WorldWideScience

Sample records for supply shutdown storage

  1. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

  2. Hazard Classification for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Final hazard classification for the 300 Area N Reactor fuel storage facility resulted in the assignment of Nuclear Facility Hazard Category 3 for the uranium metal fuel and feed material storage buildings (303-A, 303-B, 303-G, 3712, and 3716). Radiological for the residual uranium and thorium oxide storage building and an empty former fuel storage building that may be used for limited radioactive material storage in the future (303-K/3707-G, and 303-E), and Industrial for the remainder of the Fuel Supply Shutdown buildings (303-F/311 Tank Farm, 303-M, 313-S, 333, 334 and Tank Farm, 334-A, and MO-052)

  3. Shutdown Policies for MEMS-Based Storage Devices -- Analytical Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Hartel, Pieter H.

    MEMS-based storage devices should be energy ecient for deployment in mobile systems. Since MEMS-based storage devices have a moving me- dia sled, they should be shut down during periods of inactivity. However, shutdown costs energy, limiting the applicability of aggressive shutdown decisions. The

  4. 300 Area fuel supply shutdown facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 300 Area Fuel Supply Shutdown Facilities on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone, is demonstrated

  5. Basis for Interim Operation for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    This document establishes the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility (FSS) as managed by the 300 Area Deactivation Project (300 ADP) organization in accordance with the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract procedure (PHMC) HNF-PRO-700, ''Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements''. A hazard classification (Benecke 2003a) has been prepared for the facility in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92 resulting in the assignment of Hazard Category 3 for FSS Facility buildings that store N Reactor fuel materials (303-B, 3712, and 3716). All others are designated Industrial buildings. It is concluded that the risks associated with the current and planned operational mode of the FSS Facility (uranium storage, uranium repackaging and shipment, cleanup, and transition activities, etc.) are acceptable. The potential radiological dose and toxicological consequences for a range of credible uranium storage building have been analyzed using Hanford accepted methods. Risk Class designations are summarized for representative events in Table 1.6-1. Mitigation was not considered for any event except the random fire event that exceeds predicted consequences based on existing source and combustible loading because of an inadvertent increase in combustible loading. For that event, a housekeeping program to manage transient combustibles is credited to reduce the probability. An additional administrative control is established to protect assumptions regarding source term by limiting inventories of fuel and combustible materials. Another is established to maintain the criticality safety program. Additional defense-in-depth controls are established to perform fire protection system testing, inspection, and maintenance to ensure predicted availability of those systems, and to maintain the radiological control program. It is also concluded that because an accidental nuclear criticality is not credible based on the low uranium enrichment

  6. Quality assurance program plan fuel supply shutdown project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program plan (QAPP) describes how the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) project organization implements the quality assurance requirements of HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the B and W Hanford Company Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP), FSP-MP-004. The QAPP applies to facility structures, systems, and components and to activities (e.g., design, procurement, testing, operations, maintenance, etc.) that could affect structures, systems, and components. This QAPP also provides a roadmap of applicable Project Hanford Policies and Procedures (PHPP) which may be utilized by the FSS project organization to implement the requirements of this QAPP

  7. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, J.R.; Deobald, T.L.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings

  8. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MWday.t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 0 C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, in the presence of H 2 0, HN0 3 , N0 x and 0 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  9. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Gue, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MW day·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation; for a final temperature limited to 160 degree C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%; in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  10. Behaviour of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.; Gue, J.P.; Mercier, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30.000 MW day ·t -1 . A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 deg. C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, - in the presence of H 2 O, HNO 3 , NO x and O 2 , the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO 2 ) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source. It is probable that, in an industrial storage tank, the heat losses from the tank and the offgas discharge ducts will cause recondensation and internal reflux, which will commensurately delay

  11. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor shutdown system is described comprising a temperature sensitive device connected to control the electric power supply to a magnetic latch holding a body of a neutron absorbing material. The temperature sensitive device is exposed to the reactor coolant so that when the reactor coolant temperature rises above a specific level, the temperature sensitive device will cause deenergization of the magnetic latch to allow the body of neutron absorbing material to enter the reactor core. (author)

  13. Security of supply and line flow following the shut-down of nuclear power plants in Germany. Have shortages to be expected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, Friedrich; Moest, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    This paper, which examines the impacts of phasing out nuclear power in Germany, is the first to include an analysis of energy supply security and critical line flows in both the German and Central European electricity networks. The technical-economic model of the European electricity market, ELMOD, is used to simulate alternative power plant dispatch, imports, exports, and network use for a representative winter day. The results suggest that the shutdown of Germany's nuclear plants will result in higher net imports, especially from the Netherlands, Austria, and Poland, and that electricity generation from fossil fuels will increase slightly in Germany and in Central Europe. We find that no additional imports will come from nuclear plants since they are already fully utilized in the merit order, and that electricity prices will rise on average by a few Euros per MWh. We conclude that closing the seven nuclear power plants within the government's moratorium will cause no significant supply security issues or network constraints and an eventual full phase-out seem to be possible due to the completion of several new conventional power plants now under construction. Finally, we suggest that a nuclear phase-out in Germany within the next 3-7 years will not undermine security of supply and network stability in Germany and Central Europe.

  14. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Summary report of already published guidance on L2 PSA for external hazards, shutdown states, spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Gerben; Sauvage, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This report (deliverable D40.2 of the project ASAMPSA-E) proposes a review of the existing guidance with relevance to ASAMPSA-E PSA Level 2 topics (external hazards, shutdown states, spent fuel pool). As a complement of this task, the deliverable D40.2 tries to identify any potential missing guidance for the development of an extended PSA level 2, and any sources of knowledge beyond existing guidance which might help generating extended PSA level 2. Based on this approach the last section provides a summary compilation which identifies possibilities for completing existing guidelines (especially the guidance developed in the previous ASAMPSA2 project) and/or creating new guidelines for extended PSA Level 2. (authors)

  16. Modeling of vehicular storage and supply systems for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, J.; Venter, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bose, T.; Benard, P. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene

    2002-07-01

    In order for fuel cells to reach widespread commercial use to power vehicles, improvements need to be made in the area of hydrogen storage because of the low energy density of hydrogen. Several options exist for storing hydrogen, each being at a different stage of development. The main challenge, however, lies in the required infrastructure to supply the fuel. This paper defines the groundwork for the development of a complete model that defines the characteristics in vehicles and in various stages in the supply of fuel. This model considers the consequences involved when making the choice of a hydrogen storage method for on-board storage applications with particular attention to issues of safety. The model tabulates the parameters that are considered to be critical to both the vehicle and necessary support systems depending on the choice of hydrogen storage technology. The overall requirements are analyzed in a separate subsystem, and the model can then build a relationship between those subsystems. Interpretations are performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalumiana, O.S.; Hibajene, S.H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  18. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  19. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  20. Letter report seismic shutdown system failure mode and effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KECK, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown ensures that the 234-52 building supply fans, the dry air process fans and vertical development calciner are shutdown following a seismic event. This evaluates the failure modes and determines the effects of the failure modes

  1. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sowlati, Taraneh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO 2 . ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  2. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce stationary storage needs.

  3. Augmenting Transport versus Increasing Cold Storage to Improve Vaccine Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A.; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Brown, Shawn T.; Mueller, Leslie E.; Norman, Bryan A.; Schmitz, Michelle M.; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S.; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. Methods This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Results Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. Conclusions When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce

  4. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko Gulch...

  5. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To provide a reactor shutdown device suitable to the low temperature shutdown of a heavy water-moderated type nuclear reactor and capable of ensuring an adequate shutdown margin. Constitution : Xenon reactivity is calculated based on the detection signals for reactor neutrons, the temperature reactivity is calculated based on the temperature of the moderators and of the coolants and, further, poisons in the moderators are detected. Injection amount of the poisons is calculated based on the result of the calculation and the detection, and the calculated amount of poisons is injected into the moderators. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Energy Storage Devices as Prime Power Supplies for Low Energy, High Voltage Marx Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES AS PRIME POWER SUPPLIES FOR LOW ENERGY , HIGH VOLTAGE MARX GENERATORS David Wetz University of Texas at Arlington...DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Directed Energy Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND...30-09-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Storage Devices as Prime Power Supplies for Low Energy , High Voltage Marx Generators 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  7. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  8. Compact Fuel Cell Power Supplies with Safe Fuel Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, M. R; Chellappa, A. S; Vencill, T. R

    2004-01-01

    .... Despite its energy-density advantage, this ammonia-based power supply will not likely be deployed in military or commercial markets unless safety concerns related to the possible rapid release of ammonia are resolved...

  9. Pulsed modulator power supply for the g-2 muon storage ring injection kicker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mi, J.; Lee, Y. Y.; Morse, W. M.; Pai, C. I.; Pappas, G. C.; Sanders, R.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Warburton, D.; Zapasek, R.; Jungmann, K.; Roberts, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the g-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage

  10. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Larsson; Antti Rytinki; Istaq Ahmed; Ingvar Albinsson; Bengt-Erik Mellander

    2017-01-01

    Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the elec...

  11. Magnet power supply system for the ALS storage ring and booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.; Luchini, K.; Lutz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The Magnet Power Supply System is described by specification, design, hardware, and operating experience. A unique system for the one Hz, 1.5 GeV Booster, where the wideband QF and QD power supplies track the dipole current to within 0.1% at injection will be detailed. AC distribution system considerations related to inverting the stored energy of the booster magnet back into power grid will be discussed. The rational for linear correctors and individual quad supplies (225 total units) will be placed within the context of the storage-ring requirements

  12. Supply, storage and handling of elemental sulfur derived from sour gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Dowling, N.I.; Calgary Univ., AB

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews the supply picture for solid elemental sulfur. It also assesses methods for its storage as well as the disposal of the precursor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) by acid gas injection. Both above and below ground block storage is considered environmentally acceptable for sulfur storage as long as measures are taken to minimize the physical and biological breakdown of the sulfur. The preferred option is to store solid elemental sulfur underground, particularly if it is to remain in storage for a prolonged period. Future changes in supply of sulfur will likely be controlled by incremental production of sour gas and utilization of oil sands bitumen. It is expected that future sulfur production from conventional crude oil will remain static or will slowly decrease. The degree to which acid gas injection is applied to large sour gas developments in the Middle East and the Caspian regions will have a significant impact on world sulfur supply. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  13. Estimation of energy storage capacity in power system in japan under future demand and supply factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ikuo; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1996-01-01

    The desirable capacity of future energy storage facility in power system in Japan is discussed in this paper, putting emphasis on future new electric demand/supply factors such as CO 2 emission problems and social structure change. The two fundamental demand scenarios are considered; one is base case scenario which extrapolates the trend until now and the other is social structure change scenario. The desirable capacity of the energy storage facility is obtained from the result of optimum generation mix which minimizes the yearly expenses of the target year (2030 and 2050). The result shows that the optimum capacity of energy storage facility is about 10 to 15%. The social structure change and demand side energy storage have great influences on the optimum capacity of supply side storage. The former increases storage capacity. The latter reduces it and also contributes to the reduction of generation cost. Suppression of CO 2 emission basically affects to reduce the storage capacity. The load following operation of nuclear plant also reduces the optimum storage capacity in the case it produces surplus energy at night. Though there exist many factors which increase or decrease the capacity of energy storage facility, as a whole, it is concluded that the development of new energy storage technology is necessary for future. (author)

  14. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two 15-megawatt...

  15. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Larsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  16. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints.

  17. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  18. Consistent nutrient storage and supply mediated by diverse fish communities in coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Layman, Craig A; Mumby, Peter J; Rosemond, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    Corals thrive in low nutrient environments and the conservation of these globally imperiled ecosystems is largely dependent on mitigating the effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. However, to better understand the implications of anthropogenic nutrients requires a heightened understanding of baseline nutrient dynamics within these ecosystems. Here, we provide a novel perspective on coral reef nutrient dynamics by examining the role of fish communities in the supply and storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). We quantified fish-mediated nutrient storage and supply for 144 species and modeled these data onto 172 fish communities (71 729 individual fish), in four types of coral reefs, as well as seagrass and mangrove ecosystems, throughout the Northern Antilles. Fish communities supplied and stored large quantities of nutrients, with rates varying among ecosystem types. The size structure and diversity of the fish communities best predicted N and P supply and storage and N : P supply, suggesting that alterations to fish communities (e.g., overfishing) will have important implications for nutrient dynamics in these systems. The stoichiometric ratio (N : P) for storage in fish mass (~8 : 1) and supply (~20 : 1) was notably consistent across the four coral reef types (but not seagrass or mangrove ecosystems). Published nutrient enrichment studies on corals show that deviations from this N : P supply ratio may be associated with poor coral fitness, providing qualitative support for the hypothesis that corals and their symbionts may be adapted to specific ratios of nutrient supply. Consumer nutrient stoichiometry provides a baseline from which to better understand nutrient dynamics in coral reef and other coastal ecosystems, information that is greatly needed if we are to implement more effective measures to ensure the future health of the world's oceans. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  20. TRIGA forced shutdowns analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Laslau, Florica

    2008-01-01

    The need for improving the operation leads us to use new methods and strategies. Probabilistic safety assessments and statistical analysis provide insights useful for our reactor operation. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the forced shutdowns during the first reactor operation period, between 1980 to 1989. A forced shutdown data base was designed using data on forced shutdowns collected from the reactor operation logbooks. In order to sort out the forced shutdowns the records have the following fields: - current number, date, equipment failed, failure type (M for mechanical, E for electrical, D for irradiation device, U for human factor failure; - scram mode, SE for external scram, failure of reactor cooling circuits and/or irradiation devices, SR for reactor scram, exceeding of reactor nuclear parameters, SB for reactor scram by control rod drop, SM for manual scram required by the abnormal reactor status; - scram cause, giving more information on the forced shutdown. This data base was processed using DBase III. The data processing techniques are presented. To sort out the data, one of the criteria was the number of scrams per year, failure type, scram mode, etc. There are presented yearly scrams, total operation time in hours, total unavailable time, median unavailable time period, reactor availability A. There are given the formulae used to calculate the reactor operational parameters. There are shown the scrams per year in the 1980 to 1989 period, the reactor operation time per year, the reactor shutdown time per year and the operating time versus down time per year. Total number of scrams in the covered period was 643 which caused a reactor down time of 4282.25 hours. In a table the scrams as sorted on the failure type is shown. Summarising, this study emphasized some problems and difficulties which occurred during the TRIGA reactor operation at Pitesti. One main difficulty in creating this data base was the unstandardized scram record mode. Some times

  1. Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain Advanced Models, Tools and Applications for Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    With increased globalization and offshore sourcing, global supply chain management is becoming an important issue for many businesses as it involves a company's worldwide interests and suppliers rather than simply a local or national orientation. The storage systems significantly affect the level of quality of products, the customer’s service level, and the global logistic cost. The mission of warehousing systems design, control and optimization is to effectively ship products in the right place, at the right time, and in the right quantity (i.e. in any configuration) without any damages or alterations, and minimizing costs. Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain presents and discusses a set of models, tools and real applications, including a few case studies rarely presented with a sufficient detail by other literature, to illustrate the main challenges in warehousing activities. This includes all warehouse operations (from receiving to shipping), problems and issues (e.g. storage allocation, assignment,...

  2. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  3. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumiya, Hirohito; Endo, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yasushi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor shutdown device capable of suppressing change of a core insertion amount relative to temperature change during normal operation and having a great extension amount due to thermal expansion and high mechanical strength. A control rod main body is contained vertically movably in a guide tube disposed in a reactor core. An extension member extends upward from the upper end of a control rod main body and suspends the control rod main body. A shrinkable member intervenes at a midway of the extension member and is made shrinkable. A temperature sensitive member contains coolants at the inside and surrounds the shrinkable member. Thus, if the temperature of external coolants rises abruptly, the shrinkable member is extended by thermal expansion of the coolants in the temperature sensitive member. Upon usual reactor startup, the coolants in the temperature sensitive member cause no substantial thermal expansion by temperature elevation from a cold shutdown temperature to a rated power operation temperature, and the shrinkable member maintains its original state, so that the control rod main body is not inserted into the reactor core. However, upon abrupt temperature elevation, the control rod main body is inserted into the reactor core. (I.S.)

  4. Maintenance implementation plan for fuel supply shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan is written to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 4330.4B, ''MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM'', that specifies the general policy and objectives for the establishment of DOE controlled maintenance programs. These Programs provide for the management and performance of cost-effective maintenance and repair of Department of Energy (DOE) property, which includes facilities. A review of DOE Order 4330.4B, particularly Chapter II the nuclear portion, against existing WHC site programs and policies has provided assurance that most requirements of this order have already been implemented by existing WHC programs. Applicable requirements and guidelines of 4330.4B that are deficient or not implemented are presently being developed and implemented through WHC site policies and programs. Where no program is presently identified or being developed for 4330.4B requirements, responsibility for implementation has been assigned within this plan

  5. Design of arc power supply for neutral beam injection system based on super capacitor energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Puqiong; Xuan Weimin; Cao Jianyong; Li Qing; Liu Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    The arc power supply is one of the most important equipment for neutral beam injection system. The stability of arc discharge and the quality of ion beam extraction were determined by its performance. For improving stability of the arc discharge, reducing the power network capacity and decreasing impulse on power network, the topology of the arc power supply applied the structure of DC/DC converter based on technology of super capacitor energy storage and switching power supply. Several IGBT power modules are operated in parallel, and it can improve the arc power supply's operating frequency and dynamic response. A filter circuit and a current fast transferring circuit were designed based on a detailed analysis on working process of the arc power sup- ply. According to the requirements and parameters of the arc power supply, and the current response of RL first order circuit, the minimum filter inductances were accurately calculated. Finally, using the model and Matlab, the performance of the arc power supply was simulated and verified, and it meets the design requirement. (authors)

  6. Analysis of carbon capture and storage cost-supply curves for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, P.; Ladbrook, B.

    2007-01-01

    This report details the results of a study carried out on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry to develop an understanding of the potential costs of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the UK and to construct supply curves of CCS for the future based on the most up-to-date information available. Poyry Energy Consulting developed a model to examine how the economics of the entire process of CCS in the UK will change as the volume of deployment increases (i.e. develop a cost supply curve). The model is designed to include major sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from all industrial sectors, pipelines to transport the CO 2 and major potential offshore storage sites. It allows investigation of sensitivities so that parameters and assumptions can be varied to allow consideration of a range of cost scenarios. The report presents an overview of the CCS model and concepts, and sets out the model results in terms of capture costs, transport, storage, total costs, impact of fuel prices, inclusion of carbon allowances, counterfactual and its conclusions. A worked example is included to show detailed cost calculations from source to sink including detail of volume of CO 2 abated, capital costs, fuel cost, non-fuel operation and maintenance cost, and transport and storage cost

  7. Evaluation of target power supplies for krypton storage in sputter-deposited metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, E.N.; McClanahan, E.D.; Moss, R.W.

    1986-04-01

    Implantation of 85 Kr in a growing sputtered metal deposit has been studied for the containment of 85 Kr recovered from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. PNL, as part of DOE's research program for 85 Kr storage, has developed krypton trapping storage devices (KTSDs) in a range of sizes for ''cold'' and radioactive testing. The KTSD is a stainless steel canister that contains a sputtering target for depositing an amorphous rare-earth transition metal on the inner wall and simultaneously implanting low-energy krypton ions in the growing deposit. This report covers the design requirements for the target power supply and the description, testing and evaluation of three basic designs. The designs chosen for evaluation were: (1) a standard commercial power supply with an external PNL-designed current interrupter, (2) a commercially manufactured power supply with an integral series-type interrupter, and (3) a commercially manufactured power supply with an integral shunt-type interrupter. The units were compared on the basis of performance, reliability, and life-cycle cost. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland. In some cases additional storage would allow mitigating negative impacts of climate change. In one of the tested cases the decrease in inflows is such that the reservoir will not fill up in the future; this reservoir will become a priority location for pumping capacity increase, for short-term or seasonal storage of excess solar/wind energy. Considering that the present average rate of glacier mass loss at the country scale is equivalent to the Grande Dixence reservoir per year (the largest Swiss reservoir, approx. 380 hm3), increasing artificial water storage might become mandatory to maintain the same level of security electricity supply in the future.

  9. Reactor shutdown method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Toshio; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Osumi, Katsumi; Usui, Naoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A device for injecting a hydrogen gas, a chelating agent or a reducing agent is disposed in a reactor water recycling system. Upon reactor shutdown, the hydrogen gas, the chelating agent or the reducing agent is injected to primary coolants. With such a procedure, radioactive ions formed by the dissolution of oxide layers at the surface of pipelines and equipments in a reactor water recycling system and a reactor water cleanup system are removed from the primary coolants by a reactor water cleanup device. Accordingly, since the dose rate at the surface of the pipelines can be reduced, the operator's radiation dose can be reduced upon periodical inspection for a power plant. Further, the inner pressure of the reactor is kept higher than the saturated steam pressure at the reactor water temperature to suppress boiling of the reactor water. This can suppress the peeling of cruds deposited to the surface of the fuel cladding tube. (I.N.)

  10. The Chernobyl plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  11. Pricing Scheme of Ocean Carrier for Inbound Container Storage for Assistance of Container Supply Chain Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the pricing scheme of ocean carrier for inbound container storage so as to assist container supply chain finance. In this paper, how an ocean carrier should set price of inbound container storage to the customer while facing the contract from the container terminal operator is first analyzed. Then, two different contract systems, the free-time contract system which is widely used in practice and the free-space contract system which is newly developed recently, are considered. In the two different contract systems, inbound container storage pricing models are constructed, and accordingly optimal solution approaches for the ocean carrier are provided. For comparison purpose, some numerical experiments for the two different contract systems are conducted to investigate the effects of the container terminal operator’s decision on the system outcomes. Numerical experiments show that (1 the carrier is more flexible in the free-space contract system and can receive more profit by using the free-storage-space as a pooling storage system and (2 the free-space contract system benefits both the carrier in profit and the busy terminal in traffic control.

  12. Magnetic disconnect for secondary shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessor, D.L.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of studies to develop a magnetic holding clutch in the control rod drive line as an alternate shutdown device for the FFTF. Results indicate that a three-phase disconnect, hold, and backup shutdown system can be designed to operate satisfactorily. (U.S.)

  13. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  14. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  15. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance.

  17. Social aspects of reactor shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the problems caused by the sudden change of personnel working in nuclear power plant when shutdowns occured: reception and security of the exterior interveners, organization and logistics, radiosafety, planning of the team works, etc.. [fr

  18. Startup, Shutdown, & Malfunction (SSM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA issued a final action to ensure states have plans in place that are fully consistent with the Clean Air Act and recent court decisions concerning startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) operations.

  19. Short-term storage of cooling energy. Optimization of power supply by large-scale chilled water storage; Kurzzeitige Kaeltespeicherung. Optimierung der Energieversorgung durch den Einsatz grosser Kaltwasserspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbaneck, T.; Schirmer, U.; Platzer, B. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Technische Thermodynamik; Barthel, U. [Stadtwerke Chemnitz AG (Germany); Bundesverband der Deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V. (BGW) (Germany). Landesgruppe Sachsen/Sachsen-Anhalt/Thueringen; Uhlig, U.; Zimmermann, D.; Goeschel, T. [Stadtwerke Chemnitz AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    According to a pilot project carried out at the municipal utility in Chemnitz, power supply systems can be optimized energetically and ecologically by cogeneration. Since in Germany there is no large-scale short-term storage system for cooling energy, the municipal utility in Chemnitz established the first system. The fundamental idea: The storage system is loaded at night and is therefore able to cover the peak load in the district cooling energy system by day. (orig.)

  20. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  1. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  2. Shutdown risk monitoring in TEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroki; Masuda, Takahiro; Denda, Yasutaka; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Imai, Shun-ichi; Miyata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    At present, we are introducing risk monitors into our all three nuclear power stations; Fukushima Daiichi, Fukushima Daini and Kashiwazaki Kariwa, with technical support of TEPSYS. By monitoring shutdown risk of each unit, we are trying to optimize risks during outage inspection, and raising staff's awareness for reactor safety. This paper presents our recent shutdown risk monitoring activities in Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Shutdown risk monitoring has been carried out for the past five outages of Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Daily-changing shutdown risk is evaluated in the form of core damage frequency (CDF [/day/reactor]). We also examine high-risk point of outage plan if CDF is greater than the threshold at anytime of outage. The results are delivered to operational and maintenance staff before outage. The threshold value is set ten times as much as CDF of unit in operation. As CDF exceeds the threshold, we try to either change the system configuration, or let workers pay more attention to their works during the high-risk period. We already have some examples of outage plan modification to reduce CDF using the risk monitoring information. Greater number of station staff tends to pay more attention to shutdown risk thanks to these activities. (author)

  3. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Superconducting magnetic energy storage and superconducting self-supplied electromagnetic launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceron, Jérémie; Badel, Arnaud; Tixador, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    Superconductors can be used to build energy storage systems called Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), which are promising as inductive pulse power source and suitable for powering electromagnetic launchers. The second generation of high critical temperature superconductors is called coated conductors or REBCO (Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide) tapes. Their current carrying capability in high magnetic field and their thermal stability are expanding the SMES application field. The BOSSE (Bobine Supraconductrice pour le Stockage d'Energie) project aims to develop and to master the use of these superconducting tapes through two prototypes. The first one is a SMES with high energy density. Thanks to the performances of REBCO tapes, the volume energy and specific energy of existing SMES systems can be surpassed. A study has been undertaken to make the best use of the REBCO tapes and to determine the most adapted topology in order to reach our objective, which is to beat the world record of mass energy density for a superconducting coil. This objective is conflicting with the classical strategies of superconducting coil protection. A different protection approach is proposed. The second prototype of the BOSSE project is a small-scale demonstrator of a Superconducting Self-Supplied Electromagnetic Launcher (S3EL), in which a SMES is integrated around the launcher which benefits from the generated magnetic field to increase the thrust applied to the projectile. The S3EL principle and its design are presented. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2016)", edited by Adel Razek

  5. Insecurity of petroleum supplies and external effect: the case of security storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, B.

    1997-01-01

    defined as the source of a relevant external pecuniary effect. In the second part, the tools allowing to internalize the external effect generated by the monopsony component of the petroleum supplies insecurity are analyzed. After a recall of the classical internalization procedures (regulation, taxes and rights market) and of their theoretical bases, the internalization problem of the external effect 'insecurity of petroleum supplies' is considered. After an overview of the most frequently used policies in IEA member states (quotas, taxes, stocks), a parallel is established between these instruments and the classical internalization tools. The superiority of storage procedures is evidenced and is similar to the creation of a security rights market, analogous in its operation and efficiency properties to a pollution rights market. The superiority of the storage, which can be considered as the best instrument of collective comfort, allowing the internalization of the external effect generated by the insecurity of petroleum supplies, can lead to two particular problems which are analyzed in the next two chapters. The first problem concerns the co-existence of security stocks with commercial stocks and their possible interactions. The presentation of 3 theoretical models stresses on the complexity of the relations between these two kinds of stocks and allows to define some behaviour rules of the public power in the domain of security storage. More precisely, it is shown that, under some hypotheses, the variable influencing the different actors that can make stocks (commercial or security) is the global volume of the stocks. The second problem raised by the building up of security stocks is the international impact of stock building. This problem is treated using the transposition of a model analyzing the protection behaviours against a pollution-type external effect and allows to make some proposals about the stock levels depending on whether a cooperative behaviour is

  6. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  7. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kotaro; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO2 fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO2 and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  8. Fluid shut-down system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, F.W.; Frey, J.R.; Wilson, J.N.; Besant, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor shut-down system is described which comprises a fluidic vortex valve for releasably maintaining a liquid neutron poison outside of the reactor core, the poison being contained by a reservoir and biased by pressure for flow into poison tubes within the reactor. The upper ends of the poison tubes communicate with the supply port of the vortex valve. A continuous gas flow into the control port maintains normal controlled operation. Shut-down is effected by interruption of the control input. One embodiment comprises three groups of poison tubes and one vortex valve associated with each group wherein shut-down is effected by poison release in two out of the three groups. Preferably, each vortex valve comprises three control ports which operate on a ''voting'' or two-out-of-three basis. (Official Gazette)

  9. Reactor shutdown control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itooka, Satoshi; Matsushima, Shusuke; Otsuki, Jun.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device capable of attaining stable temperature for sodium around a magnetic body and capable of adequately changing the temperature at which control rods are fallen even after the mounting to the device. Constitution: One of fuel assemblies situated around control rod assemblies is selected by selective introduction pipe of fuel assemblies, thereby introducing sodium always at stable temperature from the selected assembly to the periphery of the magnetic body under the normal state and prevent the misoperation under the normal operation by receiving only the sodium temperature. Further, by changing the current supply state to the solenoid magnet for setting the temperature at which the control rod falls upon abnormality, it is possible to adequately fall the control rods. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. LHC Report: The shutdown work nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The work planned for the LHC injector chain during the winter shutdown is nearing completion. The PS Booster (PSB) and PS will be closed to access next week, and the control of machine access will be transferred to the CERN Control Centre in preparation for the resumption of machine operation. Hardware tests are being performed in all the machines.   Tests are under way in the LHC tunnel. The technical teams are putting the finishing touches to the work planned for the winter shutdown. At the Linac2, the PS Booster and the PS, work will be completed next week and hardware tests will be carried out soon after. POPS, the new powering system for the PS, will be commissioned for the first time in the coming days after the necessary preliminary tests have been carried out. At the SPS, various magnets have been replaced over recent weeks and the performance tests on the main power supply and other hardware tests will be able to start shortly. After that, the machine will be ready for operation with b...

  11. Nuclear safeguards and nuclear shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The issues involved in the California nuclear initiative (Proposition 15) are described. Some of the characteristics of the anti-nuclear lobby are outlined. Some do's and don'ts for the nuclear group are listed. The nuclear shutdown effort was concentrated on the safeguards and high-level waste disposal issues

  12. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  13. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Sander, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1) quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) processing and allometric models, (2) quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3) mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  14. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhao

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1 quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR processing and allometric models, (2 quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3 mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  15. Increasing RES Penetration and Security of Energy Supply by Use of Energy Storages and Heat Pumps in Croatian Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven

    2010-01-01

    In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting...... electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped hydro and heat pumps in combination with heat storages....... The results show that such options can enable an increased penetration of wind power. Using pumped hydro storage (PHS) may increase wind power penetration from 0.5 TWh, for existing PHS installations and up to 6 TWh for very large installations. Using large heat pumps and heat storages in combination...

  16. Low-technology cooling box for storage of malaria RDTs and other medical supplies in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyuoka Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase in use of point-of-care diagnostic tests for malaria and other diseases comes the necessity of storing the diagnostic kits and the drugs required for subsequent management, in remote areas, where temperatures are high and electricity supply is unreliable or unavailable. Methods To address the lack of temperature-controlled storage during the introduction of community-based malaria management in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM developed prototype evaporative cooling boxes (Cambodian Cooler Boxes - CCBs for storage of perishable medical commodities in remote clinics. The performance of these CCBs for maintaining suitable storage temperatures was evaluated over two phases in 2005 and 2006-7, comparing conditions in CCBs using water as designed, CCBs with no water for evaporation, and ambient storage room temperatures. Temperature and humidity was monitored, together with the capacity of the RDTs recommended for storage between 2 to 30 degree Celsius to detect low-density malaria parasite samples after storage under these conditions. Results Significant differences were recorded between the proportion of temperatures within the recommended RDT storage conditions in the CCBs with water and the temperatures in the storage room (p Discussion and Conclusions The CCB was an effective tool for storage of RDTs at optimal conditions, and extended the effective life-span of the tests. The concept of evaporative cooling has potential to greatly enhance access to perishable diagnostics and medicines in remote communities, as it allows prolonged storage at low cost using locally-available materials, in the absence of electricity.

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. Additional conclusions from this evaluation include: The 13 shutdown sites use designs from 4 different suppliers involving 11 different (horizontal and vertical) dry storage systems that would require the use of 9 different transportation cask designs to remove the SNF and GTCC waste from the shutdown sites. Although some changes to transportation certificates of compliance will be required, the SNF at the initial 9 shutdown sites (Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion) is in dual purpose dry storage canisters that can be transported, including a small amount of high-burnup fuel. Most sites indicated that 2-3 years of advance time would be required for its preparations before shipments could begin. Some sites could be ready in less time. As additional sites such as Fort Calhoun, Clinton, Quad Cities, Pilgrim, Oyster Creek, and Diablo Canyon shut down, these sites will be included in updates to the evaluation.

  18. Technical and Economic Assessment of Storage Technologies for Power-Supply Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meiwes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating power generation from renewable energies such as wind and photovoltaic are a technical challenge for grid stability. Storage systems are an option to stabilise the grid and to maximise the utilisation factors of renewable power generators. This paper analyses the state of the art of storage technologies, including a detailed life cycle cost comparison. Beside this, benefits of using storage systems in electric vehicles are analysed and quantified. A comprehensive overview of storage technologies as well as possible applications and business cases for storage systems is presented. 

  19. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  20. A Study of a Subsea Chemicals Storage & Injection-Station

    OpenAIRE

    Lundal, Vegard; Festøy, Sigurd van Dijk

    2017-01-01

    Total and Doris have announced that they want to challenge the way of thinking of how to supply subsea field developments with chemicals. With a Subsea Chemicals Storage & Injection-station (SCS&I) the chemicals are injected much closer to their injection points compared to a conventional solution, where they are injected from a topside facility. This reduces the response time of hydrate inhibitors which leads to a shorter well shutdown/start-up operation. Also, dosing of production chemicals...

  1. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...... in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given....

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  3. Autonomous power supply. Design and practice of power supply systems with storage batteries; Autonome Stromversorgung. Auslegung und Praxis von Stromversorgungsanlagen mit Batteriespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckmann, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book intends to provide users and planners with insight into the possibilities and technology of autonomous power supply systems. The whole spectrum of power supply systems is covered, from simple lighting to agriculture and trade (e.g. solar systems for lighting a mountain cabin, or a turbine aggregate for power supply to a mountain cabin). The book focuses on low-voltage systems with d.c. of less than 50V (typically, 12 or 24 V), and with a storage battery as a rule. The information provided is based on the author's long years of personal experience in this subject. (orig.) [German] Zweck dieses Buches ist es, Anwendern und Planern einen fundierten Einblick in die Moeglichkeiten und die Technik von autonomen Stromversorgungsanlagen zu vermitteln. Dabei wird das ganze Spektrum von der einfachen Beleuchtungsanlage bis zur Versorgung von produktiven Anwendungen in den Bereichen Landwirtschaft und Handwerk behandelt (z.B. Solaranlage fuer die Beleuchtung einer Alphuette oder Turbinenanlage fuer eine Kuhalp). Das Buch beschraenkt sich auf Kleinspannungsanlagen, die mit Gleichspannung unter 50V arbeiten (typischerweise 12 V oder 24 V) und in der Regel eine Speicherbatterie aufweisen. Auf Wechselspannungs-Kleinkraftwerke oder Generatoren mit Verbrennungsmotoren wird im Rahmen dieses Buches nicht eingegangen. Die Ausfuehrungen sind das Resultat jahrelanger Beschaeftigung mit dieser Thematik und dementsprechend auch von persoenlichen Erfahrungen gepraegt.

  4. The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    11 Jeffrey Jones, “U.S. Economic Confidence Continues to Slide Amid Shutdown,” Gallup Economy, October 15... Sachs initially predicted that the shutdown would reduce quarterly growth by 0.2 percentage points per week of its duration. After DOD recalled...furloughed workers, Goldman Sachs reduced its estimate to 0.14 percentage points per week for the remainder of the shutdown.32 They predicted that

  5. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  6. Study on a PCM heat storage system for rapid heat supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jinjia; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Hirano, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiromi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8564 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    A thermal energy storage system employing phase change material (PCM) FNP-0090 (product of Nippon Seiro Co. Ltd.) for rapid heat discharge was studied numerically and experimentally. In the numerical studies, the PCM was encapsulated in four different capsules (sphere, cylinder, plate and tube) for investigating the effects of geometrical configurations. The effects of the capsule diameter and shell thickness and the void fraction on the performance of the heat storage system were also investigated. The experiment was conducted by using a commercial plate heat exchanger as the heat storage tank. It was found that the spherical capsule showed the best heat release performance among the four types of investigated capsules, whereas the tubular capsule with low void fraction was not ideal for rapid heat release of the thermal energy stored in the PCM. The heat release performance decreased in the order of sphere, cylinder, plate and tube. The numerical results and the experimental data agreed within 10%. (author)

  7. Choice of flowsheet for heat storage plant of nuclear stations for distant heat and power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, E.A.; Lut'yanov, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    A rational utilization flowsheet of converted gas heat in heat-accumulating part (HAP) for NPP distant heat supply (NPDH), in which high-temperature helium heat of HTGR type reactor is accumulated in chemically bound state in the process of methane steam conversion, and then it is transported for long distances, is suggested. Technical and economical analysis has shown, that the NPDH HAP most effective flowsheet envisages the use of dry saturated steam, generated at the expense of converted gas heat, as a coolant for intermediate turbine superheater. The high-temperature heat can be more effectively used for gaseous heating of supply water and basic condensate of the turbine installation, and low-temperature one - for heat supply of the near-located users

  8. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    .... Project Scope. The demand for M&I water has increased in recent years and the Corps has received numerous requests for intakes and permission to withdraw water as a result of this demand. The Corps of Engineers is...) Identify current and future water demand and potential need for reallocated storage to support demand; (2...

  9. An Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System for Continuous and Sustainable Cold Supply in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterleitner, G.; Schütz, F.; Huenges, E.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the GeoSolCool research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is the development of an innovative and sustainable cooling system in combination with an aquifer thermal energy storage system in northern Oman. An integral part of this project is the design of a subsurface aquifer reservoir system for storage of thermal energy through hot water injection. An accurate characterisation of potential storage horizons is thus essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area, 40 km west of Muscat is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We used a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES development phase, including geological fieldwork dovetailed with remote sensing analyses, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting. First results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate sequence. The alluvial fan system is a more than 300 m thick, coarse clastic (mainly gravels and sandstones) succession of coalesced individual fans. Thin-section analyses showed that hydraulic parameters are favourable for the gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates were deposited in a carbonate ramp setting, strongly influenced by currents and storm events. Individual facies belts extend over kilometres and thus horizontal reservoir connectivity is expected to be good with minor facies variability. Thin-section analyses showed that especially the fossil-rich sections show good storage qualities. Fluid flow forecasting indicate that both potential horizons have good to very good storage characteristics. However, intense diagenetic

  10. Design philosophy of PFBR shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, V.; Vijayashree, R.; Govindarajan, S.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Muralikrishna, G.; Shanmugam, T.K.; Chetal, S.C.; Raghavan, K.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the overall design philosophy of shutdown system of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). It discusses design criteria, parameters calling for safety action, different safety actions and the concepts conceived for shutdown systems. In tune with the philosophy of defence-in-depth, additional passive shutdown features, viz., Self Actuating Device (SADE) and Curie Point Magnetic (CPM) switch and protective feature like absorber rod Stroke Limiting Device (SLD) are contemplated. It also discusses about suitability of Gas Expansion Module (GEM) as one of the safety devices in PFBR. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Design Improvement Study for Passive Shutdown System of the PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    There have been no experiences of implementing a passive shutdown system in operating or operated SFRs around the world. However, new SFRs are considered to adopt a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) in the future to provide an alternate means of passively shutting down the reactor. The Prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) also adopts this system for the same reason. This passive shutdown design concept is combined with a group of secondary control rod drive mechanisms (SCRDM). The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power in an emergency of the reactor. This paper describes the design upgrade parametric study of a passive shutdown system, which consists of a thermal expansion device, an electromagnet, a secondary control rod assembly head, etc. The conceptual design values of each component are also suggested. Parametric calculations are performed to meet the performance requirements of the thermal expansion device and electromagnets. The maximum thermal expansion difference length of 3.6 mm is less than the target value of 5 mm, and the calculated electromagnet forces on the CRA are smaller than the target value of 800 N. An additional design improvement to increase the thermal expansion difference length of a thermal expansion device are necessary to meet the target value, and the electromagnetic force should be increased by an adjustment of the electromagnet design values such as supplied current, material permeability, etc. The design feasibility of the thermal expansion device as a passive concept will be verified based on these results

  12. Electrochemical storage systems for renewable power supply systems. Workshop; Elektrochemische Speichersysteme fuer regenerative Energieversorgungsanlagen. Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garche, J.; Hoehe, W. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Ulm (Germany); Stadermann, G. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This volume contains 26 contributions on batteries and PV systems. Vol. 1 discusses the following subjects: 1. Evaluation and assessment of the performance of battery systems in existing PV systems; 2. Status and prospects of storage systems; 3. Experience, requirements and markets; 4. Storage battery operation and assessment; 5. Systems engineering and operation of PV systems. [German] Dieser Band enthaelt 26 Beitraege zum aktuellen Stand der Batterien sowie der dazugehoerigen Systeme fuer Photovoltaik-Anlagen. Der Band ist in fuenf Themenbereiche unterteilt: 1. Auswertung und Bewertung des Betriebsverhaltens von Batteriesystemen in bestehenden PV-Anlagen; 2. Stand und Zukunft von Speichersystemen; 3.Erfahrungen, Anforderungen und Maerkte; 4. Speicher-Betriebsfuehrung und -Zustandsbestimmung; und 5. Systemtechnik und Betriebsfuehrung von PV-Systemen.

  13. Perspectives on Low Power and Shutdown Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, Allen L.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Lehner, John; Chu, Tsong-Lun; Lois, Erasmai; Drouin, Mary

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results from a program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the risks from low power and shutdown operations. Significant progress has been made by the industry in reducing such risks; however, important operational events continue to occur. Current perceptions of low power and shutdown risks are discussed in the paper along with an assessment of the current methods for understanding important events and quantifying their associated risk

  14. Risks Associated with Shutdown in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, I.

    1996-01-01

    The selected set of risks associated with reactor shutdown in PWRs are outlined and discussed (e. g. outage planning, residual heat removal capability, rapid boron dilution, containment integrity, fire protection). The contribution of different outage strategies to overall core damage risk during shutdown is assessed for a particular basic outage plan. The factors which increase or minimize the probability of reactor coolant boiling or core damage are analysed. (author)

  15. Carbon capture and storage as central modules of a strategy toward a sustainable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm

    2010-09-15

    Sustainable energy supply must do justice to the equal-ranking goals of economic, environmental and social compatibility. A balance must be sought between the degrees of achievement for these aims. In climate protection, approaches must be pursued that promise achievement at the lowest cost. An approximation of energy-management development to climate-policy necessities is only possible if all cost-efficient options are used. CCS can be regarded as a bridging technology toward an energy sector that is increasingly based almost entirely on electricity from renewables. On the road there, the expansion of renewables and power generation based on fossil energies with CCS complement one another.

  16. ORNL Isotopes Facilities Shutdown Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.M.; Patton, B.D.; Sears, M.B.

    1990-10-01

    This plan presents the results of a technical and economic assessment for shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) isotopes production and distribution facilities. On December 11, 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, in a memorandum addressed to DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), gave instructions to prepare the ORNL isotopes production and distribution facilities, with the exception of immediate facility needs for krypton-85, tritium, and yttrium-90, for safe shutdown. In response to the memorandum, ORNL identified 17 facilities for shutdown. Each of these facilities is located within the ORNL complex with the exception of Building 9204-3, which is located at the Y-12 Weapons Production Plant. These facilities have been used extensively for the production of radioactive materials by the DOE Isotopes Program. They currently house a large inventory of radioactive materials. Over the years, these aging facilities have inherited the problems associated with storing and processing highly radioactive materials (i.e., facilities' materials degradation and contamination). During FY 1990, ORNL is addressing the requirements for placing these facilities into safe shutdown while maintaining the facilities under the existing maintenance and surveillance plan. The day-to-day operations associated with the surveillance and maintenance of a facility include building checks to ensure that building parameters are meeting the required operational safety requirements, performance of contamination control measures, and preventative maintenance on the facility and facility equipment. Shutdown implementation will begin in FY 1993, and shutdown completion will occur by the end of FY 1994

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    visits. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its UNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. Additional conclusions from this evaluation include: The 12 shutdown sites use designs from 4 different suppliers involving 9 different (horizontal and vertical) dry storage systems that would require the use of 8 different transportation cask designs to remove the UNF and GTCC waste from the shutdown sites; Although there are common aspects, each site has some unique features and/or conditions; Although some regulatory actions will be required, all UNF at the initial 9 shutdown sites (Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion) is in licensed systems that can be transported, including a small amount of high-burnup fuel; Each site indicated that 2-3 years of advance time would be required for its preparations before shipments could begin; Most sites have more than one transportation option, e.g., rail, barge, or heavy haul truck, as well as constraints and preferences. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1111 - Startup, shutdown, and malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Startup, shutdown, and malfunction. 63... Control Technology Standards § 63.1111 Startup, shutdown, and malfunction. (a) Startup, shutdown, and... develop a written startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan that describes, in detail, procedures for...

  19. Electrical integration of renewable energy into stand-alone power supplies incorporating hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Matthew; Thomson, Murray

    2007-07-15

    A stand-alone renewable-energy system employing a hydrogen-based energy store is now being commissioned within the HaRI project at West Beacon Farm, Leicestershire, UK. The interconnection of the various generators, loads and storage system is made through a central DC busbar: an arrangement that is believed to be unique within systems of this type and scale. The rotating generators, such as the wind turbines, are connected through standard industrial drives operating in regenerative mode, while the DC devices - electrolyser, fuel cell and solar photovoltaic array - employ custom DC-DC converters. This paper reviews the design philosophy of the electrical system and the various converters required. Modelling and simulation of the system is discussed along with practical lessons learnt from its implementation and some initial results are presented. (author)

  20. The Importance of Bank Storage in Supplying Baseflow to Rivers Flowing Through Compartmentalized, Alluvial Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kimberly A.; Proffitt, Tiffany; Rowley, Taylor; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Montiel, Daniel; Dimova, Natasha; Tebo, Daniel; Miller, Gretchen R.

    2017-12-01

    As water grows scarcer in semiarid and arid regions around the world, new tools are needed to quantify fluxes of water and chemicals between aquifers and rivers. In this study, we quantify the volumetric flux of subsurface water to a 24 km reach of the Brazos River, a lowland river that meanders through the Brazos River Alluvium Aquifer (BRAA), with 8 months of high-frequency differential gaging measurements using fixed gaging stations. Subsurface discharge sources were determined using natural tracers and End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). During a 4 month river stage recession following a high stage event, subsurface discharge decreased from 50 m3/s to 0, releasing a total of 1.0 × 108 m3 of water. Subsurface discharge dried up even as the groundwater table at two locations in the BRAA located 300-500 m from the river remained ˜4 m higher than the river stage. Less than 4% of the water discharged from the subsurface during the prolonged recession period resembled the chemical fingerprint of the alluvial aquifer. Instead, the chemistry of this discharged water closely resembled high stage "event" river water. Together, these findings suggest that the river is well connected to rechargeable bank storage reservoirs but disconnected from the broader alluvial aquifer. The average width of discrete bank storage zones on each side of the river, identified with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), was approximately 1.5 km. In such highly compartmentalized aquifers, groundwater pumping is unlikely to impact the exchange between the river and the alluvium.

  1. Dynamics of magma supply, storage and migration at basaltic volcanoes: Geophysical studies of the Galapagos and Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnardi, Marco

    Basaltic shields forming ocean island volcanoes, in particular those of Hawai'i and of the Galapagos Islands, constitute some of the largest volcanic features on Earth. Understanding subsurface processes such as those controlling magma supply, storage and migration at these volcanoes, is essential to any attempt to anticipate their future behavior. This dissertation presents a series of studies carried out at Hawaiian and Galapagos volcanoes. InSAR measurements acquired between 2003 and 2010 at Fernandina Volcano, Galapagos, are used to study the structure and the dynamics of the shallow magmatic system of the volcano (Chapter 3). Spatial and temporal variations in the measured displacements reveal the presence of two hydraulically connected areas of magma storage, and the modeling of the deformation data provides an estimate of their location and geometry. The same dataset also provides the first geodetic evidence for two subvolcanic sill intrusions (in 2006 and 2007) deep beneath the volcano's flank. The lateral migration of magma from the reservoirs during these intrusions could provide an explanation for enigmatic volcanic events at Fernandina such as the 1968 caldera collapse without significant eruption. Space-geodetic measurements of the surface deformation produced by the most recent eruptions at Fernandina, reveal that all have initiated with the intrusion of subhorizontal sills from the shallow magma reservoir (Chapter 4). A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired 1-2 h before the start of a radial fissure eruption in 2009 captures one of these sills in the midst of its propagation toward the surface. Galapagos eruptive fissures of all orientations have previously been presumed to be fed by vertical dikes, but these new findings allow a reinterpretation of the internal structure and evolution of Galapagos volcanoes and of similar basaltic shields elsewhere on Earth and on other planets. A joint analysis of InSAR and groud-based microgravity data

  2. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  3. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines

  4. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, S.R.

    1991-08-01

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or ''generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  5. First LHC Shutdown: Coordination and Schedule Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Coupard, J; Grillot, S

    2010-01-01

    The first LHC shutdown started in fall 2008, just after the incident on the 19th of September 2008. In addition to the typical work of a shutdown, a large number of interventions, related to the “consolidation after the incident” were performed in the LHC loop. Moreover the amount of work increased during the shutdown, following the recommendations and conclusions of the different working groups in charge of the safety of the personnel and of the machine. This paper will give an overview of the work performed, the organization of the coordination, emphasizing the new safety risks (electrical and cryogenic), and how the interventions were implemented in order to ensure both the safety of personnel and a minimized time window.

  6. Force on a storage ring vacuum chamber after sudden turn-off of a magnet power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Sinha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We are commissioning a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS where electrons travel in high vacuum inside the vacuum chambers made of aluminum alloys. These chambers are kept between the pole gaps of magnets and are made to facilitate the radiation coming out of the storage ring to the experimental station. These chambers are connected by metallic bellows. During the commissioning phase of the SRS, the metallic bellows became ruptured due to the frequent tripping of the dipole magnet power supply. The machine was down for quite some time. In the case of a power supply trip, the current in the magnets decays exponentially. It was observed experimentally that the fast B field decay generates a large eddy current in the chambers and consequently the chambers are subjected to a huge Lorentz force. This motivated us to develop a theoretical model to study the force acting on a metallic plate when exposed to an exponentially decaying field and then to extend it for a rectangular vacuum chamber. The problem is formulated using Maxwell’s equations and converted to the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. After taking the Laplace transform, the equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions. Final results are obtained after taking the appropriate inverse Laplace transform. The expressions for eddy current contour and magnetic field produced by the eddy current are also derived. Variations of the force on chambers of different wall thickness due to spatially varying and exponentially time decaying field are presented. The result is a general theory which can be applied to different geometries and calculation of power loss as well. Comparisons are made with results obtained by simulation using a finite element based code, for quick verification of the theoretical model.

  7. Preliminary aseismic analysis on bolts of driving mechanism in absorption sphere shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Li Tianjin; Zhang Zhengming; Huang Zhiyong; Bo Hanliang

    2012-01-01

    The absorption sphere shutdown system performs an important role in reactivity regulating and control. Driving mechanism is a set of key mechanical moving parts which is used to control falling of absorption spheres in absorption sphere shutdown system. It is about 5 m for driving mechanism with the slim structure, which is connected with the upper supported plate of metal reactor internals through storage vessel with bolts. Both the storage vessel and driving mechanism are equipment of seismic classification I. It is significant to calculate and check the bolts strength of driving mechanism. In this paper, complicate structure of driving mechanism was simplified to three variable cross sections and statically indeterminate problem was solved. The bolts at the bottom and on the top of the storage vessel were calculated and checked. The preliminary results indicate that the bolts strength is reliable and safe, and the supporting force at the most weak point of driving mechanism is as well obtained. (authors)

  8. The 2013 US Government Shutdown (#Shutdown) and health: an emerging role for social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Ha, Yoonhee P; Wong, Charlene A; Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Ungar, Lyle H; Asch, David A

    2014-12-01

    In October 2013, multiple United States (US) federal health departments and agencies posted on Twitter, "We're sorry, but we will not be tweeting or responding to @replies during the shutdown. We'll be back as soon as possible!" These "last tweets" and the millions of responses they generated revealed social media's role as a forum for sharing and discussing information rapidly. Social media are now among the few dominant communication channels used today. We used social media to characterize the public discourse and sentiment about the shutdown. The 2013 shutdown represented an opportunity to explore the role social media might play in events that could affect health.

  9. Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.D.; Wright, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg/L and 9,000 microg/L, respectively, in water from wells in the immediate vicinity of the former leaking tank, and benzene concentrations were as high as 2,300 microg/L in a well 600 ft down gradient from the gasoline station. Groundwater flow rate are estimated to be about 60 to 80 ft/yr; on the basis of these flow rates, the contaminants may have been introduced into the groundwater as long as 7-10 yrs ago. Groundwater might infiltrate a subsurface storm sewer, where the sewer is below the water table, and discharge into a nearby stream. Preliminary risk assessment for the site identified no potential human receptors to the groundwater contamination because there were no groundwater users identified in the area. Remediation might be appropriate if exposure of future potential users is concern. Alternatives discussed for remediation of groundwater contamination in the upper aquifer at the PX Service Station include no-action, soil vapor extraction, and groundwater pumping and treatment alternatives

  10. ORAM and shutdown PRA comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.G.; Hilsmeier, Todd; Carrier, Tom

    2000-01-01

    A comparison study between results obtained from an Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) model and a shutdown Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model was conducted. The purpose of the study was to provide useful risk information for better outage planning by focusing resources and contingency plans on risk significant configurations. The comparison study used selected configurations from the 8th refueling outage of the Hope Creek Generation Station (HCGS), a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A total of Eleven configurations were compared. Three configurations were selected to evaluate the impact of the Service Water System during the early stage of a refueling outage. (There are existing studies suggesting that the designed redundancy of Service Water Systems is needed during the early stage of a shutdown.) Four configurations were selected because they were deemed risk significant by the ORAM analysis. (For configurations deemed risk significant by ORAM results, compensatory actions have been taken and contingency plans have been developed to mitigate potential deviations from the configuration. The shutdown PRA was used to evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of these contingency plans and compensatory actions.) To increase the comparison population, an additional four configurations were randomly selected. Thus, a total of 15 configurations were evaluated by the shutdown PRA, and a total of 11 configurations were studied by the ORAM. (author)

  11. High level waste facilities - Continuing operation or orderly shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, L.A.

    1998-04-01

    Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed

  12. 40 CFR 52.271 - Malfunction, startup, and shutdown regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Malfunction, startup, and shutdown..., startup, and shutdown regulations. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they would permit... malfunctions and/or fail to sufficiently limit startup and shutdown exemptions to those periods where it is...

  13. MANAGING THE LOAD SCHEDULE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING TAKING INTO ACCOUNT EMERGING RISKS WHEN CONNECTING THE KINETIC ENERGY STORAGE TO THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Shevchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to analyze load schedules of the administrative building and develop a structural scheme for connecting the kinetic energy storage in the power supply system of this building, which will allow using it as a consumer regulator, as well as a theoretical study of the risks that arise. Methodology. To conduct the research, the theory of designing internal electrical networks of buildings, the theory of plotting electric load graphs, methods of the theory of electromechanical systems and for analyzing the risk system, the T. Saati method of hierarchies were used. Results. The structure of kinetic energy storage (KES connection to the power supply system of the administrative building is developed and the structural diagram of the KES proposed for installation is given, the average daily winter and summer load schedules are presented, a set of groups and subgroups of risks and their influence on the work of the power supply system of the building are connected with the connection of the KES. Originality. For the first time, the application of the kinetic energy storage in the power supply system of the building with the analysis of emerging risks is considered, which makes it possible to improve the reliability of the developed system and the efficiency of load regulation. Practical value. The application of the proposed scheme will make it possible to use administrative buildings as load regulators of the external power supply system, and also effectively manage the load in the internal power supply system of the building.

  14. Bayesian estimation of magma supply, storage, and eruption rates using a multiphysical volcano model: Kīlauea Volcano, 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Estimating rates of magma supply to the world's volcanoes remains one of the most fundamental aims of volcanology. Yet, supply rates can be difficult to estimate even at well-monitored volcanoes, in part because observations are noisy and are usually considered independently rather than as part of a holistic system. In this work we demonstrate a technique for probabilistically estimating time-variable rates of magma supply to a volcano through probabilistic constraint on storage and eruption rates. This approach utilizes Bayesian joint inversion of diverse datasets using predictions from a multiphysical volcano model, and independent prior information derived from previous geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies. The solution to the inverse problem takes the form of a probability density function which takes into account uncertainties in observations and prior information, and which we sample using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Applying the technique to Kīlauea Volcano, we develop a model which relates magma flow rates with deformation of the volcano's surface, sulfur dioxide emission rates, lava flow field volumes, and composition of the volcano's basaltic magma. This model accounts for effects and processes mostly neglected in previous supply rate estimates at Kīlauea, including magma compressibility, loss of sulfur to the hydrothermal system, and potential magma storage in the volcano's deep rift zones. We jointly invert data and prior information to estimate rates of supply, storage, and eruption during three recent quasi-steady-state periods at the volcano. Results shed new light on the time-variability of magma supply to Kīlauea, which we find to have increased by 35–100% between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.11–0.17 to 0.18–0.28 km3/yr), before subsequently decreasing to 0.08–0.12 km3/yr by 2012. Changes in supply rate directly impact hazard at the volcano, and were largely responsible for an increase in eruption rate of 60–150% between

  15. Gas production and storage - gas transport and supply. Colloquium 7th conference proceedings; Gasfoerderung und Gasspeicherung - Gastransport und Gasversorgung. Kolloquium 7. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S. [ed.] [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bohrtechnik und Fluidbergbau; Koeckritz, V. [comp.

    1999-07-01

    The colloquium papers discuss trends in gas supply engineering, automtion of gas storages, liberalisation of the gas market, and gas management systems in integrated supply systems. Rock-mechanical problems of natural gas storage caverns are mentioned. Further subjects are gas extraction rom coal seams, power generation from gas in fuel cells, a model for blowout calculation of real gases, and vortex tubes in gas pressure reduction systems. 19 contributions have been recorded separately in this database. [German] Die einzelnen Beitraege des Kolloquiums befassen sich mit den Entwicklungen in der Gasversorgungstechnik, mit der Automatisierung von Gasspeichern, mit der Liberalisierung des Gasmarktes sowie mit Gasmanagementsystemen in Verbundnetzen. Neben der Gasspeicherung in Porenspeichern und Salzkavernen, deren Sicherheit und der Soleversenkung, sind Betraege zu gebirgsmechanischen Problemen in Erdgasspeicherkavernen enthalten. Weitere Themen sind die Gasfoerderung aus Steinkohlefloezen, die Energieerzeugung aus Gas in Brennstoffzellen, ein Modell zur Blowout-Berechnung realer Gase sowie Wirbelrohre in Anlagen zur Gasdruckminderung. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 19 Beitraege separat aufgenommen.

  16. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  17. Autonomous power supply. Design and practice of power supply systems with storage batteries. 3. rev. ed.; Autonome Stromversorgung. Auslegung und Praxis von Stromversorgungsanlagen mit Batteriespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckmann, Philipp

    2012-07-01

    The book intends to provide users and planners with information on possibilities and technology of autonomous power supply systems in the low voltage range (12 Volt or 24 Volt). The whole spectrum of power supply systems is covered, from simple lighting to agriculture and trade, e.g. lead accumulators, alternators, solar generators, calculation of Pelton turbines, plant dimensioning, efficient consumers, inverters, installation, grounding and lightning protection. The information provided is based on the author's long years of personal experience in this subject.

  18. Satellite Soil Moisture and Water Storage Observations Identify Early and Late Season Water Supply Influencing Plant Growth in the Missouri Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; Njoku, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    We employ an array of continuously overlapping global satellite sensor observations including combined surface soil moisture (SM) estimates from SMAP, AMSR-E and AMSR-2, GRACE terrestrial water storage (TWS), and satellite precipitation measurements, to characterize seasonal timing and inter-annual variations of the regional water supply pattern and its associated influence on vegetation growth estimates from MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), AMSR-E/2 vegetation optical depth (VOD) and GOME-2 solar-induced florescence (SIF). Satellite SM is used as a proxy of plant-available water supply sensitive to relatively rapid changes in surface condition, GRACE TWS measures seasonal and inter-annual variations in regional water storage, while precipitation measurements represent the direct water input to the analyzed ecosystem. In the Missouri watershed, we find surface SM variations are the dominant factor controlling vegetation growth following the peak of the growing season. Water supply to growth responds to both direct precipitation inputs and groundwater storage carry-over from prior seasons (winter and spring), depending on land cover distribution and regional climatic condition. For the natural grassland in the more arid central and northwest watershed areas, an early season anomaly in precipitation or surface temperature can have a lagged impact on summer vegetation growth by affecting the surface SM and the underlying TWS supplies. For the croplands in the more humid eastern portions of the watershed, the correspondence between surface SM and plant growth weakens. The combination of these complementary remote-sensing observations provides an effective means for evaluating regional variations in the timing and availability of water supply influencing vegetation growth.

  19. LMFBR self-activated shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.S.; Barthold, W.P.; Eggen, D.T.; Huebotter, P.R.; Josephson, J.; Pizzica, P.A.; Turski, R.B.; van Erp, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs), fully contained within the dimensions of a fuel subassembly and installed in the core in judiciously chosen locations, can provide an important additional safety feature for LMFBRs. If actuated by phenomena inherent to the system and its immediate environment, these systems can contribute considerably to the total reliability of the overall plant protection system, in particular as regards protection against human error. It was shown that this type of shutdown system is capable of inserting a substantial amount of negative reactivity into the core with a relatively small impact on plant performance. Furthermore, it was shown that a coolable geometry can be maintained in LMFBRs of current design for a wide spectrum of accident initiators, and for a range of response times and insertion rates which appear to be achievable within practical design limits. Experiments showed that Curie-point-operated devices have considerable promise for application in self-actuated shutdown systems, in particular as regards meeting the requirements of testability and resettability

  20. The use of digital computers in CANDU shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.S.; Komorowski, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of computers in CANDU shutdown systems. A general description of systems that are already in service is presented along with a description of a fully computerized shutdown system which is scheduled to enter service in 1987. In reviewing the use of computers in the shutdown systems there are three functional areas where computers have been or are being applied. These are (i) shutdown system monitoring, (ii) parameter display and testing and (iii) shutdown initiation. In recent years various factors (References 1 and 2) have influenced the development and deployment of systems which have addressed two of these functions. At the present time a system is also being designed which addresses all of these areas in a comprehensive manner. This fully computerized shutdown system reflects the previous design, and licensing experience which was gained in earlier applications. Prior to describing the specific systems which have been designed a short summary of CANDU shutdown system characteristics is presented

  1. Analysis of shutdown and aftercooling cycles of the A-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, V.; Vopatril, M.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept is described of the emergency shut-down and after-cooling of the A-1 reactor based on the elimination of pressure shock and minimization of thermal shock. After-cooling is effected by all circulators which had not been defective before shut-down. During shut-down the pumps run at reduced speed. A diesel generator is used as a self-contained power supply. The after-cooling is classified into three types depending on the machinery power consumption, i.e., normal, emergency and super-emergency. The selection of the power supply and the after-cooling conditions proceeds automatically. A mathematical model is described of A-1 reactor behaviour during different accidents requiring the shut-down and after-cooling. Computer programmes are briefly indicated for the analysis of transients in the primary coolant circuit (ZVJE-73-23, SHOCK A-1), for the analysis of transients resulting from a neutron power controller failure or from a circulator failure (HAZARD), for the analysis of after-cooling processes (DENDEL), and programme SAULIS as an auxiliary programme for processing the results and for the print-out of the DENDEL programme. Steady-state parameters before the failure were found as initial conditions for the calculation of transients. The mathematical model was solved using a system of three computer programmes linked by interprogramme communication. The analysis is described of the cooperation of reactor safety circuits and of the automatic equipment for the reduction of thermal shock in the primary coolant circuit, as is the analysis of reactor accidents related to reactor control and to the safety circuits. Theoretical results are compared with experimental values obtained during the experimental A-1 reactor shut-down and after-cooling. The accuracy of the calculated value for the cooling gas temperature at the central and marginal channel outputs is -10 to +15% during the first 30 s of after-cooling. (J.P.)

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  4. A Fast Shutdown Technique for Large Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.; Schmidt, G.L.; Hill, K.; Jardin, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A practical method is proposed for the fast shutdown of a large ignited tokamak. The method consists of injecting a rapid series of 30-50 deuterium pellets doped with a small ( 0.0005%) concentration of Krypton impurity, and simultaneously ramping the plasma current and shaping fields down over a period of several seconds using the poloidal field system. Detailed modeling with the Tokamak Simulation Code using a newly developed pellet mass deposition model shows that this method should terminate the discharge in a controlled and stable way without producing significant numbers of runaway electrons. A partial prototyping of this technique was accomplished in TFTR

  5. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems

  6. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-08-12

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems.

  7. Buffer thermal energy storage for a solar Brayton engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been completed on the application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine. To aid in the study, a computer program was written for complete transient/stead-state Brayton cycle performance. The results indicated that thermal storage can afford a significant decrease in the number of engine shutdowns as compared to operating without thermal storage. However, the number of shutdowns does not continuously decrease as the storage material weight increases. In fact, there appears to be an optimum weight for minimizing the number of shutdowns.

  8. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  9. Sediment supply versus local hydraulic controls on sediment transport and storage in a river with large sediment loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David J.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, undergoes rapid geomorphic changes as a result of its large sediment supply and variable hydrology; thus, it is a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling alluvial channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically based analyses suggest that channel change in the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by substantial deposition of sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during tributary-sourced flash floods. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande, and these floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment transport analyses show that the locations and rates of sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by spatial changes in flow strength, largely through changes in channel slope. However, spatial differences in the in-channel sediment supply regulate sediment evacuation or accumulation over time in long reaches (greater than a kilometer).

  10. Self-actuating reactor shutdown system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, Donald M.; Brummond, Willian A; Peterson, Leslie F.

    1988-01-01

    A control system for the automatic or self-actuated shutdown or "scram" of a nuclear reactor. The system is capable of initiating scram insertion by a signal from the plant protection system or by independent action directly sensing reactor conditions of low-flow or over-power. Self-actuation due to a loss of reactor coolant flow results from a decrease of pressure differential between the upper and lower ends of an absorber element. When the force due to this differential falls below the weight of the element, the element will fall by gravitational force to scram the reactor. Self-actuation due to high neutron flux is accomplished via a valve controlled by an electromagnet and a thermionic diode. In a reactor over-power, the diode will be heated to a change of state causing the electromagnet to be shorted thereby actuating the valve which provides the changed flow and pressure conditions required for scramming the absorber element.

  11. Order concerning a nuclear reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Judgment of the State Administrative Court of Baden Wuerttemberg in head notes including: The authority of the Minister-President to give general guidelines includes the right to issue single directives; in matters of prime political significance he can take measures to realize such aims. - It is no extraneous consideration for the supervisory board under atomic energy law to point out in an order concerning a nuclear reactor shutdown that the disallowed operation of a nuclear plant conflicts with the obligation of the state to provide protection and constitutes a penal offence. Further a discourse on the assignment of discretionary powers under Paragraph 19 Section 3 Clause 2 No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. (HSCH) [de

  12. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Maintenance work is scheduled for the NICE home directory servers and the central Web servers. Users must, therefore, expect service interruptions. Unix batch services will be available but without access to HPSS or to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by email to: computer.operations@cern.ch Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files for eithe...

  13. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor...

  14. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  15. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  16. Sediment Supply Versus Local Hydraulic Controls on Sediment Transport and Storage in the Rio Grande in the Big Bend Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. J.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, has a large sediment supply, and a variable hydrology resulting in rapid channel narrowing during years of low mean and peak flow, and channel widening during rare, large-magnitude floods. This dynamic nature makes the Rio Grande a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment-transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically-based analyses suggest that channel change on the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during flash floods on desert tributaries. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem are the only floods that have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande. These floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment-transport analyses show that sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by the spatial distribution of flow strength as governed by channel slope. However, temporal changes in the grain size and amount of available sand within the channel, as inferred from comprehensive analyses of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size, control the degree of sediment evacuation or accumulation over large spatial scales.

  17. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  18. Supplementary shutdown system of 220 MWe standard PHWR in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muktibodh, U.C.

    1997-01-01

    The design objective of the shutdown system is to make the reactor subcritical and hold it in that state for an extended period of time. This objective must be realised under all anticipated operational occurrences and postulated abnormal conditions even during most reactive state of the core. PHWR design criteria for shutdown stipulates requirement of two independent diverse and fast acting shutdown systems, either of which acting alone should meet the above objectives. This requirement would normally call for a large number of reactivity mechanism penetrations into the calandria. From the point of view of space availability at the reactivity mechanism area on top of calandria, for the relatively small core of 220 MWe PHWRs, and ease of maintenance realisation of the total worth by either of the shutdown systems acting alone was difficult. To overcome this engineering constraint and at the same time to satisfy the design criteria, a unique approach to meet the reactivity demands for shutdown was adopted. The reactivity requirements of the shutdown consists of fast and slow reactivity changes. For the shutdown system of 220 MWe PHWRs, the approach of realizing fast reactivity changes with dual redundant, diverse, fast acting shutdown systems aided by a slow acting shutdown system to counter delayed reactivity changes was conceived. The supplementary slow acting shutdown system is called upon to act after actuation of either of the two redundant fast acting systems and is referred to as Liquid Poison Injection System (LPIS). The system adds bulk amount of neutron poison (boric acid), equivalent to 45 mk, directly into the moderator through two nozzles in calandria using pneumatic pressure. This paper describes the design of LPIS as envisaged for the standardised 220 MWe PHWRs. (author)

  19. Photovoltaic power supply systems - control and power conditioning for photovoltaic supply systems with and without battery storage. Final report. Regelung und Energieaufbereitung fuer photovoltaische Versorgungsysteme mit und ohne Batteriespeicher. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, H.; Caselitz, P.; Doering, W.; Kleinkauf, W.; Pigorsch, W.; Sachau, J.; Willer, B.

    1989-02-01

    The project embraces a closer examination of the methods and concepts used in the control and power conditioning for photovoltaic supply systems. This study has been approached from the angle of systems engineering. Ways of improving battery integration were found by examining the behaviour, the management and the determination of the state of charge in the battery. A number of activities were realized, based on the fundamental properties of the plant's components as found in practice: the development of controllable AC and DC systems, the setting up of an experimental plant, the development of a 2.5 kW solar plant furnished with an energy storage for the formation of an isolated grid as well as the creation of computerized simulations. These are able to reproduce the function and dynamics of individual components and to describe the operating behaviour of different plant configurations. The 2.5 kW isolated grid installations has led to an autonomous energy supply system which uses both improved plant technology and control procedures. The result is a complete, self-contained technical solution which satisfies the demands of the consumer better than in the past. Operating the plant under realistic conditions will produce results about the performance of the individual components and operating procedures which in turn will render well-grounded information for future developments. (orig.) With 60 refs., 1 tab., 125 figs.

  20. On line test of trip channels and actuators in primary shutdown system for RAPP-3,4/KAIGA-1,2 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, M.; Gupta, P.K.; Ravi Prakash

    1997-01-01

    Several types of system design and logic arrangements have been used for reactor shutdown systems to avoid the possibility that a single failure within the trip channels/shutdown system actuators can prevent a shutdown system actuation. The trip channels and the logic arrangements associated with the shutdown systems use redundancy to allow them to continue to operate successfully even after having a certain number of failures. A periodic test is thus needed to detect and repair/replace failed elements to prevent accumulation and eventual system failure. The test must be capable of detecting the first failure. The design initiates shutdown system actuation by deenergising the logic relays and turning off the power to the final electrical actuators. Thus, the systems are fail safe with respect to loss of electrical power to the instruments, logic channels and the actuators. Several system/logic arrangements are used to reduce the chances of spurious actuation caused by the loss of a single power supply and other single failures. In general, the systems use coincidence of instrument channel trips and have separate power supplies for the individual instrument channel and dual power supplies where a single final control element is used. These features also permit on line test of instrument channels and logic train. On line test detects component failures not found by other means. The test determines whether gross failure has occurred rather than perform a calibration. As far as practicable the whole channel from sensors to logic and final control element is to be tested. (author)

  1. The use of CD-ROMs for storage and document delivery at the British Library Document Supply Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, D.

    1990-05-01

    The British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC) has been in the forefront of international document delivery for 20 years. During the last 5 years it has been very actively involved in the ADONIS Project, through which the full text of some 200 journals in the life sciences have been stored, accessed, and delivered through the medium of CD-ROM. The BLDSC's involvement in this project is described and indications of the lessons learned and of the implications for international document delivery systems in the future are given. (author)

  2. CAREM-25 Reactor Second Shutdown System Consolidation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Marcelo; Zanocco, Pablo; Schlamp, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    CAREM Reactor Second Shutdown System (SSS) injects boron into the primary circuit in case of First Shutdown System failure in order to stop the nuclear reaction and to maintain the core in a safe condition during cold shutdown.It also has another safety function which is to inject water in the primary system at any pressure in case of LOCA.Different system requirements are analyzed during a SSS spurious trip and LOCA's transients.Two different alternatives are presented for the stand by condition pressurized system, they are solid mode and hot water layer. Both cases fulfill the design requirements from the safety point of view

  3. Criteria for remote shutdown for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This Standard provides design criteria which require that: (1) specific controls and monitoring equipment shall be provided for achieving and maintaining the plant in a safe shutdown condition; (2) these controls be installed at a location (or locations) that is physically remote from the control room and cable spreading areas; (3) simultaneous control from both locations shall be prevented by administrative controls or devices for transfer of control from the control room to the remote location(s); and (4) the remote controls be used as defense-in-depth measure in addition to the control room shutdown controls and as a minimum shall provide for one complete channel of shutdown equipment

  4. Final shutdown of Chinon A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, J.; Pouzac, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain a better grasp of the condition of the Chinon plant at shutdown and the problems its operator might have had to deal with had the plant been kept in operation, the authors review: the history of the plant; its technological design; the main problems encountered during its lifetime and how these were solved. In the first instance, the operator took stock of the technical problems which could have affected the safety of the plant or restricted availability in the short and medium term. The analysis did not point to any serious problems for the five years ahead. The periodic economic review of electricity generating capacity carried out in 1983 the Direction de la Production et du Transport d'Electricite de France showed that the optimal date for decommissioning Chinon A2 was July 1985. The fact that this coincided exactly with the transfer date for personnel in this neighbouring units B3 and B4 (2x900 MWe - PWR) was the additional deciding factor for decommissioning in 1985. Taking the decision early enough enabled the operator to optimise the use both of fuel and of reactor staff. The authors then discuss the disposal options for the plant [fr

  5. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements

  6. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Unix batch services will be available but without access to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by Email to computer.operations@cern.ch. Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files (for Unix or Windows) or for email folders. Any changes that you make to your files during this period may be lost in the event of a disk failure. Please note that all t...

  7. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilibin, K.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having a reactor core and a reactor coolant flowing therethrough, a temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly, comprising: an upper drive line terminating at its lower end with a substantially cylindrical wall member having inner and outer surfaces; a lower drive line having a lower end adapted to be attached to a neutron absorber; a ring movable disposed about the outer surface of the wall member of the upper drive line; thermal actuation means adapted to be in heat exchange relationship with coolant in an associated reactor core and in contact with the ring, and balls located within the openings in the upper drive line. When reactor coolant approaches a predetermined design temperature the actuation means moves the ring sufficiently so that the balls move radially out from the recess and into the space formed by the second portion of the ring thereby removing the vertical support for the lower drive line such that the lower drive line moves downwardly and inserts an associated neutron absorber into an associated reactor core resulting in automatic reduction of reactor power

  8. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S.; Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Loughlin, M.; Secco, A.

    2003-01-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  9. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  10. Optimization and Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System in a Small-Scale Standalone Microgrid for Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and application of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in small-scale standalone microgrids for remote area power supply (RAPS has received extensive attention. This application mode has its own characteristics which must be considered but have not been considered in the existing research. To reflect the common satisfaction of load demands and maximize the utilization of renewable energy in a standalone microgrid, a new index named effective rate of energy storage system (ESS is proposed. To reflect the true work state of supercapacitor ESS (SC-ESS, the second-level data of field measurements is used in calculation and analysis. To further enhance the operational performance of the HESS, a coordinated control strategy based on state cooperation is adopted. To get a more reasonable and more credible HESS optimization model, the comparison of existing models and proposed model with different considerations on cost and life is provided. In addition, a comparative analysis of technical and economic characteristics improvements is presented for different ESS application schemes in practical projects.

  11. 46 CFR 153.296 - Emergency shutdown stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.296 Emergency shutdown stations. (a) Each tankship must have at...

  12. Safety analysis of Ignalina NPP during shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Uspuras, E.

    2000-01-01

    The accident analysis for the Ignalina NPP with RBMK-1500 reactors at normal operating conditions and at minimum controlled power level (during startup of the reactor) has been performed in the frame of the project I n-Depth Safety Assessment of the Ignalina NPP , which was completed in 1996. However, the plant conditions during the reactor shutdown differ from conditions during reactor operation at full power (equipment status in protection systems, set points for actuation of safety and protection systems, etc.). Results of RELAP5 simulation of two worst initiating events during reactor shutdown - Pressure Header rupture in case of steam reactor cooldown as well as Pressure Header rupture in case of water reactor cooldown are discussed in the paper. Results of analysis shown that reactor are reliably cooled in both cases. Further analysis for all range of initial events during reactor shutdown and at shutdown conditions is recommended. (author)

  13. Startup, Shutdown, & Malfunction (SSM) Emissions at Industrial Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA issued a final action to ensure states have plans in place that are fully consistent with the Clean Air Act and recent court decisions concerning startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) operations.

  14. France: Reflections on the assessment of passive shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudrand, O.

    2015-01-01

    Passive shutdown systems (PSS) have been envisaged in the past project EFR developed in the 90’s. In practice, passive devices would have not replaced active shutdown systems. The PSS were proposed as a supplementary provision against core meltdown accident. The objective was to enhance the reliability of the emergency shutdown function by adding a completely independent and diversified “third shutdown system” (two active shutdown systems were envisaged in the basic design). In this frame, their efficiency was required essentially in case of postulated failure of the two active shutdown systems. It is to be noted that this approach is consistent with the required independence of the defense-in-depth levels. The IRSN considers that the shutdown system (I&C plus absorber rods and dedicated subassemblies) is of particular importance due to core physics typical of LMFRs. In relation to this, specific technical capabilities should be proven: - fast actuation and fall-down to cope with fast reactivity transients, - effectiveness under earthquake loading (insertion capability in case of core deformation), - actuation of the system in case of local subassembly fault (requires enhancement of detection for large cores), - effectiveness in case of partial core degradation In addition the shutdown system is needed to compensate for the positive coolant void effect (local or global void effect). Formally, the deterministic safety assessment of PSS should not be different from the one applied to active systems. But several questions arose when applying the standard assessment methods: - When a safety function is performed by active and passive systems, should the single failure criterion be applied to passive systems? - What kind of uncertainties should be explored in the performance analysis? - Are the qualification procedures different from those applicable to active systems? - How to ensure the sustainability of the performance of the PSS? Regarding the last point

  15. FPGA Implementation of the stepwise shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotjonen, L.

    2012-01-01

    This report elaborates the design process of applications for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Brief introductions to EPGA technology and the design process are first given and then the design phases are walked through with the aid of a case study. FPGA is a programmable logic device that is programmed by the customer rather than the manufacturer. They are also usually re-programmable which enables updating their programming and otherwise modifying the design. There are also one-time programmable FPGAs that can be used when security issues require it. FPGA is said to be 'hardware designed like software', which means that the design process resembles software development but the end-product is considered a hardware application because the execution of the functions is entirely different from a microprocessor. This duality can give both the flexibility of software and the reliability of hardware. The FPGA design and verification and validation (V and V) methods for NPP safety systems have not yet matured because the technology is rather new in the field. Software development methods and standards can be used to some extent but the hardware aspects bring new challenges that cannot be tackled using purely software methods. International efforts are being made to development formal and consistent design and V and V methodology regulations for FPGA devices. A preventive safety function called Stepwise Shutdown System (SWS) was implemented on an Actel M1 IGLOO field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. SWS is used to drive a process into a normal state if the process measurements deviate from the desired operating values. This can happen in case of process disturbances. The SWS implementation process from the requirements to the functional device is elaborated. The design is tested via simulation and hardware testing. The case study is to be further expanded as a part of a master's thesis. (orig.)

  16. FPGA Implementation of the stepwise shutdown system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotjonen, L.

    2012-07-01

    This report elaborates the design process of applications for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Brief introductions to EPGA technology and the design process are first given and then the design phases are walked through with the aid of a case study. FPGA is a programmable logic device that is programmed by the customer rather than the manufacturer. They are also usually re-programmable which enables updating their programming and otherwise modifying the design. There are also one-time programmable FPGAs that can be used when security issues require it. FPGA is said to be 'hardware designed like software', which means that the design process resembles software development but the end-product is considered a hardware application because the execution of the functions is entirely different from a microprocessor. This duality can give both the flexibility of software and the reliability of hardware. The FPGA design and verification and validation (V and V) methods for NPP safety systems have not yet matured because the technology is rather new in the field. Software development methods and stanfards can be used to some extent but the hardware aspects bring new challenges that cannot be tacled using purely software methods. International efforts are being made to development formal and consistent design and V and V methodology regulations for FPGA devices. A preventive safety function called Stepwise Shutdown System (SWS) was implemented on an Actel M1 IGLOO field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. SWS is used to drive a process into a normal state if the process measurements deviate from the desired operating values. This can happen in case of process disturbances. The SWS implementation processfrom the reguirements to the functional device is elaborated. The design is tested via simulation and hardware testing. The case study is to be further expanded as a part of a master's thesis. (orig.)

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  18. CV activities on the LHC complex during the long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Deleval, S; Body, Y; Obrecht, M; Moccia, S; Peon, G

    2011-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the major projects and work foreseen to be performed during next long shutdown on cooling and ventilation plants. Several projects are needed following the experience of the last years when LHC was running, in particular the modifications in the water cooling circuits presently in overflow. Some other projects are linked to the CV consolidation plan. Finally, most of the work shall be done to respond to additional requests: SR buildings air conditioning, the need to be able to clean and maintain the LHC cooling towers without a complete stop of cooling circuits, the upgrade of the air conditioning of the CCC rack room cooling etc. For all these activities, the author will detail constraints and the impact on the schedule and on the operation of the plants that will however need to run for most of the shutdown duration. The consequence of postponing the long shutdown from 2012 to 2013 will be also covered.

  19. The Alternative Design Features for Safety Enhancement in Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hae Cheol; Kim, Myung Ki; Chung, Bag Soon; Seo, Mi Ro

    2009-01-01

    PSA can be used to confirm that the new plant design is complied with the applicable safety goals, and to select among the alternate design options. A shutdown PSA provides insight for outage planning schedule, outage management practices, and design modifications. Considering the results of both LPSD PSA studies and operating experiences for low power and shutdown, the improvements can be proposed to reduce the high risk contribution. The improvements/enhancements during shutdown operation may be divided into categories such as hardware, administrative management, and operational procedure. This paper presents on an example how the risk related to an accidental situation can be reduced, focusing the hardware design changes for the newly designed NPPs

  20. BWR shutdown analyzer using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype alarm system for detecting abnormal reactor shutdowns based on artificial intelligence technology is described. The system incorporates knowledge about Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant design and component behavior, as well as knowledge required to distinguish normal, abnormal, and ATWS accident conditions. The system was developed using a software tool environment for creating knowledge-based applications on a LISP machine. To facilitate prototype implementation and evaluation, a casual simulation of BWR shutdown sequences was developed and interfaced with the alarm system. An intelligent graphics interface for execution and control is described. System performance considerations and general observations relating to artificial intelligence application to nuclear power plant problems are provided

  1. Plant operational states analysis in low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiandong; Qiu Yongping; Zhang Qinfang; An Hongzhen; Li Maolin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Plant Operational States (POS) analysis is to disperse the continuous and dynamic process of low power and shutdown operation, which is the basis of developing event tree models for accident sequence analysis. According to the design of a 300 MW Nuclear Power Plant Project, operating experience and procedures of the reference plant, a detailed POS analysis is carried out based on relative criteria. Then, several kinds of POS are obtained, and the duration of each POS is calculated according to the operation records of the reference plant. The POS analysis is an important element in low power and shutdown PSA. The methodology and contents provide reference for POS analysis. (authors)

  2. Elementary calculation of the shutdown delay of a pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, J.

    1949-04-01

    This study analyzes theoretically the progress of the shutdown of a nuclear pile (reactor) when a cadmium rod is introduced instantaneously. For simplification reasons, the environment of the pile is considered as homogenous and only thermal neutrons are considered (delayed neutrons are neglected). Calculation is made first for a plane configuration (plane vessel, plane multiplier without reflector, and plane multiplier with reflector), and then for a cylindrical configuration (multiplier without reflector, multiplier with infinitely thick reflector, finite cylindrical piles without reflector and with reflector). The self-sustain conditions are calculated for each case and the multiplication length and the shutdown delay are deduced. (J.S.)

  3. Core shutdown report: Subcycle K-14.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, S.T.

    1992-05-01

    When a reactor is shut down, there is a set of rules that must be followed to guarantee that the reactor remains in a safe shutdown state. Some of these rules involve the cooling of heat generating assemblies before, during, and after charge-discharge (C ampersand D) operations. These rules ensure that C ampersand D operations will not endanger the integrity of the fuel or targets by allowing them to overheat. DPSOL 105-1225, Assembly Discharge and Forced Cooling Requirements, is the primary operations procedure that governs these cooling rules. The specific shutdown cooling limits that are input into this procedure are contained within this report

  4. Complex of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorodin, A. I.; Red'kin, V. V.; Frolov, Y. D.; Korobkov, A. A.; Kemaev, O. V.; Kulik, M. V.; Shabalin, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    A set of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment is offered. The following technologies are regarded as core technologies for the complex: cryogenic technology nitrogen for displacement of hydrogen from the cooling circuit of turbine generators, cryo blasting of the power units by dioxide granules, preservation of the shutdown power units by dehydrated air, and dismantling and severing of equipment and structural materials of power units. Four prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power units may be built on the basis of selected technologies: Multimode nitrogen cryogenic system with four subsystems, cryo blasting system with CO2 granules for thermal-mechanical and electrical equipment of power units, and compressionless air-drainage systems for drying and storage of the shutdown power units and cryo-gas system for general severing of the steam-turbine power units. Results of the research and pilot and demonstration tests of the operational units of the considered technological systems allow applying the proposed technologies and systems in the prototype systems for shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment.

  5. Control assembly for controlling a fuel cell system during shutdown and restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramki; Berntsen, George; Carlson, Glenn L.; Farooque, Mohammad; Beachy, Dan; Peterhans, Stefan; Bischoff, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A fuel cell system and method in which the fuel cell system receives and an input oxidant gas and an input fuel gas, and in which a fuel processing assembly is provided and is adapted to at least humidify the input fuel gas which is to be supplied to the anode of the fuel cell of the system whose cathode receives the oxidant input gas via an anode oxidizing assembly which is adapted to couple the output of the anode of the fuel cell to the inlet of the cathode of the fuel cell during normal operation, shutdown and restart of the fuel cell system, and in which a control assembly is further provided and is adapted to respond to shutdown of the fuel cell system during which input fuel gas and input oxidant gas cease to be received by the fuel cell system, the control assembly being further adapted to, when the fuel cell system is shut down: control the fuel cell system so as to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the fuel processing assembly to remove humidified fuel gas from the processing assembly and to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the anode of the fuel cell.

  6. Method of disposing of shut-down nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiser, H.

    1984-01-01

    A shut-down atomic power plant or a section thereof, particularly the nuclear reactor, is disposed of by sinking it to below ground level by constructing a caisson with cutting edges from the foundations of said plant or section or by excavating a pit therebelow

  7. Safety and regulation aspects of nuclear facilities shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.

    1977-01-01

    Technical dispositions that safety authorities will accept after shutdown of a nuclear installation and reglementation to use are examined. The different solutions from surveillance and maintenance, after removal of fissile materials and radioactive fluids, to dismantling are discussed especially for reactors. In each case the best solution has to be studied to ensure protection of public health and environment [fr

  8. Oak Ridge Research reactor shutdown maintenance and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.H.; Laughlin, D.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Department of Energy ordered the Oak Ridge Research Reactor to be placed in permanent shutdown on July 14, 1987. The paper outlines routine maintenance activities and surveillance tests performed April through September, 1990, on the reactor instrumentation and controls, process system, and the gaseous waste filter system. Preparations are being made to transfer the facility to the Remedial Action Program. 6 tabs

  9. Safety considerations for research reactors in extended shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    According to the IAEA Research Reactor Database, in the last 20 years, 367 research reactors have been shut down. Of these, 109 have undergone decommissioning and the rest are in extended shutdown with no clear definition about their future. Still other research reactors are infrequently operated with no meaningful utilization programme. These two situations present concerns related to safety such as loss of corporate memory, personnel qualification, maintenance of components and systems and preparation and maintenance of documentation. There are many reasons to shut down a reactor; these may include: - the need to carry out modifications in the reactor systems; - the need for refurbishment to extend the lifetime of the reactor; - the need to repair reactor structures, systems, or components; - the need to remedy technical problems; - regulatory or public concerns; - local conflicts or wars; - political convenience; - the lack of resources. While any one of these reasons may lead to shutdown of a reactor, each will present unique problems to the reactor management. The large variations from one research reactor to the next also will contribute to the uniqueness of the problems. Any option that the reactor management adopts will affect the future of the facility. Options may include dealing with the cause of the shutdown and returning to normal operation, extending the shutdown period waiting a future decision, or decommissioning. Such options are carefully and properly analysed to ensure that the solution selected is the best in terms of reactor type and size, period of shutdown and legal, economic and social considerations. This publication provides information in support of the IAEA safety standards for research reactors

  10. Oak Ridge reactor shutdown maintenance and surveillance quarterly report, July, August, and September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, T.P.; Coleman, G.H.; Laughlin, D.L.

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy ordered the Oak Ridge Reactor to be placed in permanent shutdown on July 14, 1987. Maintenance activities, both mechanical and instrument, were essentially routine in nature. Shutdown activities are discussed for this reporting period

  11. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  12. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing system during the LHC Long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  13. 77 FR 73968 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown... ``Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... November 30, 2012, proposed ``Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National...

  14. The management of large cabling campaigns during the Long Shutdown 1 of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meroli, Stefano; Formenti, Fabio; Frans, Marten; Guillaume, Jean Claude; Ricci, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN entered into its first 18 month-long shutdown period in February 2013. During this period the entire CERN accelerator complex will undergo major consolidation and upgrade works, preparing the machines for LHC operation at nominal energy (7 TeV/beam). One of the most challenging activities concerns the cabling infrastructure (copper and optical fibre cables) serving the CERN data acquisition, networking and control systems. About 1000 kilometres of cables, distributed in different machine areas, will be installed, representing an investment of about 15 MCHF. This implies an extraordinary challenge in terms of project management, including resource and activity planning, work execution and quality control. The preparation phase of this project started well before its implementation, by defining technical solutions and setting financial plans for staff recruitment and material supply. Enhanced task coordination was further implemented by deploying selected competences to form a ...

  15. 235U Holdup Measurement Program in support of facility shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomason, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Lien, O.G.; McElroy, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the Department of Energy directed shutdown of an enriched uranium processing facility at Savannah River Site. As part of the shutdown requirements, deinventory and cleanout of process equipment and nondestructive measurement of the remaining 235 U holdup were required. The holdup measurements had safeguards, accountability, and nuclear criticality safety significance; therefore, a technically defensible and well-documented holdup measurement program was needed. Appropriate standards were fabricated, measurement techniques were selected, and an aggressive schedule was followed. Early in the program, offsite experts reviewed the measurement program, and their recommendations were adopted. Contact and far-field methods were used for most measurements, but some process equipment required special attention. All holdup measurements were documented, and each report was subjected to internal peer review. Some measured values were checked against values obtained by other methods; agreement was generally good

  16. Uncertainty reduction requirements in cores designed for passive reactivity shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe the changed focus of neutronics accuracy requirements existing in the current US advanced LMR development program where passive shutdown is a major design goal. The second purpose is to provide the background and rationale which supports the selection of a formal data fitting methodology as the means for the application of critical experiment measurements to meet these accuracy needs. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Evaluation of the safety margins during shutdown for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencik, V.; Sadek, S.; Bajs, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the results of RELAP5/mod3.3 calculations of critical parameters during shutdown for NPP Krsko are presented. Conservative evaluations have been performed at NPP Krsko to determine the minimum configuration of systems required for the safe shutdown operation. Critical parameters in these evaluations are defined as the time to start of the boiling and the time of the core dry-out. In order to have better insight into the available margins, the best estimate code RELAP5/mod3.3 has been used to calculate the same parameters. The analyzed transient is the loss of the Residual Heat Removal (RHR) system, which is used to remove decay heat during shutdown conditions. Several configurations that include open and closed Reactor Coolant System (RCS) were considered in the evaluation. The RELAP5/mod3.3 analysis of the loss of the RHR system has been performed for the following cases: 1) RCS closed and water solid, 2) RCS closed and partially drained, 3) Pressurizer manway open, Steam Generator (SG) U tubes partially drained, 4) Pressurizer and SG manways open, SG U tubes completely drained, 5) Pressurizer manway open, SGs drained, SG nozzle dams installed and 6) SG nozzle dams installed, pressurizer manway open, 1 inch break at RHR pump discharge in the loop with pressurizer. Both RHR trains were assumed in operation prior to start of the transient. The maximum average steady state temperature for all analyzed cases was limited to 333 K. (author)

  18. Kinetic analyses on startup and shutdown chemistry of BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Inagaki, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    During startup and shutdown of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of reactor water change in a wide range. The changes result in variation of conductivity and pH of the reactor water. It has been speculated that the water chemistry change is due to dissolution of the oxides on fuel claddings and structural materials. However, detailed mechanism is not known. In the present paper, trend of recent water chemistry in several BWR plants during startup and shutdown is presented. Conductivity and pH are convenient indication of coolant purity. We tried to clarify the mechanism of the change in the conductivity and the pH value during startup and shutdown, based on the water chemistry data measured. In the water chemistry data, change in chromate concentration and Ni 2+ concentration is rather large. It is assumed that change in the chromate concentration and the Ni 2+ concentration results in the time variation of the conductivity and the pH value. It is reasonable to consider that the increase in the chromate concentration and the Ni 2+ concentration is ascribed to dissolution of Cr oxides and Ni oxides, respectively. A model of dissolution of the Cr oxides and the Ni oxides is proposed. A concept of finite inventory of the Cr oxides and the Ni oxides in the coolant system is introduced. The model is as follows. Chromate is generated by oxidation of the Cr oxides and the Cr dissolution rate depends on the DO concentration. The dissolution rate of chromate is in proportion to DO concentration, the inventory of Cr and difference between solubility limit and the chromate concentration. On the other hand, Ni 2+ is formed by dissolution of the Ni oxides, and DO is not necessary in this process. The dissolution rate of Ni 2+ is in proportion to the inventory of Ni and difference between solubility limit and the Ni 2+ concentration. Coolant is continuously purified, and the chromate concentration and the Ni 2+ concentration

  19. 40 CFR 60.1695 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1695 Section 60.1695 Protection of... Requirements § 60.1695 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1220 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1220 Section 60.1220 Protection of Environment... Emission Limits § 60.1220 What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and... waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or malfunction must...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15150 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15150 Section 62.15150 Protection of... § 62.15150 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or...

  2. Decree nr 2016-846 of the 28 June 2016 related to the modification, to the final shut-down and dismantling of basic nuclear installations, as well as to subcontracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene; Urvoas, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This decree defines legal arrangements (or modifications of previous decrees) regarding modifications of basic nuclear installations, the final shut-down and dismantling of these installations (general arrangements, specific arrangements regarding installations dedicated to the storage of radioactive wastes), the use of service providers and subcontractors, penal sanctions, coordination arrangements, and transitional arrangements

  3. Power supply design for Hadron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karady, G.; Kansog, J.; Thiessen, H.A.; Schneider, E.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, a study investigated the feasibility of building a large 60 GeV, kaon factory accelerator. This paper presents the conceptual design of the magnet power supplies and energy storage system. In this study the following three systems were investigated: (a) power supply using storage generator; (b) power supply using inductive storage device; and (c) resonant power supplies. These systems were analyzed from both technical and economical points of view. It was found that all three systems are feasible and can be built using commercially available components. From a technical point of view, the system using inductive storage is the most advantageous. The resonant power supply is the most economical solution

  4. Spent fuel acceptance scenarios devoted to shutdown reactors: A preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, T.W.; Plummer, A.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Short, S.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (USA). Office of Transportation Systems and Planning; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Spent fuel acceptance schedules and the allocation of federal acceptance capacity among commercial nuclear power reactors have important operational and cost consequences for reactor operators. Alternative allocation schemes were investigated to some extent in DOE's MRS Systems Study. The current study supplements these analyses for a class of acceptance schemes in which the acceptance capacity of the federal radioactive waste management system is allocated principally to shutdown commercial power reactors, and extends the scope of analysis to include considerations of at-reactor cask loading rates. The operational consequences of these schemes for power reactors, as measured in terms of quantity of spent fuel storage requirement above storage pool capacities and number of years of pool operations after last discharge, are estimated, as are the associated utility costs. This study does not attempt to examine the inter-utility equity considerations involved in departures from the current oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation rule as specified in the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste.'' In the sense that the alternative allocations are more economically efficient than OFF, however, they approximate the allocations that could result from free exchange of acceptance rights among utilities. Such a process would result in the preservation of inter-utility equity. 13 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Reliability analysis of self-actuated shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itooka, S.; Kumasaka, K.; Okabe, A.; Satoh, K.; Tsukui, Y.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical study was performed for the reliability of a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) under the unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) event in a typical loop-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) by the use of the response surface Monte Carlo analysis method. Dominant parameters for the SASS, such as Curie point characteristics, subassembly outlet coolant temperature, electromagnetic surface condition, etc., were selected and their probability density functions (PDFs) were determined by the design study information and experimental data. To get the response surface function (RSF) for the maximum coolant temperature, transient analyses of ULOF were performed by utilizing the experimental design method in the determination of analytical cases. Then, the RSF was derived by the multi-variable regression analysis. The unreliability of the SASS was evaluated as a probability that the maximum coolant temperature exceeded an acceptable level, employing the Monte Carlo calculation using the above PDFs and RSF. In this study, sensitivities to the dominant parameter were compared. The dispersion of subassembly outlet coolant temperature near the SASS-was found to be one of the most sensitive parameters. Fault tree analysis was performed using this value for the SASS in order to evaluate the shutdown system reliability. As a result of this study, the effectiveness of the SASS on the reliability improvement in the LMFBR shutdown system was analytically confirmed. This study has been performed as a part of joint research and development projects for DFBR under the sponsorship of the nine Japanese electric power companies, Electric Power Development Company and the Japan Atomic Power Company. (author)

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  7. The effect of introduction of energy storage equipments and time-of-day rates on the supply cost of electric energy in each area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Load factors of power systems are decreasing in these days. Under the circumstances, it is considered that 'load management' is an effective method to cut down the production cost of electricity. On the other hand, the introduction of energy storage equipments increases the load factor. It can be said that 'load management' has almost similar effect as 'energy storage'. When 'load management' and/or 'energy storage' is considered to be introduced, it is very important to estimate the effect of each method on the production cost. Since each area has its own load profile, the effect of 'load management' or 'energy storage' on the area is different from that on the other area. In this paper, the relationship between the improvement of the production cost and the load profile is discussed. It is found that 'load management' is more effective on the area which has small load factor and large kWh operation factor and 'energy storage' is more effective on the area which has small skewness of load profile. (author)

  8. Control and shutdown mechanism operating experience of TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, B.K.; Upadhyaya, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station is one of the oldest operating GE, BWR units in the world. There are two independent types of reactivity control mechanisms to shutdown the reactor, namely fast acting CRD system and the slow acting liquid poison system in the event of any abnormal situations. The fast acting CRD system is also capable of maneuvering the reactor power. An effort is made here to highlight the features of these control mechanisms. This paper also describes valuable operating experiences and challenges faced in maintaining its availability and reliability. (author)

  9. Reliability modeling of Clinch River breeder reactor electrical shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, R.A.; Duetsch, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    The initial simulation of the probabilistic properties of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) electrical shutdown systems is described. A model of the reliability (and availability) of the systems is presented utilizing Success State and continuous-time, discrete state Markov modeling techniques as significant elements of an overall reliability assessment process capable of demonstrating the achievement of program goals. This model is examined for its sensitivity to safe/unsafe failure rates, sybsystem redundant configurations, test and repair intervals, monitoring by reactor operators; and the control exercised over system reliability by design modifications and the selection of system operating characteristics. (U.S.)

  10. Oak Ridge Research Reactor shutdown maintenance and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.H.; Laughlin, D.L.

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy ordered the Oak Ridge Research Center Reactor to be placed in permanent shutdown on July 14, 1987. Maintenance activities, both mechanical and instrument, were essentially routine in nature. The performance of the instrumentation for the facility was satisfactory, and maintenance required is provided. The performance of the process system was satisfactory, and maintenance required is indicated. The results of efficiency tests of the various gaseous-waste filters have been summarized and preparations for transfer of the facility to the remedial action program is also indicated

  11. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Landauer, C.

    1968-01-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [fr

  12. Acceptability of local boiling during shutdown heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Failures in the shutdown heat removal system of an LMFBR might lead to flow stagnation and coolant boiling in the reactor core. At normal operating power, the onset of sodium boiling will lead to film dryout and melting of the cladding and fuel within a few seconds. On the other hand, both calculations and currently available experimental data indicate that at neat fluxes corresponding to decay heat power levels, boiling leads to improved heat removal; and it limits the temperature rise in the fuel pins. Therefore, when setting criteria for decay heat removal systems, there is no reason to preclude sodium boiling per se because of heat removal considerations

  13. Modelling of liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) in ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubcher, M.; Colton, A.; Donnelly, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of the Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) in the ACR-1000 reactor core must account for the major phenomena that occur following its activation, namely the moderator hydraulics and core neutronics. The former requires modelling of the poison volumes, their time of entry into the reactor, and their propagation into the moderator after emission from the nozzle. The latter requires the reactivity worth of varying volumes and geometries of poisoned moderator fluid in order to simulate the reactivity effect of the injected poison. The time-dependent poison map is generated from hydraulic calculations, and then the neutronics data for standard geometries and concentrations is constructed using DRAGON. (author)

  14. Standardization of the time for the execution of HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Hwang, S. R.; Kang, T. J.; Youn, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    For the standardization of the time to execute HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures, code names were assigned to the individual procedures and the work time were investigated. The data recorded by the operators during start-up and shutdown were statistically analyzed. The analysis results will be used for the standardization of start-up and shutdown procedures and it will be reflected in the procedure document

  15. The String Shutdown Report December 97 - March 98

    CERN Document Server

    Casas-Cubillos, J; Favre, G; Herzog, R; Jacquemod, A; Missiaen, D; Saban, R; Struik, M

    1998-01-01

    The main reason for the shutdown was the installation of a tube containing a prototype auxiliary bus-bars cable. This tube runs in one of the beam tube apertures of the String from the front of MB1 to the rear of MB3 and is hydraulically connected to the cold mass of MB3. A ceramic leak tight feed-through was installed, for the first time in operational conditions, to route the signal wires for the temperature sensors and the voltage taps out of the 1.9 K helium bath. Leaks in the beam-screen capillary had prevented the connection of the beam screens to the cooling circuit. The opportunity of t his shutdown was taken to install a cryogenically cooled beam-screen in the other aperture of MB3. In addition, the calibration of temperature and positioning sensors took place. The SRB had to be re moved to install the long tube and the lines carrying cryogens had to be cut, therefore a pressure test and a leak test had to be carried-out.

  16. Global shutdown dose rate maps for a DEMO conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichtle, D., E-mail: dieter.leichtle@f4e.europa.eu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sanz, J.; Catalan, J.P.; Juarez, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia(UNED), E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Application of R2S-method on high-resolution full torus sector mesh for DEMO. • Absorbed dose rates after shutdown for a variely of RH equipment at typical locations. • Idenification of radiation levels at several port based locations. - Abstract: For the calculations of highly reliable shutdown dose rate (SDR) maps in fusion devices like a DEMO plant, the Rigorous-2-step (R2S) method is nowadays routinely applied using high-resolution decay gamma sources from initial high-resolution neutron flux meshes activating all materials in the system. This approach has been utilized in the present paper with the objective to provide SDR results relevant for RH systems of a conceptual DEMO design developed in the EU. The primary objective was to assess specific locations of interest for RH equipment inside the vessel and along the extension of maintenance ports. To this end, a provisional DEMO MCNP model has been used, featuring HCLL-type blankets, tungsten/copper divertor, manifolds, vacuum vessel with ports and toroidal field coils. The operational scenario assumed 2.1 GW fusion power and a life-time of 20 years with plant availability of 30%, where removable parts will be extracted after 5.2 years. Results of absorbed dose rate distributions for several relevant materials are presented and discussed in terms of the different contributions from the various activated components.

  17. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  18. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  19. Evaluating photovoltaic/energy storage/diesel hybrid power systems for remote area power supplies in the Amazon region of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Danley, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    In June 1997, an international memorandum of understanding was signed between the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) in Peru, the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO). This agreement seeks to evaluate the potential for remote area power supplies (RAPS) for electrification of rural villages in the Amazon region. This study, funded by ILZRO, was the first major activity conducted under the aegis of this agreement. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary engineering design and feasibility study to assess the potential for Remote Area Power Supplies (RAPS) in the Amazon Region of Peru. This paper presents the results of this preliminary engineering study. (author)

  20. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  1. CORAL and COOL during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Multimedia

    Valassi, A; Dykstra, D; Goyal, N; Salnikov, A; Trentadue, R; Wache, M

    2013-01-01

    CORAL and COOL are two software packages used by the LHC experiments for managing detector conditions and other types of data using relational database technologies. They have been developed and maintained within the LCG Persistency Framework, a common project of the CERN IT department with ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. This presentation reports on the status of CORAL and COOL at the time of CHEP2013, covering the new features and enhancements in both packages, as well as the changes and improvements in the software process infrastructure. It also reviews the usage of the software in the experiments and the outlook for ongoing and future activities during the LHC long shutdown (LS1) and beyond.

  2. Support method for solving an optimal xenon shutdown problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Since the discovering of the maximum principle by Pontriagin in 1956, methods for solving optimal control problems have been developed fast. There are the efforts to solve an optimal problem of transient process in a nuclear reactor using its ideas. However, the classical maximum principle does not show how to construct an optimal control or suboptimal control with a given exactness. We exploit mainly in the present work the ideas of the support method proposed by Gabasov and Kirillova for linear systems, in order to solve an optimal control problem for non-linear systems. The constructive maximum principle for non-linear dynamic systems with controllable structure received by us in this paper is new result. The ε - maximum principle is used for receiving an 7-phase ε - optimal control of optimal xenon shutdown problem. (author)

  3. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and its decay product, technetium-99m (Tc-99m), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes - which cannot be effectively stored - can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo-99 producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. The full study offers a unique analysis of the economic structure and present state of the Mo-99/Tc-99m supply chain. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo-99 or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo-99 and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market. (authors)

  4. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and its decay product, technetium-99m (Tc-99m), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes - which cannot be effectively stored - can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo-99 producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. The full study offers a unique analysis of the economic structure and present state of the Mo-99/Tc-99m supply chain. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo-99 or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo-99 and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market. (authors)

  5. 78 FR 49553 - Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-320; NRC-2013-0183] Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of receipt... Shutdown Decommissioning Activity Report (PSDAR) for Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2). The PSDAR provides...

  6. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2918 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Performance Testing ...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2685 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each...

  9. 40 CFR 65.6 - Startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Startup, shutdown, and malfunction... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE General Provisions § 65.6 Startup... Group 2A or Group 2B process vents. (b) Startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan—(1) Description and...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3025 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Model Rule—Performance...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14645 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... Limits § 62.14645 What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during periods of CISWI unit startup, shutdown, or...

  12. Transient Analysis of Station Blackout While Shutdown for OPR1000 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Hwa [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duk Joo; Lee, Seung Chan [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have been performed to support and provide useful insights for operator guidelines to maintain critical safety functions during a Station Blackout (SBO) or ELAP event for shutdown modes. Shutdown SBO Guideline has been issued to provide instructions for responding to a SBO, including an ELAP, while shutdown with SIAS (Safety Injection Actuation Signal) blocked and fuel in the reactor vessel. The thermal-hydraulic transient analysis using RELAP5/Mod3.3 code was performed to provide insights for shutdown SBO for OPR1000 NPP. It will be helpful for developing a strategy to cope with shutdown SBO for OPR1000 NPP. The thermal-hydraulic transient analysis was performed to provide insights for shutdown SBO. For Shutdown State A, if SG ADV is opened by operator manual action within 4,000 sec, then 6 hour is available to avoid core uncovery and damage. 6 hour is sufficient time for operator to prepare the secondary external injection. For Shutdown State C, if RWST gravity feed is provided by operator manual action within 4,000 sec, then 24 hour is available to avoid core uncovery and damage. 24 hour is sufficient time for operator to prepare the primary external injection or refill RWST. This calculation results can be directly applied to the development of Plant Specific Technical Guide (PSTG) for OPR1000 NPP.

  13. 76 FR 81998 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... public comment a draft NUREG/CR, NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA...-2011-0295. Discussion The draft NUREG presents a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method for...

  14. 77 FR 10576 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Draft NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA.'' In response to request...-2011-0295. Discussion The draft NUREG presents a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method for...

  15. Variation of Loads on Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrains During Measured Shutdown Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    -megawatt wind turbine located at an offshore wind farm are correlated with corresponding observations of shutdowns on surrounding wind turbines. The observed wind turbines have multiple shutdowns at high mean wind speeds due to wind speed variations near cut-out. Through the use of an Inverse First Order...

  16. Failure and Reliability Analysis for the Master Pump Shutdown System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-05

    The Master Pump Shutdown System (MPSS) will be installed in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site to monitor and control the transfer of liquid waste between tank farms and between the 200 West and 200 East areas through the Cross-Site Transfer Line. The Safety Function provided by the MPSS is to shutdown any waste transfer process within or between tank farms if a waste leak should occur along the selected transfer route. The MPSS, which provides this Safety Class Function, is composed of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), interconnecting wires, relays, Human to Machine Interfaces (HMI), and software. These components are defined as providing a Safety Class Function and will be designated in this report as MPSS/PLC. Input signals to the MPSS/PLC are provided by leak detection systems from each of the tank farm leak detector locations along the waste transfer route. The combination of the MPSS/PLC, leak detection system, and transfer pump controller system will be referred to as MPSS/SYS. The components addressed in this analysis are associated with the MPSS/SYS. The purpose of this failure and reliability analysis is to address the following design issues of the Project Development Specification (PDS) for the MPSS/SYS (HNF 2000a): (1) Single Component Failure Criterion, (2) System Status Upon Loss of Electrical Power, (3) Physical Separation of Safety Class cables, (4) Physical Isolation of Safety Class Wiring from General Service Wiring, and (5) Meeting the MPSS/PLC Option 1b (RPP 1999) Reliability estimate. The failure and reliability analysis examined the system on a component level basis and identified any hardware or software elements that could fail and/or prevent the system from performing its intended safety function.

  17. Safety consideration and current trend in design of shutdown system of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    While reaping the benefit of nuclear energy issues related to nuclear safety shall be adequately addressed. Reactor Shutdown System plays a major role in ensuring safety in NPP by terminating any postulated reactivity excursion in the reactor core which is beyond the capability of regulating system to control and maintaining the reactor core to sub critical state with adequate margin. Shutdown system ensures this under all operating conditions with high degree of certainty. To achieve this objective design of shutdown system includes appropriate safety features whose adequacy is established through analysis, design verification and testing. Design shall be passively safe. Self actuating passive Shutdown systems are becoming popular because of their reliability. Objective of the paper is to describe the safety consideration and current trend in design of Shutdown System. (author)

  18. Suspended-sediment transport and storage: A demonstration of acoustic methods in the evaluation of reservoir management strategies for a small water-supply reservoir in western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Collins, Kent L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and local stakeholder groups are evaluating reservoir-management strategies within Paonia Reservoir. This small reservoir fills to capacity each spring and requires approximately half of the snowmelt-runoff volume from its sediment-laden source waters, Muddy Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting high-resolution (15-minute data-recording interval) sediment monitoring to characterize incoming and outgoing sediment flux during reservoir operations at two sites on Muddy Creek. The high-resolution monitoring is being used to establish current rates of reservoir sedimentation, support USBR sediment transport and storage models, and assess the viability of water-storage recovery in Paonia Reservoir. These sites are equipped with in situ, single-frequency, side-looking acoustic Doppler current meters in conjunction with turbidity sensors to monitor sediment flux. This project serves as a demonstration of the capability of using surrogate techniques to predict suspended-sediment concentrations in small streams (less than 20 meters in width and 2 meters in depth). These two sites provide the ability to report near real-time suspended-sediment concentrations through the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) web interface and National Real-Time Water Quality websites (NRTWQ) to aid in reservoir operations and assessments.

  19. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R&D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  20. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, S

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R and D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  1. Which way for Europe's gas storage market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    This slide show presents in a first part the 2013 Situation of the European gas storage market (Capacity, Gas Demand vs. Gas Storage, Spreads and Volatility, LNG effect, Storage Price, Utilization of Storage Facilities, Security of supply). The future of European Gas Demand and Supply are presented in a second part (Demand and Supply Factors, Market Liberalization, Estimates of European UGS Needs by 2030, Planned Working Gas Capacities in Europe)

  2. Quantification and mapping of the supply of and demand for carbon storage and sequestration service in woody biomass and soil to mitigate climate change in the socio-ecological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Mesfin; Saito, Osamu; Fürst, Christine; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2018-05-15

    In this study, the supply of and demand for carbon storage and sequestration of woody biomass in the socio-ecological environment of the Wabe River catchment in Gurage Mountains, Ethiopia, were estimated. This information was subsequently integrated into a map that showed the balance between supply capacities and demand in a spatially explicit manner to inform planners and decision makers on methods used to manage local climate change. Field data for wood biomass and soil were collected, satellite images for land use and land cover (LULC) were classified, and secondary data from statistics and studies for estimation were obtained. Carbon storage, the rate of carbon sequestration and the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from diverse sources at different LULCs, was estimated accordingly by several methods. Even though a large amount of carbon was stored in the catchment, the current yearly sequestration was less than the CO 2 -eq. GHG emissions. Forest and Enset-based agroforestry emissions exhibited the highest amount of woody biomass, and cereal crop and wetland exhibited the highest decrease in soil carbon sequestration. CO 2 -eq. GHG emissions are mainly caused by livestock, nitrogenous fertilizer consumption, and urban activities. The net negative emissions were estimated for the LULC classes of cereal crop, grazing land, and urban areas. In conclusion, without any high-emission industries, GHG emissions can be greater than the regulatory capacity of ecosystems in the socio-ecological environment. This quantification approach can provide information to policy and decision makers to enable them to tackle climate change at the root level. Thus, measures to decrease emission levels and enhance the sequestration capacity are crucial to mitigate the globally delivered service in a specific area. Further studies on the effects of land use alternatives on net emissions are recommended to obtain in-depth knowledge on sustainable land use planning. Copyright

  3. Holonic'' energy supply system developed by advanced compressed-air energy storage technologies. Holonic na energy-shakai wo hiraku atsshuku kuki riyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, H. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-11-10

    Global environment and energy problem become serious. This paper proposed an utilizing system of compressed air as a countermeasure and explained a newly devised compressor, compressed air energy storage and utilization. The devised compressor sprays pressurized coolant liquid into a pressure vessel from upper side to cool and compress inner air at the same time, and carries out nearly isothermal compression to the adiabatic compression of conventionsl compressors (polytropic exponent is 1.02 by a simple experiment), so that a system which is highly efficient and does not require high accuracy can be realized. Compressed air made by using midnight power and natural energy, can be stored in a large scale in underground caves or seabottom. This air can be used for cooling and heating, or for direct water cleaning. In addition, through the cooperation of a large power source and dispersing type technique, a holonic society which can exhibit both advantages will be realized. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 40 CFR 60.1710 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1710 Section 60.1710 Protection of Environment... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limits of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15165 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15165 Section 62.15165 Protection of Environment... emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limits of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1205 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1205 Section 60.1205 Protection of... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The operating requirements of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or...

  7. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  8. A pragmatic approach towards designing a second shutdown system for Tehran research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boustani Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One second shutdown system is proposed for the Tehran Research Reactor to achieve the goal of higher safety in compliance with current operational requirements and regulations and improve the overall reliability of the reactor shutdown system. The proposed second shutdown system is a diverse, independent shutdown system compared to the existing rod based one that intends to achieve and maintain sub-criticality condition with an enough shutdown margin in many of abnormal situations. It is designed as much as practical based on neutron absorber solution injection into the existing core while the changes and interferences with the existing core structure are kept to a minimum. Core neutronic calculations were performed using MCNPX 2.6.0 and MTR_PC package for the current operational core equipped with the second shutdown system, and one experiment was conducted in the Tehran Research Reactor to test the neutronic calculations. A good agreement was seen between theoretical results and experimental ones. In addition, capability of the second shutdown system in the case of occurrence of design basis accident in the Tehran Research Reactor is demonstrated using PARET program.

  9. Ground surface deformation patterns, magma supply, and magma storage at Okmok volcano, Alaska, from InSAR analysis: 2. Coeruptive deflation, July-August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A hydrovolcanic eruption near Cone D on the floor of Okmok caldera, Alaska, began on 12 July 2008 and continued until late August 2008. The eruption was preceded by inflation of a magma reservoir located beneath the center of the caldera and ∼3 km below sea level (bsl), which began immediately after Okmok's previous eruption in 1997. In this paper we use data from several radar satellites and advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to produce a suite of 2008 coeruption deformation maps. Most of the surface deformation that occurred during the eruption is explained by deflation of a Mogi-type source located beneath the center of the caldera and 2–3 km bsl, i.e., essentially the same source that inflated prior to the eruption. During the eruption the reservoir deflated at a rate that decreased exponentially with time with a 1/e time constant of ∼13 days. We envision a sponge-like network of interconnected fractures and melt bodies that in aggregate constitute a complex magma storage zone beneath Okmok caldera. The rate at which the reservoir deflates during an eruption may be controlled by the diminishing pressure difference between the reservoir and surface. A similar mechanism might explain the tendency for reservoir inflation to slow as an eruption approaches until the pressure difference between a deep magma production zone and the reservoir is great enough to drive an intrusion or eruption along the caldera ring-fracture system.

  10. The Path to a Reliable Supply of Medical Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas, Serge; Westmacott, Chad; Cameron, Ron; Lokhov, Alexey

    2011-06-01

    Medical imaging techniques using technetium-99m account for roughly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing over 30 million examinations worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and 6 hours for technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and thus must be produced continually - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99 Mo-producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. At the request of its member countries, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) established the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) in 2009. During its two-year mandate, the HLG-MR assessed the factors rendering the supply chain vulnerable and identified practical measures - near, medium and long term - to ensure the security of supply of this important medical isotope. Building on its findings and assessments, the HLG-MR developed a comprehensive policy approach to encourage long-term supply security of 99 Mo/' 99m Tc, detailing the essential steps to be taken by governments, industry and the health community to address the vulnerabilities within the supply chain, including changing an economic structure that does not support or reinforce reliable supply

  11. Reserves for shutdown/dismantling and disposal in nuclear technology. Theses and recommendations on reform options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    The study on reserves for shutdown, dismantling and disposal of nuclear facilities covers the following topics: cost for shutdown, dismantling and disposal and amount and transparency of nuclear reserves, solution by y stock regulated by public law for long-term liabilities, and improvement of the protection in the event of insolvency for the remaining EVU reserves for short- and intermediate-term liabilities. The appendix includes estimations and empirical values for the cost of shutdown and dismantling, estimation of disposal costs, and a summary of Swiss studies on dismantling and disposal and transfer to Germany.

  12. Accident sequence analysis for a BWR [Boiling Water Reactor] during low power and shutdown operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Hake, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous Probabilistic Risk Assessments have excluded consideration of accidents initiated in low power and shutdown modes of operation. A study of the risk associated with operation in low power and shutdown is being performed at Sandia National Laboratories for a US Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). This paper describes the proposed methodology for the analysis of the risk associated with the operation of a BWR during low power and shutdown modes and presents preliminary information resulting from the application of the methodology. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Quality of the current low power and shutdown PSA practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Kim, Tae Woon

    2004-01-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the low-power and shutdown (LPSD) modes in a Korea standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) has been performed for the purpose of estimating the LPSD risk and identifying the vulnerabilities of LPSD operations. Both the operational experience and PSA results indicate that the risks from LPSD operations could be comparable with those from power operations. However, the application of the LPSD risk insights to risk-informed decision making has been slow to be adopted in practice. It is largely due to the question of whether the current LPSD PSA practice is appropriate for application to risk-informed decision making or not. Such a question has to do with the quality of the current LPSD PSA practice. In this paper, we have performed self-assessment of the KSNP LPSD PSA quality based on the ANS Standard (draft as of 13 Sep. 2002). The aims of the work are to find the LPSD PSA technical areas insufficient for application to risk-informed decision making and to efficiently allocate the limited research resources to improve the LPSD PSA model quality. Many useful findings regarding the current LPSD PSA quality are presented in this paper

  14. Energy of the LHC after the 2013-2014 shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todesco, E.; Lorin, C.; Bajko, M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 all the LHC main dipole circuits were trained to 5 TeV, two sectors to 6 TeV, and one sector was pushed up to 6.6 TeV. In the 5-6 TeV range, a few quenches were needed to retrain the LHC dipoles, and none for the quadrupoles. On the other hand, in the 6- 7 TeV range a larger than expected number of quenches was observed in the main dipoles. Using this limited set of data, tentative estimates were given to guess the number of quenches needed to reach nominal energy. After three years, the only additional experimental data are the retraining of the magnets individually tested at SM18, either coming from the spares or from the 3-4 sector. After presenting this additional information, we will consider the different scenarios that can be envisaged to train the LHC main magnets after the Long Shut-down 1 (LS1), the expected energy, the impact on the commissioning time and the associated risk. (authors)

  15. Thermal-hydraulic calculations using MARS code applied to low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young-Seok; Shin, Jee-Young; Lim, Ho-Gon; Park, Jin-Hee; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2005-01-01

    The methods developed for full-power probabilistic safety assessment, including thermal-hydraulic methods, have been widely applied to low power and shutdown conditions. Experience from current low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessments, however, indicates that the thermal-hydraulic methods developed for full-power probabilistic safety assessments are not always reliable when applied to low power and shutdown conditions and consequently may yield misleading and inaccurate risk insights. To increase the usefulness of the low power and shutdown risk insights, the current methods and tools used for thermal-hydraulic calculations should be examined to ascertain whether they function effectively for low power and shutdown conditions. In this study, a platform for relatively detailed thermal-hydraulic calculations applied to low power and shutdown conditions in a pressurized water reactor was developed based on the best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis code, MARS2.1. To confirm the applicability of the MARS platform to low power and shutdown conditions, many thermal-hydraulic analyses were performed for the selected topic, i.e. the loss of shutdown cooling events for various plant operating states at the Korean standard nuclear power plant. The platform developed in this study can deal effectively with low power and shutdown conditions, as well as assist the accident sequence analysis in low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessments by providing fundamental data. Consequently, the resulting analyses may yield more realistic and accurate low power and shutdown risk insights

  16. Probabilities of inherent shutdown of unprotected events in innovative liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Wade, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The uncertainty in predicting the effectiveness of inherent shutdown in innovative liquid metal cooled reactors with metallic fuel results from three broad contributing areas of uncertainty: (1) the inability to exactly predict the frequency of ATWS events with potential to challenge the safety systems and require inherent shutdown; (2) the approximation of representing all such events by a selected set of ''generic scenarios''; and (3) the inability to exactly calculate the core response to the selected generic scenarios. This paper discusses the work being done to address each of these contributing areas, identifies the design and research approaches being used at Argonne National Laboratory to reducing the key contributions to uncertainties in inherent shutdown, and presents results. The conditional probabilities (given ATWS initiation) of achieving temperatures capable of defeating inherent shutdown are shown to range from /approximately/0.1% to negligible for current designs

  17. Updating of the program for simulation of Darlington shutdown and regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This report describes the current status of the developments of a simulation of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station shutdown and regulating systems, DARSIM done under contract to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The DARSIM program simulates the spatial neutron dynamics, the regulation of the reactor power, and shutdown system 1 and shutdown system 2 software. The DARSIM program operates in the interactive simulation program environment. DARSIM was installed on the APOLLO computer at the AECB and a version for an IBM-PC was also provided for the exclusive use of the AECB. Shutdown system software was updated to incorporate the latest revisions in the functional specifications. Additional developments have been provided to assist in the use and interpretation of the DARSIM results

  18. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  19. Despite the Shutdown, Rescheduled NIH Research Festival Brings Science to the Forefront | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer Although it was delayed by almost a month because of the federal shutdown, the NIH Research Festival still took place at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., and attendance was high.

  20. The supply of medical radioisotopes - The Path to Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99 Mo-producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have recently created global supply shortages. This report provides the findings and analysis of two years of extensive examination of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It puts forth a comprehensive policy approach that would help ensure long-term supply security of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, detailing the essential steps to be taken by governments, industry and the health community to address the vulnerabilities of the supply chain, including its economic structure. (authors)

  1. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  2. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  3. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  4. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the management of safety and radiological protection of PWRs in unit shutdown. Opinion related to the management by Electricite de France (EDF) of the safety and radiological protection of pressurized water reactors in unit shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A first report by the IRSN addresses the following topics: implementation of the organisation framework of shutdowns in nuclear power plants, constraints of the multi-year planning of unit shutdown campaigns, protection of the unit shutdown preparation phase, reliability of the initial planning of unit shutdown activities, promotion of the commitment of the shutdown preparation by the new shutdown pilots, the shutdown steering, shutdown performance, return on experience. The issue of external vulnerabilities is also addressed in the conclusion. After mails sent by the ASN, the document contains the opinion issued by the permanent group of experts for nuclear reactors on this management of safety and radiological protection of PWRs in case of unit shutdown. The authors comment the shutdown preparation, the shutdown steering, and the management of organisational changes

  5. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  6. Nursing Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  7. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  8. Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  9. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  10. Evolution of Shutdown Chemistry During Refueling Outage 9 in Yonggwang Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor coolant shutdown chemistry seeks to solubilize corrosion products generated during the operating cycle and remove them via demineralization. This process is induced by proper control of chemistry during the shutdown process and releases elevated levels of radioactivity into the bulk coolant. The solubilization of these radionuclides is significant in that it makes it easier for the radionuclides to be transported to the demineralizer, thereby minimizing the activation of deposited corrosion products and the release of already activated species. For many years, PWR plants have sought to optimize the interplay between shutdown chemistry and plant equipment, often modifying both. Numerous strategies have been developed to reduce radiation fields, personnel exposure, and outage durations. Optimization of shutdown chemistry practices becomes increasingly important due to the current industry interest in safety and plant availability. This paper deals with the evaluation results of shutdown chemistry at Yonggwang unit 4 Refueling 9 for optimizing plant practices. The data gathered by electronic dosimeters and ISOCS (In-Situ Object Counting System) device were also discussed in this paper

  11. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Station Blackout in Shutdown Operating Mode in Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the loss of ultimate heat sink (LOUHS) in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal procedure. Also we performed the analysis of limiting scenarios that operator actions are not taken in shutdown LOUHS. Therefore, we verified the plant behavior and decided operator action to taken in time in order to protect the fuel of core with safety. From the analysis results of LOUHS, the fuel of core maintained without core uncovery for 73 minutes respectively for opened RCS states after the SBO occurred. Therefore, operator action for the emergency are required to take in 73 minutes for opened RCS state. Strategy is to cooldown by using spent fuel pool cooling system. This method required to change the plant design in some plant. In RCS boundary closed state, first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is to remove the residual heat of core by steam dump flow and auxiliary feedwater of SG.

  12. Energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This book takes stock of the advantages and drawbacks of the different energy storage solutions apart from the classical fossil fuels (oil, uranium, gas), and details the technologies developed for an electric end-use. Storage is one of the most critical point for the development of new energy technologies, in particular those that use the electricity vector all along the energy source chain (generation, production, transport, utilisation). Storage is important not only for individual or independent applications, that use renewable energies or not, often intermittent, but also to secure coupled systems like power transportation and distribution systems. The development and choice of the most relevant technologies is dependent of technical-economical parameters. It can also supply new services, in particular in the framework of new electricity markets. Content: power film-capacitors, magnetic storage, kinetic energy storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), hydro-pneumatic storage, high-temperature thermal storage of electricity, hydraulic gravity storage, power electronic systems for energy storage. (J.S.)

  13. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sype, T.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.

  14. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sype, T.T.; Fischer, S.R.; Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex

  15. Development and study of a control and reactor shutdown device for FBR-type reactors with a modified open core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, S.

    1983-01-01

    The doctoral thesis at hand presents a newly designed control and shutdown device to be used for output control and fast shutdown of modified open core FBR-type reactors. The task was the design of a new control and shutdown device having economic and operation advantages, using reactor components time-tested under reactor conditions. This control and shutdown device was adapted to the specific needs concerning dimensions and design. The actuation is based on the magnetic-jack principle, which has been upgraded for the purpose. The principle is now combined with pneumatic acceleration. The improvements mainly concern a smaller number of piece parts and system simplification. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Load management - utilization of thermal capacity of buildings as non-electric energy storage in electric supply grids; Lastmanagement - Nutzung der Thermischen Kapazitaet von Gebaeuden als nichtelektrischer Energiespeicher in elektrischen Versorgungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukvic-Schaefer, Aleksandra Sasa

    2008-07-01

    The increasingly decentralised structure of the public power supply and its increasing use of renewable energy resources with fluctuating yields will necessitate changes in the operation of electricity grids, which until now has been driven by demand. One way of responding to the altered framework conditions is to use load management to make the load side more flexible. Consumers which permit the storage of useful energy are particularly suitable for load management. The present dissertation only considers loads which are directly coupled to the thermal mass of a building, i.e. heating or air conditioning systems. It focuses on the advantages for the load side, i.e. for the user of the installations that are coupled to the building acting as thermal storage. Two extreme cases of variable pricing are considered as possible incentives to use load management: the spot market price as a theoretical guide value and the adapted household rate, this being the least favourable case of a variable price. The author develops new system management strategies for different topologies based on an analysis of the existing building and equipment structures and for each strategy determines the potential costs savings on the basis of real-time rates. [German] Durch die verstaerkte Dezentralisierung der Stromerzeugung sowie eine verstaerkte Integration von fluktuierenden regenerativen Energiequellen in das Versorgungssystem wird eine Aenderung der bisherigen, nachfrageabhaengigen Betriebsfuehrung der Stromnetze notwendig. Eine Moeglichkeit auf die veraenderten Bedingungen zu reagieren, bietet die Flexibilisierung der Lastseite - das Lastmanagement. Dabei sind die Verbraucher, bei denen eine Moeglichkeit der Speicherung der Nutzenergie moeglich ist, besonders fuer das Lastmanagement geeignet. Im Rahmen der Dissertation werden nur die Lasten, die eine direkte Kopplung mit der thermischen Masse des Gebaeudes aufweisen, wie z.B. Heizungs- oder Klimaanlagen, betrachtet. Dabei wurde das

  17. Reliability of dc power supplies in nuclear power plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhut, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    In June 1977 the reliability of dc power supplies at nuclear power facilities was questioned. It was postulated that a sudden gross failure of the redundant dc power supplies might occur during normal plant operation, and that this could lead to insufficient shutdown cooling of the reactor core. It was further suggested that this potential for insufficient cooling is great enough to warrant consideration of prompt remedies. The work described herein was part of the NRC staff's efforts aimed towards putting the performance of dc power supplies in proper perspective and was mainly directed towards the particular concern raised at that time. While the staff did not attempt to perform a systematic study of overall dc power supply reliability including all possible failure modes for such supplies, the work summarized herein describes how a probabilistic approach was used to supplement our more usual deterministic approach to reactor safety. Our evaluation concluded that the likelihood of dc power supply failures leading to insufficient shutdown cooling of the reactor core is sufficiently small as to not require any immediate action

  18. Securing the Future of Seversk and Zheleznogorsk After Reactor Shutdown. Conference Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen; Stein, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    Seversk and Zheleznogorsk, two Russian closed nuclear cities, are home to the last three operating plutonium production reactors in Russia. The reactors are now scheduled for shutdown. Closing these reactors presents the world community with a significant nonproliferation achievement, but at the same time poses environmental, economic, and security challenges for the local communities. This conference is an opportunity for the international community to provide crucial support to facilitate these aspects of the plutonium reactor shutdown. Projects proposed complement the reactor shutdown process or assist with worker transition from plutonium production to nonweapons-related careers. Switzerland graciously offered to host the conference with the participation of both the Federal Atomic Energy Agency, Russian Federation and the United States Department of Energy. The one-and-a-half day event was held in Spiez, Switzerland, 8-9 February 2005. Dr. Alec Baer of Switzerland moderated the conference

  19. Experimental Breeder Reactor II inherent shutdown and heat removal tests - test results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, H.P.; Singer, R.M.; Mohr, D.; Feldman, E.E.; Chang, L.K.; Betten, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    A test program is being conducted to demonstrate that a power producing Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) can passively remove shutdown heat by natural convection; passively reduce power in response to a loss of reactor flow and passively reduce power in response to a loss of the balance of plant heat sink. Measurements and pretest predictions confirm that natural convection is a reliable, predictable method of shutdown heat removal and suggest that safety-related pumps or pony motors are not necessary for safe, shutdown heat removal in a LMR. Measurements from tests in which reactor flow and heat rejection to the balance of plant were perturbed show that reactivity feedbacks can passively control power and temperature. This data is a basis for additional tests including a complete loss-of-flow without scram and a complete loss of heat sink without scram

  20. Simulating the Dominant Effect of a Few Critical Sites on Supply Chains Using the Inter-industry Relations Table

    OpenAIRE

    Suganuma, Sadao; Nakano, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Sustainable Supply Chains; International audience; We study supply chain disruptions, particularly in the passenger vehicles sector, caused by the mass industrial shutdowns due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March, 2011, along with the restoration process to assess supply chain resiliency. We first investigate the extent of damage using the inter-industry relations table and then analyze from the viewpoints of geography, time, and economy. Following this, the layered structure ...

  1. Probabilities of inherent shutdown of unprotected events in innovative liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty in predicting the effectiveness of inherent shutdown (ISD) in innovative designs results from three broad contributing areas of uncertainty: (1) the inability to exactly predict the frequency of ATWS events with potential to challenge the safety systems and require ISD; (2) the approximation of representing all such ATWS events by a selected set of ''generic scenarios''; and (3) the inability to exactly calculate the core response to the selected generic scenarios. In this summary, the methodology and associated results of work used to establish probabilities of failure of inherent shutdown of innovative LMRs to the unprotected loss-of-flow (LOF) accident are discussed

  2. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  3. Impacts of reactivity feedback uncertainties on inherent shutdown in innovative designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of inherent shutdown is emphasized in the approach to the design of innovative, small pool-type liquid-metal reactors (LMRs). This paper reports an evaluation of reactivity feedback uncertainties used in the analyses of anticipated transients without scram for innovative LMRs, and the associated impacts on safety margins and inherent shutdown success probabilities on unprotected loss-of-flow (LOF) events. It then assesses the ultimate importance of these uncertainties on LOF and transient overpower events in evolving metal and oxide innovative designs

  4. Impacts of reactivity feedback uncertainties on inherent shutdown in innovative designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of ''inherent shutdown'' is emphasized in the approach to the design of innovative, small pool-type liquid metal reactors (LMRs). This paper reports an evaluation of reactivity feedback uncertainties used in the analyses of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) for innovative LMRs, and the associated impacts on safety margins and inherent shutdown success probabilities on unprotected loss-of-flow (LOF) events. It then assesses the ultimate importance of these uncertainties on LOF and transient overpower (TOP) events in evolving metal and oxide innovative designs

  5. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.; Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J.

    2015-09-01

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  6. Development of a self-actuated shutdown system for a liquid-metal breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Tupper, R.B.; Bernard, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive development program for a Self-Actuated Shutdown System for a Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor has been completed. The development program included component tests of a temperature sensitive electromagnet, prototype test including the absorber in a sodium loop, accelerated life tests of the high temperature electric coils, and an irradiation test of a miniaturized coil and magnetic circuit materials. The results of these tests have demonstrated that the self-actuated shutdown system is sufficiently developed for application in the next generation Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  7. LHC Detector Vacuum System Consolidation for Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gallilee, M; Cruikshank, P; Gallagher, J; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Kersevan, R; Kos, H; Leduc, L; Lepeule, P; Provot, N; Rambeau, H; Veness, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC has ventured into unchartered territory for Particle Physics accelerators. A dedicated consolidation program is required between 2013 and 2014 to ensure optimal physics performance. The experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, will utilise this shutdown, along with the gained experience of three years of physics running, to make optimisations to their detectors. New vacuum technologies have been developed for the experimental areas, to be integrated during this first phase shutdown. These technologies include bellows, vacuum chambers and ion pumps in aluminium, new beryllium vacuum chambers, and composite mechanical supports. An overview of this first phase consolidation program for the LHC experiments is presented.

  8. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance

  9. Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under Emergency Shutdown Using Hydrodynamic Brake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency shutdown is always a challenge for an operating vertical axis wind turbine. A 5-MW vertical axis wind turbine with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure was examined in this study. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of the floating vertical...... axis wind turbine were carried out for emergency shutdown cases over a range of environmental conditions based on correlated wind and wave data. When generator failure happens, a brake should be applied to stop the acceleration of the rotor to prevent the rotor from overspeeding and subsequent disaster...

  10. Impact of shutdown risk on risk-based assessment of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriot, S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the current work performed by the Research and Development Division of EDF concerning risk-based assessment of Operating Technical Specifications (OTS). The current risk-based assessment of OTS at EDF is presented. Then, the level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of unit 3 of the Paluel nuclear power station (called PSA 1300) is described. It is fully computerized and takes into account the risk in shutdown states. A case study is presented. It shows that the fact of considering shutdown risk suggests that the current OTS should be modified

  11. Identification of passive shutdown system parameters in a metal fueled LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses periodic testing of the passive shutdown system in a metal fueled liquid metal reactor which has been proposed as a Technical Specification requirement. In the approach to testing considered in this paper, perturbation experiments performed at normal operation are used to predict an envelope that bounds reactor response to flowrate, inlet temperature and external reactivity forcing functions. When the envelope for specific upsets lies within safety limits, one concludes that the passive shutdown system is operation properly for those upsets. Simulation results for the EBR-II reactor show that the response envelope for loss of flow and rod reactivity insertion events does indeed bound these events

  12. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance.

  13. Causes of extended shutdown state of 'RA' research reactor in Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Kolundzija, V.; Ljubenov, V.; Cupac, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the causes and reasons for extended shutdown state of RA research reactor in the 'Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Technical and legal matters that led to decision to stop RA reactor operation in 1984 and further problems related to maintenance and preparation for continuation of operation are given. Influence of nuclear policy of Yugoslav government and the 'Vinca' Institute at prolongation of the reactor shutdown state, as consequence of changing of nuclear programme in the country and the world are discussed and underlined. An overview of the legislation in the field of nuclear safety and regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Yugoslavia is presented. (author)

  14. Access and Alarm Safety Systems - Activities for the 2012/2013 Long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, S; Ladzinski, T; Ninin, P; Nunes, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2012/2013 long shutdown activities for the access, emergency evacuation, gas and fire detection systems. First, an overview of the required minimal annual maintenance and tests is presented; including the first feedback from the 9 weeks of the Technical Stop. Second, planned upgrades, new installations and consolidation activities, such as the R2E relocations and systems improvements, are discussed. For all these activities, the required resources are estimated, the constraints on other groups are listed, the associated risks analyzed and time estimation provided. The evaluation of the required resources takes into consideration the activities in the injector chain during the long shutdown.

  15. Supplies regulation; Reglementation des approvisionnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Since the 1 january 1993, the import and export of petroleum products and crude oil, their processing, transport, storage and distribution are free, provided some obligation respect allowing the supplying of these product during a crisis. The operators obligations are presented and discussed in this document as the taxes on petroleum products and natural gas. (A.L.B.)

  16. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply anddemand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can besignificantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment ofreservoir storage loss in conjunction with

  17. Medical surveillance of nuclear power plant workers during reactor shutdown using whole-body counting and excretion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux-Desmis, C.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of radioactivity basis and radiation protection principles, the various aspects of medical surveillance of nuclear power plant workers during reactor shutdown, are presented. Internal contamination incidents that happened during 1986-1987 shutdown of Paluel reactor are exposed. Internal contamination levels are evaluated using whole-body counting and radionuclide determination in feces and urine and compared with dose limits [fr

  18. Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrains based on Measured Shut-down Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Buhl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    by initiating blade pitching to feather and also sometimes using the generator torqueas a brake mechanism. The shutdowns due to wind speed variation nearcut-out are predicted using an Inverse First Order Reliability Model(IFORM) whereby an expected annual frequency of normal shutdownsat cut-out is put forth...

  19. Technical Meeting on Passive Shutdown Systems for Liquid Metal-Cooled Fast Reactors. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A major focus of the design of modern fast reactor systems is on inherent and passive safety. Specific systems to improve reactor safety performance during accidental transients have been developed in nearly all fast reactor programs, and a large number of proposed systems have reached various stages of maturity. This Technical Meeting on Passive Shutdown Systems for Fast Reactors, which was recommended by the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), addressed Member States’ expressed need for information exchange on projects and programs in the field, as well as for the identification of priorities based on the analysis of technology gaps to be covered through R&D activities. This meeting was limited to shutdown systems only, and did not include other passive features such as natural circulation decay heat removal systems etc.; however the meeting catered to passive shutdown safety devices applicable to all types of fast neutron systems. It was agreed to initiate a new study and produce a Nuclear Energy Series (NES) Technical Report to collect information about the existing operational systems as well as innovative concepts under development. This will be a useful source for member states interested in gaining technical expertise to develop passive shutdown systems as well as to highlight the importance and development in this area

  20. Development of self-actuated shutdown system using curie point electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Ho

    1999-01-01

    An innovative concept for a passive reactor shutdown system, so called self-actuated shutdown system (SASS), is inevitably required for the inherent safety in liquid metal reactor, which is designed with the totally different concept from the usual reactor shutdown system in LWR. SASS using Curie point electromagnet (CPEM) was selected as the passive reactor shutdown system for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor). A mock-up of the SASS was designed, fabricated and tested. From the test it was confirmed that the mockup was self-actuated at the Curie point of the temperature sensing material used in the mockup. An articulated control rod was also fabricated and assembled with the CPEM to confirm that the control rod can be inserted into core even when the control rod guide tube is deformed due to earthquake. The operability of SASS in the actual sodium environment should be confirmed in the future. All the design and test data will be applied to the KALIMER design. (author)

  1. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... well. The method of conditioning such well shall be subject to the approval of the Superintendent. (b...

  2. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading, or...

  3. Estimation of shutdown heat generation rates in GHARR-1 due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fission products decay power and residual fission power generated after shutdown of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) by reactivity insertion accident were estimated by solution of the decay and residual heat equations. A Matlab program code was developed to simulate the heat generation rates by fission product ...

  4. Maintenance of shutdown system in the reactor core to minimize the radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzoni Filho, P.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper recommends a modification on the actual strategy of going from Cold-Shutdown to Critical, that will save about 6000 liter of boric acid and 30,000 liters of demineralized water for each reactor criticalization. This strategy will reduce the radioactive waste disposal volume to only about 5% of what would be generated following the actual strategy. (author) [pt

  5. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Robinson, R.C. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected for study. The program consisted of two parallel projects performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf).

  6. 40 CFR 60.2120 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... 1, 2001 Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2120 What happens during periods of startup... during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each malfunction must last no longer than 3...

  7. 77 FR 72294 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

  8. Preventing the Shut-Down: Embodied Critical Care in a Teacher Educator's Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Muffet; Basford, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of one teacher educator to understand how she mitigates student resistance to prevent what we call "the shut-down" when teaching mostly White students about systemic forms of oppression. Engaging students in conversations about oppression does not in itself disrupt systems of power and privilege in…

  9. RECAP, Replacement Energy Cost for Short-Term Reactor Plant Shut-Down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Daun, C.J.; Jusko, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RECAP (Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package) determines the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or de-ratings of one or more nuclear reactors. Replacement energy cost refers to the change in generating-system production cost that results from shutting down a reactor. The cost calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1988-1991 for all 117 nuclear electricity-generating units in the U.S. RECAP is menu-driven, allowing the user to define specific case studies in terms of parameters such as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or de-rating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through use of a present-worth calculation option. 2 - Method of solution: The user selects a set of units for analysis, defines a shutdown (or de-rating) period, and specifies any planned maintenance outages, delays in unit start-ups, or changes in default capacity factors. The program then determines which seasonal cost numbers to apply, estimates total and daily costs, and makes the appropriate adjustments for multiple outages if they are encountered. The change in production cost is determined from the difference between the total variable costs (variable fuel cost, variable operation and maintenance cost, and purchased energy cost) when the reactor is available for generation and when it is not. Changes in reference-year dollars are based on gross national product (GNP) price deflators or on optional use inputs. Once RECAP has completed the initial cost estimates for a case study (or series of case studies), present-worth analysis can be conducted using different reference-year dollars and discount rates, as specified by the user. The program uses

  10. Renewal of beam position monitor electronics of the SPring-8 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeki; Fujita, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Signal processing electronics for the beam position monitors (BPM) of the SPring-8 Storage Ring were renewed during the summer shutdown period of 2006. The configurations of the electronics of before and after the alteration are described. The evaluation of the performance of the electronics is shown with the data taken by using the actual beams. (author)

  11. 75 FR 43518 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... alternatives for the storage, processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear... question: `` hould the US change the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel and high level waste... see first-hand a shutdown reactor facility currently storing spent nuclear fuel pending final disposal...

  12. 40 CFR 63.119 - Storage vessel provisions-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage vessel in a continuous fashion. (iv) If the external floating roof is equipped with a liquid... air pollutants; (iii) Incorporated into a product; and/or (iv) Recovered. (2) If the emissions are... all reasons (except start-ups/shutdowns/malfunctions or product changeovers of flexible operation...

  13. THE PROTECTIVE SHUTDOWN IN CASE OF THE BREAKAGE OF THE CONTACT WIRES IN THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Shkrabets

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The type of damages is considered when the malfunction of regular tools of protection from emergency regimes in a hauling network is probable. The use of device of protecting from the break of a contact wire is offered. The charts of realization of this device under various conditions of hauling networks are presented.

  14. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the modifications to the ventilation system for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Topics discussed in this report include; system functional requirements, evaluations of equipment, a list of drawings showing the safety envelope boundaries; list of safety envelope equipment, functional requirements for individual safety envelope equipment, and a list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment

  15. A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m account for roughly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing over 30 million examinations worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and 6 hours for its daughter isotope, technetium-99m (' 99m Tc), and thus must be produced continually - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing 99 Mo-producing research reactor and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. In 2011, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), along with its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR), released a report that presents the reasons behind the lack of infrastructure that led to global supply shortages and a policy approach to encourage long-term medical isotope supply security. In that report, The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: The Path to Reliability, the NEA also provides potential futures of supply and demand out to 2030. Since the release of The Path there have been a number of changes in the market and therefore this document provides an update on the 2011 supply and demand situation. This update is based on information provided to the NEA by members of the HLG-MR and other key stakeholders. This presentation of supply and demand future scenarios for the 99 Mo market revises previous NEA future scenarios based on new data and target conversion commitments from the supply chain. The update, unfortunately, does not present a more optimistic future scenario than previous presentations - the concern around the uneconomic situation of the supply chain continues to dominate the potential for new projects. This results in the potential for long-term shortages within the decade. However, there are a

  16. The anaesthesia gas supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply.

  17. An Optimization Model for Large–Scale Wind Power Grid Connection Considering Demand Response and Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power output uncertainty on power system stability, demand response (DRPs and energy storage systems (ESSs are introduced while solving scheduling optimization problems. To simulate wind power scenarios, this paper uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS to generate the initial scenario set and constructs a scenario reduction strategy based on Kantorovich distance. Since DRPs and ESSs can influence the distribution of demand load, this paper constructs a joint scheduling optimization model for wind power, ESSs and DRPs under the objective of minimizing total coal cost, and constraints of power demand and supply balance, users’ demand elasticity, thermal units’ startup-shutdown, thermal units’ output power climbing and wind power backup service. To analyze the influences of ESSs and DRPs on system wind power consumption capacity, example simulation is made in a 10 thermal units system with a 1000 MW wind farm and 400 MW energy storage systems under four simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that the introduction of DRPs and ESSs could promote system wind power consumption capacity with significantly economic and environment benefits, which include less coal consumption and less pollutant emission; and the optimization effect reaches the optimum when DRPs and ESSs are both introduced.

  18. Thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. J.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TES program from April 1990 to March 1992 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, direct contact ice making, latent heat storage plasterboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

  19. Regulatory and backfit analysis: Unresolved safety issue A-45, shutdown decay heat removal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    All light water reactors require decay heat to be removed subsequent to reactor shutdown. Interruption of the decay heat removal function could lead to severe consequences. Concerns about the reliability of the systems and components that assist in the decay heat removal process and the potentially severe consequences of a complete loss of decay heat removal resulted in establishing the requirements for decay heat removal as an unresolved safety issue (USI) designated USI A-45, ''Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements.'' This report presents the regulatory analysis for USI A-45. It includes (1) a summary of the issue, (2) the proposed technical resolution, (3) alternative resolutions considered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (4) an assessment of the benefits and costs of all alternatives considered, and (5) the decision rationale. 23 refs., 9 figs., 39 tabs

  20. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal from advanced LMRs [liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; Lottes, P.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) has investigated the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM passive design. This initial series of experiments simulates the air-side geometry of the PRISM Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS). The NSTF operates in either a uniform heat flux mode and a uniform temperature mode at the air/guard vessel interface. Analysis of the RVACS performance data indicates excellent agreement with pretest analytical predictions. Correlation analysis presents the heat transfer data in a form suitable for use in LMR design and verification of analytical studies

  1. Shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator with improved thermal and electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Won-Yeol; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator (SFNS) with improved thermal and electrochemical stabilities is prepared by a simple dip coating method for use in lithium-ion battery (LiB) applications. The SFNS shows thermal stability at 200 °C, while providing shutdown functionality at approximately 140 °C, similar to commercial porous polyethylene separators. The surface-coated polymer prevents leakage current problems and in addition, shows air permeability values similar to that of bare nonwoven separators, while maintaining a thickness of about 20 μm, which is a desired attribute of effective separators for LiBs. The SFNS also shows increased electrolyte uptake and higher conductivity, compared to a bare polyethylene separator. Therefore, a cell with the SFNS exhibits higher discharge capacity and better cycle property than that with a porous polyethylene separator. These results suggest that SFNS is an effective separator for high-performance LiBs.

  2. The analysis of pressurizer safety valve stuck open accident for low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Jang, Seong Chul; Kim, Tae Woon

    2005-01-01

    The PSV (Pressurizer Safety Valve) popping test carried out practically in the early phase of a refueling outage has a little possibility of triggering a test-induced LOCA due to a PSV not fully closed or stuck open. According to a KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) low power and shutdown PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), the failure of a HPSI (High Pressure Safety Injection) following a PSV stuck open was identified as a dominant accident sequence with a significant contribution to low power and shutdown risks. In this study, we aim to investigate the consequences of the NPP for the various accident sequences following the PSV stuck open as an initiating event through the thermal-hydraulic system code calculations. Also, we search the accident mitigation method for the sequence of HPSI failure, then, the applicability of the method is verified by the simulations using T/H system code

  3. Design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a part of the IAEA publications under its Programme on Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and is addressed to administrative and technical authorities and specialists who consider the shallow-ground disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes of short half-lives. The report emphasizes the technological aspects, however it briefly discusses the safety philosophy and regulatory considerations too. The design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of the repositories in shallow ground are considered in some detail, paying special attention to their interrelated aspects. In particular, a review is given of the following aspects: main design and construction considerations in relation to the natural features of the site; design and construction aspects during the repository development process; activities related to operational and post-operational stages of the repository; major steps in repository operation and essential activities in shutdown and operational and post-operational surveillance

  4. The Intelligent Safety System: could it introduce complex computing into CANDU shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.A.; Hinds, H.W.; Pensom, C.F.; Barker, C.J.; Jobse, A.H.

    1984-07-01

    The Intelligent Safety System is a computerized shutdown system being developed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) for future CANDU nuclear reactors. It differs from current CANDU shutdown systems in both the algorithm used and the size and complexity of computers required to implement the concept. This paper provides an overview of the project, with emphasis on the computing aspects. Early in the project several needs leading to an introduction of computing complexity were identified, and a computing system that met these needs was conceived. The current work at CRNL centers on building a laboratory demonstration of the Intelligent Safety System, and evaluating the reliability and testability of the concept. Some fundamental problems must still be addressed for the Intelligent Safety System to be acceptable to a CANDU owner and to the regulatory authorities. These are also discussed along with a description of how the Intelligent Safety System might solve these problems

  5. Management of individual and collective dosimetry at Fessenheim nuclear plant. Evaluation after refueling shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, D.; Waller, A.

    1980-01-01

    The principle of dosimetry management chosen by Fessenheim nuclear power station was originally consisted of two phases: - an automatic acquisition of individual doses realized by stylodosimeter readers; - a deferred data processing by computer. The whole system has not been used during the shutdown for the first refuelling of unit number one in view of encountered difficulties with perfecting of automatic readers prototype, this last phase has been replaced by a manual acquisition of doses. The dosimetry data processing has two main objects: - supervision of individual dosimetry for people who work in the nuclear power station; - knowledge of doses assigned for each working and equipment. Moreover, a first dosimetric result of the shutdown for refuelling of unit number one, enables to notice the workings which doses are the most important and written in percentage of total doses: regulatory controls: about 19%; - steam generators working: 16%; - working decontamination and making health physics screen (lock chamber) 10% [fr

  6. Analysis of failure dependent test, repair and shutdown strategies for redundant trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P.

    1994-09-01

    Failure-dependent testing implies a test of a redundant components (or trains) when failure of one component has been detected. The purpose of such testing is to detect any common cause failures (CCFs) of multiple components so that a corrective action such as repair or plant shutdown can be taken to reduce the residence time of multiple failures, given a failure has been detected. This type of testing focuses on reducing the conditional risk of CCFs. Formulas for calculating the conditional failure probability of a two train system with different test, repair and shutdown strategies are developed. A methodology is presented with an example calculation showing the risk-effectiveness of failure-dependent strategies for emergency diesel generators (EDGs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

  7. Advances in the physics modelling of CANDU liquid injection shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Robinson, R.; Guertin, C.

    1993-01-01

    The physics modelling of liquid poison injection shutdown systems in CANDU reactors accounts for the major phenomena taking place by combining the effects of both moderator hydraulics and neutronics. This paper describes the advances in the physics modelling of liquid poison injection shutdown systems (LISS), discusses some of the effects of the more realistic modelling, and briefly describes the automation methodology. Modifications to the LISS methodology have improved the realism of the physics modelling, showing that the previous methodology significantly overestimated energy deposition during the simulation of a loss of coolant transient in Bruce A, by overestimating the reactivity transient. Furthermore, the automation of the modelling process has reduced the time needed to carry put LISS evaluations to the same level as required for shutoff-rod evaluations, while at the same time minimizing the amount of input, and providing a method for tracing all files used, thus adding a level of quality assurance to the calculation. 5 refs., 11 figs

  8. Shutdown Dose Rate Analysis for the long-pulse D-D Operation Phase in KSTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jin Hun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available KSTAR is a medium size fully superconducting tokamak. The deuterium-deuterium (D-D reaction in the KSTAR tokamak generates neutrons with a peak yield of 3.5x1016 per second through a pulse operation of 100 seconds. The effect of neutron generation from full D-D high power KSTAR operation mode to the machine, such as activation, shutdown dose rate, and nuclear heating, are estimated for an assurance of safety during operation, maintenance, and machine upgrade. The nuclear heating of the in-vessel components, and neutron activation of the surrounding materials have been investigated. The dose rates during operation and after shutdown of KSTAR have been calculated by a 3D CAD model of KSTAR with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 (neutron flux and decay photon, the inventory code FISPACT (activation and decay photon and the FENDL 2.1 nuclear data library.

  9. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC’s Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J A

    2014-01-01

    During the long shutdown 1 (LS1), several maintenance, consolidation and upgrade activities have been carried out in LHC’s injector chain. Each machine has specific vacuum requirements and different history, which determine the present status of the vacuum components, their maintenance and consolidation needs. The present work presents the priorities agreed at the beginning of the LS1 period and their implementation. Of particular relevance are the interventions in radioactive controlled areas where several leaks due to stress corrosions stopped the operations in the past years. The strategy to reduce the collective dose is presented, in particular the use of remote controlled robots. An important part of the work performed during this period involves supporting other teams (acceptance tests, new equipment installation, etc.). Finally, as a result of the LS1 experience, a medium to long term strategy is depicted, focusing on the preparation of the next shutdown (LS2) and the integration of LINAC4 in the in...

  10. Containment closure time following loss of cooling under shutdown conditions of YGN units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The YGN Units 3 and 4 plant conditions during shutdown operation were reviewed to identify the possible event scenarios following the loss of shutdown cooling. The thermal hydraulic analyses were performed for the five cases of RCS configurations under the worst event scenario, unavailable secondary cooling and no RCS inventory makeup, using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to investigate the plant behavior. From the analyses results, times to boil, times to core uncovery and times to core heat up were estimated to determine the containment closure time to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products to atmosphere. These data provide useful information to the abnormal procedure to cope with the event. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  11. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and storage of TRIGA reg-sign reactor fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    In order to allow the shutdown of the Hanford 308 Building in the 300 Area, it is proposed to relocate fuel assemblies (101 irradiated, three unirradiated) from the Mark I TRIGA Reactor storage pool. The irradiated fuel assemblies would be stored in casks in the Interim Storage Area in the Hanford 400 Area; the three unirradiated ones would be transferred to another TRIGA reactor. The relocation is not expected to change the offsite exposure from all Hanford Site 300 and 400 Area operations

  12. Safety analysis code 'COOLTMP' for assessment of PHT cooling under reactor shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Kumar, P.; Hajela, S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal energy generated by the reactor core is removed by the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System when the reactor is under normal operation, by operation of the primary circulation pumps and steam generators. However, when the reactor is shutdown, the decay heat removal is done by the Shut Down (S/D) Cooling heat exchangers and pumps of lower capacity. In the event of loss/stoppage of circulation of PHT under such a situation, the bulk of the decay heat generated will be distributed to the moderator system, end shield system and through the feeders to the feeder cabinet/FM vault environment. However, the PHT inventory in the channel will be heated up because of loss of flow in the channel. The code COOLTMP has been developed to estimate the temperature of PHT following a loss/stoppage of circulation, when the reactor is under shutdown condition. It predicts the increase in the PHT temperature with time for hot channel, average channel or a specific channel under such a condition. It also calculates the apportionment of the decay heat to different heat sinks, viz. moderator, end shield and FM Vault. This computation is required when the plant is required to be under shutdown for doing some maintenance job on the PHT system, feeders or channels where the S/D cooling system has to be stopped and in some cases the headers have to be drained. At that time such a calculation gives whether the peak PHT temperature, or the time available to reach such a temperature, as obtained, is acceptable to carry out such a job. Hence, the schedule of the maintenance job can be decided. This code has been validated for RAPS and MAPS and used extensively for predicting PHT temperature after reactor shutdown to obtain regulatory clearances to stop forced circulation with and without header filled. (author)

  13. Management of refuelling, modifications and accidental shut-down of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document is the appendix of HAF 0300 (91) 'Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Operation', which was promulgated by the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) on March 2, 1994, and has the same legal effect. This appendix is applicable to establish the administrative management procedures for refuelling, modifications and accidental shut-down in the period of operation of pressurized water thermal neutron reactor of nuclear power plants. The NNSA shall be responsible for interpretation of this document

  14. The Upgrade of the CMS RPC System during the First LHC Long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Zaganidis, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Assran, Y.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M.; Colafranceschi, S.; Felli, F.; Piccolo, D.; Saviano, G.; Carrillo, C.; Berzano, U.; Gabusi, M.; Vitulo, P.; Kang, M.; Lee, K.S.; Park, S.K.; Shin, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 (~first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 10^34/cm^2/s at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |eta|<1.6 with...

  15. Electricity-market price and nuclear power plant shutdown: Evidence from California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Zarnikau, J.; Olson, A.; Jones, R.; Chait, M.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster, triggered by the March 11, 2011 earthquake, has led to calls for shutting down existing nuclear plants. To maintain resource adequacy for a grid's reliable operation, one option is to expand conventional generation, whose marginal unit is typically fueled by natural-gas. Two timely and relevant questions thus arise for a deregulated wholesale electricity market: (1) what is the likely price increase due to a nuclear plant shutdown? and (2) what can be done to mitigate the price increase? To answer these questions, we perform a regression analysis of a large sample of hourly real-time electricity-market price data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) for the 33-month sample period of April 2010–December 2012. Our analysis indicates that the 2013 shutdown of the state's San Onofre plant raised the CAISO real-time hourly market prices by $6/MWH to $9/MWH, and that the price increases could have been offset by a combination of demand reduction, increasing solar generation, and increasing wind generation. - Highlights: • Japan's disaster led to calls for shutting down existing nuclear plants. • We perform a regression analysis of California's real-time electricity-market prices. • We estimate that the San Onofre plant shutdown has raised the market prices by $6/MWH to $9/MWH. • The price increases could be offset by demand reduction and renewable generation increase

  16. Self-actuated shutdown system for a commercial size LMFBR. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupen, C.F.G.

    1978-08-01

    A Self-Actuated Shutdown System (SASS) is defined as a reactor shutdown system in which sensors, release mechanisms and neutron absorbers are contained entirely within the reactor core structure, where they respond inherently to abnormal local process conditions, by shutting down the reactor, independently of the plant protection system (PPS). It is argued that a SASS, having a response time similar to that of the PPS, would so reduce the already very low probability of a failure-to-scram event that costly design features, derived from core disruptive accident analysis, could be eliminated. However, the thrust of the report is the feasibility and reliability of the in-core SASS hardware to achieve sufficiently rapid shutdown. A number of transient overpower and transient undercooling-responsive systems were investigated leading to the selection of a primary candidate and a backup concept. During a transient undercooling event, the recommended device is triggered by the associated rate of change of pressure, whereas the alternate concept responds to the reduction in core pressure drop and requires calibration and adjustment by the operators to accommodate changes in reactor power

  17. Retrofit of AECL CAN6 seals into the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.; Metcalfe, R.; Brown, G.

    1997-01-01

    The existing mechanical seals in the shutdown cooling (SDC) pumps at the eight-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station have caused as least seven forced outages in the last fifteen years. The SDC pumps were originally intended to run only during shutdowns, mostly at low pressure, except for short periods during routine testing of SDC isolation valves while the plant is operating at full pressure to verify that the emergency core injection system is available. Unfortunately, in practice, some SDC pumps must be run much more frequently than this to prevent overheating or freezing of components in the system while the plant is at power. This more severe service has decreased seal lifetime from about 8000 running hours to about 3000 running hours. Rather than tackling the difficult task of eliminating on-power running of the pumps, Pickering decided to install a more robust seal design that could withstand this. Through the process of competitive tender, AECL's CAN6 seal was chosen. This seal has a successful history in similarly demanding conditions in boiling water reactors in the USA. To supplement this and demonstrate there would be no 'surprises,' a 2000-hour test program was conducted. Testing consisted of simulating all the expected conditions, plus some special tests under abnormal conditions. This has given assurance that the seal will operate reliably in the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps. (author)

  18. Evolving the JET virtual reality system for delivering the JET EP2 shutdown remote handling tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Adrian; Sanders, Stephen; Weder, Gerard; Bastow, Roger; Allan, Peter; Hazel, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The quality, functionality and performance of the virtual reality (VR) system used at JET for preparation and implementation of remote handling (RH) operations has been progressively enhanced since its first use in the original JET remote handling shutdown in 1998. As preparation began for the JET EP2 (Enhanced Performance 2) shutdown it was recognised that the VR system being used was unable to cope with the increased functionality and the large number of 3D models needed to fully represent the JET in-vessel components and tooling planned for EP2. A bespoke VR software application was developed in collaboration with the OEM, which allowed enhancements to be made to the VR system to meet the requirements of JET remote handling in preparation for EP2. Performance improvements required to meet the challenges of EP2 could not be obtained from the development of the new VR software alone. New methodologies were also required to prepare source, CATIA models for use in the VR using a collection of 3D software packages. In collaboration with the JET drawing office, techniques were developed within CATIA using polygon reduction tools to reduce model size, while retaining surface detail at required user limits. This paper will discuss how these developments have played an essential part in facilitating EP2 remote handling task development and examine their impact during the EP2 shutdown.

  19. Retrofit of AECL CAN6 seals into the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.; Metcalfe, R.; Brown, G.; Kiameh, P.; Burchett, P.

    1997-01-01

    The existing mechanical seals in the shutdown cooling (SDC) pumps at the eight-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station have caused at least seven forced outages in the last fifteen years. The SDC pumps were originally intended to run only during shutdowns, mostly at low pressure, except for short periods during routine testing of SDC isolation valves while the plant is operating at full pressure to verify that the emergency core injection system is available. Unfortunately, in practice, some SDC pumps must be run much more frequently than this to prevent overheating or freezing of components in the system while the plant is at power. This more severe service has decreased seal lifetime from about 8000 running hours to about 3000 running hours. Rather than tackling the difficult task of eliminating on-power running of the pumps, Pickering decided to install a more robust seal design that could withstand this. Through the process of competitive tender, AECL's CAN6 seal was chosen. This seal has a successful history in similarly demanding conditions in boiling water reactors in the USA. To supplement this and demonstrate there would be no 'surprises,' a 2000-hour test program was conducted. Testing consisted of simulating all the expected conditions, plus some special tests under abnormal conditions. This has given assurance that the seal will operate reliably in the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps. (author)

  20. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. The...

  1. Switching power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  2. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  3. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  6. An attempt for economic estimate of the shutdown of uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchev, L.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium ore has been obtained since the end of 30s till 1992. No measures for protection of the environment and restricting the risk for the population during the production have been taken. Among the three possible models of shutting down the most inexpedient from economic point of view has been applied . It meant that the beginning of closing down took place far behind ceasing the production itself and the expenses for restoration were as big as fourteen times more in comparison to the two ones. The investments for prospecting and preparing new resources were lost. The whole process was made extremely inefficiently and unprofessionally. Because of the sudden closing down of production activities there was no enough time for gathering, processing and analyzing of necessary data, even the radioecological and hydro-ecological evaluations were doubtfully reliable. The shutdown of uranium production as worldwide practice takes place considering ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. The aim is to achieve maximum possible results by minimum investments taking into account the radioecological risk, socially accounted for and psychologically conditioned expenses. There is no statement of the radioecological risk in the preliminary evaluations of the uranium mines in Bulgaria. The investment funds for the period 1992-1996 were about 2.1 bill. leva, (equally allocated for each year) which was about 46.5 mil. US$. Because of inflation process the investments crucially decreased during the last years when most capital-intensive activities had to be carried out - the engineering shutdown and land-reclamations procedures. The biggest share of investments (about 30 mil. US$) was for environmental status maintenance, 2.5 times less (about 13 mil. US$) - for technical shutdown and only 2.1 mil. US$ - for land reclamation. The investments for the shutdown process referred to the whole production obtained were only 2.5 US$/kg U 3 O 8 while the most effective model

  7. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  8. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage

  9. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  10. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  11. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  12. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  13. Lih thermal energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  14. Let everybody think about energy problems (what to do with energy supply). Electric power storage as a trump to make load flat; Energy mondai wo minnade kangaeyo (energy kyokyu wo dosuruka). Fuka heijunka no kirifuda (denryoku chozo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1995-09-20

    Difference of electric power load between day and night has been growing due to increase of need for cooling in summer. In the case of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., the power maximum in a day exceeds 2-fold of the minimum. As a means of making load flat, power storage is a last resort to improve operation efficiency and suppress generation cost. Various technologies for electric power storage are overviewed and a sodium-sulfur (NaS) cell is introduced, whose practical application in near future is expected as a novel technology for power storage. Pumped storage generation has been put into practical use widely, sharing 10% of the overall capacity for generation facilities in Japan. However, since proper sites for its construction have been limited, compensating technologies, using electric cells, air compression, super-conduction and flywheels are in progress of research and development. There are three types of electric cells being under development; NaS, Zinc-bromine, redox flow cells. The NaS cell uses highly active electrodes of Na(+) and S(-), and {beta} alumina as electrolyte, which is neither electron-conductive nor self-discharging. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of storage with surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchowitz, M.

    1985-01-01

    After the shut-down decision, the technical effort necessary to place a reactor facility in the ''storage with surveillance'' condition is relatively minor. The operating costs during the storage time depend on whether a second power plant unit is located or is being constructed at the site. If the reactor facility is totally removed after the decision to shut it down, the resulting costs are at first not comparable to those incurred by the bringing about of ''storage with surveillance''. Because the nuclear power plant ''stored with surveillance'' will have to be removed at the end of the storage time, enormously high costs once again are the result here too. The savings resulting because the need for remotely controlled dismantling and packing of parts with higher activity (reactor vessel, core fixtures, etc.) is eliminated, do not, from a technical point of view, outweigh the disadvantages of the surveillance and maintenance necessary during a storage time of 40 years. It is to be noted, however, that during a total removal, large quantities of radioactive waste result and suitable repositories or storage possibilities must be available

  16. Levelised cost of storage for pumped heat energy storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Smallbone, A.; Jülch, V.; Wardle, R.; Roskilly, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Future electricity systems which plan to use large proportions of intermittent (e.g. wind, solar or tidal generation) or inflexible (e.g. nuclear, coal, etc.) electricity generation sources require an increasing scale-up of energy storage to match the supply with hourly, daily and seasonal electricity demand profiles. Evaluation of how to meet this scale of energy storage has predominantly been based on the deployment of a handful of technologies including batteries, Pumped Hydroelectricity S...

  17. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  18. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  19. Shutdown potential adjustment of modified carbene adducts as additives for lithium ion battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Pia; Streipert, Benjamin; Krafft, Roman; Murmann, Patrick; Wagner, Ralf; Lewis-Alleyne, Lesley; Röschenthaler, Gerd-Volker; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2017-11-01

    To improve the intrinsic safety of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by preventing cells from a thermal runaway, we studied two carbene adduct electrolyte additives. The recently synthesized compounds (1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-μm-trifluoroborate (NHC-BF3) and 1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-μm-tetrafluorotrifluoromethylphosphate (NHC-PF4CF3)) were investigated on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC111) electrodes in Li metal and Li-ion cell setups as overcharge protection shutdown additives in 1M LiPF6 in EC:DEC (3:7, by wt.) electrolyte. By varying the NHC-ligand (-BF3, -PF5, -PF4CF3) in the molecule, the shutdown potential of the investigated carbene adduct electrolyte additives can be tailored for specific applications with different cut-off potentials. NHC-BF3 was identified as a promising candidate for the application with NMC111 electrodes up to 4.4 V vs. Li/Li+, whereas the carbene adduct NHC-PF4CF3 is ideal for the high-voltage application with the NMC-based electrode up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+. Next to electrochemical investigations in NMC111/Li and NMC111/graphite cells, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to verify the presence of a decomposition layer on the cathode, responsible for the shutdown effect. Furthermore, it has been proven that the investigated electrolyte additives have no influence on the cell performance under normal conditions in both, Li metal and Li-ion cell setups.

  20. PSA-operations synergism for the advanced test reactor shutdown operations PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for shutdown operations, cask handling, and canal draining is a successful example of the importance of good PSA-operations synergism for achieving a realistic and accepted assessment of the risks and for achieving desired risk reduction and safety improvement in a best and cost-effective manner. The implementation of the agreed-upon upgrades and improvements resulted in the reductions of the estimated mean frequency for core or canal irradiated fuel uncovery events, a total reduction in risk by a factor of nearly 1000 to a very low and acceptable risk level for potentially severe events

  1. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment

  2. Application of PSA to reduce frequency of unplanned shutdown of the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanipanichskul, P.

    1988-08-01

    The relative importance of all the operating and safety systems of the reactor TRR-1/M1 as well as the major failure modes of the systems are pointed out. The average unavailability of the reactor is 3·3 E-2 per cycle of operation which is in the range value of the actual reactor shutdown recorded during normal operation. Some guidance for annual maintenance and also suggestions for system development to increase safety systems reliability are determined. PSA was applied to improve the safety systems reliability of an operating research reactor. Refs, tabs

  3. Lithium Hideout and Return in the CANDU Heat Transport System during Shutdown and Start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.; Snaglewski, A.P.

    2012-09-01

    Lithium hydroxide is used to control the pH a (pH apparent) of the Heat Transport System (HTS) coolant in CANDU R reactors. The recommended range of the lithium concentration in the coolant is between 0.38 ppm (5.5x10 -5 m) and 0.60 ppm (8.7x10 -5 m) to minimize carbon steel corrosion in the HTS and magnetite deposition in the core during normal operation; this corresponds to pH a values between 10.2 and 10.4. Similar pH a and lithium concentrations should be maintained during shutdown and start-up. However, maintaining the pH a of the HTS coolant within specification during shutdown and start-up has been difficult for some CANDU stations, especially when the HTS is taken to a Low Level Drain State (LLDS), because of lithium hideout and return. This paper presents the results from lithium adsorption and desorption studies on iron oxides under relevant shutdown and start-up chemistry conditions performed to elucidate the mechanisms of the observed lithium hideout and return. The results show that lithium hideout and return are driven largely by changes in the solubility of magnetite as the HTS coolant chemistry changes during shutdown; changes in lithium concentration were inversely correlated with the solubility of magnetite. When the HTS system is de-pressurized and drained to a low coolant level, the ingress of air rapidly oxidizes the dissolved Fe (II) in the coolant, 2Fe +2 + 1 / 2 O 2 + 3 H 2 = 2FEOOH + 4 H + , resulting in the formation of lepidocrocite or maghemite, which have much lower solubilities but larger surface areas than does magnetite. The large surface area of the Fe (III) oxides can adsorb significant quantities of lithium from the coolant, leading to lithium hideout and a pH a decrease. During start-up, the chemistry of the coolant changes from oxidizing to reducing, and lepidocrocite and other Fe (III) oxides are reduced to Fe (II), gradually dissolving as their solubility increases with increasing temperature. The adsorbed lithium is released

  4. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-03-24

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment.

  5. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target -the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined.

  6. CMS DAQ current and future hardware upgrades up to post Long Shutdown 3 (LS3) times

    CERN Document Server

    Racz, Attila; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; da Silva Gomes, Diego; Darlea, Georgiana-Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gigi, Dominique; Gladki, Maciej; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre; Janulis, Mindaugas; Lettrich, Michael; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orn, Samuel Johan; Orsini, Luciano; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Paus, Christoph; Petrova, Petia; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Rabady, Dinyar; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Vazquez Velez, Cristina; Vougioukas, Michail; Zejdl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Following the first LHC collisions seen and recorded by CMS in 2009, the DAQ hardware went through a major upgrade during LS1 (2013- 2014) and new detectors have been connected during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 winter shutdowns. Now, LS2 (2019-2020) and LS3 (2024-mid 2026) are actively being prepared. This paper shows how CMS DAQ hardware has evolved from the beginning and will continue to evolve in order to meet the future challenges posed by High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) and the CMS detector evolution. In particular, post LS3 DAQ architectures are focused upon.

  7. Capacitor storage voltage stabilization device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvin, V.V.; Gusev, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    An electric circuit of a device designed for charging and stabilizing a capacitor storage is described. A phase-pulse method for thyristor control in the power transformer first circuit is used. In the process of storage charging the triggering angle of thyristors linearly grows, that excludes the necessity of application of current-limiting elements in the charging circuit. The averaged charging voltage of the storage linearly dependce on charging time. Charging is realized by a series of short-time current pulses. Output voltage is controlled within 10...95% limits of the rated value. Voltage instability is ≤0.5% at power supply voltage variation of ±10%

  8. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  9. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  10. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  11. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  12. Attitudes and opinions of nursing and medical staff regarding the supply and storage of medicinal products before and after the installation of a drawer-based automated stock-control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern-Jones, Joanne; Hughes, Donald K; Rowe, Philip H; Mottram, David R; Green, Christopher F

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of Emergency Department (ED) staff regarding the introduction of an automated stock-control system. The objectives were to determine attitudes to stock control and replenishment, speed of access to the system, ease of use and the potential for future uses of the system. The study was carried out in the Countess of Chester Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (COCH) ED, which is attended by over 65,000 patients each year. All 68 ED staff were sent pre-piloted, semi-structured questionnaires and reminders, before and after automation of medicines stock control. Pre-implementation, 35 staff (66.1% of respondents) reported that problems occurred with access to medicine storage keys 'very frequently' or 'frequently'. Twenty-eight (52.8%) respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that medicines were quickly accessed, which rose to 41 (77%) post-automation (P fluids and refrigerated items. Twenty-seven (51.9%) staff reported access to the system within 1 min and 17 (32.7%) staff reported access within 1-2 min. The majority of staff found the system 'easy' or 'very easy' to use and there was a non-significant relationship between previous use of information technology and acceptance of the system. From a staff satisfaction perspective, automation improved medicines storage, security and stock control, and addressed the problem of searching for keys to storage areas. Concerns over familiarity with computers, queuing, speed of access and an improved audit trail do not appear to have been issues, when compared with the previous manual storage of medicines.

  13. Development of Risk Assessment Technology for Low Power, Shutdown and Digital I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Kang, Dae Il; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Man Cheol; Lee, Ho Joong; Kim, Jae Whan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2007-06-01

    There are two technical areas to deal with in the project: the low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and the digital I and C PSA. The scope and contents of each area could be summarized as follows: The LPSD PSA Area Ο Quality improvement of the KSNP LPSD PSA model in the following four technical areas; human reliability analysis (HR), system analysis (SY), data analysis (DA) and accident sequence quantification (QU) Ο Development of the LPSD configuration risk management(CRM) model - Study on the methodology for developing a CRM model, so-called ASLOC (Autonomous Shutdown LOgic Creation) - Development of the LPSD CRM model for the units of Ulchin 3 and 4 The Digital I and C PSA Area Ο Development of impact model of ESF-CCS on plant risks - Unavailability analysis of ESF-CCS for APR-1400 - Digital plant risk models for evaluating core damage frequency (CDF) Ο Study on the methodologies for treating digital-specific problems in the digital I and C PSA - Study on the methodology for evaluating safety-critical SW reliability by BBN techniques, including a feasibility study of reliability growth model - Study on the methodology for the safety-critical network system by Markov chain

  14. Safe shutdown of Defense Program facilities at the Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.F.; Bantz, P.D.; Luthy, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Mound Plant was one of several production sites in the US Department of Energy's Defense Programs (DP) Weapons Complex. As a result of the downsizing of the weapons program, certain operations at Mound are being transferred to other DOE sites and the DP buildings at Mound are being shutdown. The objectives of the program are to reduce the hazardous and financial liabilities to DOE and to foster the reuse of facilities for economic development. The overall program is described. The process began with the categorization of excess DP buildings into three groups depending on their anticipated future use. The draft DOE/EM-60 Acceptance Criteria were used to develop a detailed shutdown checklist as the foundation of the process. The overall program budget, schedule, ad options for disposition of materials and components is presented. Accomplishments in FY94 and FY95 are described. By the end of FY95, all excess energetic materials and components, all excess chemicals (from non-radiation areas) and significant amounts of radioactive materials have been removed from the site. By the end of FY95, 47 of the 72 buildings in the program have been taken through all ten of the draft EM-60 acceptance criteria. Lessons learned, based on experience at Mound to date, are summarized

  15. Dynamic Response of AP1000 Nuclear Island Due to Safe Shutdown Earthquake Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Buntara S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AP1000 is a standard nuclear power plant developed by Westinghouse and its partners by using an advanced passive safety feature. Among the five principle building structures, namely the nuclear island, turbine building, annex building, diesel generator building and radwaste building, the safety of the nuclear island building is the most concerned. This paper investigates the dynamic response of the nuclear island building of the AP1000 plant subjected to safe shutdown earthquake loadings. A finite element model for the building, which is assumed to be built in a hard-rock base, is developed and its dynamic response is computed with the aid of the commercial finite element package ANSYS. The dynamic characteristics, including the natural frequencies, the vibration modes, and the time histories for displacements, velocities, and accelerations of the building are obtained for two typical safe shutdown earthquakes, El Centro and Kobe earthquakes. The dynamic behavior of the building due to the earthquakes and its safety is examined and highlighted.

  16. Optimization of startup and shutdown operation of simulated moving bed chromatographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhou; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Raisch, Jörg; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2011-06-24

    This paper presents new multistage optimal startup and shutdown strategies for simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic processes. The proposed concept allows to adjust transient operating conditions stage-wise, and provides capability to improve transient performance and to fulfill product quality specifications simultaneously. A specially tailored decomposition algorithm is developed to ensure computational tractability of the resulting dynamic optimization problems. By examining the transient operation of a literature separation example characterized by nonlinear competitive isotherm, the feasibility of the solution approach is demonstrated, and the performance of the conventional and multistage optimal transient regimes is evaluated systematically. The quantitative results clearly show that the optimal operating policies not only allow to significantly reduce both duration of the transient phase and desorbent consumption, but also enable on-spec production even during startup and shutdown periods. With the aid of the developed transient procedures, short-term separation campaigns with small batch sizes can be performed more flexibly and efficiently by SMB chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling the fluid structure interaction produced by a waterhammer during shutdown of high-pressure pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erath, W.; Nowotny, B.; Maetz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of an experiment in a pipe system with pump shutdown and valve closing have been performed in the nuclear power plant KRB II (Gundremmingen, Germany). Comparative calculations of fluid and structure including interaction show an excellent agreement with the measured results. Theory and implementation of the fluid structure interaction (FSI) and the results of the comparison are described. The following measurements have been compared with calculations: (1) experiments in Delft, Netherlands to analyse the FSI; and (2) experiment with pump shutdown and valve closing in the nuclear power plant KRB II has been performed. It turns out, that the consideration of the FSI is necessary for an exact calculation of 'soft' piping systems. It has significant application in current waterhammer problems. For example, water column closure, vapour collapse, check valve slamming continues to create waterhammers in the energy industry. An important consequence of the FSI is mostly a significant increase of the effective structural damping. This mitigates - so far in all KED's calculations the FSI has taken into account - an amplification of pipe movements due to pressure waves in resonance with structural eigenvalues. To investigate the integrity of pipe systems pipe stresses are calculated. Taking FSI into account they are reduced by 10-40% in the actual case. (orig.)

  18. Development of a decision support tool for seasonal water supply management incorporating system uncertainties and operational constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Asefa, T.

    2017-12-01

    A real-time decision support tool (DST) for water supply system would consider system uncertainties, e.g., uncertain streamflow and demand, as well as operational constraints and infrastructure outage (e.g., pump station shutdown, an offline reservoir due to maintenance). Such DST is often used by water managers for resource allocation and delivery for customers. Although most seasonal DST used by water managers recognize those system uncertainties and operational constraints, most use only historical information or assume deterministic outlook of water supply systems. This study presents a seasonal DST that incorporates rainfall/streamflow uncertainties, seasonal demand outlook and system operational constraints. Large scale climate-information is captured through a rainfall simulator driven by a Bayesian non-homogeneous Markov Chain Monte Carlo model that allows non-stationary transition probabilities contingent on Nino 3.4 index. An ad-hoc seasonal demand forecasting model considers weather conditions explicitly and socio-economic factors implicitly. Latin Hypercube sampling is employed to effectively sample probability density functions of flow and demand. Seasonal system operation is modelled as a mixed-integer optimization problem that aims at minimizing operational costs. It embeds the flexibility of modifying operational rules at different components, e.g., surface water treatment plants, desalination facilities, and groundwater pumping stations. The proposed framework is illustrated at a wholesale water supplier in Southeastern United States, Tampa Bay Water. The use of the tool is demonstrated in proving operational guidance in a typical drawdown and refill cycle of a regional reservoir. The DST provided: 1) probabilistic outlook of reservoir storage and chance of a successful refill by the end of rainy season; 2) operational expectations for large infrastructures (e.g., high service pumps and booster stations) throughout the season. Other potential use

  19. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage system (CAES) is a technology which can be used for integrating more fluctuating renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system. On a utility scale, CAES has a high feasibility potential compared to other storage technologies. Here, the technology...

  20. [Quality of medication storage on hospital wards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnat, Pascal; Dupont, Hélène; Koch, Isabelle; Le Garlantezec, Patrick; Oulieu, Sylvie; Dussart, Claude

    2015-03-01

    In order to meet regulations and limit the risks for patients, the quality of medication storage on hospital wards requires practical actions. They concern mainly the management of the emergency medication cabinets, conditions regarding supply and cold storage under controlled temperatures. Failures in the system may result in nurses carrying out risky procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Gerald K.

    1963-04-15

    The development of storage rings is discussed. Advantages of such devices are pointed out as well as their limits, requirements, and design and fabrication problems. Information gained by the operation of small electron storage rings is included, and three experiments are proposed for colliding-beam facilities. (D.C.W.)

  2. Impact of start-up and shut-down losses on the economic benefit of an integrated hybrid solar cavity receiver and combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jin Han; Hu, Eric; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the benefits of integrating a solar cavity receiver and a combustor. • The hybrid solar receiver combustor is compared with its equivalent hybrid. • The start-up losses of the back-up boiler are calculated for a variable resource. • Levelized cost of electricity is reduced by up to 17%. • Fuel consumption is reduced by up to 31%. - Abstract: The impact of avoiding the start-up and shut-down losses of a solar thermal power plant by directly integrating the back-up boiler into a tubular solar-only cavity receiver is studied using a multiple time-step, piecewise-continuous model. A steady-state analytical model of the mass and energy flows through both this device and a solar-only cavity receiver reported previously are incorporated within a model of the solar power generating plant with storage. The performance of the Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC) is compared with an equivalent reference conventional hybrid solar thermal system employing a solar-only cavity receiver and a back-up boiler. The model accounts for start-up and shut-down losses of the boiler, threshold losses of the solar-only cavity receiver and the amount of trace heating required to avoid cooling of the heat transfer fluid. The model is implemented for a 12 month/five year time-series of historical Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) at 1 h time-steps to account for the variability in the solar resource at four sites spanning Australia and the USA. A method to optimize the size of the heliostat field is also reported, based on the dumped fraction of solar power from the heliostat field. The Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) for the HSRC configuration was estimated to be reduced by up to 17% relative to the equivalent conventional hybrid solar thermal system depending on the cost of the fuel, the storage capacity and the solar resource, while the fuel consumption was estimated to be reduced by some 12–31%.

  3. SNR 2 core dynamics and shut-down signals in a protected loss-of-flow incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a 1300 MWe Core during a loss-of-flow incident has been analyzed by use of the SAS3D code for a given pump coast down characteristic and constant core inlet temperature. Emphasis was placed on the questions: How fast and via which monitored parameters can the incident be recognized by the reactor protection system. What is the tolerable time span for the shut-down action without exceeding safety limits. Key prameters and limit values as well as conceivable reactivity feed-back effects are discussed. The result is, that three out of four choosen monitored parameters are capable of initiating a shut-down action in time. In addition, the amount of shut-down reactivity required for a successful scram was briefly investigated

  4. A scoping evaluation of severe accidents at Surry and Grand Gulf Nuclear Power Plants resulting from earthquakes during shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report explores the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling shutdown conditions at two nuclear power plants, Surry Unit I and Grand Gulf Unit 1. The effort is scoping in character, and has been performed primarily to establish if a potential problem exists sufficient to justify a more rigorous and more quantitative evaluation. A summary is presented of the important conclusions that have been reached. The most important conclusion is that the core-damage frequencies for earthquake-initiated accidents during shutdown at both Surry Unit I and Grand Gulf Unit I are found to be low in absolute terms. The reasons for this are that in their ability to respond to earthquakes during shutdowns, the plants both have large seismic capacities, well above their design-basis levels; and also that both sites enjoy among the lowest seismic hazards of any LWR sites in the US

  5. 41 CFR 101-28.303 - Benefits provided by customer supply centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... customer supply centers. 101-28.303 Section 101-28.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.303 Benefits provided by customer supply centers. The customer supply centers (CSCs) provide the following: (a) Overall savings to the Federal...

  6. Strategy for securing the national supply of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongxian

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global supply shortage of medical radioisotopes caused by the unscheduled shutdown of the aged reactors which supply over 90% of radioisotopes overall the world, has severely affected the normal healthcare system which depend on the technology of molecular imaging for diagnoses and therapy as well as the development of nuclear molecular imaging technology. Purpose: It is urgently needed to develop new alternative technologies to solve the problem of global radioisotope supply shortage. Methods: The proton cyclotron is a potential alternative technology to produce the 99m Tc and the most of medical radioisotopes of clinical importance. Results: The quality of 99m Tc produced by cyclotron, such as nuclide purity, specific activity and nonradioisotope impurities, has reached and/or exceeded that eluted from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator produced by reactor. Conclusions: It is the most operational and sustainable way to substitute the conventional global centralized supply by reactors with local centralized supply of radioisotopes by proton cyclotrons for securing the national supply of radioisotopes. (author)

  7. Nanotechnological solutions for Nigeria's electricity supply problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for every roof. The energy generated from the sun would be stored in inverters or other energy storage facilities like supercapacitors and superconductors during the day and would be useable during the night. Keywords: Nanotechnology, nano photovoltaic cells, Electricity Generation and Supply, Hybrid Energy Building ...

  8. Brief account of the design philosophy for third Qinshan NPP shutdown safety system based on practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Qinshan CANDU power plant is uses the Canadian proven CANDU6 nuclear power technology. It has two characteristic: 1. heavy water-as moderator and coolant; 2. natural uranium as the fuel and change fuel during normal operating. CANDU6 include four special safety system: the No.1 shutdown system (SDS No.1), the No.2 shutdown system (SDS No.2), the containment system, the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). QinShan CANDU power plant is the first commercial PHWR nuclear power plant in China. And some aspect is not similar to everybody. The intention of the article is to introduce the basic design and functions. (authors)

  9. Pulse power supply system for the betatron electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.V.; Furman, Eh.G.

    1977-01-01

    The power supply system for a betatron electromagnet is developed on the base of a capacitive energy storage operating in a unipolar mode. A simple and effective circuit for pulsed power input with an intermediate inductive energy storage is used. This permits lowering pulse loads on a supply network and extending the power control range. An electric circuit of a pulse power supply is given and its operation is described in detail. The proposed power supply is used to excite the electromagnet of a 15 MeV betatron with a magnetic field energy of 3.5x10 3 J in the electromagnet. The maximum voltage across the capacitive storage is 2.4x10 3 V, while the maximum pulse repetition rate is 50 Hz. The power supply is simple and reliable in operation; it permits shaping triangular and trapezoidal current pulses with a flat top duration of up to 5x10 -3

  10. Magnet power supplies for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.; Lutz, I.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is building an Advanced Light Source (ALS) to produce synchrotron radiation. An electron linear accelerator, and a booster synchrotron are used to accelerate the electron beam to 1.5 GeV to fill the storage ring. This paper describes the power supplies used for the magnets in the booster and the storage ring and the interface requirements for computer control and monitoring the power supplies and magnet currents. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  12. The natural gas storage in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The natural gas storages play a great role in the gas supplying security. They allow to compensate for the variations of the supply and demand. This document presents the different natural gas storage technic: in the phreatic cave, in salt hollows, in abandoned deposits and the natural liquefied gas. It includes also a map of the natural gas storage situation in France. (A.L.B.)

  13. Spins, Stalls, and Shutdowns: Pitfalls of Qualitative Policing and Security Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K. Lippert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores key elements of qualitative research on policing and security agencies, including barriers encountered and strategies to prevent them. While it is oft-assumed that policing/security agencies are difficult to access due to their clandestine or bureaucratic nature, this article demonstrates this is not necessarily the case, as access was gained for three distinct qualitative research projects. Yet, access and subsequent research were not without pitfalls, which we term security spins, security stalls, and security shutdowns. We illustrate how each was encountered and argue these pitfalls are akin to researchers falling into risk categories, not unlike those used by policing/security agents in their work. Before concluding we discuss methodological strategies for scholars to avoid these pitfalls and to advance research that critically interrogates the immense policing/security realm. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601108

  14. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope

  15. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    CERN Multimedia

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  16. Replacement energy, capacity, and reliability costs for permanent nuclear reactor shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C., Buehring, W.A.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Cavallo, J.D.; Veselka, T.D.; Willing, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Average replacement power costs are estimated for potential permanent shutdowns of nuclear electricity-generating units. Replacement power costs are considered to include replacement energy, capacity, and reliability cost components. These estimates were developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating regulatory issues that potentially affect changes in serious reactor accident frequencies. Cost estimates were derived from long-term production-cost and capacity expansion simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors that affect replacement power cost, such as load growth, replacement sources of generation, and capital costs for replacement capacity, were treated in the analysis. Costs are presented for a representative reactor and for selected subcategories of reactors, based on estimates for 112 individual reactors

  17. Monitoring the risk of loss of heat sink during plant shutdowns at Bruce Generating Station 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.S.; Mancuso, F.; Vecchiarelli, D.

    1996-01-01

    A relatively simple loss of shutdown heat sink fault tree model has been developed and used during unit outages at Bruce Nuclear Generation Station 'A' to assess, from a risk and reliability perspective, alternative heat sink strategies and to aid in decisions on allowable outage configurations. The model is adjusted to reflect the various unit configurations planned during a specific outage, and identifies events and event combinations leading to loss of fuel cooling. The calculated failure frequencies are compared to the limits consistent with corporate and international public safety goals. The importance measures generated by the interrogation of the fault tree model for each outage configuration are also used to reschedule configurations with high fuel damage frequency later into the outage and to control the configurations with relatively high probability of fuel damage to short intervals at the most appropriate time into the outage. (author)

  18. Main approaches to choice of decontamination methods in case of nuclear power plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.M.; Syrkus, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    Selection criteria for optimal decontamination technology in case of nuclear power plant shutdown are considered. It is shown that technology evaluation from the viewpoint of observance of required precautionary measures is performed during the first stage of operation followed by analysis of process operational characteristics. The next stage relates to risk analysis of equipment, technological process and structure failures. The selection process is followed then according to criteria of decontamination duration, complexity level of control process and availability of qualified personnel, as well as complexity and composition of radioactive waste conditioning. Further follows decontamination technology evaluation from the viewpoint of its impact on personnal health and enviroment. Cost-benefit ratio resulting from introduction of technologies under consideration are determined at the final stage

  19. Selection of equipment for safe shutdown in the event of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano Gomez, J.; Perez Alcaniz, T.; Esteban Barriendos, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the work carried out at the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant for selecting equipment that contributes to reactor safe shutdown in the event of earthquake. The objective was to comply with the requirements defined by the US NRC in Generic Letter 87-02, 'Verification of Seismic Adequacy of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment in Operating Reactors'. The analysis framework and the method applied followed the generic procedures prepared by the Seismic Qualification Utility Group of which Almaraz NPP is a member, along with other Spanish power plants. The equipment selected shall be subjected to the Application Programme of the above-mentioned Generic Letter. The aim has been to cover the objectives of the programme and, at the same time, to ensure compatibility with plant operating procedures. (author)

  20. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope.

  1. Production and Quality Assurance of Main Busbar Interconnection Splices during the LHC 2008-2009 Shutdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Dalin, J-M; Fessia, P; Flora, R H; Heck, S; Pfeffer, H; Prin, H; Scheuerlein, C; Thonet, P; Tock, J-P; Williams, L

    2011-01-01

    The main busbar interconnection splices of the Large Hadron Collider are assembled by inductive soldering of the Rutherford type cables and the copper profiles of the stabilizer. Following the September 2008 incident, the assembly process and the quality assurance have been improved, with new measurement and diagnostics methods introduced. In the 2008-2009 shutdown the resistance both in the superconducting and in the normal conducting states have been the focus for improvements. The introduction of gamma radiography has allowed the visualization of voids between cable and stabilizer. It is now known that during the standard soldering heating cycle solder is lost from the busbar extremities adjacent to the splice profiles, leaving parts of the cable in poor contact with the stabilizer. A room temperature resistance measurement has been introduced as a simple, non-destructive test to measure the electrical continuity of the splice in its normal conducting state. An ultrasonic test has been performed systematic...

  2. An analysis on water hammer in liquid injection shutdown system of CANDU-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Heo, J.; Han, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; No, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    The water hammer analysis code, PTRAN, is used for computation of transient pressures and pressure differentials in the Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) piping network of CANDU-9 to ensure that the design allowables for LEVEL C Service Limit are met for the water hammer loads resulting from the water hammer. The LISS piping network of CANDU-9 has incorporated design improvement in considering the water hammer, such as declining the horizontal part of helium header, and raising the elevation of the overall system piping configuration, etc. The maximum pressure in the LISS piping network is found to be 7.92 MPa(a) at the closed valve in the vent line, which is below the allowable working pressure and the valve design pressure under Level C service conditions. And it is also shown that the maximum pressure in CANDU-9 is much lower than that in CANDU-6

  3. Performance of Resistive Plate Chambers installed during the first long shutdown of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shopova, M.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Sultanov, G.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Assran, Y.; Sayed, A.; Radi, A.; Aly, S.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Van Doninck, W.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Rios, A.A.O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Gul, M.; Fagot, A.; Bhatnagar, V.; Singh, J.; Kumari, R.; Mehta, A.; Ahmad, A.; Awan, I.M.; Shahzad, H.; Hoorani, H.; Asghar, M.I.; Muhammad, S.; Ahmed, W.; Shah, M.A.; Cho, S.W.; Choi, S.Y.; Hong, B.; Kang, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lim, J.H.; Park, S.K.; Kim, M.S.; Laktineh, I.B.; Lagarde, F.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Pedraza, I.; Bernardino, S. Carpinteyro; Estrada, C. Uribe; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Valencia, F. Vazquez; Pant, L.M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Fabozzi, F.; Orso, I.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Lanza, G.; Esposito, M.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Montagna, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S.J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Petkov, P.; Pavlov, B.; Bagaturia, I.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J.C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment, located at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, has a redundant muon system composed by three different detector technologies: Cathode Strip Chambers (in the forward regions), Drift Tubes (in the central region) and Resistive Plate Chambers (both its central and forward regions). All three are used for muon reconstruction and triggering. During the first long shutdown (LS1) of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon system has been upgraded with 144 newly installed RPCs on the forth forward stations. The new chambers ensure and enhance the muon trigger efficiency in the high luminosity conditions of the LHC Run2. The chambers have been successfully installed and commissioned. The system has been run successfully and experimental data has been collected and analyzed. The performance results of the newly installed RPCs will be presented.

  4. The Chernobyl plant shutdown; L'arret de la centrale de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  5. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion engine...

  6. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D.; Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented

  7. Shielding optimisation of the ITER ICH&CD antenna for shutdown dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Leichtle, Dieter; Lamalle, Philippe; Levesy, Bruno; Meunier, Lionel; Polunovskiy, Eduard; Sartori, Roberta; Shannon, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutronics analysis on the ITER ICH&CD system conducted to reduce shutdown dose rate. • Several designs for shielding the port plug gaps were modelled. • Shielding significantly reduced interspace dose rate but still exceed project requirements. • Design optimisation of the ICH port is continuing. • Significant contributions from other ports require an integrated modelling approach. - Abstract: The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ICH&CD) system will reside in ITER equatorial port plugs 13 and 15. Shutdown dose rates (SDDR) within the port interspace are required to be less than 100 μSv/h at 10 6 s cooling. A significant contribution to the SDDR results from neutrons streaming down gaps around the port frame, and the mitigation of this streaming is the main subject of these analyses. An updated MCNP model of the antenna was created and integrated into an ITER reference model. Shielding plates were defined in the port gaps, and scoping studies conducted to assess their effectiveness in several configurations, based on which a front dog-leg arrangement was selected for high resolution 3-D activation analysis using MCR2S. It was concluded that the selected configuration reduced the SDDR from ∼500 μSv/h to 220 μSv/h but were still in excess of dose rate requirements. Approximately 30% of this was due to cross-talk from neighbouring ports. In addition, increased dose rates were observed in the port interspace along the lines of sight of the removable vacuum transmission lines. Design optimisation is continuing, however an integrated approach is needed with regard to ITER port plug design and the shielding of surrounding systems.

  8. Shielding optimisation of the ITER ICH&CD antenna for shutdown dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.turner@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lamalle, Philippe; Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Meunier, Lionel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Polunovskiy, Eduard [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sartori, Roberta [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Shannon, Mark [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Neutronics analysis on the ITER ICH&CD system conducted to reduce shutdown dose rate. • Several designs for shielding the port plug gaps were modelled. • Shielding significantly reduced interspace dose rate but still exceed project requirements. • Design optimisation of the ICH port is continuing. • Significant contributions from other ports require an integrated modelling approach. - Abstract: The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ICH&CD) system will reside in ITER equatorial port plugs 13 and 15. Shutdown dose rates (SDDR) within the port interspace are required to be less than 100 μSv/h at 10{sup 6} s cooling. A significant contribution to the SDDR results from neutrons streaming down gaps around the port frame, and the mitigation of this streaming is the main subject of these analyses. An updated MCNP model of the antenna was created and integrated into an ITER reference model. Shielding plates were defined in the port gaps, and scoping studies conducted to assess their effectiveness in several configurations, based on which a front dog-leg arrangement was selected for high resolution 3-D activation analysis using MCR2S. It was concluded that the selected configuration reduced the SDDR from ∼500 μSv/h to 220 μSv/h but were still in excess of dose rate requirements. Approximately 30% of this was due to cross-talk from neighbouring ports. In addition, increased dose rates were observed in the port interspace along the lines of sight of the removable vacuum transmission lines. Design optimisation is continuing, however an integrated approach is needed with regard to ITER port plug design and the shielding of surrounding systems.

  9. Simulation of runaway electron generation during plasma shutdown by impurity injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Tamas

    2011-03-15

    Disruptions are dangerous instabilities in tokamaks that should be avoided or mitigated. One possible disruption mitigation method is to inject impurities into the plasma to shut it down in a controlled way. Runaway Electrons (REs) can be generated after the plasma is cooled down by the impurities and these electrons can damage the tokamak. In this work a simulation code is developed to investigate different disruption mitigation scenarios. The response of the bulk plasma, more precisely the temperature evolution of electrons, deuterium and impurity ions are described by energy balance equations in a 1D cylindrical plasma model. The induction and resistive diffusion of electric field is calculated. RE generation rates are used to calculate the runaway current. The Dreicer, hot-tail and avalanche effect is taken into account and a simple model for RE losses is also included. RE generation is studied in JET-like plasmas during pellet injection. Carbon pellets cause effective cooling but these scenarios are prone to runaway generation. A mixture of argon and deuterium gas could be used for safe shutdown without RE generation. In ITER the hot-tail RE generation process becomes important, and the simulation is therefore extended to take this into account. Shutdown scenarios with different concentration of neon and argon impurities were tested in ITER-like plasmas. To simplify the problem the impurity injection into the plasma is not modeled in these cases, only the response of the bulk plasma. The avalanche process cannot be suppressed in a simple way and would produce high runaway current. It can be avoided if some runaway loss phenomenon is included in the simulations, like diffusion due to magnetic perturbations

  10. Shutdown dose rate analysis with CAD geometry, Cartesian/tetrahedral mesh, and advanced variance reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, Elliott D.; Davis, Andrew; Wilson, Paul P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A CAD-based shutdown dose rate analysis workflow has been implemented. • Cartesian and superimposed tetrahedral mesh are fully supported. • Biased and unbiased photon source sampling options are available. • Hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques accelerate photon transport. • The workflow has been validated with the FNG-ITER benchmark problem. - Abstract: In fusion energy systems (FES) high-energy neutrons born from burning plasma activate system components to form radionuclides. The biological dose rate that results from photons emitted by these radionuclides after shutdown—the shutdown dose rate (SDR)—must be quantified for maintenance planning. This can be done using the Rigorous Two-Step (R2S) method, which involves separate neutron and photon transport calculations, coupled by a nuclear inventory analysis code. The geometric complexity and highly attenuating configuration of FES motivates the use of CAD geometry and advanced variance reduction for this analysis. An R2S workflow has been created with the new capability of performing SDR analysis directly from CAD geometry with Cartesian or tetrahedral meshes and with biased photon source sampling, enabling the use of the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) variance reduction technique. This workflow has been validated with the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG)-ITER SDR benchmark using both Cartesian and tetrahedral meshes and both unbiased and biased photon source sampling. All results are within 20.4% of experimental values, which constitutes satisfactory agreement. Photon transport using CADIS is demonstrated to yield speedups as high as 8.5·10 5 for problems using the FNG geometry.

  11. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, T.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  12. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D.; Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  13. Shutdown dose rate contribution from diagnostics in ITER upper port 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, M.S., E-mail: munseong@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pak, S.; An, Y.H.; Seon, C.R.; Lee, H.G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bertalot, L.; Krasilnikov, V. [ITER Organization, St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Zvonkov, A. [Agency ITER-RF, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The Shutdown Dose Rate in the interspace of ITER upper port 18 was evaluated. • VUV spectrometer is the dominant contributor to the average SDR. • The existence and size of the blanket cooling pipes impacts significantly on SDR. - Abstract: D-T operation of ITER plasma will produce high-energy fusion neutrons those can activate materials around the place where human-access is necessary. The interspace of the diagnostic port is one of the area where human-access is necessary for the maintenance of diagnostic systems installed at the port, so it is important to evaluate a dose rate of the interspace area in order to comply with ALARA principle. The shutdown dose rate (SDR) in the interspace of ITER upper port 18 was evaluated by the Direct 1-Step (D1S) method using MCNP5 code. This port contains three diagnostics: Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) Spectrometer, Neutron Activation System (NAS), and Upper Vertical Neutron Camera (UVNC). The contribution of each diagnostic in the port was evaluated by running separate upper port MCNP models those contain individual diagnostic only, and the total dose rate contribution was evaluated with the model which was fully integrated with all the diagnostics. The effect of the opening around the upper port plug and of the other ports was also investigated. The purpose of this assessment is to provide the shielding design basis for the preliminary design of the diagnostic integration in the port. The method and result of the calculation will be presented in this paper.

  14. Shutdown dose rate analysis with CAD geometry, Cartesian/tetrahedral mesh, and advanced variance reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondo, Elliott D., E-mail: biondo@wisc.edu; Davis, Andrew, E-mail: davisa@engr.wisc.edu; Wilson, Paul P.H., E-mail: wilsonp@engr.wisc.edu

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A CAD-based shutdown dose rate analysis workflow has been implemented. • Cartesian and superimposed tetrahedral mesh are fully supported. • Biased and unbiased photon source sampling options are available. • Hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques accelerate photon transport. • The workflow has been validated with the FNG-ITER benchmark problem. - Abstract: In fusion energy systems (FES) high-energy neutrons born from burning plasma activate system components to form radionuclides. The biological dose rate that results from photons emitted by these radionuclides after shutdown—the shutdown dose rate (SDR)—must be quantified for maintenance planning. This can be done using the Rigorous Two-Step (R2S) method, which involves separate neutron and photon transport calculations, coupled by a nuclear inventory analysis code. The geometric complexity and highly attenuating configuration of FES motivates the use of CAD geometry and advanced variance reduction for this analysis. An R2S workflow has been created with the new capability of performing SDR analysis directly from CAD geometry with Cartesian or tetrahedral meshes and with biased photon source sampling, enabling the use of the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) variance reduction technique. This workflow has been validated with the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG)-ITER SDR benchmark using both Cartesian and tetrahedral meshes and both unbiased and biased photon source sampling. All results are within 20.4% of experimental values, which constitutes satisfactory agreement. Photon transport using CADIS is demonstrated to yield speedups as high as 8.5·10{sup 5} for problems using the FNG geometry.

  15. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  16. Interim licensing criteria for physical protection of certain storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This document presents interim criteria to be used in the physical protection licensing of certain spent fuel storage installations. Installations that will be reviewed under this criteria are those that store power reactor spent fuel at decommissioned power reactor sites; independent spent fuel storage installations located outside of the owner controlled area of operating nuclear power reactors; monitored retrievable storage installations owned by the Department of Energy, designed and constructed specifically for the storage, of spent fuel; the proposed geologic repository operations area; or permanently shutdown power reactors still holding a Part 50 license. This criteria applies to both dry cask and pool storage. However, the criteria in this document does not apply to the storage of spent fuel within the owner-controlled area of operating nuclear power reactors

  17. Report of a consultants meeting on accidents during shutdown conditions for WWER nuclear power plants. Extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The main objectives of the meeting were to exchange information on the operational occurrences, studies performed and countermeasures taken for the accidents during shutdown for WWERs, and to define the necessity and directions of the further activities which may promote the improvement of WWER safety under shutdown conditions. The consultants have discussed some aspects concerning vulnerability of safety functions during shutdown conditions, several steps required to performed accident analysis and selected operational aspects for shutdown conditions. The discussion was supported by an evaluation of selected operational occurrences. The consultants have agreed that the discussion during the meeting in major parts is relevant to all the WWER designs (i.e. WWER-1000, WWER-440/213 and WWER-440/230). As for the plant conditions, the consultants have agreed to bound the discussion mainly by the cold shutdown and refuelling modes. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Type and timing of childhood maltreatment and severity of shutdown dissociation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Dissociation, particularly the shutting down of sensory, motor and speech systems, has been proposed to emerge in susceptible individuals as a defensive response to traumatic stress. In contrast, other individuals show signs of hyperarousal to acute threat. A key question is whether exposure to particular types of stressful events during specific stages of development can program an individual to have a strong dissociative response to subsequent stressors. Vulnerability to ongoing shutdown dissociation was assessed in 75 inpatients (46 M/29 F, M = 31 ± 10 years old with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and related to number of traumatic events experienced or witnessed during childhood or adulthood. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was used to collect retrospective recall of exposure to ten types of maltreatment during each year of childhood. Severity of shutdown dissociation was related to number of childhood but not adult traumatic events. Random forest regression with conditional trees indicated that type and timing of childhood maltreatment could predictably account for 31% of the variance (p < 0.003 in shutdown dissociation, with peak vulnerability occurring at 13-14 years of age and with exposure to emotional neglect followed by various forms of emotional abuse. These findings suggest that there may be windows of vulnerability to the development of shutdown dissociation. Results support the hypothesis that experienced events are more important than witnessed events, but challenge the hypothesis that "life-threatening" events are a critical determinant.

  19. Estimation of the economic impact of temperature changes induced by a shutdown of the thermohaline circulation: an application of FUND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Link, P.M.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated assessment model FUND 2.8n is applied in an assessment to estimate the magnitude of the general market and non-market impacts of temperature changes caused by a possible shutdown of the thermohaline circulation (THC). The monetized impacts of this change in environmental conditions

  20. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-31317] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-302; NRC-2013-0283] Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Notice of receipt; availability; public...

  1. Verification and validation of the R2Smesh approach for the calculation of high resolution shutdown dose rate distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majerle, Mitja; Leichtle, D.; Fischer, U.; Serikov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, 5-6 (2012), s. 443-447 ISSN 0920-3796 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : MCNP * FISPACT * shutdown dose rate Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2012

  2. Thyssengas profitting by the Epe cavern storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, J.

    1987-07-01

    Natural gas import contracts are limited in what concerns the supply of natural gas. However, there seem to be no limits to the gas utilities' supplies to their customers. The Thyssengas district heat company has made it its aim to balance the rigid terms of delivery and the flexible supply customers expect. Storage facilities help to achieve this aim.

  3. Design Report for the ½ Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, D. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kilsdonk, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bremer, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Aeschlimann, R. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  4. LOGISTICS SUPPLY CHAIN AND SUCCESS IN THE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Brzozowska

    2009-01-01

    The essence of management in enterprises is changing. It is typically associated with efforts towards moving and storage of goods within a particular supply chain. The essence of logistics is management of its supply chains i.e. the method of analysing and management of logistics networks. Main goal of supply chain management is to reduce costs and to improve customer service. This affects efficiency and performance of enterprises. Consequently, it impacts on achievement of better competitive...

  5. Effect of the Online Game Shutdown Policy on Internet Use, Internet Addiction, and Sleeping Hours in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyun; Cho, Hyunseok; Lee, Seungmin; Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2018-02-09

    Internet addiction has emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. In November 2011, the South Korean government implemented an online game shutdown policy, lasting from 12:00 to 6:00 am, as a means of preventing Internet addiction in adolescents aged 15 or below. This study analyzed the effect of this shutdown policy on adolescent Internet use, addiction, and sleeping hours. We analyzed data collected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2011 to 2015. Respondents were divided into two groups by age: aged 15 or below (male = 76,048, female = 66,281) and aged 16 or above (male = 52,568, female = 49,060). A difference-in-difference analysis was used to evaluate the effect of this shutdown policy. In 2012, which is immediately following policy enforcement, daily amount of Internet use (in minutes) decreased more in adolescents affected by the policy (i.e., the aged 15 or below group). However, it steadily increased in 2013, 2014, 2015, and showed no meaningful long-term improvements 4 years after policy implementation (-3.648 minutes in 2012 [p = .001], -3.204 minutes in 2013 [p = .011], -1.140 minutes in 2014 [p = .384], and 2.190 minutes in 2015 [p = .107]). The shutdown policy did not alter Internet addiction or sleeping hours. Interestingly, female adolescents, adolescents with low academic performance, and adolescents with low exercise levels exhibited comparatively stronger and longer lasting initial declines in Internet usage. The shutdown policy had practically insignificant effects in reducing Internet use for target adolescents. Thus, policymakers aiming to reduce or prevent Internet addiction should use different strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulia, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    The book deals with the characteristics and potentialities of energy storage cells of various types. Attention is given to electrical energy storage cells (electrochemical, electrostatic, and electrodynamic cells), mechanical energy storage cells (mechanical flywheel storage cells), and hybrid storage systems.

  7. NEA activities on medical isotope supply issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, C.; Vance, R.

    2009-01-01

    Medical radioisotopes play a vital role in modern medical practices. One of their principal uses is for nuclear diagnostic imaging techniques. These techniques are powerful and non-invasive, allowing the identification of common diseases such as heart conditions and cancer at an early stage, tracking disease progression and providing predictive information about likely success of a therapy. Such techniques enable precise and accurate management of the disease and may significantly assist in the medical decision-making process, for example removing the need for surgical intervention to obtain diagnostic information. Every year, 46 million people are estimated to benefit globally from such nuclear medicine testing. However, over the last few years there have been a number of supply shortages of Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and its decay product, Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), the most widely used medical radioisotope. These isotopes decay within a matter of days; therefore they must be produced continually in order to meet demand. Most recently, the unexpected extended shutdown of Canada's NRU research reactor - which produces approximately 35 percent of world Mo-99 supply - has compounded existing concerns regarding the supply reliability of these medical radioisotopes. Currently, five reactors between 42 and 52 years old produce over 95 percent of the world's supply of Mo-99 and face challenges in maintaining a continuous supply to the health community. As outlined above, disruptions in this supply chain have affected the availability of vital medical testing for millions of patients around the world. On 29-30 January 2009, the NEA hosted a workshop on Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes at the request of the Government of Canada. The workshop assembled an international group of experts to identify challenges faced in providing a reliable supply of Mo-99 and Tc-99m and measures that should be taken to ensure such reliability. Workshop participants discussed a wide

  8. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  9. Control units for APS power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed

  10. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  11. Airborne Power Supply Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Airborne Power Supply Unit (APSU) is a programmable DC/DC converter that can supply multiple constant voltage or constant current outputs in a small enclosure,...

  12. Development of an integrated medical supply information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Eric; Wermus, Marek; Blythe Bauman, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    The integrated medical supply inventory control system introduced in this study is a hybrid system that is shaped by the nature of medical supply, usage and storage capacity limitations of health care facilities. The system links demand, service provided at the clinic, health care service provider's information, inventory storage data and decision support tools into an integrated information system. ABC analysis method, economic order quantity model, two-bin method and safety stock concept are applied as decision support models to tackle inventory management issues at health care facilities. In the decision support module, each medical item and storage location has been scrutinised to determine the best-fit inventory control policy. The pilot case study demonstrates that the integrated medical supply information system holds several advantages for inventory managers, since it entails benefits of deploying enterprise information systems to manage medical supply and better patient services.

  13. Power Supply, Electrical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a method for evaluation of electrical power supply operational and performance characteristics; identifies supporting tests...report is applicable to conversion type electrical supplies, rotary and static converters, but not applicable to power supply converters that convert energy in any form other than electrical to electrical energy.

  14. Gas Storage in Europe, recent developments and outlook to 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy

    2015-01-01

    These slides present: the European gas storage market in 2014 (Review of 2014 trends, Current challenges, Role of storage); the Outlook to 2035 (Supply/Demand factors, Estimated Storage needs, Project backlog). In conclusion: an over capacity is expected until 2025.Supply and demand evolution, market liberalization and environmental constraints on coal will drive a new period of growth for UGS. Cedigaz estimates that European UGS capacity will increase by around 45 bcm by 2035. UGS projects represent 77 bcm Of which 22 bcm is under construction, there is a majority of salt-cavern projects (market liberalization), not so much new seasonal storage (security of supply?), not all planned storage will be built (Projects under competition for the same (regional) market, the situation is quite contrasted between NW Europe and South-Southeast Europe (and UK)). The challenges are the investment and the security of supply

  15. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  16. Research of Video Data Management Based on Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Silian Xie

    2013-01-01

    This study introductions situation of video storage and the methods of video data management, then proposes a Scheduling Strategy algorithm based on Offset Cache (SSOC). According to the statistical information of data block buffer offset, through building a cloud environment and studying the storage layer’s video data storage of the cloud storage, the algorithm schedules on mastering the supply and demand of data block comprehensively and accurately and solves the system's launch delay and t...

  17. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.H.W.E.

    1998-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the research activities of the Dutch association for energy distribution companies EnergieNed in the field of energy storage techniques, carried out within the framework of the long-range programme Study and Research (MSO, abbreviated in Dutch)

  18. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  19. Shutdown dose rate analysis of European test blanket modules shields in ITER Equatorial Port #16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sauvan, Patrick; Perez, Lucia [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Panayotov, Dobromir; Vallory, Joelle; Zmitko, Milan; Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis for European TBMs and shields, in ITER Equatorial Port #16, has been conducted in support of the ‘Concept Design Review’ from ITER. • The objective of the work is the characterization of the Shutdown Dose Rates at Equatorial Port #16 interspace. • The role played by the TBM and TBM shields, the equatorial port gaps and the vacuum vessel permeation, in terms of neutron flux transmission is assessed. • The role played by the TBM, TBM shields, Port Plug Frame, Pipe Forest and the machine in terms of activation is also investigated. - Abstract: ‘Fusion for Energy’ (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). An essential element of the Conceptual Design Review (CDR) of these TBSs is the demonstration of capability of Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and their shields to fulfil their function and comply with the design requirements. One of the TBM shields highly relevant design aspects is the project target for shutdown dose rates (SDDR) in the interspace. We investigated two functions of the TBMs and TBM shields—the neutron flux attenuation along the shields, and the reduction of the activation of the components contributing to SDDR. It is shown that TBMs and TBM shields reduce significantly the neutron flux in the port plug (PP). In terms of neutron flux attenuation, the TBM shield provides sufficient neutron flux reduction, being responsible for 5 × 10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2} s at port interspace, while the EPP gaps and BSM gaps are responsible for 5 × 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} s each. When considering closed upper, lower and lateral neighbour equatorial ports (thus, excluding the cross-talk between ports), a SDDR of 121 μSv/h averaged near the port closure flange was obtained, out of which, only 4 μSv/h are due to the activation of TBMs and TBM shields. Maximum SDDR in the range

  20. Evaluating Steam Generator Tubing Corrosion through Shutdown Nickel and Cobalt Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Chuck; Little, Mike; Krull, Peter; Dennis Hussey; Kenny Epperson

    2012-09-01

    During power operation in PWRs, steam generator tubing corrodes. In PWRs with nickel alloy steam generator tubing this leads to the release of nickel into the coolant. While not structurally significant, this process leads to corrosion product deposition on the fuel surfaces that can threaten fuel integrity, provide a site for boron precipitation, and, through activation and subsequent release, lead to increased out-of-core radiation fields. During shutdown, decreases in temperature and pH and an increase in the oxidation potential lead to dissolution of some corrosion products from the core. This work evaluated the masses of corrosion products released during shutdown as a proxy for steam generator tubing corrosion rates. The masses were evaluated for trends with time (e.g., the number of cycles) and for the influence of design and operating features such as tubing manufacturer, plant design (e.g., three loop versus four loop), and operating chemistry program. This project utilized the EPRI PWR Chemistry Monitoring and Assessment database. Data from over 20 units, many over several cycles, were assessed. The focus was on corrosion product release from Alloy 690TT tubing and all data were from units that had replaced steam generators. Data were analyzed using models developed from corrosion rate test data reported in the literature with a heavy reliance on data from the EDF BOREAL testing. The most striking result of this analysis was a clear division between plants that exhibited corrosion with a falling rate (i.e., following an exponential decay as has been observed, for example, in the BOREAL testing) and those that showed a constant corrosion rate, sustained for many outages. This difference appears to be most closely correlated with the manufacturer of the tubing. Within the two distinct plant groups (decaying corrosion rate and constant corrosion rate), details of the trends were evaluated for correlation with zinc addition history, plant type, and operating

  1. Magnet power supply as a network object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Stuewe, R.

    1991-01-01

    Magnet power supplies with embedded microprocessor controls are being installed in the beam-lines of the linear accelerator and proton storage ring at LAMPF. Using an RS422 link they communicate with the accelerator control system through a terminal server connected to the site-wide DECnet backbone. Each supply is, for all intents and purposes, a network object. The controller has a command set of over seventy-five three-character ASCII control and read-back instructions. Strategies for choosing the appropriate control protocol and the process of integrating these devices into a large accelerator control system will be presented. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Energy storage. A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Brisse, Annabelle; Cagnac, Albannie; Delille, Gauthier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Radvanyi, Etienne; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Written by several EDF R and D engineers, this book aims at presenting an overview of knowledge and know-how of EDF R and D in the field of energy storage, and at presenting the different technologies and their application to electric power systems. After a description of the context related to a necessary energy transition, the authors present the numerous storage technologies. They distinguish direct storage of power (pumped storage water stations, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, the various electrochemical batteries, metal-air batteries, redox flow batteries, superconductors), thermal storage (power to heat, heat to power) and hydrogen storage (storage under different forms), and propose an overview of the situation of standardisation of storage technologies. In the next part, they give an overview of the main services provided by storage to the electric power system: production optimisation, frequency adjustment, grid constraint resolution, local smoothing of PV and wind production, supply continuity. The last part discusses perspectives regarding the role of tomorrow's storage in the field of electrical mobility, for emerging markets, and with respect to different scenarios

  3. Numerical simulation of a high temperature thermal storage unit for solar gas turbine applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of thermal storage systems allows concentrating solar power plants to generate predictable power delivery to the grid by mitigating the variability of solar energy supply. However, while thermal storage solutions exist for Rankine...

  4. The Probabilistic Safety Analysis during low power and shutdown, framework to improve safety; El APS a baja potencia en parada, marco para la mejora de la seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nos, V.

    2014-02-01

    Historically Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) has been focused exclusively at full power operation, nevertheless, operational experience has revealed that events occurred during low power and shutdown can also present threats for the safety of the plant. Through qualitative assessment (NUMARC 91-06) about the configuration in shutdown have been internationally accepted, the benefits of Low Power and Shutdown PSA have been demonstrated as fundamental framework of quantitative understanding for improving safety and risk management in the above mentioned operative conditions of the plant. (Author)

  5. Program of social protection for Chornobyl nuclear power plant staff and Slavutich town residents in the aftermath of the plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In order to solve social issues related to ChNPP shutdown, the Ukrainian Government approved 'Program of Social Protection for Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant Staff and Slavutich Town Residents in Aftermath of Plant Shutdown' on 29 November 2000. The Program Objective is to ensure social protection and support of well being of ChNPP staff and Slavutich town residents after the plant shutdown. Preserve and develop town infrastructure. Create compensatory jobs; efficiently manage human resources; provide social allowances and guarantees to the ChNPP staff that is being released, and Slavutich town residents

  6. Corrosion product behaviour in the Loviisa nuclear power plant primary coolant: measures taken to lower radiation levels by modified shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaernstroem, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The primary circuit chemistry of the Loviisa nuclear power plant differs in some respects from the concepts commonly used in PWRs. In general, Loviisa 1, which is now in its sixth cycle, and Loviisa 2, which is in its second refuelling and maintenance shutdown (October 1982), are very clean compared with several other PWRs and it seems to be possible to keep the radiation levels low and even reduce them by using correct chemistry during operation; the shutdown conditions seem to have great influence on this matter. These modified shutdown conditions and their influence on radiation levels, dose rates and radwaste buildup are discussed. (author)

  7. Spent fuel storage requirements for nuclear utilities and OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.

    1990-03-01

    Projected spent fuel generation at US power reactors exceeds estimated aggregate pool storage capacity by approximately 30,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU). Based on the current repository schedule, little of the spent fuel inventory will be disposed of prior to shutdown of existing reactors, and a large additional capacity for surface storage of spent fuel will be required, either at reactors or at a centralized DOE storage site. Allocation of this storage requirement across the utility-DOE interface, and the resulting implications for reactor sites and the performance of the federal waste management system, were studied during the DOE MRS System Study and again subsequent to the reassessment of the repository schedule. Spent fuel logistics and cost results from these analyses will be used in definition of spent fuel storage capacity requirements for the federal system. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. An analysis of multiple particle settling for LMR backup shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.W.

    1992-05-01

    Backup shutdown systems proposed for future LMRs may employ discreet absorber particles to provide the negative reactivity insertion. When actuated, these systems release a dense packing of particles from an out-of-core region to settle into an in-core region. The multiple particle settling behavior is analyzed by the method of continuity waves. This method provides predictions of the dynamic response of the system including the average particle velocity and volume fraction of particles vs. time. Although hindered settling problems have been previously analyzed using continuity wave theory, this application represents an extension of the theory to conditions of unrestrained settling. Typical cases are analyzed and numerical results are calculated based on a semi-empirical drift-flux model. For 1/4-inch diameter boron-carbide particles in hot liquid sodium, the unrestrained settling problem assumes a steady-state solution when the average volume fraction of particles is 0.295 and the average particle velocity is 26.0 cm/s

  9. Development of Risk Assessment Technology for Low Power, Shutdown and Digital I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Kang, Hyung Gook; Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2005-04-01

    There are two technical areas to deal with in the project; the low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and the digital I and C PSA. The scope and contents of each area could be summarized as follows: Quality assessment of a LPSD PSA model for a Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP), Quality improvement of the KSNP LPSD PSA model in the following four technical areas; plant operating status (POS), initiating event analysis, determination of success criteria, accident sequence analysis, Development of the LPSD risk management technologies, Unavailability analysis of Digital safety systems such as Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System (DESFAS), Impact analysis of the digital safety systems on plant risks throughout of the digital plant risk models for evaluating core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF), Study on the methodologies for treating digital-specific problems in the digital I and C PSA such as reliability of safety-critical software, common cause failure (CCF) of digital components, fault coverage, etc

  10. Best estimate analysis of the thermal expansion scenario during shutdown in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macian, R.; Nechvatal, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine the consequences following the hypothetical failure of the Residual Heat Removal (RHR) system during the shutdown operating mode in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). If the RHR system decay heat removal capability cannot be ensured, then the decay heat released in the core will heat up the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) inventory and will cause it to expand. If the thermal expansion is such that the entire RCS becomes ''water-solid'', that is, completely filled with water, then further expansion will result in a rapid increase of the RCS pressure. Such a situation could threaten the integrity of the RCS pressure boundary and lead to a dangerous break in the primary system or in the lines of the systems connected to it, e.g. RHR system. The pressure increase can be arrested by the opening of the pressurizer relief valves (PORVs) or, in those PWRs in which the RHR system is not isolated after it fails, by the opening of the pressure relief valve in the RHR system line. The purpose of the analyses presented in this paper is to determine whether mitigating measures, such as the opening of only one of the PORV and the RHR relief valve, are capable of preventing a fast pressure increase. (author)

  11. Optimum design for the primary cooling system in BWRs to control shutdown radiation dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Minoru; Saito, Tatsuya; Uchida, Shunsuke; Izumiya, Masakiyo.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of radiation dose rate at the time of shutdown is an important task for smoothly performing the regular inspection and maintenance works in nuclear power plants as the number of those plants in operation has increased. Hitachi Ltd. has investigated the industrially applicable measures to reduce dose rate to suppress the exposure dose per year in 1100 MWe class BWR nuclear power plants below 200 Man-Rem. The exposure dose in normal checking works during a regular inspection is regarded to be macroscopically dependent on the dose rate of piping in recirculation system. Thus, it was found that the above target can be achieved by suppressing the dose rate on piping surface to 30 mR/h. For further reduction if iron crud and 60 Co ions contributing to the increase of dose rate, in addition to the oxygen injection into the feed water system and the duplicated condensate purification system, the use of corrosion-resistant steel and low cobalt material has been attempted. However, high temperature water to be filtrated can not be passed through the purification system because it employs ion exchange resin. Therefore, the optimum capacity is selected for the purification system in view of the reduction of dose rate and plant thermal efficiency. Hitachi Ltd. recommends the application of this system, considering the evaluation of contribution by the code predicting dose rate increase and estimating economy. The above measures will achieve the exposure dose target of 200 Man-Rem/year. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Estimation of reactor pool water temperature after shutdown in JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Sato, Mitsugu; Kakefuda, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    The reactor pool water temperature increasing by the decay heat was estimated by calculation. The reactor pool water temperature was calculated by increased enthalpy that was estimated by the reactor decay heat, the heat released from the reactor biological shielding concrete, reactor pool water surface, the heat conduction from the canal and the core inlet piping. These results of calculation were compared with the past measured data. As the results of estimation, after the JRR-3M shutdown, the calculated reactor pool temperature first increased sharply. This is because the decay heat was the major contribution. And then, rate of increased reactor pool temperature decreased. This is because the ratio of heat released from reactor biological shielding concrete and core inlet piping to the decay heat increased. Besides, the calculated reactor pool water temperature agreed with the past measured data in consequence of correcting the decay heat and the released heat. The corrected coefficient k 1 of decay heat was 0.74 - 0.80. And the corrected coefficient k 2 of heat released from the reactor biological shielding concrete was 3.5 - 4.5. (author)

  13. Shutdown decay heat removal analysis: Plant case studies and special issues: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Cramond, W.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Hatch, S.W.

    1989-04-01

    Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-45. The overall objectives of the USI A-45 program were to evaluate the safety adequacy of decay heat removal (DHR) systems in existing light water reactor nuclear power plants and to assess the value and impact (benefit-cost) of alternative measures for improving the overall reliability of the DHR function. To provide the technical data required to meet these objectives a program was developed that examined the state of DHR system reliability in a sample of existing plants. This program identified potential vulnerabilities and identified and established the feasibility of potential measures to improve the reliability of the DHR function. A value/impact (V/I) analysis of the more promising of such measures was conducted and documented. This report summarizes those studies. In addition, because of the evolving nature of V/I analyses in support of regulation, a number of supporting studies related to appropriate procedures and measures for the V/I analyses were also conducted. These studies are also summarized herein. This report only summarizes findings of technical studies performed by Sandia National Laboratories as part of the program to resolve this issue. 46 refs., 7 figs., 124 tabs

  14. Current status of experimental breeder reactor-II [EBR-II] shutdown planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M. D.; Griffin, C. D.; Michelbacher, J. A.; Earle, O. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor--II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory--West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was shutdown in September, 1994 as mandated by the US Department of Energy. This sodium cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and was to be placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for ultimate decommissioning. The deactivation of a liquid metal reactor presents unique concerns. The first major task associated with the project was the removal of all fueled assemblies. In addition, sodium must be drained from systems and processed for ultimate disposal. Residual quantities of sodium remaining in systems must be deactivated or inerted to preclude future hazards associated with pyrophoricity and generation of potentially explosive hydrogen gas. A Sodium Process Facility was designed and constructed to react the elemental sodium from the EBR-II primary and secondary systems to sodium hydroxide for disposal. This facility has a design capacity to allow the reaction of the complete inventory of sodium at ANL-W in less than two years. Additional quantities of sodium from the Fermi-1 reactor are also being treated at the Sodium Process Facility. The sodium environment and the EBR-II configuration, combined with the radiation and contamination associated with thirty years of reactor operation, posed problems specific to liquid metal reactor deactivation. The methods being developed and implemented at EBR-II can be applied to other similar situations in the US and abroad

  15. Procedure of Active Residual Heat Removal after Emergency Shutdown of High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After emergency shutdown of high-temperature-gas-cooled reactor, the residual heat of the reactor core should be removed. As the natural circulation process spends too long period of time to be utilized, an active residual heat removal procedure is needed, which makes use of steam generator and start-up loop. During this procedure, the structure of steam generator may suffer cold/heat shock because of the sudden load of coolant or hot helium at the first few minutes. Transient analysis was carried out based on a one-dimensional mathematical model for steam generator and steam pipe of start-up loop to achieve safety and reliability. The results show that steam generator should be discharged and precooled; otherwise, boiling will arise and introduce a cold shock to the boiling tubes and tube sheet when coolant began to circulate prior to the helium. Additionally, in avoiding heat shock caused by the sudden load of helium, the helium circulation should be restricted to start with an extreme low flow rate; meanwhile, the coolant of steam generator (water should have flow rate as large as possible. Finally, a four-step procedure with precooling process of steam generator was recommended; sensitive study for the main parameters was conducted.

  16. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested

  17. Time Delay for the Initiation of an Emergency Shutdown at the Peruvian Nuclear Reactor RP-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, A.; Ovalle, E.; Canaza, D.; Salazar, A.; Zapata, A.; Felix, J.; Arrieta, R.; Vela, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show the measurement of the time delay for the initiation of an emergency shutdown state at the RP-10 Reactor. This time delay is the one corresponding to the delay between the detection of a signal of any fixed limit and the start of a protective action to get the reactor in a safety state. The experimental method used is based on monitoring two signals in an oscilloscope, one signal is the elected initiate event and the other is the de-energizing of electromagnets of the security bars. The time delay for each safety and control rods, was measured for seven energizing current values in a range of 36 - 52 mA. The results showed that the minimum value is (84 ± 1.26) ms and the maximum is (108 ± 1.60) ms. In all cases it is noted that, the delay time is less than the limit values prefixed down in the reactor safety report. (authors)

  18. Time Delay for the Initiation of an Emergency Shutdown at the Peruvian Nuclear Reactor RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon, A.; Ovalle, E.; Canaza, D.; Salazar, A.; Zapata, A.; Felix, J.; Arrieta, R.; Vela, M. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, San Borja, Lima (Peru)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we show the measurement of the time delay for the initiation of an emergency shutdown state at the RP-10 Reactor. This time delay is the one corresponding to the delay between the detection of a signal of any fixed limit and the start of a protective action to get the reactor in a safety state. The experimental method used is based on monitoring two signals in an oscilloscope, one signal is the elected initiate event and the other is the de-energizing of electromagnets of the security bars. The time delay for each safety and control rods, was measured for seven energizing current values in a range of 36 - 52 mA. The results showed that the minimum value is (84 {+-} 1.26) ms and the maximum is (108 {+-} 1.60) ms. In all cases it is noted that, the delay time is less than the limit values prefixed down in the reactor safety report. (authors)

  19. Mo-99 supply issues: Status report and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsard, B.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide supply of 99 Mo relies on a limited number of research reactors and processing facilities. Its production is essential for the nuclear medicine as 99m Tc, obtained from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, is used in about 80% of the diagnostic nuclear imaging procedures. These applications represent yearly approximately 30 million examinations worldwide. The short half-life's of 99 Mo (66 hours) and its daughter 99m Tc (6 hours) require a regular supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators to hospitals or central radiopharmacies. Currently, there are only five nuclear reactors involved in the production of 99 Mo on industrial scale: NRU (Canada), HFR (Netherlands), BR2 (Belgium), OSIRIS (France) and SAFARI (South Africa). They irradiate highly enriched uranium targets for the production of about 95% of the available 99 Mo by four processing facilities: AECL/MDS NORDION (Canada), COVIDIEN (Netherlands), IRE (Belgium) and NTP (South Africa). However, these ageing reactors are subject to unscheduled shutdowns and longer maintenance periods making the 99 Mo supply chain vulnerable and unreliable. Several severe disruptions have been experienced since the fall 2005 due to the occurrence of problems at different stages of the supply chain: reactor outages, release of activity from processing facilities, recall of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators by the manufacturers, ... It is not expected that the situation will improve significantly in the near future. Therefore, several workshops have been organized in 2009 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Association of Imaging Producers and Equipment Suppliers (AIPES) to define measures that should be taken to secure the 99 Mo supply in the short, medium and long term. This paper summarizes the current status of the 99 Mo supply, discusses the ongoing plans for additional 99 Mo production capacity and outlines the issues for a reliable global supply chain. (author)

  20. Merits of flywheels for spacecraft energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems which have a very good potential for use in spacecraft are discussed. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special importance, relative to batteries, are lighter weight, longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes solar array size and the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. Flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have characteristics which would be useful for military applications. The major disadvantages of flywheel energy storage systems are that: power is not available during the launch phase without special provisions; and in flight failure of units may force shutdown of good counter rotating units, amplifying the effects of failure and limiting power distribution system options; no inherent emergency power capability unless specifically designed for, and a high level of complexity compared with batteries. The potential advantages of the flywheel energy storage system far outweigh the disadvantages.

  1. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  2. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  3. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations

  4. Human reliability analysis in low power and shut-down probabilistic safety assessment: Outcomes of an international initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, and decommissioning. This aspect has been confirmed by the operating experience. A workshop was organized by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. One of the major objectives of the Workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and results of human reliability analyses for WWER 440 and WWER 1000, and gain insights for future application of human reliability analyses in Low Power and Shutdown scenarios. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of the workshops concerning human reliability analyses and human factors.

  5. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require ''immediate'' shutdown of the plant. In this paper, the authors present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion

  6. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations.

  7. Increase of efficiency of energy output from an inductive energy storage in current multiplication circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazulin, A.V.; Nekhaev, V.I.; Ryabtsev, G.V.; Ryazanov, K.P.; Shcherbitskij, V.N.; Yagnov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The power supply system for inductive load based on a sectional inductive storage, where current disbalance in storage sections at energy output is absent and efficiency of energy transfer may reach 0.71, is described. Increase of efficiency of energy transfer upto 1.0 may be obtained by using a transfer capacitor, whose power is 0.03 of that of a storage. The description of supply system operation is given and the analysis of its operation is presented. The experimental efficiency of the apparatus is 30%. The supply system may be performed on the base of toroidal inductive storage and used to supply powerful puslse systems

  8. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  9. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  10. Supply chain planning with sustainability considerations: an integrative framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Akkerman, Renzo; Birkved, Morten

    2011-01-01

    sustainability assessments. We use mathematical programming for the supply chain planning and life cycle assessment for the modelling and quantification of the environmental impacts. We illustrate the benefits of our integrated framework for a case of production, distribution and storage of food products......This paper proposes a modelling framework for combining supply chain planning and sustainability assessment, illustrating how sustainability assessments of logistic activities can be improved by supply chain planning input, and supply chain planning can in turn make use of the results from...... produced on industrial scale, studying several important planning decisions like temperature treatments and choice of packaging materials....

  11. Study on the performance of the Particle Identification Detectors at LHCb after the LHC First Long Shutdown (LS1)

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    During the First Long Shutdown (LS1), the LHCb experiment has introduced major modification in the data-processing procedure and modified part of the detector to deal with the increased energy and the increased heavy-hadron production cross-section. In this contribution we review the performance of the particle identification detectors at LHCb, Rich, Calorimeters, and Muon system, after the LS1

  12. PUMA code simulation of recovery power transients after a short shutdown of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Javier; Pomerantz, Marcelo E.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation of recovery power transients after a short shutdown on Embalse nuclear power plant equilibrium core with slightly enriched uranium fuel was performed in order to know the response of the reactor under such conditions. Also, comparison against the same event in a natural uranium core were done. No significant restrictions were found in operating with enriched fuel in the conditions of the analyzed event and in fact, slightly differences arose with natural uranium fuels. (author)

  13. Pilot Operation of Ex-core Neutron Sensors of Divers Shutdown System (DSS) Unit 2 Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakshtonis, Z.; Krivoshei, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Ignalina Safety Assessment, which was completed in December 1996, recommended the installation of a diverse shutdown system on the 2nd unit at Ignalina. During the PPR-2004 in the DSS project are created two independent shutdown systems by separating the absorber rods into two independent groups as follows: 1. One system (designated AZ) consists of the existing 24 BAZ rods and 49 AZ/BSM rods that together are used for reliable reactor shutdown (including Control and Protection System (CPS) circuit voiding accident). This system performs the emergency protection function. 2. The other system (designated BSM) comprises the remaining absorber rods and the 49 AZ/BSM rods. Thus 49 AZ/BSM rods are actuated from AZ initiating equipment as well as from BSM initiating equipment. The BSM system performs the normal reactor shutdown function and is able to ensure long-term maintenance of the reactor in the sub-critical state. Along with implementation of DSS was modernized existing Emergency Process Protection System, which was divided into two independent Sets of initiating equipment. The DSS is independent and diverse initiating equipment from the existing 1st Set equipment; with each set having its own independent in-core and ex-core sensors for measurement of neutron flux and process parameters. The 2nd Set of initiating equipment for measuring ex-core neutron flux, was modernized with new design of 4 Ex-Core detectors each have a single low level neutron flux detector and two high range neutron detectors. They are comprising: 1. A fission chamber which operates in pulse mode to cover the low flux levels. 2. A compensated ionisation chamber in current mode to operate at high flux level. This detector is doubled to give a measurement of the axial deviation. Two detectors are enough to produce the axial power deviation. The results of testing and analysis of pilot operation of ex-core neutron sensors of DSS will be shown on the Report. (author)

  14. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  15. Shutdown dose rates at ITER equatorial ports considering radiation cross-talk from torus cryopump lower port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, Raul [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Shutdown dose rates for planned maintenance purposes is an active research field in ITER. In this work the radiation (neutron and gamma) cross-talk between ports in the most conservative case foreseen in ITER is investigated: the presence of a torus cryopump lower port, mostly empty for pumping efficiency reasons. There will be six of those ports: #4, #6, #10, #12, #16 and #18. The equatorial ports placed above them will receive a significant amount of additional radiation affecting the shutdown dose rates during in situ maintenance activities inside the cryostat, and particularly in the port interspace area. In this study a general situation to all the equatorial ports placed above torus cryopump lower ports is considered: a generic diagnostics equatorial port placed above the torus cryopump lower port (LP#4). In terms of shutdown dose rates at equatorial port interspace after 10{sup 6} s of cooling time, 405 μSv/h has been obtained, of which 160 μSv/h (40%) are exclusively due to radiation cross-talk from a torus cryopump lower port. Equatorial port activation due to only “local neutrons” contributes 166 μSv/h at port interspace, showing that radiation cross-talk from such a lower port is a phenomenon comparable in magnitude to the neutron leakage though the equatorial port plug.

  16. Enhancing Efficiency of Safeguards at Facilities that are Shutdown or Closed-Down, including those being Decommissioned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stern, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Colley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards involves verification activities at a wide range of facilities in a variety of operational phases (e.g., under construction, start-up, operating, shutdown, closed-down, and decommissioned). Safeguards optimization for each different facility type and operational phase is essential for the effectiveness of safeguards implementation. The IAEA’s current guidance regarding safeguards for the different facility types in the various lifecycle phases is provided in its Design Information Examination (DIE) and Verification (DIV) procedure. 1 Greater efficiency in safeguarding facilities that are shut down or closed down, including those being decommissioned, could allow the IAEA to use a greater portion of its effort to conduct other verification activities. Consequently, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of International Nuclear Safeguards sponsored this study to evaluate whether there is an opportunity to optimize safeguards approaches for facilities that are shutdown or closed-down. The purpose of this paper is to examine existing safeguards approaches for shutdown and closed-down facilities, including facilities being decommissioned, and to seek to identify whether they may be optimized.

  17. Identification of Human-induced Initiating Event in the Low and Shutdown operation by using CESA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This paper suggests a procedure to identify human-induced initiating events during low and shutdown state in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Human-induced initiating events, also called Category B actions in human reliability analysis (HRA), are operator actions that may lead directly to initiating events either by themselves or in combination with equipment failures. Most of conventional probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) typically assume that the frequency of initiating events also includes the probability of human-induced initiating events. However, some regulatory documents require Category B actions to be specifically analyzed and quantified in the PSA. In addition, a NUREG report also addresses that an explicit modeling of Category B actions could potentially lead to important insights for human performance on safety. However, there is no standard procedure to identify Category B actions which are either recommended by regulations or widely used in the PSA. This paper develops a systematic procedure to identify the Category B actions for the shutdown and low power. The procedure includes several steps to derive operator actions that may lead to initiating events in the low and shutdown stage. Those steps are the selection of initiating events to be analyzed, the selection of systems or components, the screening of unlikely operating actions, and quantification of initiating events. The procedure also suggests the detailed activity of each step such as the information required, screening rules, and output of steps. Finally, the applicability of the suggested approach is also investigated to show its feasibility.

  18. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  19. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  20. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  1. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  2. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  3. Switching power supply filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  4. SILVER ZINC POWER SUPPLY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phase IIb, Task I of the Missile Power Supply program, which involves the design, development, fabrication, and test of an 8500 watt battery...converter breadboard power supply , was continued during the preceding quarter. The results of evaluation of partial battery sections (modules), of the final...reported and analyzed. The progress of the work on the Missile Power Supply DC to DC converter breadboard is reported. The subcontractor’s Second

  5. Synchronous DC Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent describes a synchronous direct current (dc) power supply which has the power supply input drive synchronized with the pulse repetition...frequency (PRF) of the amplifying or load circuit requiring the dc power for operation. This limits the occurrence of ripple components in the power ... supply output to the spectral positions of the PRF lines, eliminating ripple interference with signal processing in the load. An astable multivibrator is

  6. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  7. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  8. Comparison of Dry Gas Seasonal Storage with CO2 Storage and Re-Use Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Killerud, Marie

    2013-01-01

    To make large-scale CO2 storage economic, many groups have proposed using CO2in EOR projects to create value for CO2 storage. However, CO2 EOR projectsgenerally require a large and variable supply of CO2 and consequently may requiretemporary storage of CO2 in geological formations. In order to store CO2 atoffshore sites as a source for CO2 EOR projects, the CO2 needs to be extractedfrom a storage site to a certain extent. Alternatively, CO2 EOR projects maybe developed alongside saline aquife...

  9. Significance of Supply Logistics in Big Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Šafran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the concept and importance of supplylogistics as element in improving storage, supply and transportof goods in big cities. There is always room for improvements inthis segmenl of economic activities, and therefore continuousoptimisation of the cargo flows from the manufacturer to theend user is impor1a11t. Due to complex requirements in thecargo supply a11d the "spoiled" end users, modem cities represe/ll great difficulties and a big challenge for the supply organisers.The consumers' needs in big cities have developed over therecent years i11 such a way that they require supply of goods severaltimes a day at precisely determined times (orders are receivedby e-mail, and the information transfer is therefore instantaneous.In order to successfully meet the consumers'needs in advanced economic systems, advanced methods ofgoods supply have been developed and improved, such as 'justin time'; ''door-to-door", and "desk-to-desk". Regular operationof these systems requires supply logistics 1vhiclz includes thetotalthroughpw of materials, from receiving the raw materialsor reproduction material to the delive1y of final products to theend users.

  10. Inductive energy storage commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply

  11. Gas storage - Estimation of the economic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The main purpose of the project is to investigate the economic benefits of underground gas storage used for seasonal smoothing and a strategical security of supply. The benefits from the storage have to be decided based on the costs of alternative have to be ways of securing the energy supply, including evaluation of: demand-dependent prices on natural gas and other fuels (both domestic and foreign markets); interruptible supply; establishment of extra production and transportation capacity from the North Sea; establishment of new connecting systems to neighbouring countries (i.a. German, Poland, Latvia); establishment for import or production and LNG; contracting of storage capacity abroad (Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Latvia). In order to control the estimated costs of storage of natural gas a comparison with market prices for storage capacity and spot prices of natural gas is carried out. The market prices were estimated through a statistical analysis of seasonal variations in gas prices on the American natural gas market. Due to permanent energy taxes, the energy prices only partially reflect the demand and the price elasticity hence is very small, resulting in a need for e.g. gas storage. One purpose of the project is to investigate this system error and to present alternative suggestions for the tax structure. Additionally, the consequences of differentiating production taxes will be addressed. (EG)

  12. Combined effects of global warming and an Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shutdown on West African and European climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. G.; Vizy, E. K.; Cook, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the effects of an Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) shutdown, for example, due to an influx of fresh water from Arctic ice sheet melting, in combination with global warming (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's A2 business as normal emissions scenario) on West African and European climate. Shutdown of the AMOC by the end of this century is generally seen as possible but not likely, but Arctic ice is melting more quickly than predicted by global models, and the consequences for climate may be severe and the changes abrupt. A regional climate model with 90-km grid spacing is used to conduct a series of present day and future AMOC shutdown simulations. The present-day control initial surface and lateral boundary conditions are derived from the present day National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis 2 (NCEP2). For the future runs we use coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM anomalies generated from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Assessment Report 4 (IPCC AR4) A2 business as normal emission scenario experiment and apply them directly to the present day control boundary conditions. An idealized SSTA is derived and applied to the present day SSTs based upon coupled atmosphere/ocean GCM water hosing experiments that force a shutdown of the AMOC, but placed in the context of under global warming, In both the boreal spring and summer months, cooling in the eastern Atlantic due to the AMOC shutdown causes an eastward extension of the North Atlantic subtropical high over Europe and rainfall rates decrease markedly throughout most of Europe. In May and June, rainfall rates decrease by 50-80% over Sahelian Africa as a secondary response to the eastern Atlantic cool SSTs, as dry air is advected southward, associated with enhanced northerly flow. In contrast, the atmospheric response to the SSTA in the North Atlantic over Europe and West Africa is decoupled during the boreal summer months; rainfall over Europe continues to

  13. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  14. Interpretations of de-orbit, deactivation, and shutdown guidelines applicable to GEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, L.; Perkins, J.; Sun, Sheng

    As the population of space debris in orbit around the Earth grows, the probability for catastrophic collisions increases. Many agencies such as the IADC, FCC, and UN have proposed space debris mitigation guidelines or recommendations. For example, a minimum increase in perigee altitude of 235km + (1000 Cr A / m) where Cr is the solar radiation pressure coefficient, A/m is the aspect area to dry mass ratio, and 235 km is the sum of the upper altitude of the geostationary orbit (GEO) protected region (200 km) and the maximum descent of a re-orbited spacecraft due to lunar-solar & geopotential perturbations (35 km) with an eccentricity less than or equal to 0.003. While this particular recommendation is reasonably straightforward, the assumptions an operator chooses may change the result by 25 km. Other recommendations are more ambiguous. For example, once the space vehicle has been de-orbited to the required altitude, all on-board stored energy sources must be discharged by venting propellants and pressurants, discharging batteries and disabling the ability to charge them, and performing other appropriate measures. “ Vented” is not usually defined. In addition, the broadcasting capability of the spacecraft must be disabled. Boeing and its customers are working together to devise de-orbit and deactivation sequences that meet the spirit of the recommendations. This paper derives and proposes a generic minimum deorbit altitude, appropriate depletion and venting pressures based on tank design, propellant and pressurant type, and an acceptable shutdown procedure and final configuration that avoid interference with those still in the GEO belt well into the future. The goal of this paper is to open a dialogue with the global community to establish reasonable guidelines that are straightforward, safe, and achievable before an absolute requirement is set.

  15. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area

  16. Probabilistic cost-benefit seismic design criterion for a dedicated shutdown heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Okrent, D.

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic methodology is developed for assessing the risk reduction potential and cost-benefit tradeoff of a Dedicated Shutdown Heat Removal System (DSHRS) for a PWR as a function of its seismic design capability. The option of coping with a very small LOCA is included. The annual seismic risk of a plant and a similar hypothetical plant having a proposed DSHRS with various seismic strengths are computed. The difference in the annual seismic risks is the annual seismic risk reduction benefit for having the system. The present value of the future risk reduction benefit is then compared to the cost of building a DSHRS and the incremental seismic cost associated with building the system to withstand a stronger earthquake. A reactor like Zion was used for application of the method due to the availability of data. Studies were performed to investigate the sensitivity of the results to the assumed seismic hazard, probability of occurrence of seismic-induced accident initiating events, equipment seismic fragility, accident costs, and discount rate. The incremental seismic risk reduction benefit computed in these studies ranges from Dollar 207 million for a DSHRS with a median seismic capacity of 1.70g (i.e. 10 x SSE) in a new plant built at the site. The total cost of a DSHRS is crudely estimated to be Dollar 25 million or more, if it were built to withstand the current SSE of the plant (for which the system probably would have a median seismic capacicty of 0.85g or more due to various design and construction conservatisms). The cost associated with the seismic design aspect of such a system is estimated to be approximately Dollar 2.5 million and it may be doubled if the seismic design capability of the system is tripled. The cost/benefit results and their inherent large uncertainties are not definitive but indicate that probabilistic seismic design of a DSHRS should be examined in further detail. (orig.)

  17. Plant Operation Station for HTR-PM Low Power and Shutdown operation Probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Tong Jiejuan

    2014-01-01

    Full range Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is one of key conditions for nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing according to the requirement of nuclear safety regulatory authority. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Pebble-bed Module (HTR-PM) has developed construction design and prepared for the charging license application. So after the normal power operation PSA submitted for review, the Low power and Shutdown operation Probabilistic safety analysis (LSPSA) also begin. The results of LSPSA will together with prior normal power PSA results to demonstrate the safety level of HTR-PM NPP Plant Operation Station (POS) is one of important terms in LSPSA. The definition of POS lays the foundation for LSPSA modeling. POS provides initial and boundary conditions for the following event tree and fault tree model development. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-the-art of POS definition for HTR-PM LSPSA. As for the first attempt to the high temperature gas cooled reactor module plant, the methodology and procedure of POS definition refers to the LWR LSPSA guidance, and adds to plant initial status analysis due to the HTR-PM characteristics. A specific set of POS grouping vectors is investigate and suggested for HTR-PM NPP, which reflects the characteristics of plant modularization and on-line refueling. As a result, seven POSs are given according to the grouping vectors at the end of the paper. They will be used to the LSPSA modelling and adjusted if necessary. The papers ’work may provide reference to the analogous NPP LSPSA. (author)

  18. Storage pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, E.; Watson, E.

    1983-01-01

    A pond is described for the storage of hazardous materials, such as irradiated nuclear fuel elements, under water. Upper and lower impervious membranes extend without interruption beneath the floor of the pond and the edges of the membranes lead into a trench surrounding the pond. Any leakage through the floor is directed normally by the upper membrane into the trench. The lower membrane provides an additional impervious barrier in the event of a leak in the upper membrane and again directs the leakage into the trench thereby avoiding contamination of the ground beneath the pond. (author)

  19. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available will be an important tool in the toolbox of system designers – together with primary energy providers solar PV, wind, biogas and potentially backup through diesel-based generators. Outside the electricity sector, eMobility will largely drive the demand for battery...-to-Fuel is, together with eMobility, the connector between the historically separated electricity and transport sector. Challenge Questions  What will drive the future battery market?  Is energy storage a necessary condition for a large uptake...

  20. A Study on the Risk Reduction Effect by MLCS (Mid-loop Level Control System) of EUAPR using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Eden

    2016-01-01

    The EU-APR design has been developed in order to expand and diversify the global nuclear power market of APR1400. For the improvement of shutdown risk for the EUAPR, the mid-loop level control system (MLCS) is considered during mid-loop operation for the EU-APR, which is not incorporated into SKN 3 and 4 (APR1400 Type) in Korea. Commonly, the risk associated with the NPP can be identified through the PSA. Thus, this paper discusses the low power and shutdown (LPSD) risk reduction effect by MLCS using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result. LPSD level 1 PSA models for EU-APR have been developed. The risk reduction effect by MLCS is discussed. Because the loss of shutdown cooling function during mid-loop is one of the most vulnerable events, the MLCS have a significant influence on CDF in LPSD PSA. The shutdown risk of domestic power plants would likely be reduced if the MLCS is adopted in all operating NPPs in Korea during the mid-loop operation. It is expected that this work will contribute to reduce shutdown risk of domestic power plants

  1. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, N.C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) team training plan for the 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad of Hazardous Waste. It is intended to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and the Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit. Training unrelated to compliance with WAC 173-303-330 is not addressed in this training plan. WAC 173-303-330(1)(d)(ii, v, vi) requires that personnel be familiarized, where applicable, with waste feed cut-off systems, response to ground-water contamination incidents, and shutdown of operations. These are not applicable to 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad, and are therefore not covered in this training plan

  2. Capacitance energy storage complex of the ISKRA-5 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglov, V.G.; Galakhov, I.V.; Gasheev, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Complex is designed for pulse supply of pumping system of power iodine laser used in ISKRA-5 physical facility. Capacitance storages are connected with information adn complex, which controls their states both at the charge stage and at discharge stage

  3. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  4. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  5. Pulsed Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent describes a step-up power supply which is provided by a plurality of transistors arranged to drive respective, equal turn primary windings...winding, thus maximizing the total voltage applied to the transformer. The power supply amplifies pulses from a blocking oscillator to drive a tuned-plate, tuned-grid transmitter.

  6. Variable Input Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An electronic power supply using pulse width modulated (PWM) voltage regulation provides a regulated output for a wide range of input voltages. Thus...switch to change the level of voltage regulation and the turns ratio of the primary winding of the power supply output transformer, thereby obtaining increased tolerance to input voltage change. (Author)

  7. Regulating Digital Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent relates to a digital power supply regulator using pulse counts and a feedback servo loop. Analog MOS circuitry is extremely sensitive to...radiation and there are undesirable results when not placed in a suitable radiation-free environment. The present invention is a regulated power supply but

  8. Airborne Power Supply Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The airborne power supply study considers the conversion of 400 cycle aircraft power to regulated DC voltages. Topics include the review of present...power conversion techniques, monolithic IC and hybrid series voltage regulators, power supply problem areas, trade-off considerations and power system

  9. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extrem...

  10. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  11. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  12. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  13. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  14. Supply system with microprocessor control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplin, N.I.; Sergeev, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Precision supply system for electron gun used in Auger-spectrometer is described. The supply system consists of control and high-voltage parts, made as separate units. Supply high-voltage unit includes system supply module, filament module to supply electron gun cathode and 6 high-volt modules to supply accelerating, modulating and three focusing electrodes of the gun. High-voltage modules have the following characteristics: U-(100-1000)V output voltage, 5x10 -5 U stability, 10 -5 xU pulsation amplitude, J-(0-5)A filament current change range at 10 -4 xJ stability. Control unit including microprocessor, timer and storage devices forms control voltage for all modules and regulates voltage and current of filament at electrodes

  15. Electricity storage. The problematic of alternative energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having evoked the increasing share of renewable energies in electricity production in Europe and the associated investments, the author outlines the main problems associated with renewable energy: their intermittency, and the fact that they are submitted to quick and important variations which must be managed by the grid. He also evokes economic and financial problems (high taxes in Germany and in France, mandatory purchase mechanisms leading to absurd situations and having consequences on the electricity market). The author discusses the issue of energy storage: storage is expensive and its cost will increase that of the produced energy. However, storage can be interesting if its cost is covered by the income generated by the provided services. Some solutions already exist: pumped-storage power station (PSPS), remotely controlled electric-storage water heaters. The author presents and comments the services which storage can provide: smoothing, spare energy supply, and supply quality. He outlines the importance of a technical-economic analysis for the choice of the best storage solution, but also the need to change the business model

  16. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  17. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  18. A New Heat Supply System of Cogeneration for the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideki; Hisazumi, Yoshinori; Asano, Hitoshi; Morita, Hikaru; Hori, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Toshiki; Abiko, Tetsuo

    In order for economically viable distributed generation systems for local communities to be widely accepted, it is essential to develop an efficient and low-cost heat supply system. For this purpose, we propose a new heat supply system which we already presented at the ICOPE-05 Chicago. The key technology for the system is to connect compact heat supply units with a heat storage function installed in all the households of the local community, such as condominiums, by a single-loop of hot water pipe. A phase change material was used for the heat supply unit as the heat storage material. However, for easier handling and reducing the cost of the unit, we have developed a new heat supply unit whose heat storage tank is made of plastic. Hot water for space heating is used as the heat storage material. Further we constructed a heat supply system for 7 lived-in households with a 5 kW gas engine and a 42 kW boiler as the heat sources. Some experiments with a heat supply unit and a heat supply system, such as for heat storage and heat supply for peak demand were conducted. Additionally, dynamic simulations of heat demand by 50 households and a COP evaluation of a new CO2 heat pump system using low-temperature exhaust gas from the gas engine were also conducted.

  19. KEKB electromagnet power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masato; Kubo, Tadashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Numbers of electromagnet power supply for KEKB are 2,243 except BT. To satisfy stability, DAC in the current control circuit, current detector, R and D of small thermostatic bath and a calibration method of current using CPU were introduced. They satisfied needs. With producing R and D apparatus of switching source, problems of ripple, stability and noise were solved, so that we began mass production. In this paper, many kinds of R and D and performance and troubles after operation of KEKB power source are described. A plan of design of power supply consisted of seven items such as high accuracy, serial communication of interface, small type, high affectivity, easy maintenance, independence of current setting and current detector for monitor and control of radiation and conduction noise of switching power supply. These items were satisfied by development of interface board of ARCNET communication, introduction of double buffer method for interface through CPU, power supply unit by air-cooled method using a switching method and small thermostatic oven for bending and quadrupole electromagnet. R and D of DCCT, burden and shunt resistance, DAC, thermostatic bath, power supply, offset and gain calibration by double buffer method, specification of power supply, various kinds of measurements of mass production apparatus at rising, after long operation and problems before and after operation are reported. The results of R and D made satisfy the specification of stability and ripple of power supply. Although many switching power supply were operated, there was no noise and troubles at the initial period decreased. However, in order to use many power supply, the performance measurement and maintenance are very important at long shut down. (S.Y.)

  20. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.D. Clark

    1996-02-06

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined.