PTE in the parental rocks of the river basins is reflected on the coastal sediments of the Rias. The main process controlling the dynamics and variations of chemical elements in the particulate form is the river discharge. This fact exemplifies that these rivers presents a natural behavior not being highly influenced by anthropogenic activities.

  10. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment program--self-employment. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    This document amends the vocational rehabilitation and employment regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) concerning self-employment for individuals with qualifying disabilities. We are making changes to conform VA's regulations for self-employment programs for veterans, and for servicemembers awaiting discharge, to statutory provisions, including provisions limiting eligibility for certain supplies, equipment, stock, and license fees to individuals with the most severe service-connected disabilities. We are also making related changes in VA's regulations affecting eligibility for such assistance for certain veterans' children with birth defects in self-employment programs. In addition, we are amending our regulations regarding the approval authority for self-employment plans to make certain requirements less restrictive and less burdensome, to remove a vague and overly broad requirement, to make changes to reflect longstanding VA policy, and to make nonsubstantive clarifying changes.

  11. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  12. Full-asynchronous gigabit-symmetric DPSK downstream and OOK upstream OCDMA-PON with source-free ONUs employing all-optical self-clocked time gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bo; Shimizu, Satoshi; Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya

    2012-12-10

    We propose an asynchronous gigabit-symmetric optical code division multiplexing access passive optical network (OCDMA-PON) in which optical network units (ONUs) are source-free. In the experiment, we demonstrate a duplex OCDMA system with a 50 km 10 Gbit/s/user 4-user DPSK-OCDMA downlink and a 50 km 10 Gbit/s/user 4-user OOK-OCDMA uplink and error-free duplex transmissions are achieved. Besides, we investigate an all-optical self-clocked time gate, which is used for the signal regeneration of decoded signals and ensures asynchronization in the up/downstream transmissions. Furthermore, we evaluate the power budget of the proposed duplex transmission.

  13. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G.; Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R.; Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Fernandez, J.; Fuchs, J.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C 6+ , O 8+ , etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser

  14. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Krygier, A. G.; Doria, D.; Clarke, R.; Fernandez, J.; Freeman, R. R.; Fuchs, J.; Green, A.; Green, J. S.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Nersisyan, G.; Norreys, P.; Notley, M.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Ruiz, J. A.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2014-09-01

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C6 +, O8 +, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  15. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fernandez, J. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Fuchs, J. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Morrison, J. T. [Propulsion Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Lab, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-09-15

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C{sup 6+}, O{sup 8+}, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  16. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casisi, Melchiorre; De Nardi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO 2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO 2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  17. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  18. Estimation of Energy Not Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenek Medvec; Lukas Prokop

    2008-01-01

    Damages in industrial company are raising during electrical interruption of power supply. These damages have usually different character and financial damages are most usual. Value of damage is nearly pertinent to type of industrial branch and working load of production line. Total value of customer costs depends on time of interruption. The paper refers to cost calculation based on public sources for industrial company during interruption of electrical power supply.

  19. Security management of water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to present operational problems concerning the safety of the water supply and the procedures for risk management systems functioning public water supply (CWSS and including methods of hazard identification and risk assessment. Developed a problem analysis and risk assessment, including procedures called. WSP, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as a tool for comprehensive security management of water supply from source to consumer. Water safety plan is a key element of the strategy for prevention of adverse events in CWSS.

  20. Trends in uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  1. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  2. A Current Control Approach for an Abnormal Grid Supplied Ultra Sparse Z-Source Matrix Converter with a Particle Swarm Optimization Proportional-Integral Induction Motor Drive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Sina Sebtahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A rotational d-q current control scheme based on a Particle Swarm Optimization- Proportional-Integral (PSO-PI controller, is used to drive an induction motor (IM through an Ultra Sparse Z-source Matrix Converter (USZSMC. To minimize the overall size of the system, the lowest feasible values of Z-source elements are calculated by considering the both timing and aspects of the circuit. A meta-heuristic method is integrated to the control system in order to find optimal coefficient values in a single multimodal problem. Henceforth, the effect of all coefficients in minimizing the total harmonic distortion (THD and balancing the stator current are considered simultaneously. Through changing the reference point of magnitude or frequency, the modulation index can be automatically adjusted and respond to changes without heavy computational cost. The focus of this research is on a reliable and lightweight system with low computational resources. The proposed scheme is validated through both simulation and experimental results.

  3. Generation of a continuous-wave squeezed vacuum state at 1.3 μm by employing a home-made all-solid-state laser as pump source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yao-Hui; Wu Zhi-Qiang; Huo Mei-Ru; Zhou Hai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We present a continuous-wave squeezed vacuum generation system at a telecommunication wavelength of 1.3 μm. By employing a home-made single-frequency Nd:YVO 4 laser with dual wavelength outputs as the pump source, via an optical parameter oscillator based on periodically poled KTP, a squeezed vacuum of 6.1 dB±0.1 dB below the shot noise limit at 1342 nm is experimentally measured. This system could be utilized for demonstrating practical quantum information networks. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Zeolite A synthesis employing a brazilian coal ash as the silicon and aluminum source and its applications in adsorption and pigment formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindiane Bieseki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite A was synthesized using the coal ash from Siderópolis/RS - Brazil. The synthesis was based on a standard IZA synthesis using coal ash as the Si and Al source. XRF analysis showed that the coal ash has a Si/Al ratio of 1.52, which is close to the Si/Al ratio required to produce zeolite A (1.0. The synthesized materials were analyzed by XRD, SEM and N2 adsorption. More crystalline materials were obtained during synthesis when an additional treatment was applied at a temperature of 353 K at the dissolution of NaOH step. The product formed after 4 hours was the most crystalline, but even the product formed after 1 hour proved to be better than that formed using the standard 4 hours IZA synthesis. The zeolites synthesized by this method had an adsorption capacity of 120 mg.g-1 for Ca2+, half the capacity of commercial zeolite A (300 mg.g-1. It was not possible to obtain blue or green pigments using the synthesized zeolite A.

  5. Using a Single VCSEL Source Employing OFDM Downstream Signal and Remodulated OOK Upstream Signal for Bi-directional Visible Light Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Wei, Liang-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2017-11-20

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate for the first time up to our knowledge, using a 682 nm visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) applied in a bi-directional wavelength remodulated VLC system with a free space transmission distance of 3 m. To achieve a high VLC downstream traffic, spectral efficient orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing quadrature-amplitude-modulation (OFDM-QAM) with bit and power loading algorithms are applied on the VCSEL in the central office (CO). The OFDM downstream wavelength is remodulated by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) with OOK modulation to produce the upstream traffic in the client side. Hence, only a single VCSEL laser is needed for the proposed bi-directional VLC system, achieving 10.6 Gbit/s OFDM downstream and 2 Mbit/s remodulated OOK upstream simultaneously. For the proposed system, as a single laser source with wavelength remodulation is used, the laser wavelength and temperature managements at the client side are not needed; and the whole system could be cost effective and energy efficient.

  6. Novel approach for decentralized energy supply and energy storage of tall buildings in Latin America based on renewable energy sources: Case study – Informal vertical community Torre David, Caracas – Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Jimeno A.; Schlueter, Arno

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the concept of a decentralized power system based on wind energy and a pumped hydro storage system in a tall building. The system reacts to the current paradigm of power outage in Latin American countries caused by infrastructure limitations and climate change, while it fosters the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) for a more diversified and secure electricity supply. An explicit methodology describes the assessment of technical, operational and economic potentials in a specific urban setting in Caracas/Venezuela. The suitability, applicability and the impacts generated by such power system are furthermore discussed at economic, social and technical level. - Highlights: ► We have modeled an innovative pico pumped hydro-storage system and wind power system for tall buildings. ► We conducted technical, economic and social analysis on these energy supply and storage alternatives. ► The energy storage system can achieve efficiencies within 30% and 35%. ► The energy storage is realistic and economic sensible in comparison to other solutions. ► The impacts of such a system in the current living conditions and safety issues of the building are minimum

  7. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  8. Geologic studies to identify the source for high levels of radium and barium in illinois ground-water supplies: a preliminary report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, K.; Specht, S.A.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Griffin, R.A.; Larson, T.E.

    1978-08-01

    Analyses of water from municipal wells in Illinois by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency showed that more than 300 wells exceeded the upper limit for gross alpha radiation in drinking water. More than 30 wells exceeded the upper limit for barium in drinking water. High levels of radiation in ground water were more extensive in areal distribution than the high levels of barium. All of the affected wells were finished in bedrock, primarily in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems of northern Illinois. The geologic settings in which the high levels of radiation and barium were documented indicated that the problem was not restricted to Illinoise. The source of the radiation in ground water was thought to be the natural occurrence of the radioactive elements uranium-238 and thorium-232 in the aquifer rocks. Analyses of a limited number of rock samples indicated that uranium and thorium concentrations were highest in fine-grained sediments in the aquifer systems; the highest concentration was in shales that confine the aquifer. Chemical analyses of rock samples indicated that high concentrations of barium were widespread in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems. The concentration of barium in ground water was controlled by solubility equilibria reactions with sulfate ion. A map showing sulfate ion concentration in the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer could be used to delimit regions where barium might occur at concentrations exceeding 1 milligram/liter

  9. Pilot study of iron and manganese removal from Mexican drinking water supply sources; Estudio piloto para remocion de fierro y manganeso en las fuentes de abastecimiento de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonova, Verguinia Petkova; Mintchev, Mintcho Lliev; Rivera, Maria Lourdes [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    This study demonstrates the efficiency of a technique for manganese removal through adsorption-oxidation on zeolite. Several Mexican groundwater sources were selected for pilot installations. The results show that the final iron and manganese concentrations are within the limits set in the Official Mexican Standard, NOM-127-SSA1, referring to drinking water. An analysis was made of the effect of the operating rate and the granule size of the filtering material on iron and manganese removal and of calcium and magnesium salts associated with hardness. Zeolite covered with manganese precipitates was highly selective for iron and manganese; this made the treatment of groundwater with high iron and manganese concentrations possible, even in the presence of hardness and alkalinity. A description is given of the procedures to prepare the material and regenerate its filtration capacity without interrupting the filtration process. [Spanish] El presente estudio comprueba la eficiencia de la tecnica propuesta para la remocion de manganeso por adsorcion-oxidacion sobre zeolita a traves de estudios piloto en varias fuentes subterraneas de Mexico. Los resultados demuestran que la concentracion de fierro y manganeso en el agua producida cumple con la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-127-SSA1 para el consumo humano en todo los casos estudiados. Fueron analizadas la influencia de la tasa de operacion y la granulometria del material filtrante sobre el grado de remocion de fierro y manganeso, asi como el efecto de las sales de calcio y magnesio que originan la dureza del agua. Durante la experimentacion se comprobo que la zeolita recubierta con los precipitados de manganeso es altamente selectiva respecto al fierro y manganeso, lo que permite tratar el agua de las fuentes subterraneas con elevada concentracion de Fe y Mn en presencia de alta dureza y alcalinidad. En el articulo se describen los procedimientos para la preparacion del material filtrante y la regeneracion de su capacidad sin

  10. The Potential in Water Supply and Sanitation Services of the On Site Production of Sodium Hypochlorite (OSEC Driven by PV Solar Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Micangeli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the impact of an On Site Electro Chlorination (OSEC device, a system for the sodium hypochlorite production, on the improvement of health and hygienic standards in Mesoamerica focusing on Chiapas-Mexico and Costa Rica, as well as in Africa, Western Sahara (Refugees Camp and Tanzania. The threat of infectious diseases and the importance of cleaned and treated water with the consequent high impact on the vulnerable population have been studied in each of the above countries. In this framework the production of low cost sodium hypochlorite through a stand-alone system powered by PV solar source could be a good starting point in improving sanitation conditions, assuring the disinfection of water and clothes, and improve food safety. The cost analysis shows that producing sodium hypochlorite with an OSEC solar system could lead to 10 to 15 times saving with respect to the purchasing of it at market price, above all in developing countries. Furthermore, the LCA study highlights the low environmental impact of the on-site production of sodium hypochlorite through qualitative and quantitative data that demonstrate how this system has pollutant emissions from 14 to 56 times lower than the equivalent industrial process (N factor. The paper describes as well possible practical applications of the sodium hypochlorite in the African and Latin American context. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential to create an impact on the social context and microenterprises specialised in the production of hygiene and sanitation products, managed by local people selling at affordable prices and reaching the poorest villages of developing countries.

  11. Governance In Project Configured Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2006-01-01

    are integrated knowledge, material, workforce and management subsystem deliveries (the building core produced of pre-cast concrete, the elevator supply and the kitchen supply). Further 17 deliveries draws on more than 50 materials and component suppliers. The case project generated 160 failures over three months......This case study covers a Danish architectural, engineering and construction supply network for a specific building project. Failures in supply are used as indicators of the governance forms employed. The following governance forms are present; internal integration and hierarchy, SCM......-efforts, subsystem deliveries and contracting per project. The case exhibits a very uneven integration upstream: Three engineering design areas are integrated with production and the client function. Amongst supplies, the architectural design is the most 'clean-cut' knowledge supply, whereas the supplies...

  12. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  13. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  14. Chemical Characteristics, Water Sources and Pathways, and Age Distribution of Ground Water in the Contributing Recharge Area of a Public-Supply Well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Metz, Patricia A.; McBride, W. Scott; Berndt, Marian P.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. The main goal of the TANC program was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to public-supply wells in representative aquifers of the United States. Studies were first conducted at regional scales at four of the eight TANC study areas during 2002-03 and at small (local) scales during 2003-05 in California, Nebraska, Connecticut, and Florida. In the Temple Terrace study area near Tampa, Florida, multiple chemical indicators and geochemical and ground-water flow modeling techniques were used to assess the vulnerability of a public-supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer to contamination from anthropogenic and naturally occurring contaminants. During 2003-05, water samples were collected from the public-supply well and 13 surrounding monitoring wells that all tap the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 15 monitoring wells in the overlying surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit that are located within the modeled ground-water contributing recharge area of the public-supply well. Six volatile organic compounds and four pesticides were detected in trace concentrations (well below drinking-water standards) in water from the public-supply well, which had an open interval from 36 to 53 meters below land surface. These contaminants were detected more frequently in water samples from monitoring wells in the overlying clastic surficial aquifer system than in water from monitoring wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. Likewise, nitrate-N concentrations in the public-supply well (0.72-1.4 milligrams per liter) were more similar to median concentrations in the oxic surficial aquifer system (2.1 milligrams per liter) than to median nitrate-N concentrations in the anoxic

  15. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  16. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ikegami, K; Namekawa, Y; Ohkoshi, K; Tokuchi, A

    2010-02-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB(6)) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 microH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 A x 140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5% (600 micros x 25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H(-) ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 micros and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  17. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 μH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 Ax140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5%(600 μsx25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H - ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 μs and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  18. Population and Employment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Keyfitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    China's effectiveness in population control can be credited to the direct line of command through party and administrative cadres that extends from the leadership in Beijing down to the production team in a distant rural commune. The reason that the administrative machine has devoted so much attention to population control is twofold: the perceived limits of the natural environment, as indicated by slowness of growth of food supplies, and the difficulty of arranging productive employment for ...

  19. Predicting Employer's Benefits from Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.; Page, Norman R.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts to predict employer benefits resulting from their involvement in cooperative education programs. Benefits include a good source of quality employees, increased worker motivation, and increased respect between students and employers. (JOW)

  20. The relationship between security of supply and its drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between security of supply of natural gas in the UK and three possible drivers were considered. The drivers discussed are (1) supply margin, (2) reliability of supply and (3) diversity of supply. The department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform's gas security of supply model may be applied to estimate 'expected energy unserved (EEU)' according to a range of conditions of supply and demand. Supply margin and mix can be varied in the model, as can the reliability of supply sources. The paper describes work exploring the impact on the EEU of changes in these three drivers

  1. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  2. Summary Information on Employment, Characteristics, Supply, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-05-01

    AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES and pest GS 406 Agricultural extension serv- ice GS 471 Agronomy GS 437 Horticulture GS 450 General agricultural admin...sciences Agronomy Animal husbandry Fish and wildlife Forestry and range sciences Horticulture Soil specialties Biological sciences Anatomy...enzymology 7704—Experimental therapeutics , clin- ical 770&—Industrial chemicals 7706 —Neuropharmacology 7707—Pharmacodynamics 7708

  3. Sources of supply for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    In a general form, the conditions for the development of nuclear energy are discussed, e.g. market development, State participation, questions concerning safety, licences, financing, fuel cycle, competition. (UA) [de

  4. Sources of supply for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1975-01-01

    In a competitive commercial market situation, such as the one which now exists for nuclear power plants, it is necessary for each prospective buyer to make his own judgements as regards the risks and benefits, advantages and disadvantages of the different suppliers. These judgements should be based on factual data and on some firm criteria supplemented by considerations stemming from the local situation. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss these criteria and considerations and how they can be applied to the data basis. (orig./FW) [de

  5. Cobalt internal standard for Ni to assist the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry employing direct solid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Babos, Diego Victor; Bechlin, Marcos André; Barros, Ariane Isis; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; de Oliveira, Silvana Ruella

    2016-05-15

    A new method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS), employing direct solid sample analysis (DSS) and internal standardization (IS). Cobalt was used as internal standard to minimize matrix effects during Ni determinations, enabling the use of aqueous standards for calibration. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves were typically better than 0.9937. The performance of the method was checked by analysis of six plant certified reference materials, and the results for Mo and Ni were in agreement with the certified values (95% confidence level, t-test). Analysis was made of different types of plant materials used as renewable sources of energy, including sugarcane leaves, banana tree fiber, soybean straw, coffee pods, orange bagasse, peanut hulls, and sugarcane bagasse. The concentrations found for Mo and Ni ranged from 0.08 to 0.63 ng mg(-1) and from 0.41 to 6.92 ng mg(-1), respectively. Precision (RSD) varied from 2.1% to 11% for Mo and from 3.7% to 10% for Ni. Limits of quantification of 0.055 and 0.074 ng were obtained for Mo and Ni, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  7. Breastfeeding and employment: an assessment of employer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C

    2002-08-01

    Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.

  8. Effects of health insurance on labour supply: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quynh, Nga Le Thi; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M.; Tomini, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a systematic review of empirical evidence on the labour supply effects of health insurance. The outcomes in the 63 studies reviewed include labour supply in terms of hours worked and the probability of employment, self-employment and the level of economic formalisation. One of

  9. Method for controlling an accelerator-type neutron source, and a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The patent deals with an accelerator-type neutron source which employs a target, an ionization section and a replenisher for supplying accelerator gas. A positive voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section to produce a burst of neutrons. A negative voltage pulse is applied to the ionization section upon the termination of the positive voltage pulse to effect a sharp cut-off to the burst of neutrons. 4 figs

  10. Risk Management in Supply Chain using Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jafarnejad; Mehran Ebrahimi; Mohammad Ali Abbaszadeh; Seyed Mehdi Abtahi

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, supply chains are exposed to numerous risks. Thus, to success in risky business environment, it is imperative for firms to systematically manage supply chain risks. Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of supply chain risks. The purpose of this paper is to propose a comprehensive approach to risk management in supply chains. Thus, by an appropriate review of the literature, supply chain risk sources are identified in six areas. Then, a CFPR method is...

  11. PSC/PSI power supply control prototype based on RTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Haoli; Wang Chunhong; Tang Jingyu

    2010-01-01

    A PSC/PSI power supply control prototype was developed by using an open-source real-time operating system RTEMS and PSC/PSI power supply controller developed by BNL. The structure of the prototype, development procedures as well as testing result with a power supply of a corrector magnet were described. It can switch on/off the power supply, ramp up/down the current, and monitor the real-time states of the power supply. (authors)

  12. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  13. A tactical supply chain planning model with multiple flexibility options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmaeilikia, Masoud; Fahimnia, Behnam; Sarkis, Joeseph

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain flexibility is widely recognized as an approach to manage uncertainty. Uncertainty in the supply chain may arise from a number of sources such as demand and supply interruptions and lead time variability. A tactical supply chain planning model with multiple flexibility options...... incorporated in sourcing, manufacturing and logistics functions can be used for the analysis of flexibility adjustment in an existing supply chain. This paper develops such a tactical supply chain planning model incorporating a realistic range of flexibility options. A novel solution method is designed...

  14. Energy supply today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is the synthesis of two lectures on the energy market in the FRG and the problems of the future energy supply. The main point of the explanations is nuclear energy and power supply the basic thoughts of which are explained in detail. A general view at the present situation on the individual energy sections shows that by using regenerative energy sources and energy savings only the increasing energy need cannot be met. Also in the case of coal, when having used it for a long time through the technologies of gasification and liquidation, its quantitative limits will be seen sooner than it would be the case otherwise. For long terms, nuclear energy is the only way to guarantee the mankind a relatively rishless supply of energy in the generation of power and process heat, especially when the fast breeders are used. (UA) [de

  15. Maintenance management of emergency power supply equipment (uninterruptible power supply) in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Kyosuke; Hiyama, Hisao; Shibata, Satomi; Iwasaki, Shogo; Inami, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Uninterruptible power supply systems are installed in the Tokai reprocessing plant in preparation for the emergency case that the commercial power supply is stopped by an accidental or intentional interruption in the supply of electricity. The uninterruptible power supply system particularly provides a temporary power source to the important devices for the radiation control of nuclear critical monitoring in the plant. Thus, the system is potentially important and essential for nuclear plants. The paper reports the current activities such as regular inspections, replacement of parts and system update, to maintain the function of uninterruptible power supply systems. (author)

  16. North American natural gas supply dynamics: A focus on U.S. supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses US natural gas supply dynamics in the context of the North American gas marketplace. Supply fundamentals are examined, methodology is briefly presented, regional supply outlooks are discussed. Assumptions, drivers and issues are highlighted. The analysis and outlook indicate that the sizeable North American resource base can be economically developed to supply growing US natural gas requirements. The major incremental supply sources are likely to come from deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountain regions, onshore Texas and imports from Canada. Given this outlook, major business and investment opportunities exist for the gas upstream and midstream sectors despite some short-term challenges

  17. Applying Best Supply Chain Practices to Humanitarian Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Roberta S.; Hiller, Janine S.

    2015-01-01

    With the growth in length and breadth of extended supply chains, more companies are employing risk management techniques and resilience planning to deal with burgeoning and costly supply chain disruptions. As companies can learn from humanitarian groups, so can humanitarian groups learn from industry how to respond, recover, and prepare for these disruptive events. This paper looks at industry leaders in supply chain risk management and explores how humanitarian supply chains can learn from i...

  18. Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 2: Predicted emplacement processes and observations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    We utilize a theoretical analysis of the generation, ascent, intrusion and eruption of basaltic magma on the Moon to develop new insights into magma source depths, supply processes, transport and emplacement mechanisms via dike intrusions, and effusive and explosive eruptions. We make predictions about the intrusion and eruption processes and compare these with the range of observed styles of mare volcanism, and related features and deposits. Density contrasts between the bulk mantle and regions with a greater abundance of heat sources will cause larger heated regions to rise as buoyant melt-rich diapirs that generate partial melts that can undergo collection into magma source regions; diapirs rise to the base of the anorthositic crustal density trap (when the crust is thicker than the elastic lithosphere) or, later in history, to the base of the lithospheric rheological trap (when the thickening lithosphere exceeds the thickness of the crust). Residual diapiric buoyancy, and continued production and arrival of diapiric material, enhances melt volume and overpressurizes the source regions, producing sufficient stress to cause brittle deformation of the elastic part of the overlying lithosphere; a magma-filled crack initiates and propagates toward the surface as a convex upward, blade-shaped dike. The volume of magma released in a single event is likely to lie in the range 102 km3 to 103 km3, corresponding to dikes with widths of 40-100 m and both vertical and horizontal extents of 60-100 km, favoring eruption on the lunar nearside. Shallower magma sources produce dikes that are continuous from the source region to the surface, but deeper sources will propagate dikes that detach from the source region and ascend as discrete penny-shaped structures. As the Moon cools with time, the lithosphere thickens, source regions become less abundant, and rheological traps become increasingly deep; the state of stress in the lithosphere becomes increasingly contractional

  19. Nevada test site water-supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 15 water-supply wells are currently being used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this report is to bring together the information gleaned from investigations of these water-supply wells. This report should serve as a reference on well construction and completion, static water levels, lithologic and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers penetrated, and general water quality of water-supply wells at the NTS. Possible sources for contamination of the water-supply wells are also evaluated. Existing wells and underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 meters (m)) or below the water table within 2 kilometers (km) of a water-supply were located and their hydrogeologic relationship to the water-supply well determined

  20. Alignment of global supply networks based on strategic groups of supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Moraitakis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: From a supply chain perspective, often big differences exist between global raw material suppliers’ approaches to supply their respective local markets. The progressing complexity of large centrally managed global supply networks and their often-unknown upstream ramifications increase the likelihood of undetected bottlenecks and inefficiencies. It is therefore necessary to develop an approach to strategically master the upstream complexity of such networks from a holistic supply chain perspective in order to align regional competitive priorities and supply chain structures. The objective of this research is hence to develop an approach for the supply-chain-based alignment of complex global supply networks. Method: We review existing literature from the fields of supply chain and network management, strategic sourcing, and strategic management. Based on the literature review and theoretical and practical considerations we deduce a conceptual approach to consider upstream supply chain structures in supply network alignment initiatives. Results: On the basis of these considerations and current empirical literature we transfer strategic group theory to the supply network management context. The proposed approach introduces strategic groups of supply chains as a segmentation criterion for complex global supply networks which enables the network-wide alignment of competitive priorities. Conclusion: Supply-chain-based segmentation of global supply network structures can effectively reduce the complexity, firms face when aiming to strategically align their supply chains on a holistic level. The results of this research are applicable for certain types of global supply networks and can be used for network alignment and strategy development. The approach can furthermore generate insights useable for negotiation support with suppliers.

  1. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  2. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF DISABLED EMPLOYERS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Nagymáté

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays employment is an evergreen topic in Hungary. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the state (on the basis of the 8/1983. EüM-PM Hungarian Law, for example for the group n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. My main goal is to analyze the n#8216;rehabilitationn#8217; of disabled people and to study the related firms and the connection between the employers and employees. My intentions were also to create a strategy for these people to be employed again and for the firms to be motivated to employ them. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217; can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of n#8216;people living with disabilitiesn#8217;. The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities. Unfortunately, most of the enterprises donn#8217;t intend to employ disabled persons. Questionnaires were created in order to study the relationship between people living with disabilities and their possibilities to get employed on the labour market again. My study had two phases. In the first phase we focused on individual persons providing anonymity of the questionnaires. The research focused on special rehabilitation firms and their employees too (they are specialised to employ disabled employers. Two questionnaires for the above mentioned firms and their employees were created in order to gather information on their activities as well as relationship between the firms and its employees. It can be stated that this paper shows the relationship between the employers and employees. I will analyze the importance of factors in working among employers and

  3. Supply Cain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  4. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Cepni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand of economic agents. In this study, we investigate which of the money supply theories holds in Turkish economy for the period 2006-2015 by employing cointegration and causality tests. Our findings show that the causality runs from bank loans to money supply both in the short and long terms, which supports the endogenous view in a sense that central bank and the banks fully meet the total demand for money in Turkish economy.

  5. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  6. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  7. Employment effects of biofuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, B.O.; Hektor, B.

    1992-01-01

    Effects on employment - national and regional - from an expanding market for biofuels in Sweden are estimated in this article. The fuels considered are: Peat, straw, energy crops, silviculture, forestry waste, wood waste, by-products from paper/wood industry and processed fuels from these sources. (22 refs., tabs.)

  8. Mineral supplies for atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C S

    1950-03-31

    In a preliminary discussion the author describes the process of fission and discusses the materials required. Geological considerations are presented along with information regarding the occurrences of thorium and uranium deposits. The chief sources of uranium ore are the Belgian Congo, the Great Bear Lake in Canada, the Erzgebirge in Bohemia, and the low grade carnotite ore in Colorado, and possibly a deposit in Siberia. The monazite sands of Travancore are the most useful source of thoria today. The world's supply of uranium is somewhat under 10,000 tons of ore annually and thorium approximately 5,000 tons of suitable monazite sand.

  9. Dynamic Heat Supply Prediction Using Support Vector Regression Optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an effective intelligent model to predict the dynamic heat supply of heat source. A hybrid forecasting method was proposed based on support vector regression (SVR model-optimized particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithms. Due to the interaction of meteorological conditions and the heating parameters of heating system, it is extremely difficult to forecast dynamic heat supply. Firstly, the correlations among heat supply and related influencing factors in the heating system were analyzed through the correlation analysis of statistical theory. Then, the SVR model was employed to forecast dynamic heat supply. In the model, the input variables were selected based on the correlation analysis and three crucial parameters, including the penalties factor, gamma of the kernel RBF, and insensitive loss function, were optimized by PSO algorithms. The optimized SVR model was compared with the basic SVR, optimized genetic algorithm-SVR (GA-SVR, and artificial neural network (ANN through six groups of experiment data from two heat sources. The results of the correlation coefficient analysis revealed the relationship between the influencing factors and the forecasted heat supply and determined the input variables. The performance of the PSO-SVR model is superior to those of the other three models. The PSO-SVR method is statistically robust and can be applied to practical heating system.

  10. Project and supply agreement: Agreement of 28 February 1992 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron source reactor and enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China for the transfer of a 30 KW miniature neutron source reactor for radioisotope production, research and tracing and of approximately 980.40 grams of uranium enriched to approximately 90.2 percent by weight in the isotope uranium-235 contained in fuel elements for the supplied reactor. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992, signed in Vienna on 28 February 1992, and entered into force on 18 May 1992. 1 tab

  11. 26 CFR 31.3111-4 - Liability for employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for employer tax. 31.3111-4 Section...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers...

  12. Storage and security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper considers the relationship between energy security and the consumption, supply and storage of natural gas, as agreed between the IEA Member countries. Additional supplies of natural gas should be obtained from as diverse sources as possible with emphasis on indigenous OECD sources. Instruments for coping with supply disruptions, such as underground storage of gas, interruptible gas sales, and dual-fired capabilities should be strengthened. These instruments, however, in combination with contractual swing factors, are also used to cope with fluctuations in demand for natural gas. The future demand and supply of natural gas in OECD Europe and North America is discussed. In OECD Europe the growth in residential and commercial demand is expected to be sustained, and, in both OECD Europe and North America, there is a further potential demand for gas for electricity generation. As residential and commercial demand (which is very temperature-dependent) grows, the need for storage facilities, interruptible sales contracts, dual-fired capabilities and swing factors in contracts will increase in order to balance the load. An expansion of gas demand for baseload electricity generation could, however, increase the load factor. Figures for the size of the storage capacity in 1987 and plans for future increases show that storage capacity is increasing. It is concluded that new underground storage represents an important contribution to the strengthening of each country's ability both to balance loads and to deal with supply disruptions. The IEA countries rely on the gas utilities to provide storage and other instruments for both purposes. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  14. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  15. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen..., during the flight, the quantity of oxygen available in each source of supply. (d) Each required flight...

  17. 46 CFR 113.10-9 - Power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 113.10-9 Section 113.10-9 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-9 Power supply. (a) General... battery, the charger must be supplied from the final emergency power source. Upon loss of power to the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 25.1441... Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, the... oxygen available in each source of supply. (d) The oxygen flow rate and the oxygen equipment for...

  19. Diesel engine cogeneration plants in the context of integration of renewable energy sources in power supply; Dieselmotor-Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen im Kontext der Integration Erneuerbarer Energien in die Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, John

    2010-10-29

    be used optimally for mobility. The main assessment criteria for this are global warming potential, cumulated energy demand and exergy generation. Furthermore it also investigates potential sources from where the necessary bio energy for Diesel motors could be obtained. It is evident that the agricultural area available in Germany will only enable the production of a small part of the bio energy needed for the German power supply. An interesting option would be to make use of biogas on a larger scale and to import vegetable oils from outside Europe. This should mainly be carried out using degraded land, which would require an agricultural area in the range of 6 to 12 Mio. ha. Final results show that using renewable fuels, and after the integration of wind power, a full balance of the residual load by cogeneration, is reasonable and feasible. Such a wind-cogeneration DSM system should be supplemented by a stronger UCTE electricity grid and by the integration of hydro power plants for balancing power, which will enable the large-scale exchange of renewable energies within Europe and the neighboring regions.

  20. Supply and Demand Mismatches in Training: Can Anything Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; de Andrade, Antonio Cabral

    1990-01-01

    Vocational training often fails to provide what employers need and students want. To correct supply/demand mismatches requires improving feedback from employers, increasing the flow of information, bringing schools closer to businesses, rewarding institutions for successful employment of graduates, and providing incentives for entrepreneurs. (SK)

  1. Becoming Self-Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  2. Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenglong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui; Zhang, Yingjun; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF). This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs), showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g−1) was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W), 19.33% maggot manure (W/W), 15.50% (V/W)hydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W) inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n) were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper) by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application. PMID:26974549

  3. Identifying risk event in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, H. C.; Vanany, I.; Ciptomulyono, U.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk issues in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain from the farm until to the “plate”. The critical points for food safety in physical fresh meat product flow are also identified. The paper employed one case study in the Indonesian fresh meat company by conducting observations and in-depth three stages of interviews. At the first interview, the players, process, and activities in the fresh meat industry were identified. In the second interview, critical points for food safety were recognized. The risk events in each player and process were identified in the last interview. The research will be conducted in three stages, but this article focuses on risk identification process (first stage) only. The second stage is measuring risk and the third stage focuses on determining the value of risk priority. The results showed that there were four players in the fresh meat supply chain: livestock (source), slaughter (make), distributor and retail (deliver). Each player has different activities and identified 16 risk events in the fresh meat supply chain. Some of the strategies that can be used to reduce the occurrence of such risks include improving the ability of laborers on food safety systems, improving cutting equipment and distribution processes

  4. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  5. Intracorporeal Heat Distribution from Fully Implantable Energy Sources for Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Computational Proof-of-Concept Study

    OpenAIRE

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Pustavoitau, Aliaksei; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices, such as total artificial hearts and left ventricular assist devices, rely on external energy sources for their continuous operation. Clinically approved power supplies rely on percutaneous cables connecting an external energy source to the implanted device with the associated risk of infections. One alternative, investigated in the 70s and 80s, employs a fully implanted nuclear power source. The heat generated by the nuclear decay can be converted into ...

  6. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  7. MULTI-HEAT SOURCE SOLAR HEAT PUMP HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE SIMULATION%复合热源太阳能热泵供热系统及其性能模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 张小松

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种复合热源太阳能热泵供热系统,通过阀门切换,可根据不同的天气状况改变运行模式,以空气和太阳辐射作为热源制取供暖用水.针对所设计的lOkw供热系统,建立了系统的数学模型,对热泵串联集热器(SC+HP)及集热器串联热泵(HP+SC)两种运行模式下的循环性能进行了计算机模拟分析,并计算了系统的全年运行状况.从模拟结果可以看出,在模拟进水温度区间内,HP+SC模式下热泵COP较高,最高比SC+HP模式高2.58%;而SC+HP模式集热器热性能较好,总热效率更高,最高比HP+SC模式高2.62%.%A compound solar heat pump heat supply system was presented. The system can make heating water from air source and solar radiation by valve switching, based on different weather conditions. A numerical model for a l0kW heating utilizing was established. The circulation performances of solar collector with heat pump( SC + HP) and heat pump with solar collector( Hp + SC) operation modes were simulated. The all year round operation status was also caculated.The results have shown that the COP of HP + SC mode is at most 2.58 % higher than SC + HP mode in simulation water temperature range. But the latter has a better collector thermal performance and overall thermal efficiency is at most 2.62 % higher than the former.

  8. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  9. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  10. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  11. Energy saving type area hot water supply system using heat of hot waste water from the sludge center as hot source for hot water; New energy rokko airando CITY. Surajjisenta karano onhaisuinetsu wo kyuyuyo netsugen ni riyosuru sho energy gata chiiki onsui kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Heat source of area hot water supply system in Rokko island City (man-made island) is heat of combustion at the sludge center (sludge incineration plant) in this island. Dehydrated sludge cakes (230ton/day) brought from seven sewage disposal plants in Kobe City is combusted (850degC) in the fluid bed hearth. Combustion gas washed in the scrubber, hot waste water after the washing give heat into heat transfer water in the first heat exchanger. Temperature being 64degC in summer and about 50degC in winter, this heat transfer water is sent into the second heat exchanger at every condominium building throughout the pipe line system circulating in the area. At each home, gas heater and hot water supply devices fitted, additional combustion is not necessary in summer but is used according to demand in other seasons. This hot water supply service has been carried out since 1988 and at present has been used by 3600 homes. Amount of supplying hot water being about 3000cu.m/day, saving is calculated roughly as 60% of gas for hot water supply. Fee for this system is 1500/yen/month uniformly for each home. 14 figs.

  12. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  13. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  14. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  15. SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS: LITERATURE REVIEW AND A NEW CATEGORIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Er Kara, Merve; Oktay Fırat, Seniye Ümit

    2017-01-01

    Identification of risks is the first step to build a resilient and sustainable supply chain and develop proactive risk management strategies. Supply chains contain numerous risks with different forms, probabilities and impacts. Supply chain risks have a multi-dimensional nature and can result from a wide variety of sources including demand and supply variability, poor performing suppliers, price fluctuations, dynamic consumer markets, global economic uncertainty, and even unexpected events su...

  16. The life cycle greenhouse gas implications of a UK gas supply transformation on a future low carbon electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; O'Grady, Áine

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas used for power generation will be increasingly sourced from more geographically diverse sites, and unconventional sources such as shale and biomethane, as natural gas reserves diminish. A consequential life cycle approach was employed to examine the implications of an evolving gas supply on the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of a future United Kingdom (UK) electricity system. Three gas supply mixes were developed based on supply trends, from present day to the year 2050. The contribution of upstream gas emissions - such as extraction, processing/refining, - is not fully reported or covered by UK government legislation. However, upstream gas emissions were seen to be very influential on the future electricity systems analysed; with upstream gas emissions per MJ rising between 2.7 and 3.4 times those of the current supply. Increased biomethane in the gas supply led to a substantial reduction in direct fossil emissions, which was found to be critical in offsetting rising upstream emissions. Accordingly, the modelled high shale gas scenario, with the lowest biomethane adoption; resulted in the highest GHG emissions on a life cycle basis. The long-term dynamics of upstream processes are explored in this work to help guide future decarbonisation policies. - Highlights: • United Kingdom is set to undergo a large gas supply transformation. • Three potential gas mix scenarios were developed based on supply trends. • A consequential life cycle approach was taken to examine the evolving gas supply. • Upstream emissions were seen to rise substantially for all gas supply scenarios. • High shale gas mix resulted in greatest emissions due to low influx of biomethane.

  17. An integrated mine development and supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, T. [Brambles Coal Services, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    In the face of intense global competition and other business pressures on coal miners, ongoing quality initiatives and continuous process improvements are needed to enhance business performance. By viewing a minesite interms of key processes, rather than departments, and employing innovative technologies and better applying organisational resources, there exists enormous potential to achieve reductions in process cost and time. The paper identifies and selects one critical coal mining process, namely the supply system, to think about how productivity improvements might occur and what changes might be employed to enhance overall system performance. While the supply system is one of few processes existing at a minesite, the paper addresses only the supply process, but includes interaction across traditional interdepartmental boundaries. The paper has been prepared for a wide audience and is based on experience and observation at several underground mines however some of the concepts are a result of dreaming in the face of global competition. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Supply Chain Disruptions Theory and Practice of Managing Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrotra, Anuj; Ray, Saibal

    2012-01-01

    One of the most critical issues facing supply chain managers in today’s globalized and highly uncertain business environments is how to deal proactively with disruptions that might affect the complicated supply networks characterizing modern enterprises. Supply Chain Disruptions: Theory and Practice of Managing Risk presents a state-of the-art perspective on this particular issue. Supply Chain Disruptions: Theory and Practice of Managing Risk demonstrates that effective management of supply disruptions necessitates both strategic and tactical measures – the former involving optimal design of supply networks; the latter involving inventory, finance and demand management. It shows that managers ought to use all available levers at their disposal throughout the supply network – like sourcing and pricing strategies, providing financial subsidies, encouraging information sharing and incentive alignment between supply chain partners – in order to tackle supply disruptions. The editors combine up-to-date aca...

  19. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source machine requires a number of correction magnets; five kinds for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring. Three types of bipolar power supply will be used for all the correction magnets. This paper describes the design aspects and considerations for correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Ensuring effective supply chain management under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Iryna Sergiivna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identified the main sources of uncertainty in supply chains and tools to mitigate them. The necessity of functional, spatial and temporal integration and linkage of decision-making at different management levels. Determined that the optimization of information flow can occur due to the “shrink” in time, volume and direction, this process should be preceded by a thorough analysis and rethinking of the business processes of a complex system of supply chains.

  1. The supply solutions for isolated rural consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, Gheorghe; Solomon, Petre; Hazi, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This paper establishes the supply optimal solutions for isolated rural consumers. A complex technical-economical calculation method is developed for selection of the best solutions. This analysis is based on the minimization of the net present value, NPV, criterion. Using the results of this calculation, one can select easily the supply solution for a given active power and for a given distance separating the power source and the isolated consumer. (authors)

  2. Global supply chain: The consolidators’ role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Caiazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenges and opportunities of the global market lead agro-food small and medium firms (SMEs to focus their source of value on production of high quality goods and implementation of flexible and robust supply chains. Despite the relevance of consolidators in the supply chain, few articles demonstrate their role in internationalization strategies of SMEs. In order to fill this literature gap, this article shows factors that affect global success of SMEs and offers some advice to decision makers.

  3. Gas supply for independent power projects: Drilling programs and reserve acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Walker, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Developers of gas-fired independent power projects, although drawn to gas as the fuel of choice for economic and environmental reasons, are finding the problem of cost-effective gas supply to be intractable. By one estimate, there are $6 billion worth of gas-fired projects languishing in the planning stage for want of long-term gas supply that is acceptable to project lenders. Worse still, as the authors are aware, some currently operating gas-fired projects lack such a supply, thus forcing the developer to rely on the spot market for gas as an interim (and unsatisfactory) solution. Although spot market prices in the deregulated natural gas industry have remained relatively low over several years, long-term gas supply has become problematic, particularly for power projects whose economics typically require an assured supply at a determined price over a multiyear period. In short, while there is an increasing demand for gas as a preferred source of fuel supply for power projects, there are discontinuities in the approaches taken to contracting for that supply by producers and developers. These concern primarily allocation of the risk of commodity-driven price increases during the term of the fuel supply contract. Without a means of accommodating price-related risk, the parties will inevitably find themselves at an impasse in contract negotiations. If there is a barrier to the independent power generation industry's vertical integration into gas production, it is the fundamental insularity of the two industries. As they have discovered, it may be indispensable for gas producers and power developers to employ intermediaries familiar with both industries in order to consummate appropriate joint-venture drilling programs and reserve acquisitions. Given the economic consequences of doing so successfully, however, they believe such programs and acquisitions may become an integral part of independent power developers' business strategy in the 1990s and beyond

  4. The Employer Perspective on Sustainable Employability in the Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. METHODS: Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. RESULTS: Employers

  5. U.S. gas supply overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.

    1999-01-01

    The most recent outlook by Purvin and Gertz regarding the long-term supply potential of oil and gas producing basins in the United States was presented. The role that technology will play in extending their economic reach was also discussed. The focus of this paper was on regional supply, inter regional gas flows and related issues such as pricing. A series of maps depicting production (in Tcf) of various basins in North America showed that the important supply sources are in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains, onshore Texas and Canada. Natural gas pricing from 1990 to 2020 has been forecasted to steadily increase. 1 tab., 11 figs

  6. Legal aspects of nuclear fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartorelli, C.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the problems of nuclear fuel supply in the context of the types of purchase of uranium, the different technical operations involved (enrichment, reprocessing) and finally, the control exercised over such materials in the framework of IAEA Safeguards and the ''London Club'' agreement between the supplying countries. A description follows of the functions of the Euratom Supply Agency in application of the Euratom's Treaty's provisions on the principle of equal access to ores, source and special fissile materials for Community countries. (NEA) [fr

  7. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    The central theme of this report is to assess the adequacy of uranium resources to meet future requirements based on a range of opinions as to the future of nuclear power. The report discusses three demand cases that project uranium requirements from 2000 to 2050. The report also reviews the supply sources that are expected to be available to meet reactor uranium demand through to 2050. Supply is divided into two broad categories: secondary and primary supply. The report also assesses the adequacy of uranium resources to satisfy market based production requirements

  8. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  10. Agreement of 10 September 1991 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 10 September 1991, between the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 20 February 1990 and entered into force upon signature on 10 September 1991

  11. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  12. Perspectives of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  13. Supply chains in global production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Mazaraki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Analyzing the current processes of global sales and sales interaction over the past two decades shows that the world’s system of exchanges has undergone significant changes that have been caused by a multitude of factors. The formation of a complex model of global production, determined by the peculiarities of the transformation of individual economies’ growth models, the specifics of their industrialization and the forms of development of their national production business, its institutional and market-wise restructuring and the degree of inclusion in the system of international division of labor. The change in the level and depth of the specialization of individual countries in the field of production and sale of products, in turn, has accelerated the overcoming of economic distance (which is measured by the cost of transport and information services. Based on the above, namely, within the framework of forming a new model of global production, the issue of studying the role and value of supply chains in this model is made relevant. Aim and tasks. The purpose of the article is to study the modern transformation of supply chains within the global production system. The findings will allow to determine what exactly needs to be done in the direction of further redeveloping the regulatory tools of global supply chain management. Research results. The article presents the results of studying the transformation of supply chains’ role in global production. It is determined that taking into account the existing specificity of industrialization and fragmentation of national production, as well as the rapid spread of the results of scientific and technological progress in the world economy, there is a need for a more thorough study of this change. As a result of analyzing open source statistical data, a conclusion was reached regarding the transition from the competition of individual business entities to the competition of global

  14. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  15. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  16. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  17. Employment in Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenberg, Gene; Huston, Jane

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in employment in agribusiness. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment information (training plans/agreements and wages, taxes, and fringe benefits); human relations (employer/employee/customer relations and communication skills);…

  18. Social innovation in employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  19. Solar heating and employment in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, P A

    1978-01-01

    If solar heating technology is to be introduced into sections of Canada as a way to alleviate unemployment problems and stimulate the manufacturing sector, realistic expectations must be grounded in better estimates of solar energy's potential than were made by early nuclear power enthusiasts. A study by Middleton Associates identified a number of factors affecting employment. These include implementation rates, choice of technologies, industry size, government involvement, location, and the share of solar heating relative to other heating sources. An employment simulation model using available technologies as inputs suggests that solar heating is feasible on the basis of both energy source and employment strategy. Model results are favorable for direct and indirect employment, while displacement effects on employment in conventional fuel industries are minor. Direct employment is affected more by implementation rates than by variations in the amount of imported equipment.

  20. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  1. Certification of Public Librarians in the United States; A Detailed Summary of Legal and Voluntary Certification Plans for Public Librarians Based on Information Supplied by the Various Certificating State Agencies or other Appropriate Sources, 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Ruth R.; Coyne, John R.

    Contained in this report is a detailed summary of legal and voluntary certification plans for public librarians in each of the 50 states. Descriptions of the certification plans for public librarians are based on information supplied by state agencies in September 1971. Each plan is identified by the descriptive terms--mandatory, permissive or…

  2. Development planning and employment generations: achievements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development planning and employment generations: achievements, challenges and ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The paper mainly utilizes secondary data through the analysis of books, journals, reports and electronic sources.

  3. Labour Supply as a Buffer: Evidence from UK Households

    OpenAIRE

    Benito, Andrew; Saleheen, Jumana

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines labour supply adjustment – both hours worked and participation decisions. The analysis focuses on the response of each to financial shocks, employing data from the British Household Panel Survey. Results suggest that employees whose financial situation deteriorates relative to what they expected, increase their labour supply in response. That response is consistent with models of self-insurance that incorporate labour supply flexibility. The shock reflects several factors ...

  4. Lithium - no shortage in supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last five years the face of the lithium industry has changed with new sources coming onto the market. The result of developments in supply is a buyers' market and, in the absence of major consumer developments, all things point to an increasing severely overcrowded market through the turn of the decade. As such lithium is likely to maintain charismatic appeal as developments unfold. This article provides an overview of the world's lithium industry and looks at the various market uses and potential. (author)

  5. Labor supply of engineers and scientists for nuclear electric utilities, 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of the adequacy of the supply of health physicists, nuclear engineers, and other engineers for the nuclear electric utility industry is based on job openings for scientists and engineers in broader nuclear-power-related fields, which include engineering and design, manufacturing, fabrication, supporting services, and government. In assessing the likely adequacy of labor supplies for commercial nuclear power job openings over the next 5 yr, consideration has been given to competing sources of labor demands, including nuclear energy research and development activities, nuclear defense, and the total US economy, and to the likely supply of new graduates. In particular, over the last 3 yr, the number of degrees awarded and enrollments in nuclear engineering programs have declined 12 and 14%, respectively, and in health physics programs, 5 and 14%, respectively. For health physics and nuclear engineers, tight labor market conditions (i.e. labor supplies and demand balanced at relatively high salaries) are expected over the next 5 yr because of declining enrollments and slowly growing employment levels plus job replacement needs. The commercial nuclear power field is expected to face tight labor markets for electrical and materials engineers because of strong competing demands in the economy. Other engineering occupations are likely to have adequate supplies for the nuclear power field but at salaries that continue to be relatively higher than salaries for other professional occupations

  6. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  7. Inclusive Information Societies: Creating Growth and Employment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment for youth and women. The project has two components. The first focuses on outsourcing service sector work (micro-work and rural impact sourcing) in India, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. This sector can play a vital role in creating employment, particularly for youth and women in semi-urban and rural areas.

  8. Special Issue: Productive Employment for the Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaude, Jacques, Ed.; Miller, Steven, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This special issue contains nine articles on labor-intensive public works, social investment funds, rural infrastructure projects, grassroots socioeconomic rights, remuneration systems for self-help projects, road construction and rural transport, employment and environmental rehabilitation, and water as a source of employment. (SK)

  9. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  10. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W., E-mail: franciscocho@nfri.re.kr; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  11. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W.; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  12. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  13. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  14. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  15. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  16. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  17. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  18. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  19. Cost of heat from a seasonal source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, R. W.; Brown, D. R.; Huber, H. D.

    Results are reported of an investigation to estimate the cost of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) from a seasonal heat source. The cost of supplying energy (hot water) from an ATES system is estimated. Three types of loads are investigated: point demands, residential developments, and a multidistrict city. Several technical and economic factors are found to control the economic performance of an ATES system. Costs are found to be prohibitive for systems of small size, long transmission distances, and employing expensive purchased thermal energy. ATES is found to be cost-competitive with oil-fired and electric hot water delivery systems under a broad range of potential situations.

  20. 1000-kVA arc power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.E.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    Because of ever-increasing power demands for the development of the Oak Ridge duoPIGatron ion source, a continuous-duty arc power supply was constructed for the Medium Energy Test Facility (METF) to furnish power for the plasma generator of experimental ion sources. The power supply utilizes 12-pulse rectification with half-wave switching in a delta and wye full-wave bridge that may be connected in series or parallel. It will deliver 340 V dc, 2500 A to an ion source when series connected and 170 V dc, 5000 A when paralleled connected. Silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR) in each rectifier bridge can be switched for pulses as short as 10 ms through continuous duty. The filter section that reduces the ripple in the output consists of an inductor-to-capacitor (L-C) filter to smooth the 720-Hz pulses. The power transformer serves as an isolation transformer allowing the secondary to be elevated to the accelerating potential of the ion source. The dc output level is controlled with a 1000-kVA auto transformer connected to the primary of the power transformer. All elevated voltages and currents are monitored at ground potential with an optical telemetry system. This paper describes the power supply in detail, including block diagrams, component specifications, and waveforms when supplying power to an ion source

  1. 26 CFR 31.3221-1 - Measure of employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employer tax. 31.3221-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3221-1...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3111-1 - Measure of employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employer tax. 31.3111-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3111...

  3. Using the Theory of Constraints for Effective Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archie Lockhamy III

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides methodology and guidelines for employing a 'constraint-based approach for effective supply chain management. The article explores the shortcomings of using a traditional supply chain management as well as an Activity Based Management (ABM approach in the managing of supply chains. In addition, the article introduces a supply chain management methodology based on achieving a global optimum for the entire chain. Examples are provided on how constraint-based techniques are currently being applied to the management of certain subsets of the supply chain. Guidelines are presented for managing supply chains using a constraint-based approach. Finally, the article ends with the discussion of the implications regarding the use of a constraint-based approach to the management of supply chains along with the need for future research in this area.

  4. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  5. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  6. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  7. Tuning magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  8. Graduate Attributes and Employability Skills: Graduates' Perspectives on Employers' Expectations in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Rakesh; Priyadarshi, Pushpendra; Al Fazari, Mariam Humaid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Supply and demand characteristics, influenced by the pre- and post-oil economy of Oman, have caused unemployment challenges to Omani graduates. The purpose of this paper is to explore the most common graduate attributes as they apply to graduates' employability in Oman. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the principles of…

  9. Information Literacy and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Information Literacy (IL) and its relationship to third level graduates’ employability has gained more attention in recent years. This article examines how IL has evolved from skills initially associated with academic libraries into a key workplace skill set of the knowledge economy. It outlines the challenges interviewees encounter when selling IL to employers, how IL can be utilised when preparing for upcoming interviews and suggests a distinction between workplace IL and employability IL. ...

  10. Comparison of series regulated neutral beam accel supplies with shunt regulated accel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.; Smith, B.H.

    1976-01-01

    This study was undertaken to get a direct comparison between comparable series and shunt regulated power supplies. It is intended that the two supplies will be strictly equivalent with the same safety factors in the design of each type and the cost estimates made on the same basis. The series regulated power supply is simply a scaled up version of the 2XIIB Accel Supplies. Each supply provides 150 kV, 65 ampere, 500 ms pulse output such as will be used on the TFTR sources. The shunt regulated power supply uses high reactance transformers to provide the series impedance for the shunt regulator. The most significant difference in the performance of the two types of power supplies is that the shunt regulated supply has a minimum interrupt period of 16 ms, whereas the series regulated supply can have about 0.5 ms. Even this difference can be eliminated with a commutator circuit such as is being developed in Berkeley for the 150 kV, 20 ampere system. The 16 ms period is probably not a very serious limitation because it still permits up to 31 interrupts per 500 ms pulse. The shunt regulated system appears to be about 37 percent less expensive than the series system

  11. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  12. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...

  13. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  14. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...... and what kind of services do EOs offer employers? This article explores these questions using two comprehensive surveys on EOs in Denmark – a prominent case of coordinated market economies. The main finding of the analyses is that collective activities vis-à-vis trade unions and government are still...

  15. Absorption heat pump for a potable water supply in a solar house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshamarka, S [Military Technical Coll., Cairo (EG)

    1991-01-01

    Solar houses usually have good potential in arid areas. These areas often suffer from not only a shortage of conventional energy sources, but also of potable water supplies. In this study, a solar air-conditioning system including an absorption heat pump, already in production since the early 1980s, is described for potable water production while performing its air-conditioning duty in a solar house. Compiled weather-conditions of the Hurgada area, on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, were employed for the prediction of the system's productivity, if it were installed in such a locality. An evaluation of the system's feasibility has been conducted. (author).

  16. Power source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1998-09-29

    The present invention concerns a power plant, in which power is supplied from an ordinary system battery to an ordinary DC bus system when all of the AC power sources should be lost and a generator is driven by a steam turbine. A generator is connected with an ordinary system battery charger by way of a channel. If all of power sources should be lost, the ordinary system battery charger is driven by using emergency steam turbine generator facilities, and reactor steams are supplied thereby enabling to supply power to the ordinary system DC bus system for a long period of time. (N.H.)

  17. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  18. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  19. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  20. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  1. Control units for APS power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed

  2. Distribution of uranium supply and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium supply and demand is examined from the perspective of companies in the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion business whose main interest is their sources of uranium supply and UF6 destinations because of transportation costs. Because of the variations in yellowcake transport, charges for conversion, and UF6 transport costs, most converters don't have standard prices. Companies try to look ahead to determine patterns of supplies and delivery points when they analyze the market and estimate future prices. Market analyses must take into account the purchasing policies of utilities around the world. The presentation shows North America supplying about 40% of world uranium, with about 13% of the enrichment done elsewhere. It also shows North American converters getting 53% of the business, but that will require importing uranium from outside North America. 6 tables

  3. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing landscape for North American supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, J.

    2005-01-01

    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs

  5. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  6. Changing landscape for North American supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. [Natural Gas Supply Association, Washington DC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs.

  7. A mixed biomass-based energy supply chain for enhancing economic and environmental sustainability benefits: A multi-criteria decision making framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkouei, Amin; Haapala, Karl R.; Sessions, John; Murthy, Ganti S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mixed supply chain is developed to enhance sustainability benefits of bioenergy. •A decision-making framework is constructed to balance sustainability dimensions. •A stochastic optimization model is developed to explore the effects of uncertainty. •This study provides insights on bio-oil production processes and system structure. -- Abstract: Bioenergy sources have been introduced as a means to address challenges of conventional energy sources. The uncertainties of supply-side (upstream) externalities (e.g., collection and logistics) represent the key challenges in bioenergy supply chains and lead to reduce cross-cutting sustainability benefits. We propose a mixed biomass-based energy supply chain (consisting of mixed-mode bio-refineries and mixed-pathway transportation) and a multi-criteria decision making framework to address the upstream challenges. Our developed framework supports decisions influencing the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Economic analysis employs a support vector machine technique, to predict the pattern of uncertainty parameters, and a stochastic optimization model, to incorporate uncertainties into the model. The stochastic model minimizes the total annual cost of the proposed mixed supply chain network by using a genetic algorithm. Environmental impact analysis employs life cycle assessment to evaluate the global warming potential of the cost-effective supply chain network. Our presented approach is capable of enhancing sustainability benefits of bioenergy industry infrastructure. A case study for the Pacific Northwest is used to demonstrate the application of the methodology and to verify the models. The results indicate that mixed supply chains can improve sustainability performance over traditional supply infrastructures by reducing costs (up to 24%) and environmental impacts (up to 5%).

  8. The Effect of Volunteer Work on Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Holm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In addition to benefiting others, volunteer work is argued to supply volunteers themselves with skills, reputation, and social connections that increase overall employability. We test this hypothesized causal link between volunteer work and employability with a high-quality 2012 Danish survey...... sample of 1,867 individuals of working age. The survey data are linked to administrative registers containing individual-level data on unemployment. A combination of detailed controls, lagged dependent variables, and instrumental variable regression is used to determine cause and effect. Our findings...... show that performing volunteer work does not statistically significantly affect the risk or rate of unemployment for the typical individual on the labour market....

  9. The Production Rate and Employment of Ph.D. Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2008-02-01

    In an effort to encourage self-regulation of the astronomy job market, I examine the supply of, and demand for, astronomers over time. On the supply side, I document the production rate of Ph.D. astronomers from 1970 to 2006 using the UMI Dissertation Abstracts database, along with data from other independent sources. I compare the long-term trends in Ph.D. production with federal astronomy research funding over the same time period, and I demonstrate that additional funding is correlated with higher subsequent Ph.D. production. On the demand side, I monitor the changing patterns of employment using statistics about the number and types of jobs advertised in the AAS Job Register from 1984 to 2006. Finally, I assess the sustainability of the job market by normalizing this demand by the annual Ph.D. production. The most recent data suggest that there are now annual advertisements for about one postdoctoral job, half a faculty job, and half a research/support position for every new domestic Ph.D. recipient in astronomy and astrophysics. The average new astronomer might expect to hold up to 3 jobs before finding a steady position.

  10. What policies should be there for employment in urban areas of developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gugushvili, Alexi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines employment policies in urban areas of developing world. We follow traditional economic analysis and present the urban unemployment problem as an inequality of labour supply and demand on labour markets. The effects of demand-side and supply-side policies on informal urban employment are investigated through econometrical models. One or several variables are employed as crude proxies for every policy option. The dependent variable is informal urban employment as a per cent ...

  11. Sustainability analysis. Development of various indicators of sustainability for technical environmental analysis and evaluation of local heat supply networks on the basis of regenerative energies in comparison to fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehenberger-Risse, Diana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this thesis is to define indicators to evaluate local heat supply systems based on renewable energy compared to fossil energy reference scenarios. With these indicators a assessment matrix was developed as a planning instrument for the realization of sustainable and energy-efficient local heat supply systems. Further inferences from single projects on regions can be done. In these thesis a method was developed to assess the sustainability of local heat supply systems with the focus on ecology under consideration of economically and social aspects. This method uses a set of indicators composed of Input-, Output-, Efficiency- and Balance indicators. To realize advancement in comparison to present situations, an environmental quality target to advance the environmental impacts of minimum 75% was defined. For the developing and application of the indicators different examples from projects and scenarios of combined heat production from Biomass, Biogas, Solar heat combined with near-surface geothermal storage; geothermal energy and fossil peakload supply were calculated. These scenarios were related to a basis fossil energy scenario. Overall, the two district heating projects Speichersdorf and Mitterteich were compared. In this case, the project Speichersdorf with different coverage areas and decrease heat densities was investigated. The lengths of electrical grid of two areas are 10,828 m and 6,027 m. Those were opposed to the biomass district-heating project Mitterteich with a grid length of 360 m and a higher heat density decrease. Furthermore, a scenario for heat supply was designed and calculated using geothermal plant operating in duplicate to provide heat to the large coverage area for the storage project village. The calculation of the various processes and scenarios was performed with the program GEMIS 4.8 based on the total heat generated (final energy) by the respective supply type. The study examined the main system components; boilers, solar heat

  12. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  13. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  14. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  15. Does Supported Employment Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  16. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental employment and child cognitive development using data from multiple years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life is predicted to have a small negative effect on the verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a substantial detrimental impact on the reading and math achievement of 5 and 6 year olds. Working during the second and third years appears to have less fa...

  17. Do childcare policies increase maternal employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Vuri, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Women’s labor force participation has rapidly increased in most countries, but mothers still struggle to achieve a satisfactory work−life balance. Childcare allows the primary caregiver, usually the mother, to take time away from childrearing for employment. Family policies that subsidize childcare and increase its availability have different effects on female labor supply across countries. For policymakers to determine how well these policies work, they should consider that policy effectiven...

  18. 28 CFR 42.303 - Evaluation of employment opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... job categories; (2) An analysis of all recruitment and employment selection procedures for the... methods and sources, interview procedures, test administration and test validity, educational prerequisites, referral procedures and final selection methods, to insure that equal employment opportunity is...

  19. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  20. Issue on supply chain of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • One of the most relevant debates, is related to energy and environmental issue. • The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors. • Indeed challenges from a supply chain point of view are required. • Thorough survey on topics of supply chain and renewable energy has been conducted. • Findings are discussed against the backdrop of SCs as sustainable RE option. - Abstract: Actually, one of the most relevant debates, among both citizens that government, is related to energy and environmental issue. The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors such as the political strategic decisions and geographical situation. Indeed the high development of renewable energies requires challenges from a supply chain point of view. In this paper, a thorough survey of the extant literature on the topic of supply chain (SC) and renewable energy (RE) has been conducted. English papers published on international peer-reviewed journals from 2003 to 2013 have been considered. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) resolves the duality between environmental, economic and social aspects. Sustainable manufacturing practices play an essential role in promoting renewable energy development and commercialization; this will require significant changes to the industry’s traditional Supply Chain Management and business model. The aim of the paper is investigate literature insights useful to increase the performance and overcome barriers to the RE supply chain development. Like many typical supply chains, also supply chain related to RE includes elements such as: physical, information, and financial flows. The present research is useful to individualize characteristics of a RE supply chain. Moreover, the research is useful improve the performance of RE supply chain in some aspects like: • better control supply chain costs to make renewable energy more affordable; • manage supply chain to address weakened demand in the near

  1. A frequency domain approach to analyzing passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrids supplying periodic pulsed current loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, Alon; Aharon, Ilan; Kara, Avi; Malki, Shalev

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrids are examined. → Frequency domain analysis is employed. → The ultracapacitor branch operates as a low-pass filter for the battery. → The battery supplies the average load demand. → Design requirements are discussed. - Abstract: A Fourier-based analysis of passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrid sources is introduced in the manuscript. The approach is first introduced for a general load, and then is followed by a study for a case of periodic pulsed current load. It is shown that the ultracapacitor branch is perceived by the battery as a low-pass filter, which absorbs the majority of the high frequency harmonic current and letting the battery to supply the average load demand in addition to the small part of dynamic current. Design requirements influence on the ultracapacitor capacitance and internal resistance choice are quantitatively discussed. The theory is enforced by simulation and experimental results, showing an excellent agreement.

  2. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  3. Heavy oil supply economics and supply response to low oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  7. The applicability of shift-share analysis in considering employment impacts as applied to investments in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, A.

    1982-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the continuing debate between the proponents of nuclear power and alternative energy supplies concerns the employment impacts associated with the capital investments required by these different energy sources. Such employment impacts are properly defined as the impact of capital projects upon the local labour market and should not be confined merely to the direct employment associated with new investments. This paper attempts to highlight the local employment impacts associated with the investment in nuclear power stations by examining the effect past investments in such stations have had upon employment and unemployment trends in certain localities. Our analysis is based upon the nuclear power station developments at Hunterston in Ayrshire and Dounreay in Caithness. This allows us to consider and compare the employment impacts of nuclear power stations on a relatively underdeveloped area and an industrialized area. The employment analysis carried out below was based upon employment and unemployment trends and shift-share analysis. Shift-share analysis is not definitive, as we shall suggest below, but it is held to adequately describe local labour market conditions. (author)

  8. Applicability of shift-share analysis in considering employment impacts as applied to investments in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, A

    1982-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the continuing debate between the proponents of nuclear power and alternative energy supplies concerns the employment impacts associated with the capital investments required by these different energy sources. Such employment impacts are properly defined as the impact of capital projects upon the local labour market and should not be confined merely to the direct employment associated with new investments. This paper attempts to highlight the local employment impacts associated with the investment in nuclear power stations by examining the effect past investments in such stations have had upon employment and unemployment trends in certain localities. Our analysis is based upon the nuclear power station developments at Hunterston in Ayrshire and Dounreay in Caithness. This allows us to consider and compare the employment impacts of nuclear power stations on a relatively underdeveloped area and an industrialized area. The employment analysis carried out below was based upon employment and unemployment trends and shift-share analysis. Shift-share analysis is not definitive, as we shall suggest below, but it is held to adequately describe local labour market conditions.

  9. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  10. Intelligent power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  11. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  12. 2015 Plan. Project 7: the environmental issue and the electrical sector. The options of electrical power supply and their socio-environmental implications: sources/conventional and non-conventional technologies of generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The socio-environmental impacts caused by the uses of conventional sources (hydraulic, mineral coal, nuclear, petroleum by-products and natural gas) and non-conventional (biomass, solar, eolic, ocean and organic wastes) in electric power generation are presented. The main topics that integrate the environmental schedule in the last years are described, including some considerations about environmental legislation and atmospheric alterations. The reserves for each source are also cited. (C.G.C.)

  13. Merging supply chain and blockchain technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Eljazzar, M. M.; Amr, M. A.; Kassem, S. S.; Ezzat, M.

    2018-01-01

    Technology has been playing a major role in our lives. One definition for technology is all the knowledge, products, processes, tools,methods and systems employed in the creation of goods or in providing services.This makes technological innovations raise the competitiveness between organizations that depend on supply chain and logistics in the global market. With increasing competitiveness, new challenges arise due to lack of information and assets tractability. This paper introduces three s...

  14. Fuel supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    Stable fuel supply is a prerequisite for any nuclear power program including ISER-PIUS. It encompasses procurement of uranium ore, enriched uranium and fuel elements. Uranium is different from oil in that it can be stockpiled for more than a decade besides the fact that the core residence time is as long as six years, for example in the case of ISER-PIUS. These basic fuel characteristics are favoring nuclear fuel over others in terms of supply security. The central concern will be a gradual increase in prices of uranium and enrichment. Under the present glut situation with the worldwide prevalence of LWRs, fuel supply security seems ensured for the time being till the middle of 21st century. It is estimated that by the turn of the century, the free world will have roughly 450 GWe capacity of nuclear power. If 10 % is supplied for ISER-PIUS, more than 200 modules of 200 MWe ISER-PIUS may be deployed all over the world probably starting around 2000. As part of the fuel supply security consideration, heavy water reactor (HWR) may seem interesting to such a country as Indonesia where there is uranium resources but no enrichment capability. But it needs heavy water instead and the operation is not so easy as of LWR, because of the positive void coefficient as was seen at the Chernobyl-4. Safeguarding of the fuel is also difficult, because it lends itself to on line refueling. The current and future situation of the fuel supply security for LWR seem well founded and established long into the future. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Cost of Oil and Biomass Supply Shocks under Different Biofuel Supply Chain Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; Brown, Maxwell L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2018-04-01

    This analysis estimates the cost of selected oil and biomass supply shocks for producers and consumers in the light-duty vehicle fuel market under various supply chain configurations using a mathematical programing model, BioTrans. The supply chain configurations differ by whether they include selected flexibility levers: multi-feedstock biorefineries; advanced biomass logistics; and the ability to adjust ethanol content of low-ethanol fuel blends, from E10 to E15 or E05. The simulated scenarios explore market responses to supply shocks including substitution between gasoline and ethanol, substitution between different sources of ethanol supply, biorefinery capacity additions or idling, and price adjustments. Welfare effects for the various market participants represented in BioTrans are summarized into a net shock cost measure. As oil accounts for a larger fraction of fuel by volume, its supply shocks are costlier than biomass supply shocks. Corn availability and the high cost of adding biorefinery capacity limit increases in ethanol use during gasoline price spikes. During shocks that imply sudden decreases in the price of gasoline, the renewable fuel standard (RFS) biofuel blending mandate limits the extent to which flexibility can be exercised to reduce ethanol use. The selected flexibility levers are most useful in response to cellulosic biomass supply shocks.

  16. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  17. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  18. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger.......Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger....

  19. Power supply and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 'Power Supply and Ethics' workshop was designed on the basis of a recommendation by the Nuclear Technology Committee (FA-KT) of VDI-GET. The topic is part of a series of events and publications by VDI in an area where engineering and the humanities converge. The Workshop comprised presentations and thorough discussions of seven papers on 'Power Supply and Ethics', reflecting a variety of contents and points of view of the different disciplines participating. The Workshop offered another opportunity to take the initiative and influence the public, especially politics. Other activities are planned which also the participants increasingly consider an obligation to the public. (orig.) [de

  20. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  1. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...

  2. Veteran Services - Welcome Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assistance Crosswalk websites Transition GPS National Career Readiness Certificate Post Traumatic Stress Credits (PDF) Fidelity Bonding Program National Career Readiness (PDF) Veteran Recruitment State/Federal veteran recruitment process Military Veteran Employment Guide Veterans Hiring Toolkit Other Information

  3. Building a Natural Disaster Risk Index for Supply Chain Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Liao; Ozden Bayazit; Fang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Risk for an organization is associated with uncertainties in all areas of its operations. As firms move toward global sourcing, supply chain risk increases dramatically, which is linked to lower financial performance and market value. One major type of supply chain risk is disruptions caused by natural or man-made disasters. In this paper, major factors causing supply chain disruptions are identified based on resource dependency theory and contingency theory. As a result of the study, a compr...

  4. Supply Chain Risk Management: An Introduction to the Credible Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    van.poindexter@dau.mil. Figure 3. Trusted Suppliers Source: “ Managing Information Communications Technology Global Supply Chain Risk Awareness...Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 18 Supply Chain Risk Management An Introduction to the Credible Threat Heath Ferry n Van Poindexter 19...cybersecurity breach. This article examines the elements of supply chain risk management , the national security risks associated with exploitation, and

  5. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  6. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  7. Employers meet employees

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    "Leaping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data" is the title of a paper by Daniel S Hammermesh published in Labour Economics in 1999. I quote it here, since it captures much of my motivation for the work included in this thesis. Considering applied micro econometrics and labor economics my main elds of interest, the development of linked employer-employee data that took place in Denmark around the time of the new mille...

  8. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  9. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  11. Optimized control strategy for crowbarless solid state modular power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    Solid state modular power supply with series connected IGBT based power modules have been employed as high voltage bias power supply of klystron amplifier. Auxiliary compensation of full wave inverter bridge with ZVS/ZCS operations of all IGBTs over entire operating range is incorporated. An optimized control strategy has been adopted for this power supply needing no output filter, making this scheme crowbarless and is presented in this paper. DSP based fully digital control with same duty cycle for all power modules, have been incorporated for regulating this power supply along with adequate protection features. Input to this power supply is taken directly from 11 kV line and the input system is intentionally made 24 pulsed to reduce the input harmonics, improve the input power factor significantly, there by requiring no line filters. Various steps have been taken to increase the efficiency of major subsystems, so as to improve the overall efficiency of this power supply significantly. (author)

  12. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  13. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  14. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  15. ICCP cathodic protection of tanks with photovoltaic power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowski Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is the result of the electrochemical reaction between a metal or composite material usually having conducting current properties. Control of corrosion related defect is a very important problem for structural integrity in ground based structures. Cathodic protection (CP is a technique to protect metallic structures against corrosion in an aqueous environment, it is employed intense on the steel drains in oil and gas industry, specifically to protect underground tanks and pipelines. CP is commonly applied to a coated structure to provide corrosion control to areas where the coating may be damaged. It may be applied to existing structures to prolong their life. There are two types of cathodic protection systems: sacrificial (galvanic anode cathodic protection (SACP; the other system is Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP. Majority of the structures protected employ impressed current system. The main difference between the two is that SACP uses the galvanic anodes which are electrochemically more electronegative than the structure to be protected - the naturally occurring electrochemical potential difference between different metallic elements to provide protection; ICCP uses an external power source (electrical generator with D.C. with inert anodes, and this system is used for larger structures, or where electrolyte resistivity is high and galvanic anodes cannot economically deliver enough current to provide protection. The essential of CP is based on two parameters, the evolution of the potential and the current of protection. A commonly accepted protection criterion used for steel is a potential value of minus 850 mV. ICCP system consist of anodes connected to a DC power source. As power sources may be used such as solar panels, wind turbines, etc. The object of this study is analysis of the possibilities and operating parameters of ICCP system supplied with photovoltaic solar panels. Photovoltaic generator made up of the

  16. Control Towers in Supply Chain Management - Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trzuskawska-Grzesińska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The global economy requires global supply chain management which relies on visibility and responsiveness. Determinants such as: information technology tools, process knowledge, sales and operations planning experiences, etc., enable the formation of theory and practice for the supply chain control tower concept. The goal of the research paper is to identify business examples of different approaches to the supply chain control tower in the past and initiate a discussion on their future. This paper synthesizes past control tower practices and identifies possible future trends. The author performed: literature analysis, three selected companies' case studies and comparative analyses. As the control towers evolve, while supply chains are transforming continuous, update from the market is needed. The research findings showed the selected companies, in the future, perceived control tower's activities as a potential source of revenue not just solely a source of cost and time optimization as well as a source of value added to customer. The researched control towers were built and still they are developed. The business frequently changes and requires control towers to be adjusted, reengineered and adaptive. The researched control towers are needed to keep control over supply chain while it is transforming. There is a differentiation between the supply chain control towers, logistic services control towers and reverse supply chain control towers. An integration mechanism between the control towers would be necessary to assure entire supply chain visibility and orchestration. The research also shows the knowledge gap regarding the control towers in supply chain, specially their possible configurations and future.

  17. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  18. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  19. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  20. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs