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Sample records for supplemented sugarcane bagasse

  1. Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vegetable seedling production with sugarcane bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 380,000 ac and 12.8 million tons of harvested sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar (brown sugar), and an estimated 3 million tons of the fibrous plant residue called bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after remov...

  3. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH42SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH42SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a for both yeasts (NH42SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

  4. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash is a byproduct of sugar factories found after burning sugarcane ... making materials especially cement, resulting in an increase in price. ... advantages can also be exploited by using bagasse ash as a partial cement ... Normal consistency, Setting time, Compressive strength, Water penetration depth.

  5. Enhanced saccharification of sugarcane bagasse using soluble cellulase supplemented with immobilized β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diogo Gontijo; Baraldo, Anderson; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Giordano, Raquel de Lima Camargo; Tardioli, Paulo Waldir

    2014-09-01

    The β-glucosidase (BG) enzyme plays a vital role in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Supplementation of the hydrolysis reaction medium with BG can reduce inhibitory effects, leading to greater conversion. In addition, the inclusion of immobilized BG can be a useful way of increasing enzyme stability and recyclability. BG was adsorbed on polyacrylic resin activated by carboxyl groups (BG-PC) and covalently attached to glyoxyl-agarose (BG-GA). BG-PC exhibited similar behavior to soluble BG in the hydrolysis of cellobiose, while BG-GA hydrolyzed the same substrate at a lower rate. However, the thermal stability of BG-GA was higher than that of free BG. Hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by soluble cellulase supplemented with immobilized BG improved the conversion by up to 40% after 96 h of reaction. Both derivatives remained stable up to the third cycle and losses of activity were less than 50% after five cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

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    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period. The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60% and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse, formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. Results The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Conclusion Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg

  7. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gleidiana Amélia Pontes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Almeida, Gledson Luiz Pontes

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60%) and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse), formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg/d of milk.

  8. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g -1 . The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  9. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  10. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  11. As-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse possessing exotic field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnia, Lucky; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Palnitkar, Umesh; Satyam, P. V.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Koratkar, Nikhil A.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate the application of sugarcane bagasse as an excellent field emitter. Field emission property of as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) before and after the plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been observed that electronic nature of p-SBg transformed from semiconducting to metallic after plasma treatment. Maximum current and turn-on field defined at 10 μA/cm2 was found to be 800 μA/cm2 and 2.2 V/μm for as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) and 25 μA/cm2 and 8.4 V/μm for H2-plasma treated p-SBg. These values are found to be better than the reported values for graphene and activated carbon. In this report, pyrolysis of bagasse has been carried in a thermal chemical vapor deposition (Th-CVD) system in inert argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study the structure of both pre and post plasma-treated p-SBg bagasse's sample. HRTEM study reveals that carbonaceous structures such as 3D-nanographene oxide (3D-NGO), graphite nanodots (GNDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon onions are present in both pre-treated and plasma-treated p-SBg. Hence, we envision that the performed study will be a forwarding step to facilitate the application of p-SBg in display devices.

  12. Feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus improves xylan hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

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    Dyoni M. de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feruloyl esterase is a subclass of carboxylic acid esterases with the capacity to release ferulic acid and other cinnamic acids from plant cell walls and synthetic substrates. Feruloyl esterases act synergistically with xylanases removing ferulic acid residues esterified to arabinoxylans. Feruloyl esterase type D from Aspergillus clavatus (AcFAE was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and applied with a commercial xylanase consortium (Novozymes for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. Feruloyl esterase plus xylanase increased 5.13-fold the releasing of ferulic acid from sugarcane bagasse. Removal of only 7.7% of ferulic acid content by AcFAE increased 97.3% the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis by xylanase. These data support the use of AcFAE as an interesting adjuvant enzyme to improve lignocellulose digestion and biotechnological tool for biorefineries.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

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    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

  15. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  16. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

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    N Eqra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  17. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwien Andriyanti; Suyanti; Ngasifudin

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  18. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  19. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboards for Civil Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Battistelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the worldwide market of particleboard production, the use of alternative raw materials is increasing, due to high demand and lack of traditional raw material, despite efforts of reforestation. In Brazil, the main agricultural commodity is sugarcane due to the copious production of sugar and ethanol. In the state of São Paulo alone approximately 140 million tons of sugarcane bagasse are produced every year, from which around 70% is burned for energy production, not adding value to the residue and generating pollution to the environment; and the other 30% is sold for composting. The objective of this work is to add value to the sugarcane bagasse by using it as a raw material for particleboard production to be employed as flooring in the area of civil construction. To achieve this, the present research characterized the physical and mechanical characteristics of the particleboards with the following alternative raw materials: sugarcane bagasse and leaves of bamboo. Particleboards were produced to reach high density (0.8g/cm3 using the resin (bi-component polyurethane castor oil. Tests for abrasion, roughness and resistance to denting and wear (Janka hardness verified that the addition of leaves of bamboo in the mixtures, contrary to what was expected, did not confer a greater degree of resistance to the particleboards. Lastly, the results showed that sugarcane bagasse is a viable raw material alternative for the production of particleboards, intended to be used as products and flooring.

  20. Evaluation of lime and hydrothermal pretreatments for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Maira Prearo; Marques, Marina Paganini; Laluce, Cecília; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Sponchiado, Sandra Regina Pombeiro

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment step to disrupt the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin complex and to increase biomass digestibility, thus allowing the obtaining of high yields of fermentable sugars for the subsequent fermentation. Hydrothermal and lime pretreatments have emerged as effective methods in preparing the lignocellulosic biomass for bioconversion. These pretreatments are advantageous because they can be performed under mild temperature and pressure conditions, resulting in less sugar degradation compared with other pretreatments, and also are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these pretreatments on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse obtained directly from mill without prior screening. In addition, we evaluated the structure and composition modifications of this bagasse after lime and hydrothermal pretreatments. The highest cellulose hydrolysis rate (70 % digestion) was obtained for raw sugarcane bagasse pretreated with lime [0.1 g Ca(OH)2/g raw] for 60 min at 120 °C compared with hydrothermally pretreated bagasse (21 % digestion) under the same time and temperature conditions. Chemical composition analyses showed that the lime pretreatment of bagasse promoted high solubilization of lignin (30 %) and hemicellulose (5 %) accompanied by a cellulose accumulation (11 %). Analysis of pretreated bagasse structure revealed that lime pretreatment caused considerable damage to the bagasse fibers, including rupture of the cell wall, exposing the cellulose-rich areas to enzymatic action. We showed that lime pretreatment is effective in improving enzymatic digestibility of raw sugarcane bagasse, even at low lime loading and over a short pretreatment period. It was also demonstrated that this pretreatment caused alterations in the structure and composition of raw bagasse, which had a pronounced effect on the enzymes accessibility to the

  1. Effect of feed source and pyrolysis conditions on sugarcane bagasse biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing of sugarcane in sugar mills yield ca. 30% bagasse, a fibrous waste material composed mostly of crushed cane stalks. While 80-90% of the bagasse used on site as fuel, the remaining portion can be converted into a value-added product. One such option is thermal conversion of bagasse into bi...

  2. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

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    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  4. Comparative performance of sugarcane bagasse and black polyethylene as mulch for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the millable sugarcane. Typically...

  5. Influence of the catalyzer in the esterification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Tatiana F.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Suzuki, Paulo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount Abstract: In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount different of catalyze was studied. The chemical modification of the fibers was evaluated by techniques of X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). Results showed that the amount of catalyze influenced in the chemical modification of the fibers. (author)

  6. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

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    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  7. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Finguerut, J.; Galvão, A.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Célia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  8. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

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    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.

  9. A LCA (life cycle assessment) of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reno, Maria Luiza Grillo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Buchgeister, Jens; Almazan, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays one of the most important environmental issues is the exponential increase of the greenhouse effect by the polluting action of the industrial and transport sectors. The production of biofuels is considered a viable alternative for the pollution mitigation but also to promote rural development. The work presents an analysis of the environmental impacts of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse, taking into consideration the balance of the energy life cycle and its net environmental impacts, both are included in a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) approach. The evaluation is done as a case study of a 100,000 t/y methanol plant, using sugarcane bagasse as raw material. The methanol is produced through the BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. The results of the environmental impacts were compared to others LCA studies of biofuel and it was showed that there are significant differences of environmental performance among the existing biofuel production system, even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, technology of the biomass conversion. With relation to the result of output/input ratio, the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse showed to be a feasible alternative for the substitution of an amount of fossil methanol obtained from natural gas. -- Highlights: → High and favorable energy ratio value of methanol from bagasse. → Sugarcane production has a low participation on environmental impacts. → The gasification and methanol synthesis can be combined in a biorefinery. → Farming biomass could cause the environmental impact land competition. → The trash of sugarcane can be used successfully in methanol production.

  10. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  11. Partially acetylated sugarcane bagasse for wicking oil from contaminated wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S. [Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., R and D Center, Suwon, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Suidan, M.T. [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Venosa, A.D. [NRMRL, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased hydrophobicity but not a limited capability to hold moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. Characterization results by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area analyzer suggested that treated bagasse exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity and surface area. Oil wicking test results indicate that treated bagasse is more effective in wicking oil from highly saturated environments than raw bagasse and suggest that application of this material in remediation of oil spills in highly saturated wetlands is promising. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpf@terra.com.br, E-mail: rfguenf2009@hotmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/GMCer/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  13. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  14. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  15. Edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju production on washed and supplemented sugarcane bagasse Produção do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus sajor-caju em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar lavado e suplementado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Moncaio Moda

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju is performed on different composted and pasteurized agricultural residues. The objective of this study was to investigate whether traditional composting and pasteurization processes could be replaced by washed and supplemented (mineral or organic sugarcane bagasse. In one experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was immersed in hot water at 80°C for two hours (control or washed in fresh water for one hour using an adapted machine for residue treatment. In another experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was washed in fresh water (control, and supplemented with corn grits (organic supplementation, or supplemented with nutrient solution (mineral supplementation. In the first experiment, the washed bagasse presented a average biological efficiency (ABE of 19.16% with 44% contamination, and the pasteurized bagasse presented a ABE of 13.86% with 70% contamination. In the second experiment, corn grits presented the poorest performance, with a ABE of 15.66% and 60% contamination, while supplementation with the nutrient solution presented a ABE of 30.03%, whereas the control of 26.62%. Washing fresh sugarcane bagasse could suppress the pasteurized substrate in Pleurotus sajor-caju production, compensating a reduced ABE with a faster process.Tradicionalmente, o cultivo do Pleurotus sajor-caju é realizado utilizando-se diversos resíduos agrícolas, precedido dos processos de compostagem e pasteurização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar o processo de pasteurização com a lavagem do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e avaliar formas de suplementação do bagaço, visando aumento na produtividade. No primeiro experimento, os colmos da cana-de-açúcar passaram por moenda para a extração do caldo, sendo em seguida desfibrados. No tratamento controle, o bagaço fresco foi pasteurizado em água a 80°C durante 2 horas e o outro tratamento consistiu na lavagem do bagaço fresco em centrífuga com

  16. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi.

  17. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  18. The effect of w/c ratio on microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Victor, Amalina, Khoirunnisa Nur

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a concrete that can flow and compact by itself without vibrator. The ability of SCC to flow by itself makes this concrete very suitable for construction that has very small reinforcement gaps. In this study, SCC was designed to get a compressive strength above 60 MPa at the age of 28 days. Sugarcane bagasse ash was used as substitution material for cement replacement. Percentages of sugarcane bagasse ash used were 10%, 15%, and 20%. There were three w/c values that vary from 0.275, 0.300, and 0.325. Testing standards referred to ASTM, EFNARC and ACI. The fresh concrete test was slump flow, L-box and V-funnel. The maximum compressive strength was in the mixture with the sugarcane bagasse ash composition of 15% and w/c=0.275 which was 67.24 MPa. The result of SEM test analysis found that the mixture composition with 15% sugarcane bagasse ash has solid CSH structure, small amount of pores, and smaller pore diameter than other mixtures.

  19. Green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots from sugarcane bagasse pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thambiraj, S. [Nano-Bio Materials and Sensors Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi Shankaran, D., E-mail: dravishankaran@hotmail.com [Nano-Bio Materials and Sensors Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamil Nadu (India); National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of CQDs from sugarcane bagasse carbon. - Highlights: • CQDs were synthesised from sugarcane bagasse waste with top down approaches. • Synthesis method is green, simple and efficient process. • CQDs possess high quantum yield, good stability and highly fluorescent in nature. • The morphological and topographical study of CQDs was done by HR-TEM and AFM and was observed that the average size is 4.1 ± 0.17 nm and surface thickness is 5 nm. - Abstract: Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have great potential due to its advantageous characteristics of highly fluorescent nature and good stability. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple and efficient method for the green synthesis of fluorescent CQDs from sugarcane bagasse, a renewable and sustainable resource. The process involves the top down approach of chemical oxidation followed by exfoliation of sugarcane carbon. The synthesized CQDs was characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Spectrofluorophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The synthesized CQDs possess stable fluorescent properties, good bio-compatibility and high quantum yield. The CQDs are highly crystalline with longitudinal dimensions of 4.1 ± 0.17 nm with an average roughness of around 5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicates that the synthesized CQDs possess face centred cubic crystal structure. The results suggest that the proposed CQDs could be utilized for bio-sensor, bio-imaging and drug delivery applications.

  20. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  1. Endogenous phosphorus excretion by sheep fed hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, lucerne hay and citrus pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R.S.; Roque, A.P.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine endogenous phosphorus excretion in sheep fed with different diets. Sixteen male growing sheep, received a basic diet with: 42% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (HSB), 45% lucerne hay (LH) plus 14% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, and 30% citrus pulp (CTP) plus 40% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. A dose of 7.7 MBq 32 P was injected into the left jugular vein of each animal. The P endogenous fecal losses were: 1.69, 2.50, 2.33 and 1.45 g/animal for treatments HSB, LH, and CTP respectively (P>0.05). The type of diet influenced slight endogenous P excretion but altered excretion of P in urine. Endogenous P excreted in feces (P F ) comes mainly from saliva and represents an important loss of P. The estimation of net requirements of phosphorus (P) for ruminants includes endogenous losses, which is also essential for calculating true absorption of this mineral. Physical structure of the feed may influence endogenous losses, altering the metabolism of P and also the demand of this mineral, therefore being important to know how different feeds affect endogenous P losses. (author)

  2. Clay bricks prepared with sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash – A sustainable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Saleem Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the clay bricks produced by the addition of the two agricultural waste materials i.e. sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash. Disposing off these waste materials is a very challenging task and is a hazard to environment. The sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash were collected locally from the cities of Peshawar and Wazirabad, respectively. These were mixed with the clay for brick manufacturing in three different proportions i.e. 5, 10 and 15% by weight of clay. Mechanical i.e. compressive strength and modulus of rupture and durability properties i.e. water absorption; freeze-thaw and sulphate resistance of these bricks were evaluated. Test results indicated that the sulphate attack resistance and efflorescence of clay bricks incorporating sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash have been increased significantly. However, no significant effect on mechanical properties was observed. Furthermore, the additions of wastes have reduced the unit weight of bricks which decrease the overall weight of the structure leading to economical construction. Therefore, it can be concluded that the addition of waste materials in brick manufacturing can minimize the environmental burden leading towards more economical and sustainable construction.

  3. Determination of flavonoids in cultivated sugarcane leaves, bagasse, juice and in transgenic sugarcane by liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Renata; Lanças, Fernando M; Yariwake, Janete H

    2006-01-20

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with photo-diode array (DAD) detection was developed to separate and quantify flavonoids in sugarcane leaves and bagasse (= the crushed sugarcane refuse from juice extraction), and in sugarcane juice. Sugarcane flavonoids consist of a complex mixture of aglycones and glycosides (including flavonolignan glycosides), and the HPLC-UV method herein proposed is suitable for their quantification as total flavonoids. This method was applied to analyze samples of cultivated sugarcane, commercial juice and transgenic sugarcane leaves. Sugarcane leaves proved a promising source of flavonoids: an average of 1.10 mg of total flavonoids/g plant material was found in fresh leaves. Moreover, the flavonoid content of sugarcane juice (0.6 mg/mL) is comparable to other food sources of flavonoids previously reported. Transgenic sugarcane leaves ("Bowman-Birk" and "Kunitz") were compared with non-modified ("control") plant samples using the proposed HPLC-UV method, which indicated that the content of total flavonoids in transgenic plants is different from that in non-modified sugarcane.

  4. Study the effect of gamma radiation pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse on its physcio-chemical morphological and structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Khushboo; Garg, Neelima; Diwan, R. K.; Varshney, Lalit; Tyagi, Ajay K.

    2017-12-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was exposed to gamma radiation at different doses i.e. 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 kGy at a dose rate of 2.5 kGy/h and characterized for physical, chemical, morphological and structural properties. Results showed that on exposure of sugarcane bagasse, hemicellulose content reduced from 31% to 12.4% at 2000 kGy dose. The cellulose content of bagasse did not get affected much upto 1000 kGy exposure; however at 2000 kGy dose it decreased considerably. XRD study shows an initial increase in crystallinity index of bagasse at a dose level of 100 kGy while on further increase in radiation dose from 100 kGy to 2000 kGy the crystallinity index of bagasse decreases. Pores in the SEM photograph were observed on the surface of irradiated bagasse. UV-Vis spectra of bagasse showed a red shift indicating internal changes caused by radiation exposure. Study shows that the irradiation of bagasse results in disrupton of the lignocellulosic structure of Bagasse which opens up for easy accessibility of acids and hydrolytic enzymes for cellulosic hydrolysis resulting into fermentable sugars.

  5. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH. It was concentrated, detoxified, and supplemented with nutrients in different formulations to prepare the fermentation medium to the yeast evaluation performance. S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 (isolated from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest ecosystem was used in fermentations carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a rotator shaker at 30°C and 200 rpm for 72 h. The use of a fermentation medium composed of SBHH supplemented with 5 g/L ammonium sulfate, 3 g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L malt extract resulted in 0.38 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.19 g L.h of volumetric productivity after 48 h of incubation time.

  6. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  7. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  8. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  9. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  10. Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Concentration on the Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to Levulinic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggorowati, Heni; Jamilatun, Siti; Cahyono, Rochim B.; Budiman, Arief

    2018-01-01

    Levulinic acid is a new green platform chemical used to the synthesis of a variety of materials for numerous applications such as fuel additives, polymers and resins. It can be produced using renewable resources such as biomass like sugarcane bagasse which are cheap and widely available as waste in Indonesia. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid with a solid liquid ratio 1:10. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration at temperature of 180 °C and reaction time of 30 min were studied. The presence of levulinic acid in product of hydrolysis was measured with gas chromatography (GC). It was found that the highest concentration of levulinic acid was obtained at 1 M hydrochloric acid in 25.56 yield%.

  11. Sugarcane bagasse ash reinforced HDPE composites: effects of electron-beam radiation crosslinking on tensile and morphological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Sartori, Mariana M.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: jacielegteixeira@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Environmental issues have led to the development of polymeric materials reinforced with fibers originated from renewable agricultural sources such as pineapple leaf, sisal, jute, piassava, coir, and sugarcane bagasse. Although sugarcane bagasse fiber residues has been extensively studied and used as a source of reinforcement of polymers, the major portion of these residues is currently burnt for energy supply in the sugar and alcohol industries and as a result of its burning, tons of ashes are produced. Due to the inorganic composition, ashes can be used as reinforcement in polymeric materials. This study presents the preparation and characterization of a composite based on HDPE matrix and sugarcane bagasse ashes as reinforcement cross-linked by electron-beam radiation. The HDPE /Ash composite (95:5 wt %) was obtained by using a twin-screw extruder machine followed by injection molding. After extrusion and injection molding process, the composites were subjected to electron-beam radiation, at radiation doses of 150 kGy and 250 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated composite specimens were characterization by tensile and MFI tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis. In addition, ash from bagasse fiber was characterized by WDXRF. (author)

  12. Sugarcane bagasse ash reinforced HDPE composites: effects of electron-beam radiation crosslinking on tensile and morphological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Sartori, Mariana M.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues have led to the development of polymeric materials reinforced with fibers originated from renewable agricultural sources such as pineapple leaf, sisal, jute, piassava, coir, and sugarcane bagasse. Although sugarcane bagasse fiber residues has been extensively studied and used as a source of reinforcement of polymers, the major portion of these residues is currently burnt for energy supply in the sugar and alcohol industries and as a result of its burning, tons of ashes are produced. Due to the inorganic composition, ashes can be used as reinforcement in polymeric materials. This study presents the preparation and characterization of a composite based on HDPE matrix and sugarcane bagasse ashes as reinforcement cross-linked by electron-beam radiation. The HDPE /Ash composite (95:5 wt %) was obtained by using a twin-screw extruder machine followed by injection molding. After extrusion and injection molding process, the composites were subjected to electron-beam radiation, at radiation doses of 150 kGy and 250 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated composite specimens were characterization by tensile and MFI tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis. In addition, ash from bagasse fiber was characterized by WDXRF. (author)

  13. Potential of xylose-fermented yeast isolated from sugarcane bagasse waste for xylitol production using hydrolysate as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumawadee Thancharoen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is a high value sugar alcohol that is used as a sweetener. In the past years, the biological process of D-xylose from lignocellulosic material into xylitol has gained increasing interest as an alternative production method. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used as raw material for xylitol production because of its high efficiency, reduced industrial cost, and high concentration of xylose. Pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse with sulfuric acid was performed with various conditions. The results showed that the optimum condition was exhibited for 3.1% sulfuric acid at 126°C for 18 min producing 19 g/l xylose. Isolated yeasts from the sugarcane bagasse were selected and tested for xylitol ability from xylose. Results showed that Candida tropicalis KS 10-3 (from 72 isolates had the highest ability and produced 0.47 g xylitol/ g xylose in 96 hrs of cultivation containing 32.30 g/l xylose was used as the production medium.

  14. Influence of sugarcane bagasse variability on sugar recovery for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Liliane Pires; Crespim, Elaine; de Oliveira, Nilton; de Campos, Rafael Carinha; Teodoro, Juliana Conceição; Galvão, Célia Maria Araújo; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2017-10-01

    In the context of cellulosic ethanol production, special attention must be given to the raw material, as it affects final product yield. As observed for sugarcane, bagasse variations may derive from several elements, for instance edaphoclimatic factors, seasonality, maturation stage and harvesting techniques. Therefore, in the present work, to investigate the impact of raw material characteristics on process performance, sugarcane bagasse from four harvests from October/2010 to October/2011 was pretreated by steam explosion and had its soluble and insoluble solids contents measured, following enzymatic hydrolysis to assess glucan conversion. As confirmed by ANOVA, glucose concentration was related to the solids content in the reactor, whereas glucan conversion was related to the enzymatic load. Variations in raw material composition were indeed observed to significantly interfere in the final sugar recovery, probably due to the increase in the impurities observed as a result of the type of harvest performed in 2011. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of Verticillium lecanii spore production in solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Xu, X.; Zhu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Verticillium lecanii is an entomopathogen with high potential in biological control of pests. We developed a solid-state fermentation with sugarcane bagasse as carrier absorbing liquid medium to propagate V. lecanii spores. Using statistical experimental design, we optimized the medium composition

  16. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  17. Sugarcane bagasse as support for immobilization of Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 and its use in bioremediation of mesotrione-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Shaohua; Ding, Jie; Xiao, Ying; Han, Haitao; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    The degrading microorganisms isolated from environment usually fail to degrade pollutants when used for bioremediation of contaminated soils; thus, additional treatments are needed to enhance biodegradation. In the present study, the potential of sugarcane bagasse as bacteria-immobilizing support was investigated in mesotrione biodegradation. A novel isolate Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 was applied in bacterial immobilization, which was capable of degrading over 95 % of mesotrione at initial concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 mg L(-1) within 4 days in flask-shaking tests. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the bacterial cells were strongly absorbed and fully dispersed on bagasse surface after immobilization. Specially, 86.5 and 82.9 % of mesotrione was eliminated by bacteria immobilized on bagasse of 100 and 60 mesh, respectively, which indicated that this immobilization was able to maintain a high degrading activity of the bacteria. Analysis of the degradation products determined 2-amino-4-methylsulfonylbenzoic acid (AMBA) and 4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA) as the main metabolites in the biodegradation pathway of mesotrione. In the sterile soil, approximately 90 % of mesotrione was degraded after supplementing 5.0 % of molasses in bacteria-bagasse composite, which greatly enhanced microbial adaptability and growth in the soil environment. In the field tests, over 75 % of mesotrione in soil was degraded within 14 days. The immobilized preparation demonstrated that mesotrione could be degraded at a wide range of pH values (5.0-8.0) and temperatures (25-35 °C), especially at low concentrations of mesotrione (5 to 20 mg kg(-1)). These results showed that sugarcane bagasse might be a good candidate as bacteria-immobilizing support to enhance mesotrione degradation by Bacillus p. HZ-2 in contaminated soils.

  18. Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G ethanol and electric energy production, could be an option to absorb fluctuations in relative prices. Simulations of three cases were run using the software EMSO: production of 1G ethanol + electric energy, of 1G + 2G ethanol and a flexible biorefinery. Bagasse for 2G ethanol was pretreated with a weak acid solution, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, while 50% of sugarcane trash (mostly leaves) was used as surplus fuel. Results With maximum diversion of bagasse to 2G ethanol (74% of the total), an increase of 25.8% in ethanol production (reaching 115.2 L/tonne of sugarcane) was achieved. An increase of 21.1% in the current ethanol price would be enough to make all three biorefineries economically viable (11.5% for the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery). For 2012 prices, the flexible biorefinery presented a lower Internal Rate of Return (IRR) than the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery. The impact of electric energy prices (auction and spot market) and of enzyme costs on the IRR was not as significant as it would be expected. Conclusions For current market prices in Brazil, not even production of 1G bioethanol is economically feasible. However, the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery is closer to feasibility than the conventional 1G + electric energy industrial plant. Besides, the IRR of the 1G + 2G biorefinery is more sensitive with respect to the price of ethanol, and an increase of 11.5% in this value would be enough to achieve feasibility. The ability of the flexible biorefinery to take

  19. Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Lam

    2002-01-01

    Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

  20. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  1. Beneficiation of corncob and sugarcane bagasse for energy generation and materials development in Nigeria and South Africa: A short overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesego M. Mohlala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of increasing energy demand and advanced materials for infrastructural development in developing countries have necessitated the search for sustainable sources of raw materials. The high amount of agricultural residues generated in Africa owing to vast availability of arable land has been an impetus for solving some of these challenges. Therefore, this review article provides information on beneficiation and challenges of the two largely generated agricultural residues, corncobs and sugarcane bagasse, in Nigeria and South Africa. The estimated quantities of corncob and sugarcane bagasse generated by these countries are reported. The potentials of beneficiating corncob and sugarcane bagasse in energy generation, in materials development and in other purposes such as production of platform chemicals are reviewed and discussed. Various technologies deployable in the beneficiation of these wastes are enumerated, and the benefits and challenges that are associated with beneficiating these wastes are briefly discussed.

  2. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H_2SO_4 was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by AFM and SEM

  3. Fermentation of undetoxified sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzates using a two stage hydrothermal and mechanical refining pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economical and environmentally friendly pretreatment technologies are required for commercial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars for fermentation to biofuels. In this paper, a novel pretreatment technology was developed for conversion of sugarcane bagasse into ethanol usi...

  4. Sugarcane bagasse powder as biosorbent for reactive red 120 removals from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Wong, Y. C.; Veloo, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Reactive red 120 is used as a textile dye for fabric coloring. The dye waste is produced during textile finishing process subsequently released directly to water bodies which giving harmful effects to the environment due to the carcinogenic characteristic. Adsorption process becomes an effective treatment to treat textile dye. This research emphasizes the treatment of textile dye namely reactive red 120 (RR120) by using sugarcane bagasse powder. The batch study was carried out under varying parameters such as 60 minutes contact time, pH (1-8), dye concentration (5-25 mg/L), particle size (125-500 μm) and biosorbent dosage (0.01-0.2 g/L). The maximum adsorption percentage of RR120 was 94.62%. The adsorption of dye was increased with the decreasing of pH, initial dye concentration and particle size. Sugarcane bagasse powder as low-cost biosorbent was established using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This locally agricultural waste could be upgraded into useful material which is biosorbent that promising for decolorization of colored textile wastewater.

  5. Do wood-based panels made with agro-industrial residues provide environmentally benign alternatives? An LCA case study of sugarcane bagasse addition to particle board manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Diogo Aparecido Lopes; Lahr, Francisco Antonio Rocco; Pavan, Ana Laura Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    environmental impacts? Could it substitute wood as raw material? Accordingly, this paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of particle board manufactured with sugarcane bagasse residues.The cradle-to-gate assessment of 1 m3 of particle board made with sugarcane bagasse (PSB) considered three main...... subsystem was 9.08 % (economic base). The potential environmental impact phase was assessed by applying the CML and USEtox methods. PSB was compared with the conventional particle board manufactured in Brazil by the categories of the CML and USETox, and including land use indicators. Finally, two scenarios......, it is suggested that the sugarcane bagasse be mixed up to 75 % during particle board manufacturing so that good quality properties and environmental performance of panels can be provided....

  6. Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibbrandt, N.H.; Knoetze, J.H.; Goergens, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were considered as alternatives to biological processing for the production of biofuels from sugarcane bagasse. For bioethanol production, a minimum of 30% solids in the pretreatment reactor was required to render the process energy self-sufficient, which led to a total process energy demand equivalent to roughly 40% of the feedstock higher heating value. Both vacuum pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis could be operated as energy self-sufficient if 45% of the produced char from fast pyrolysis is used to fuel the process. No char energy is required to fuel the vacuum pyrolysis process due to lower process energy demands (17% compared to 28% of the feedstock higher heating value). The process models indicated that effective process heat integration can result in a 10-15% increase in all process energy efficiencies. Process thermal efficiencies between 52 and 56% were obtained for bioethanol production at pretreatment solids at 30% and 50%, respectively, while the efficiencies were 70% for both pyrolysis processes. The liquid fuel energy efficiency of the best bioethanol process is 41%, while that of crude bio-oil production before upgrading is 67% and 56% via fast and vacuum pyrolysis, respectively. Efficiencies for pyrolysis processes are expected to decrease by up to 15% should upgrade to a transportation fuel of equivalent quality to bioethanol be taken into consideration. -- Highlights: → Liquid biofuels can be produced via lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or pyrolysis. → A minimum of

  7. Utilization of pineapple stem juice to enhance enzyme-hydrolytic efficiency for sugarcane bagasse after an optimized pre-treatment with alkaline peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, J.R.; Brienzo, M.; Milagres, A.M.F. [Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering of Lorena, University of Sao Paulo - USP Estrada Municipal do Campinho, s/no - CP 116, 12602-810 Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was investigated by treating a peroxide-alkaline bagasse with a pineapple stem juice, xylanase and cellulase. Pre-treatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2{sup 4} factorial designs, with pre-treatment time, temperature, magnesium sulfate and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of cellobiose and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show that the highest enzymatic conversion was obtained for bagasse using 2% hydrogen peroxide at 60 C for 16 h in the presence of 0.5% magnesium sulfate. Bagasse (5%) was treated with pineapple stem extract, which contains mixtures of protease and esterase, in combination with xylanase and cellulase. It was observed that the amount of glucose and cellobiose released from bagasse increased with the mixture of enzymes. It is believed that the enzymes present in pineapple extracts are capable of hydrolyze specific linkages that would facilitate the action of digesting plant cell walls enzymes. This increases the amount of glucose and other hexoses that are released during the enzymatic treatment and also reduces the amount of cellulase necessary in a typical hydrolysis. (author)

  8. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Pinho, Maria Noberta de; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da

    2010-01-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  9. Disk Refining and Ultrasonication Treated Sugarcane Bagasse Residues for Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Bio-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingzheng Cheng; Zhaohui Tong; Luisa Dempere; Lonnie Ingram; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Disk refining and ultrasonication treated sugarcane bagasse residues reclaimed from the waste stream of a simplified bioethanol process after fermentation were used to fabricate biobased composites with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by film casting. The morphologies and the size distributions of residue particles were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and...

  10. Influence of Torrefaction on the Conversion Efficiency of the Gasification Process of Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Anukam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N2 at 10 °C·min−1 heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid reaction of the material during torrefaction. Torrefied and untorrefied bagasse were characterized to compare their suitability as feedstocks for gasification. The results showed that torrefied bagasse had lower O–C and H–C atomic ratios of about 0.5 and 0.84 as compared to that of untorrefied bagasse with 0.82 and 1.55, respectively. A calorific value of about 20.29 MJ·kg−1 was also measured for torrefied bagasse, which is around 13% higher than that for untorrefied bagasse with a value of ca. 17.9 MJ·kg−1. This confirms the former as a much more suitable feedstock for gasification than the latter since efficiency of gasification is a function of feedstock calorific value. SEM results also revealed a fibrous structure and pith in the micrographs of both torrefied and untorrefied bagasse, indicating the carbonaceous nature of both materials, with torrefied bagasse exhibiting a more permeable structure with larger surface area, which are among the features that favour gasification. The gasification process of torrefied bagasse relied on computer simulation to establish the impact of torrefaction on gasification efficiency. Optimum efficiency was achieved with torrefied bagasse because of its slightly modified properties. Conversion efficiency of the gasification process of torrefied bagasse increased from 50% to approximately 60% after computer simulation, whereas that of untorrefied bagasse remained constant at 50%, even as the gasification time increased.

  11. Pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse aiming at the enhancement of the yield of glucose and xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de A. Guilherme

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work studied the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse aiming at the production of glucose and xylose. The bagasse was subjected to two different pretreatments: combined acid and alkalinepretreatment and hydrogen peroxidepretreatment. The enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized and a kinetic study was carried out in a stirred tank reactor (STR in batch mode. Optimal conditions were obtained by subjecting the bagasse to the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The addition of xylanases to the enzymatic mixture improved the production of fermentable sugars by 48%.

  12. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzolaa, Nelson; Garcia, Joyner

    2015-01-01

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  13. The stability of clay using volcanic ash of Mount Sinabung North Sumatera and sugarcane bagasse ash with cbr and uct value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastuty Ika Puji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the fundamental material that is extremely as the place of establishment of a structure or construction, both building and road constructions. However, not all soil is well used in the constructions field, as there are several types of soil that are problematic in terms of both the soil bearing capacity and deformation. The clay with carrying capacity and low shear strength needs to stabilized in order to meet the technical requirements to be used as sub grade. The add materials that are typically used for soil stabilization are cement, lime or a mixture of two or three of the added materials. In this study, the added material use volcanic ash of Mount Sinabung at North Sumatera and sugarcane bagasse ash. The purpose of this study was to determine an index value of properties as the result of the addition of 4% volcanic ash and variations in content of bagasse ash on clay and then to determine the compressive strength for maximum testing UCT (Unconfined Compression Test and understand the value of CBR (California Bearing Capacity as the consequence of the addition of a stabilizing agent, as well as optimum level of addition of bagasse ash. The result showed that the original soil sample has the water content 12.35%, specific gravity of 2.65, liquid limit of 46.73% and plasticity index of 26.44%. The compressive strength value of 1.38 kg/cm2. Base on the USCS classification, the soil sample including the type CL while base on AASHTO classification, soil samples are include this A-7-6 type. After the soil is stabilized with a wide variety of sugarcane bagasse ash content value obtained the largest unconfined compression test in 4% addition level volcanic ash + 10% sugarcane bagasse ash is equal to 5.1kg/cm2 and the result California Bearing capacity value on the optimal mix of 4% volcanic ash + 4% sugarcane bagasse ash is equal to 13.91%.

  14. Biodegradable alternative for removing toxic compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates for valorization in biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Fernandes, T; Santos, J C; Hasmann, F; Rodrigues, R C L B; Izario Filho, H J; Felipe, M G A

    2017-11-01

    Among the major challenges for hemicellulosic hydrolysate application in fermentative processes, there is the presence of toxic compounds generated during the pretreatment of the biomass, which can inhibit microbial growth. Therefore, the development of efficient, biodegradable and cost-effective detoxification methods for lignocellulosic hydrolysates is crucial. In this work, two tannin-based biopolymers (called A and B) were tested in the detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for subsequent fermentation by Candida guilliermondii. The effects of biopolymer concentration, pH, temperature, and contact time were studied using a 2 4 experimental design for both biopolymers. Results revealed that the biopolymer concentration and the pH were the most significant factors in the detoxification step. Biopolymer A removed phenolics, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and nickel from the hydrolysate more efficiently than biopolymer B, while biopolymer B was efficient to remove chromium at 15% (v/v). Detoxification enhanced the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the biopolymers showed different influences on the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  16. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  17. Production of L(+)-lactic acid from acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse using Bacillus coagulans DSM2314 in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der Edwin C.; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sugars derived from lignocellulose-rich sugarcane bagasse can be used as feedstock for production of L(+)-lactic acid, a precursor for renewable bioplastics. In our research, acid-pretreated bagasse was hydrolysed with the enzyme cocktail GC220 and fermented by the moderate

  18. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  19. Obtaining nanofibers from curauá and sugarcane bagasse fibers using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sonication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Adriana de; Correa, Ana Carolina; Cannella, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an initial study of the implementation of two new enzymes, an endoglucanase and a concoction of hemicellulases and pectinases to obtain cellulosic nanoparticles. In this study, curauá and sugarcane bagasse were dewaxed and bleached prior to enzymatic action for 72 h at 50 °C, and th...

  20. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  1. Energy from sugarcane bagasse under electricity rationing in Brazil: a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramucci, Jose A.; Perin, Clovis; Pulino, Petronio; Bordoni, Orlando F.J.G.; Cunha, Marcelo P. da; Cortez, Luis A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)

  2. Synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogel by radiation crosslinking of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa-carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizmundo, Leonie-Lou Dominguez

    2015-04-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels have three-dimensional networks that enable it to exhibit great water absorption capacity leading to its promising applications. However, existing commercial hydrogels are mainly acrylic acid which causes environmental problems. In this study, the incorporation of agricultural waste as filler and polysaccharide from natural sources as binder for the production of superabsorbent hydrogel was done to reduce the use of acrylic acid as well as its environmental impact while adding value to the incorporated materials. A series of superabsorbent hydrogel with the blend of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse were synthesized by radiation crosslinking. The gel fraction and swelling capacity of the hydrogels were determined and studied. The characterizations were facilitated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In the results obtained from analyses, the characteristic peaks of acrylic acid and sugarcane bagasse were observed in the FTIR spectra and the three step peaks if synthesized hydrogel in its TGA implies an improvement in thermal stability of the product. The synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel blends had exhibited comparable gel fraction to that of the polyacrylic acid hydrogel, had great swelling capacity, and achieved equilibrium degree of swelling within 72-96 hours. The optimum synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel is 3% semi-refined kappa-carrageenan, 3% sugarcane bagasse, 15% acrylic acid neutralize up to 50% and irradiated at 15kGy dose which exhibited a swelling of 599.53 and gel fraction of 39.73. (author)

  3. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOPHILIC CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE SYNTHESIZED BY Bacillus sp. GROWING ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Q. M. Padilha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The production and characterization of cellulase from thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. C1AC5507 was studied. For enzyme production, sugarcane bagasse was used as carbon source. The produced carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase had a molecular weight around 55 kDa and its activity varied between 0.14 and 0.37 IU mL-1 in conditions predicted by Response Surface Methodology. The optimum temperature and pH for the CMCase production were 70 °C and 7.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited mostly by Cu+2 and activated mostly by Co+2, Mn2+, Ca+2 and Fe+3. Our findings provide a contribution to the use of natural wastes such as sugarcane bagasse as substrate for growth and production of thermophilic CMCase. Further optimization to increase the production of cellulase enables the use in industrial applications.

  4. Isolation and surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals from sugarcane bagasse waste: From a micro- to a nano-scale view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. V.; Mariano, M.; Rabelo, S. C.; Gouveia, R. F.; Lona, L. M. F.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the isolation and functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extracted from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). CNCs were obtained by acid hydrolysis of bleached bagasse pulp and functionalized with adipic acid. The results showed that unmodified CNCs exhibit both a high crystallinity index and a significant aspect ratio. Surface modification with adipic acid decreases the nanocrystal dimensions due to removal of the amorphous region between the crystalline domains and also changes the electrostatic repulsion and hydrophilic affinity of CNCs. Unmodified CNCs offer potential applications as reinforcing phase in hydrophilic polymeric matrices, while modified CNCs interact better with hydrophobic matrices. The use of CNCs as reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites expands the application of this renewable material and increases its added value, providing nonenergy-based markets for the main biomass of the sugarcane industry.

  5. Selection and identification of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene removal from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Espinosa, D V; Fernández-Perrino, F J; Arana-Cuenca, A; Esparza-García, F; Loera, O; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2006-01-01

    This work investigated the identification and selection of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene (Phe) removal from soil. Fungi were identified by PCR amplification of ITS regions as Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. A primary selection of fungi was accomplished in plate, considering Phe tolerance of every strain in two different media: potato dextrose agar (PDA) and mineral medium (MM). The radial extension rate (r(r)) in PDA exhibited significant differences (p<0.05) at 200 and 400 ppm of Phe. A secondary selection of A. niger, C. cladosporoides, and P. glabrum sp. was achieved based on their tolerance to 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm of Phe, in solid culture at a sugarcane bagasse/contaminated soil ratio of 95:5, in Toyamas, Czapeck and Wunder media. Under these conditions, a maximum (70%) Phe removal by A. niger was obtained. In addition C. cladosporioides and A. niger were able to remove high (800 ppm) Phe concentrations.

  6. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  7. Mathematical modeling of enzyme production using Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Lucas; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). The model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40 gL(-1)). The 10 gL(-1) concentration was used to validate the model and the other to parameter estimation. The model for enzyme production has terms implicitly representing induction and repression. Substrate variation was represented by a simple degradation rate. The models seem to represent well the kinetics with a good fit for the majority of the assays. Validation results indicate that the models are adequate to represent the kinetics for a biotechnological process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A maleic anhydride grafted sugarcane bagasse adsorbent and its performance on the removal of methylene blue from related wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Mingliang; Du, Mingyi; Zheng, Luoyun [Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Bingying; Zhou, Xiangyang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225 (China); Jia, Zhixin [College of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu, Guoqing [Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jahangir Alam, S.M., E-mail: mejahangir@scut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, School of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was selected as the supporting material for grafting maleic anhydride (MA) to obtain sugarcane-bagasse-grafting-maleic-anhydride (SCB-g-MA), which was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) in the dye-containing wastewater. The granular morphology and functional groups of the material were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and solid-state analysis (13C NMR) methods. The effect(s) of the adsorbent dosage, adsorption time, initial concentration of MB, and the pH of solution on the MB adsorption performance of the material have been also investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity and removal rate of MB were found to be 82 mg/g and 98%, respectively. It has also showed that the adsorption behavior on the MB could be well described by the pseudo-second-order model integrated with Langmuir model. - Highlights: • Using solid phase grafting method to graft the maleic anhydride (MA) onto the Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and get the SCB-g-MA. • SEM, FTIR and 13C NMR analysis were used to characterize the grafting of MA on to the SCB by the solid phase grafting method. • The adsorption capacity and removal rate of MB were to be 82 mg/g and 98% respectively, to show an excellent adsorption effect. • Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir model are better fitted the adsorption kinetics and isotherms in this research.

  9. Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse: Silver nanoparticle modification and ecotoxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Suely Patrícia C.; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabrício S.; Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera L.; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T.

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (ACPB) presented pore size ranges from 1.0 to 3.5 nm, and surface area between 1200 and 1400 m"2 g"−"1 that is higher than commonly observed to commercial activated carbon. The ACPB material was successfully loaded with of silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (0.81 wt.%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the material surface contains metallic/Ag"0 (93.60 wt.%) and ionic/Ag"+ states (6.40 wt.%). The adsorption capacity of organic model molecules (i.e. methylene blue and phenol) was very efficient to ACPB and ACPB loaded with silver nanoparticles (ACPB-AgNP), indicating that the material modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its adsorption capacity. ACPB-AgNP inhibited bacteria growth (Escherichia coli), it is a promising advantage for the use of these materials in wastewater treatment and water purification processes. However, ACPB-AgNP showed environmental risks, with toxic effect to the aquatic organism Hydra attenuata (i.e. LC50 value of 1.94 mg L"−"1), and it suppressed root development of Lycopersicum esculentum plant (tomato). Finally, this work draw attention for the environmental implications of activated carbon materials modified with silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Production of very efficient activated carbon by pyrolysis process of sugarcane bagasse. • Modification of activated carbon with silver nanoparticles to environmental remediation and water purification. • Activated carbon modified with silver nanoparticles showed acute ecotoxic effects.

  10. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and tops) from commercial sugarcane varieties for the production of 2G ethanol. In addition, the feasibility of using a mixture of these residues from a selected variety was also investigated. The materials were pretreated with dilute acid and hydrolyzed with a commercial enzymatic preparation, after which the hydrolysates were fermented using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification was higher for the tops, followed by straw and bagasse. Interestingly, the fermentability of the hydrolysates showed a different profile, with straw achieving the highest ethanol yields, followed by tops and bagasse. Using a mixture of the different sugarcane parts (bagasse-straw-tops, 1:1:1, in a dry-weight basis), it was possible to achieve a 55% higher enzymatic conversion and a 25% higher ethanol yield, compared to use of the bagasse alone. For the four commercial sugarcane varieties evaluated using the same experimental set of conditions, it was found that the variety of sugarcane was not a significant factor in the 2G ethanol production process. Assessment of use of the whole lignocellulosic sugarcane biomass clearly showed that 2G ethanol production could be significantly improved by the combined use of bagasse, straw, and tops, when compared to the use of bagasse alone. The lower susceptibility to saccharification of sugarcane bagasse, as well as the lower fermentability of its hydrolysates, can be compensated by using it in combination with straw

  11. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE CELLULOSE AND ITS EFFECT ON MECHANICAL AND WATER ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE CELLULOSE/ HDPE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Regina Mulinari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibres from sugarcane bagasse were bleached and modified by zirconium oxychloride in order to improve the mechanical properties of composites with high density polyethylene (HDPE. The mechanical properties of the composites prepared from chemically modified cellulose fibres were found to increase compared to those of bleached fibres. Tensile strengths of the composites showed a decreasing trend with increasing filler content. However, the values for the chemically modified cellulose fibres/HDPE composites at all mixing ratios were found to be higher than that of neat HDPE. Results of water immersion tests showed that the water absorption affected the mechanical properties. The fracture surfaces of the composites were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SEM micrographs revealed that interfacial bonding between the modified filler and the matrix was significantly improved by the fibre modification.

  12. Thermodynamic and economic evaluation of a solar aided sugarcane bagasse cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burin, Eduardo Konrad; Vogel, Tobias; Multhaupt, Sven; Thelen, Andre; Oeljeklaus, Gerd; Görner, Klaus; Bazzo, Edson

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the integration of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with a sugarcane bagasse cogeneration plant located in Campo Grande (Brazil). The plant is equipped with two 170 t/h capacity steam generators that provide steam at 67 bar/525 °C. Superheated steam is expanded in a backpressure and in a condensing-extraction turbine. The evaluated hybridization layouts were: (layout 1) solar feedwater pre-heating; (layout 2) saturated steam generation with solar energy and post superheating in biomass steam generators and (layout 3) superheated steam generation in parallel with biomass boilers. Linear Fresnel and parabolic trough were implemented in layouts 1 and 2, while solar tower in layout 3. The exportation of electricity to the grid was increased between 1.3% (layout 1/linear Fresnel) and 19.8% (layout 3) in comparison with base case. The levelized cost of additional electricity was accounted between 220 US$/MWh (layout 3) and 628 US$/MWh (layout 1/linear Fresnel). The key factor related to layout 3 was the improvement of solar field capacity factor due to the solar-only operation of this approach. These aspects demonstrate that the combination of solar and bagasse resources might be the key to turn CSP economically feasible in Brazil. - Highlights: • The integration of CSP and a sugarcane bagasse cogeneration plant was here evaluated. • Additional hours of operation during off-season were achieved due to hybridization. • The part load performance of plant was predicted as solar thermal load was increased. • The electricity exportation to the grid could be increased between 1.3 and 19.8%. • The LCOE of additional electricity produced was ranged between 220 and 628 US$/MWh.

  13. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

    OpenAIRE

    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida; Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira; Janaina de Lima Silva; Juana Catarina Cariri Chagas; Antônia Sherlânea Chaves Véras; Leonardo José Assis de Barros; Gledson Luiz Pontes de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets con...

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of water accessibility in cellulose of pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Jefferson Esquina; Rezende, Camila Alves; de Oliveira-Silva, Rodrigo; Lima, Marisa Aparecida; d'Eurydice, Marcel Nogueira; Polikarpov, Igor; Bonagamba, Tito José

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is a crucial step of biomass conversion into biofuels and different pretreatments have been proposed to improve the process efficiency. Amongst the various factors affecting hydrolysis yields of biomass samples, porosity and water accessibility stand out due to their intimate relation with enzymes accessibility to the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of the biomass. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was subjected to acid and alkali pretreatments. The changes in the total surface area, hydrophilicity, porosity and water accessibility of cellulose were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Changes in chemical and physical properties of the samples, caused by the partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, led to the increase in porosity of the cell walls and unwinding of the cellulose bundles, as observed by SEM. (1)H NMR relaxation data revealed the existence of water molecules occupying the cores of wide and narrow vessels as well as the cell wall internal structure. Upon drying, the water molecules associated with the structure of the cell wall did not undergo significant dynamical and partial moisture changes, while those located in the cores of wide and narrow vessels kept continuously evaporating until reaching approximately 20% of relative humidity. This indicates that water is first removed from the cores of lumens and, in the dry sample, the only remaining water molecules are those bound to the cell walls. The stronger interaction of water with pretreated bagasse is consistent with better enzymes accessibility to cellulose and higher efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis. We were able to identify that sugarcane bagasse modification under acid and basic pretreatments change the water accessibility to different sites of the sample, associated with both bagasse structure (lumens and cell walls) and hydrophilicity (lignin removal). Furthermore, we show that the substrates with increased

  15. Biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and decolorization of kraft liquor by the laccase produced by Klebsiella aerogenes NCIM 2098

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Laccase, a copper-containing enzyme, oxidizes variety of aromatic compounds. Since laccase is essential for lignin degradation, it can be used for lignin removal in the pulp and paper industry (biopulping. Laccase is also employed as a dechlorinating agent (biobleaching, along with the removal of phenolic and other aromatic pollutants. In the present investigation it was aimed to employ the laccase produced by the bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes along with the bacterium itself in biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Methodology and results: A laccase was isolated from the bacterium K. aerogenes, purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was purified by conventional techniques following salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on Con A sepharose. The purified laccase was found to be monomeric glycoprotein with a Mr of 64 kDa when measured by Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The Vmax and Km of laccase towards the substrate guaiacol was determined. The optimum pH of the laccase was found to be 5.0. biopulping and biobleaching activities were determined by TAPPI standard methods. Treatment of sugarcane baggase by K. aerogenes also significantly reduced lignin content of the bagasse. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The bacterium K. aerogenes and a laccase produced by it were used separately for biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Treatment with both brought significant reduction in lignin content and kappa number of the pulp. The handsheets prepared from the treated pulp showed improved brightness without affecting the strength properties of paper. The bacterium and the laccase efficiently decolorized the kraft liquor proving to have biobleaching potential.

  16. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-01-01

    An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulical...

  17. Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse: Silver nanoparticle modification and ecotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Suely Patrícia C., E-mail: suely.goncalves@lnnano.cnpem.br [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabrício S. [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Clemente, Zaira [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Biosafety, Embrapa, CEP 13820-000 Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Castro, Vera L. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Biosafety, Embrapa, CEP 13820-000 Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Martinez, Diego Stéfani T., E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); School of Technology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP 13484-332 Limeira, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (ACPB) presented pore size ranges from 1.0 to 3.5 nm, and surface area between 1200 and 1400 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} that is higher than commonly observed to commercial activated carbon. The ACPB material was successfully loaded with of silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (0.81 wt.%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the material surface contains metallic/Ag{sup 0} (93.60 wt.%) and ionic/Ag{sup +} states (6.40 wt.%). The adsorption capacity of organic model molecules (i.e. methylene blue and phenol) was very efficient to ACPB and ACPB loaded with silver nanoparticles (ACPB-AgNP), indicating that the material modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its adsorption capacity. ACPB-AgNP inhibited bacteria growth (Escherichia coli), it is a promising advantage for the use of these materials in wastewater treatment and water purification processes. However, ACPB-AgNP showed environmental risks, with toxic effect to the aquatic organism Hydra attenuata (i.e. LC50 value of 1.94 mg L{sup −1}), and it suppressed root development of Lycopersicum esculentum plant (tomato). Finally, this work draw attention for the environmental implications of activated carbon materials modified with silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Production of very efficient activated carbon by pyrolysis process of sugarcane bagasse. • Modification of activated carbon with silver nanoparticles to environmental remediation and water purification. • Activated carbon modified with silver nanoparticles showed acute ecotoxic effects.

  18. Sugarcane biomass for biorefineries: comparative composition of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components of bagasse and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbowski, Danielle; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2014-12-19

    Two fractions of sugarcane, namely bagasse and straw (or trash), were characterized in relation to their chemical composition. Bagasse presented values of glucans, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash of 37.74, 27.23, 20.57 and 6.53%, respectively, while straw had 33.77, 27.38, 21.28 and 6.23% of these same components. Ash content was relatively high in both cane biomass fractions. Bagasse showed higher levels of contaminating oxides while straw had a higher content of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides. A comparison between the polysaccharide chemical compositions of these lignocellulosic materials suggests that similar amounts of fermentable sugars are expected to arise from their optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Details about the chemical properties of cane biomass holocellulose, hemicelluloses A and B and α-cellulose are provided, and these may offer a good opportunity for designing more efficient enzyme cocktails for substrate saccharification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relation between xyr1 overexpression in Trichoderma harzianum and sugarcane bagasse saccharification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Delabona, Priscila; Rodrigues, Gisele Nunes; Zubieta, Mariane Paludetti; Ramoni, Jonas; Codima, Carla Aloia; Lima, Deise Juliana; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2017-03-20

    This work investigates the influence of the positive regulator XYR1 of Trichoderma harzianum on the production of cellulolytic enzymes, using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. Constitutive expression of xyr1 was achieved under the control of the strong Trichoderma reesei pki1 promoter. Five clones with xyr1 overexpression achieved higher xyr1 expression and greater enzymatic productivity when cultivated under submerged fermentation, hence validating the genetic construction for T. harzianum. Clone 5 presented a relative expression of xyr1 26-fold higher than the parent strain and exhibited 66, 37, and 36% higher values for filter paper activity, xylanase activity, and β-glucosidase activity, respectively, during cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. The overexpression of xyr1 in T. harzianum resulted in an enzymatic complex with significantly improved performance in sugarcane bagasse saccharification, with an enhancement of 25% in the first 24h. Our results also show that constitutive overexpression of xyr1 leads to the induction of several important players in biomass degradation at early (24h) and also late (48h) timepoints of inoculation. However, we also observed that the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 was upregulated in xyr1 overexpression mutants. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving cellulase production by modifying regulator expression and suggest an attractive approach for increasing total cellulase productivity in T. harzianum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1).

  2. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Wood Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Grau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomasses are organic materials that are derived from any living or recently-living structure. Plenty of biomasses are produced nationwide. Biomasses are mostly combusted and usually discarded or disposed of without treatment as biomass ashes, which include wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes. Thus, recycling or treatment of biomass ashes leads to utilizing the natural materials as an economical and environmental alternative. This study is intended to provide an environmental solution for uncontrolled disposal of biomass ashes by way of recycling the biomass ash and replacing the soils in geotechnical engineering projects. Therefore, in this study, characteristic tests of wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes that are considered the most common biomass ashes are conducted. The test of chemical compositions of biomass ashes is conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and heavy metal analysis is also conducted. Engineering behaviors including hydraulic conductivity, constrained modulus and shear modulus are examined. Also, coal fly ash Class C is used in this study for comparison with biomass ashes, and Ottawa 20/30 sands containing biomass ashes are examined to identify the soil replacement effect of biomass ashes. The results show that the particle sizes of biomass ashes are halfway between coal fly ash Class C and Ottawa 20/30 sand, and biomass ashes consist of a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and shapes. Also, all heavy metal concentrations were found to be below the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA maximum limit. Hydraulic conductivity values of Ottawa 20/30 sand decrease significantly when replacing them with only 1%–2% of biomass ashes. While both the constrained modulus and shear modulus of biomass ashes are lower than Ottawa 20/30 sand, those of mixtures containing up to 10% biomass ashes are little affected by replacing the soils with biomass ashes.

  3. Sugarcane boiler ash as an amendment for soilless growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, research was conducted to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as an amendment to soilless planting media for the production of vegetable seedlings. Typically, the eleven Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel, producing over 60,000 tons of S...

  4. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Bagasse Biomass into Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the main objective of developing new hydrogel systems has been to convert biomass into environmentally-friendly hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels are usually prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto natural polymers or biomass. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used to prepare semi-synthetic hybrid hydrogels without delignification, which is a costly and timeconsuming process. Sugarcane bagasse as a source of polysaccharide was modified using polymer microgels based on acrylic monomers such as acrylic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid which were prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization. By this process, biomass as a low-value by-product was converted into a valuable semi-synthetic hydrogel. In the following, the effect of latex type¸ the aqueous-to-organic phase ratio in the polymer latex, time and temperature of modification reaction on the swelling capacity of the hybrid hydrogel were evaluated. The chemical reaction between sugarcane bagasse and acrylic latex was carried out during heating of the modified bagasse which led to obtain a semisynthetic hydrogel with 60% natural components and 40% synthetic components. Among the latexes with different structures, poly(AA-NaAA-AM-AMPS was the most suitable polymer latex for the conversion of biomass into hydrogel. The bagasse modified with this latex had a water absorption capacity up to 112 g/g, while the water absorption capacity of primary sugarcane bagasse was only equal to 3.6 g/g. The prepared polymer hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and determination of the amount of swelling capacity.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Green Production of Furfural from D-xylose of Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Vaz Jr.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available D-xylose is a component of sugarcane bagasse that can be used as a renewable resource for the production of a variety of chemicals. By means of catalytic reactions in an aqueous medium, it was determined that D-xylose can efficiently be converted into furfural by the application of microwave as a green synthetic methodology. The highest yields of furfural were obtained at a HCl concentration of 4 mg/mL. When the reaction was performed at 200 °C, an optimum yield of 64% of furfural was observed after 10 min of reaction time, with 95% of the D-xylose being converted.

  6. Thermophilic fungi as new sources for production of cellulases and xylanases with potential use in sugarcane bagasse saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cassia Pereira, J; Paganini Marques, N; Rodrigues, A; Brito de Oliveira, T; Boscolo, M; da Silva, R; Gomes, E; Bocchini Martins, D A

    2015-04-01

    To obtain new cellulases and xylanases from thermophilic fungi; evaluate their potential for sugarcane bagasse saccharification. Thirty-two heat-tolerant fungi were isolated from the environment, identified (morphological/molecular tools) and the production of the enzymes was evaluated by solid state fermentation using lignocellulosic materials as substrates. Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was the best producer of endoglucanase (357·51 U g(-1) ), β-glucosidase (45·42 U g(-1) ), xylanase (931·11 U g(-1) ) and avicelase (3·58 U g(-1) ). These enzymes were most active at 55-70°C and stable at 30-60°C. Using crude enzymatic extract from M. thermophila JCP 1-4 to saccharify sugarcane bagasse pretreated with microwaves and glycerol, glucose and xylose yields obtained were 15·6 and 35·13% (2·2 and 1·95 g l(-1) ), respectively. All isolated fungi have potential to produce the enzymes; M. thermophila JCP 1-4 enzymatic extract have potential to be better explored in saccharification experiments. Pretreatment improved enzymatic saccharification, as sugar yields were much higher than those obtained from in natura bagasse. Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 produces avicelase (not commonly found among fungi; important to hydrolyse crystalline cellulose) and a β-glucosidase resistant to glucose inhibition, interesting characteristics for saccharification experiments. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Efficacy of Alkali-treated Sugarcane Fiber for Improving Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsions with Different Fat Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, Yong-Jae; Brad Kim, Yuan H.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion with different fat levels. Crude sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF) was treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2)) to obtain alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber (ASF). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF and ASF) were incorporated at 2% levels in pork meat emulsions prepared with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Alkaline-treatment markedly increased acid detergent fiber content (p=0.002), but significantly decreased protein, fat, ash and other carbohydrate contents. ASF exhibited significantly higher water-binding capacity, but lower oil-binding and emulsifying capacities than CSF. Meat emulsions formulated with 10% fat and 2% sugarcane bagasse fiber had equivalent cooking loss and textural properties to control meat emulsion (20% fat without sugarcane bagasse fiber). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber had similar impacts on proximate composition, cooking yield and texture of meat emulsion at the same fat level, respectively (p>0.05). Our results confirm that sugarcane bagasse fiber could be a functional food ingredient for improving physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion, at 2% addition level. Further, the altered functional properties of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber had no impacts on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsions, regardless of fat level at 5%, 10% and 20%. PMID:29805281

  8. Removal of Zn2+ from aqueous single metal solutions and electroplating wastewater with wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flaviane Vilela; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

    2010-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of a new chelating material derived from wood sawdust, Manilkara sp., and not only the use of a new support, but also a chemically modified sugarcane bagasse synthesized in our previous work to remove Zn(2+) from aqueous solutions and electroplating wastewater. The first part describes the chemical modification of wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse using ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) as modifying agent in order to introduce carboxylic acid and amine functional groups into these materials. The obtained materials such as the modified sugarcane bagasse, EB, and modified wood sawdust, ES were then characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and CHN. The second part evaluates the adsorption capacity of Zn(2+) by EB and ES from aqueous single metal solutions and real electroplating wastewater, which concentration was determined through direct titration with EDTA and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Adsorption isotherms were developed using Langmuir model. Zn(2+) adsorption capacities were found to be 80 mg/g for ES and 105 mg/g for EB whereas for the industrial wastewater these values were found to be 47 mg/g for ES and 45 mg/g for EB. Zn(2+) adsorption in the wastewater was found to be lower than in Zn(2+) spiked solution due to the competition between other cations and/or interference of other ions, mainly Ca(2+) and Cl(-) that were present in the wastewater. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Cardoso, Vanessa M.; Mori, Manoel N.; Duarte, Celina L.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  10. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

    2014-01-01

    Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties.

  11. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Background In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and to...

  12. Characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse by 1H-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Carvalho, Rui A.; Valente, Artur J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by 1 H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms present at the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH 3 ) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression was carried out in order to remove the peak of residual water in the materials and the peak related to impurities in cellulose triacetate. Degree of substitution values obtained through the resonance deconvolution were compared to those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. The determined degrees of substitution of the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60. (author)

  13. A comparative study for the organic byproducts from hydrothermal carbonizations of sugarcane bagasse and its bio-refined components cellulose and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fang-Li; Du, Qi-Shi; Dai, Jun; Tang, Pei-Duo; Li, Yan-Ming; Long, Si-Yu; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Yan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was refined into cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin using an ethanol-based organosolv technique. The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reactions were applied for bagasse and its two components cellulose and lignin. Based on GC-MS analysis, 32 (13+19) organic byproducts were derived from cellulose and lignin, more than the 22 byproducts from bagasse. Particularly, more valuable catechol products were obtained from lignin with 56.8% share in the total GC-MS integral area, much higher than the 2.263% share in the GC-MS integral areas of bagasse. The organic byproducts from lignin make up more than half of the total mass of lignin, indicating that lignin is a chemical treasure storage. In general, bio-refinery and HTC are two effective techniques for the valorization of bagasse and other biomass materials from agriculture and forest industry. HTC could convert the inferior biomass to superior biofuel with higher energy quantity of combustion, at the same time many valuable organic byproducts are produced. Bio-refinery could promote the HTC reaction of biomass more effective. With the help of bio-refinery and HTC, bagasse and other biomass materials are not only the sustainable energy resource, but also the renewable and environment friendly chemical materials, the best alternatives for petroleum, coal and natural gas.

  14. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica vermelha incorporada com residuo de cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpfaria@hotmail.co, E-mail: holanda@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados. Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  15. Use of gamma radiation for the obtainment of a polyethylene-sugarcane bagasse composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Guillermo R.; Gonzalez, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    The preparation and some properties of a composite obtained by reactive extrusion of a medium density polyethylene and sugarcane bagasse fiber previously treated with gamma radiation in the presence of a reactive additive is presented. The proportion of fiber to polyethylene was approximately 50 % w/w. According to the electronic microscopic observation the fibers had a homogeneous distribution and were oriented in a longitudinal sense in the material. The material resulted suitable for processing by extrusion, injection or compression molding. Its water absorption capacity was similar to polyethylene and its flexion modulus was higher by about 60 %. Penetration measurements with a 1-mm penetrometers gave values intermediate between that of pine and polypropylene. (author)

  16. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  17. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  18. Process design and economic analysis of a biorefinery co-producing itaconic acid and electricity from sugarcane bagasse and trash lignocelluloses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder-Heitmann, Mieke; Haigh, Kathleen F; Görgens, Johann F

    2018-08-01

    Itaconic acid has economic potential as a commodity biochemical for the sugar industry, but its production is limited due to high production costs. Using cheaper and alternative lignocellulosic feedstocks together with achieving higher product titres have been identified as potential strategies for viable IA production. Consequently the use of sugarcane bagasse and trash for the production of itaconic acid (IA) and electricity have been investigated for an integrated biorefinery, where the production facility is annexed to an existing sugar mill and new combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Three IA biorefinery scenarios were designed and simulated in Aspen Plus®. Subsequent economic analyses indicated that cheaper feedstocks reduced the IA production cost from 1565.5 US$/t for glucose to 616.5 US$/t, but coal supplementation was required to sufficiently lower the production cost to 604.3 US$/t for a competitive IA selling price of 1740 US$/t, compared to the market price of 1800 US$/t. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijiao Zeng; Zhaohui Tong; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; Lonnie Ingram

    2014-01-01

    The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation...

  20. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  1. Valorisation of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA with high quartz content as pozzolanic material in Portland cement mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement (OPC production is one of the most contaminating greenhouse gas producing activities. In order to reduce OPC consumption, several alternatives are being assessed, and the use of pozzolanic material is one of them. This paper presents study on the reactivity of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA, a residue from sugarcane industry, as a pozzolanic material. In order to evaluate SCBA reactivity, it was mixed in pastes with hydrated lime and OPC, which were microstructurally characterised. These studies showed that SCBA presents some pozzolanic characteristics. Studies on mortars in which OPC was replaced by SCBA in the range 10–30% were also carried out. Replacement in the range 15–20% yielded the best behaviour in terms of compressive strength. Finally, it can be concluded this ash could be valorised despite its relative low pozzolanic reactivity.

  2. Nanocellulose prepared by acid hydrolysis of isolated cellulose from sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, W. T.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cellulose in nanometer range or called by nano-cellulose has attracted much attention from researchers because of its unique properties. Nanocellulose can be obtained by acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The cellulose used in this study was isolated from sugarcane bagasse, and then it was hydrolyzed by 50% sulfuric acid at 40 °C for 10 minutes. Nanocellulose has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Analysis of FTIR showed that there were not a new bond which formed during the hydrolysis process. Based on the TEM analysis, nano-cellulose has a spherical morphology with an average diameter of 111 nm and a maximum distribution of 95.9 nm determined by PSA. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity degree of nano-cellulose was higher than cellulose in the amount of 76.01%.

  3. Use of Lignins from Sugarcane Bagasse for Assembling Microparticles Loaded with Azadirachta indica Extracts for Use as Neem-Based Organic Insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Eveline S.; Perlatti, Bruno; Silva, Everton M. da; Matos, Andreia P.; Silva, Maria Fátima G. F. da; Fernandes, João B.; Zuin, Vânia G.; Silva, Caio M. P. da; Forim, Moacir R.

    2017-01-01

    Microcapsules of sugarcane bagasse lignin loaded with organic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) were prepared and evaluated as potential bioinsecticides. Lignins were extracted and modified by oxidation and acetylation reactions providing different biopolymers. Afterwards, they were characterized through several analytical techniques. The formulations were initially prepared as colloidal suspension of lignin nanoparticles, which were then spray-dried. The products were submitted to qualit...

  4. Evaluation of the environmental aging and mechanical properties of the polypropylene/sugarcane bagasse composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Rayane Lima de Moura; Mulinari, Daniella Regina

    2013-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with fibers from sugarcane bagasse composites in different proportions were prepared. Also environmental aging was conducted for the composites and their mechanical properties determined. The results showed that chemical treatment caused changes in color and chemical composition of the fibers, removing impurities and amorphous constituents such as lignin and hemicellulose, techniques of FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed these data. Also, it was observed that addition of natural fiber in PP matrix provided an improvement in the mechanical properties materials. The weathering test revealed a slight mass gain after 75 days, but it was clear that the inclusion of fibers has a higher mass gain compared to pure PP. (author)

  5. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Compressed Earth Brick (CEB Containing Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorwirdawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of brick in construction is commonly used, especially in the construction of buildings and infrastructure. Various studies have been conducted to produce methods that can increase the strength of brick at the same time can reduce the cost of manufacturing bricks. In order to reduce cost of manufacturing, one of the solution applied was by using waste as part of bricks production materials. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SuCaB ash was used as a part of compressed earth brick (CEB by replacing the quantity of cement for SuCaB ash. The study focused on the physical and mechanical properties of CEB containing SuCaB and the optimum percentage of SuCaB ash as partial cement replacement in CEB. There are 4 types of percentages used; 0%, 20%, 25% and 30% from cement content. All mixed use the same water content of 30% of cement content by weight and the ratio for cement: laterite soil used was 1: 6. A total of 72 specimen with size of 100mm × 50mm × 40mm was produced. The test conducted were Initial Rate Absorption Test (IRA, Density Test, Dimensions Test, Compression Test and Water Absorption Test. From the experimental results, the optimum SuCaB ash percentage as cement replacement in CEB was 20%. It recorded the highest compressive strength of 16.23 MPa at 28 days while for the Initial Rate Absorption test, it lies within the range specified. The density of CEB containing 20% of SuCaB shows slightly lower value where it decreased for about 0.4% from the control specimen. From this study, it can be concluded that waste materials such as sugarcane bagasse can be used as part of construction materials. However, further study needs to be conducted such as on the energy consumption, chemical properties and others to enhance the knowledge on this area before it can be applied into the brick production.

  6. Potential of bagasse production from middle sugarcane cultivars; Potencial de producao de bagaco por cultivares medias de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebre, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Siva Neto, Helio Francisco da; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos Omir; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV /UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: antoniocplebre8@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    In the search for sustainability a major concern relates to the sugarcane agroindustry waste, and their potential use as an energy source. In this sense, the objective was to identify the production and productivity of bagasse of different sugarcane cultivars, aimed at the completion of the cogeneration of electricity. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, the number of stems was counted in a meter, obtaining the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by calculating the estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the potential number of people who could benefit from the electricity that would be produced by the combustion of bagasse generated within a system of cogeneration of electricity put in practice by the sugar mills and ethanol distilleries. Cultivars with the best performance IAC91-1099 and CEC 15 who obtained the highest production and productivity of mulch increases the number of people benefited. Cultivars IAC94-4004-5000 and IAC95 showed intermediate results and the cultivars SP81-3250 and RB855536 obtained less satisfactory results. (author)

  7. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.; Marcelo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO 2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  8. Improving the Bearing Strength of Sandy Loam Soil Compressed Earth Block Bricks Using Sugercane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan W. Salim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for affordable and sustainable alternative construction materials to cement in developing countries cannot be underemphasized. Compressed Earth Bricks have gained acceptability as an affordable and sustainable construction material. There is however a need to boost its bearing capacity. Previous research show that Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as a soil stabilizer has yielded positive results. However, there is limited research on its effect on the mechanical property of Compressed Earth Brick. This current research investigated the effect of adding 3%, 5%, 8% and 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash on the compressive strength of compressed earth brick. The result showed improvement in its compressive strength by 65% with the addition of 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash.

  9. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin, E-mail: weihsinchen@gmail.com [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-04

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO{sub 2} utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51–54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  10. Microstructural analysis of the potential of sugarcane bagasse ash as a pozzolan material in cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.M.; Assuncao, C.C.; Guimaraes, L. de M.; Malmonge, J.A.; Tashima, M.M; Akasaki, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    For civil construction, the ash obtained by burning sugarcane bagasse (SCBA) in sugar-cane industry is being treated as a pozzolan material because, in addition to containing high amounts of silicon and aluminium oxides, can promote reduction of the environmental impact caused by cement production, since this alternative material may partially replace the Portland cement.The present study evaluated the pozzolanic potential of the SCBA, from different states of Brazil (Sao Paulo (SP), Goias (GO) and Mato Grosso (MT)). The reactivity of the material was analyzed by microstructural characterization, besides the pastes production (lime / SCBA and cement / SCBA) for the analysis of the hydration products formed, which are evaluated by TG and SEM. There was a decrease in the formation of ettringite in the matrixes, inversely proportional to the amount of ash, which favored the reduction of the cracking in cementitious matrices. It has also observed that the pastes produced with the ashes from State of SP showed greater fixation of lime and, consequently, a high reactivity. (author)

  11. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  12. Hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted alkaline pretreatment as a new approach for sugarcane bagasse biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Dos Santos, Júlio César; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Jeon, Seok Hwan; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Han, Jong-In

    2016-08-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was employed in order to improve the efficiency of alkaline pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize pretreatment parameters: NaOH concentration (0.1-0.5M), solid/liquid ratio (S/L, 3-10%) and HC time (15-45min), in terms of glucan content, lignin removal and enzymatic digestibility. Under an optimal HC condition (0.48M of NaOH, 4.27% of S/L ratio and 44.48min), 52.1% of glucan content, 60.4% of lignin removal and 97.2% of enzymatic digestibility were achieved. Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated SCB resulted in a yield 82% and 30% higher than the untreated and alkaline-treated controls, respectively. HC was found to be a potent and promising approach to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cement Stabilized Soil Blocks Admixed with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study involved investigating the performance of ordinary Portland cement (OPC stabilized soil blocks amended with sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA. Locally available soil was tested for its properties and characterized as clay of medium plasticity. This soil was stabilized using 4% and 10% OPC for manufacture of blocks of size 19 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm. The blocks were admixed with 4%, 6%, and 8% SBA by weight of dry soil during casting, with plain OPC stabilized blocks acting as control. All blocks were cast to one target density and water content followed by moist curing for a period of 28 days. They were then subjected to compressive strength, water absorption, and efflorescence tests in accordance with Bureau of Indian standards (BIS specifications. The results of the tests indicated that OPC stabilization resulted in blocks that met the specifications of BIS. Addition of SBA increased the compressive strength of the blocks and slightly increased the water absorption but still met the standard requirement of BIS code. It is concluded that addition of SBA to OPC in stabilized block manufacture was capable of producing stabilized blocks at reduced OPC content that met the minimum required standards.

  14. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Pre-tratamento do bagaco de cana utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por feixe de eletrons para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  15. Sugarcane bagasse derivative-based superabsorbent containing phosphate rock with water-fertilizer integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kang; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Jiang, Gang-Biao

    2012-10-01

    To improve the water-fertilizer utilization ratio and mitigate the environmental contamination, an eco-friendly superabsorbent polymer (SPA), modified sugarcane bagasse/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (MSB/PAA/PHR), was prepared. Ammonia, phosphate rock (PHR) and KOH were admixed in the presence of acrylic acid to provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymer (SAP) were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 414 gg(-1) and 55 gg(-1) (water/prepared SAP), respectively. The available NPK contents of the combination system were 15.13 mgg(-1), 6.93 mgg(-1) and 52.05 mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the release behaviors of NPK in the MSB/PAA/PHR were also studied. The results showed that the MSB/PAA/PHR has outstanding sustained-release plant nutrients property. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  17. Self-compacting concrete with sugarcane bagasse ash – ground blast furnace slag blended cement: fresh properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc-Hien; Sheen, Yeong-Nain; Ngoc-Tra Lam, My

    2018-04-01

    In this investigation, major properties in fresh state of self-compacting concrete (SCC) developed from sugarcane bagasse ash and granulated blast furnace slag as supplementary cementitious materials were examined through an experimental work. There were four mix groups (S0, BA10, BA20, and BA30) containing different cement replacing levels; and totally, 12 SCC mixtures and one control mixture were provided for the test. Fresh properties of the proposed SCC were evaluated through measurement of the density, slump, slump-flow, V-funnel test, T500 slump, Box-test, and setting time. The testing results indicated that replacing either SBA and/or BFS to OPC in SCC mixtures led to lower density, lesser flowability, and longer hardening times.

  18. Sugarcane biochar as an amendment for greenhouse growing media for the production of cucurbit seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana sugarcane farmers in 2016 harvested 11.7 million mt millable sugarcane from 163,000 ha, producing 1.47 million mg of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Even though Louisiana sugar mills use 80 to 90% of the bagasse for fuel production, another 350,000 to 700,000 mt of ba...

  19. A New Proposal Of Cellulosic Ethanol To Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Albarelli J.Q.; Ensinas A.V.; Silva M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction). Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the ev...

  20. Nutritional composition of bioproducts generated from semi-solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... sugarcane bagasse, corncobs and coconut fiber. The lipid content did ... straw, oil palm leaf and sugarcane bagasse after 6 weeks of incubation ..... Sensory evaluation of cake with pineapple husk as fiber content supplement.

  1. Direct ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars and sugarcane bagasse by a recombinant Trichoderma reesei strain HJ48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing.

  2. Monosaccharides and Ethanol Production from Superfine Ground Sugarcane Bagasse Using Enzyme Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of particle size on the enzymatic hydrolysis of milled and sieved sugarcane bagasse (SCB was studied. The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of superfine ground SCB (SGP400 using an enzyme cocktail strategy were also explored. Particle size reduction improved the enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose yield was 44.75%, which was obtained from SGP400. The enzyme cocktail strategy greatly enhanced the glucose and xylose yield. The maximum glucose and xylose yield was from the enzyme cocktail of cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase. Synergistic action between xylanase and pectinase as well as cellulase and pectinase was quite noticeable. Hydrolysis times affected the degree of synergism. Ethanol production was carried out by employing simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF and semi-SSF using enzymes and their cocktails. Semi-SSF was found to be the better one compared with SSF. Xylanase and pectinase aided the ethanol production in both fermentation modes. Ethanol yield was 7.81 and 7.30 g/L for semi-SSF and SSF, respectively by using an enzyme cocktail of cellulase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and xylanase.

  3. Boosting TAG Accumulation with Improved Biodiesel Production from Novel Oleaginous Microalgae Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2 Utilizing Waste Sugarcane Bagasse Aqueous Extract (SBAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Neha; Patel, Alok; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    This investigation utilized sugarcane bagasse aqueous extract (SBAE), a nontoxic, cost-effective medium to boost triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in novel fresh water microalgal isolate Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2. Maximum lipid productivity of 112 ± 5.2 mg/L/day was recorded in microalgae grown in SBAE compared to modified BBM (26 ± 3 %). Carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio was 12.5 ± 2 % higher than in photoautotrophic control, indicating an increase in photosystem II activity, thereby increasing growth rate. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile revealed presence of C14:0 (2.29 %), C16:0 (15.99 %), C16:2 (4.05 %), C18:0 (3.41 %), C18:1 (41.55 %), C18:2 (12.41), and C20:0 (1.21 %) as the major fatty acids. Cetane number (64.03), cold filter plugging property (-1.05 °C), and oxidative stability (12.03 h) indicated quality biodiesel abiding by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 fuel standards. Results consolidate the candidature of novel freshwater microalgal isolate Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2 cultivated in SBAE, aqueous extract made from copious, agricultural waste sugarcane bagasse to increase the lipid productivity, and could further be utilized for cost-effective biodiesel production.

  4. Production of l(+)-lactic acid from acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse using Bacillus coagulans DSM2314 in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Edwin C; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2016-01-01

    Sugars derived from lignocellulose-rich sugarcane bagasse can be used as feedstock for production of l(+)-lactic acid, a precursor for renewable bioplastics. In our research, acid-pretreated bagasse was hydrolysed with the enzyme cocktail GC220 and fermented by the moderate thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans DSM2314. Saccharification and fermentation were performed simultaneously (SSF), adding acid-pretreated bagasse either in one batch or in two stages. SSF was performed at low enzyme dosages of 10.5-15.8 FPU/g DW bagasse. The first batch SSF resulted in an average productivity of 0.78 g/l/h, which is not sufficient to compete with lactic acid production processes using high-grade sugars. Addition of 1 g/l furfural to precultures can increase B. coagulans resistance towards by-products present in pretreated lignocellulose. Using furfural-containing precultures, productivity increased to 0.92 g/l/h, with a total lactic acid production of 91.7 g in a 1-l reactor containing 20% W/W DW bagasse. To increase sugar concentrations, bagasse was solubilized with a liquid fraction, obtained directly after acid pretreatment. Solubilizing the bagasse fibres with water increased the average productivity to 1.14 g/l/h, with a total lactic acid production of 84.2 g in a 1-l reactor. Addition of bagasse in two stages reduced viscosity during SSF, resulting in an average productivity in the first 23 h of 2.54 g/l/h, similar to productivities obtained in fermentations using high-grade sugars. Due to fast accumulation of lactic acid, enzyme activity was repressed during two-stage SSF, resulting in a decrease in productivity and a slightly lower total lactic acid production of 75.6 g. In this study, it is shown that an adequate production of lactic acid from lignocellulose was successfully accomplished by a two-stage SSF process, which combines acid-pretreated bagasse, B. coagulans precultivated in the presence of furfural as microorganism, and GC220 as enzyme

  5. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  6. Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol

  7. Low Density Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboard Bonded with Citric Acid and Sucrose: Effect of board density and additive content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of natural adhesives derived from non-fossil resources is very important for the future. In this study, by taking sugarcane bagasse as the raw material, without using any synthetic resin but adding some eco-friendly additives (citric acid and sucrose, low density particleboards were successfully developed. The effects of board density and additive contents on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards were investigated. The bonding mechanism was observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results showed that the low density bagasse particleboard had good mechanical properties and dimensional stability relative to its low board density. The modulus of rupture (MOR and the thickness swelling (TS values increased with increasing board density. The board with a density of higher than 0.40 g/cm³ and manufactured at 15% additive content can meet the requirements of the Chinese national forestry industry standard LY/T 1718-2007 (2007. Based on the results of the FTIR spectra, the additive not only increased the hydrogen bond but also the molecular linkage force (C-O-C. X-ray diffraction showed the relationship between crystallinity of cellulose and the strength of particleboard.

  8. Effect of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Cake and Wetting and Drying Cycles on Pre-Compaction Stress of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nemati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The compaction of soil by agricultural equipment has become a matter of increasing concern because compaction of arable lands may reduce crop growth and yield, and it also has environmental impacts. In nature, soils could be compacted due to its own weights, external loads and internal forces as a result of wetting and drying processes. Soil compaction in sugarcane fields usually occurs due to mechanized harvesting operations by using heavy machinery in wet soils. Adding plant residues to the soil can improve soil structure. To improve soil physical quality of sugarcane fields, it might be suggested to add the bagasse and filter cake, which are the by-products of the sugar industry, to the soils. When a soil has been compacted by field traffic or has settled owing to natural forces, a threshold stress is believed to exist such that loadings inducing lower than the threshold cause little additional compaction, whilst loadings inducing greater stresses than the threshold cause much additional compaction. This threshold is called pre-compaction stress (σpc. The σpc is considered as an index of soil compactibility, the maximum pressure a soil has experienced in the past (i.e. soil management history, and the maximum major principal stress a soil can resist without major plastic deformation and compaction. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wetting and drying cycles, soil water content, residues type and percent on stress at compaction threshold (σpc. Materials and Methods In this research, the effect of adding sugarcane residues (i.e., bagasse and filter cake with two different rates (1 and 2% on pre-compaction stress (σpc in a silty clay loam soil which was prepared at two relative water contents of 0.9PL (PL= plastic limit, moist and 1.1PL (wet with or without wetting and drying cycles. This study was conducted using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three

  9. Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation processes: Enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger have been shown to be powerful enzymes for biomass conversion to sugars, but the production costs are still relatively high for commercial application. The choice of an effective microbial cultivation process employed for enzyme production is important, since it may affect titers and the profile of protein secretion. We used proteomic analysis to characterize the secretome of T. reesei and A. niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation processes. The information gained was key to understand differences in hydrolysis of steam exploded sugarcane bagasse for enzyme cocktails obtained from two different cultivation processes. The sequential process for cultivating A. niger gave xylanase and β-glucosidase activities 3- and 8-fold higher, respectively, than corresponding activities from the submerged process. A greater protein diversity of critical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were also observed through secretome analyses. These results helped to explain the 3-fold higher yield for hydrolysis of non-washed pretreated bagasse when combined T. reesei and A. niger enzyme extracts from sequential fermentation were used in place of enzymes obtained from submerged fermentation. An enzyme loading of 0.7 FPU cellulase activity/g glucan was surprisingly effective when compared to the 5-15 times more enzyme loadings commonly reported for other cellulose hydrolysis studies. Analyses showed that more than 80% consisted of proteins other than cellulases whose role is important to the hydrolysis of a lignocellulose substrate. Our work combined proteomic analyses and enzymology studies to show that sequential and submerged cultivation methods differently influence both titers and secretion profile of key enzymes required for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. The higher diversity of feruloyl esterases, xylanases and other auxiliary hemicellulolytic enzymes observed in the enzyme

  10. Glass-ceramic material of the Si-Ca-K system sintered from sugarcane bagasse ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Silva, R.A.; Santos, G.C.; Santos, G.T.A.; Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma.; Reynoso, V.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the crystallization of glasses obtained from two samples of sugarcane bagasse ash - SCBA (named Cinza 07 and Cinza 08) mixed with carbonates (calcium and potassium). The glasses and their crystallization were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations of the ashes show that they consist mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with iron, potassium and aluminum oxides as minor elements. For the sample Cinza07 the DTA data presents broad and overlaid crystallization peaks, indicating crystallization of more than two different phases. The DTA results of samples with different grain-size distribution show that the crystallization peak intensities increase as the sample grain-size decreases, suggesting that surface crystallization actively participate on the mechanism of crystallization. For the sample Cinza 08 the DTA data presents two well defined peaks. In this case, the more intense peak was evaluated to obtain kinetic data (Eat= 355 kJ/mol) to the major phase (Wollastonita). (author)

  11. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome.

  12. Sugarcane and pine biochar as amendments for greenhouse growing media for the production of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana sugarcane farmers in 2016 harvested 11.7 million Mg of millable sugarcane from 163,000 ha, producing 1.47 million Mg of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million Mg of bagasse. Even though Louisiana sugar mills use 80% to 90% of the bagasse for fuel production, another 350,000 to 700,000 Mg o...

  13. Phosphoric acid activation of sugarcane bagasse for removal of o-toluidine and benzidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Amirza, A. R. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the effort to find alternatives for low cost adsorbent, activated carbon using sugarcane bagasse (SBAC) has been introduced in this study that has undergo chemical treatment using phosphoric acid to determine the effectiveness of adsorption process in removing o-toluidine and benzidine. Throughout this study, 92.9% of o-toluidine has been successfully removed by SBAC at optimum value of 1.1 g of dosage with contact time of 10 minutes and concentration of 10 mg/L. While benzidine was remove by 83.1% at optimum dosage of 1.1 g with 60 minutes of contact time and at 20 mg/L concentrations. Testing of SEM proves that SBAC has high porosity and comparable to CAC. In FTIR results, shows that CAC has high number of double bond while SBAC shows no double bond at all. Presence of double bond in CAC lead to increase in percentage of removal of adsorbate. After considering other factor such as cost, energy and environmental friendly, it shows that SBAC was considerable to replaced CAC.

  14. 3-dimensional interconnected framework of N-doped porous carbon based on sugarcane bagasse for application in supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yunhui; Peng, Yueying; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Jinbao

    2018-06-01

    In this work, N-doped biomass derived porous carbon (NSBDC) has been prepared utilizing low-cost agricultural waste-sugarcane bagasse as the prototype, and needle-like PANI as the dopant. NSBDC possesses a special 3D interconnected framework structure, superior hierarchical pores and suitable heteroatom doping level, which benefits a large number of applications on ion storage and high-rate ion transfer. Typically, the NSBDC exhibits the high specific capacitance (298 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and rate capability (58.7% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1), as well as the high cycle stability (5.5% loss over 5000 cycles) in three-electrode systems. A two-electrode asymmetric system has been fabricated employing NSBDC and the precursor of NSBDC (sugarcane bagasse derived carbon/PANI composite) as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and an energy density as high as 49.4 Wh kg-1 is verified in this asymmetric system. A NSBDC-based whole symmetric supercapacitors has also been assembled, and it can easily light a 1.5 V bulb due to its high energy density (27.7 Wh kg-1). In addition, for expanding the application areas of NSBDC, it is also applied to lithium ion battery, and a high reversible capacity of 1148 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 is confirmed. Even at 5 A g-1, NSBDC can still deliver a high reversible capacity of 357 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles, indicating its superior lithium storage capability.

  15. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  16. Comparison between wet oxidation and steam explosion as pretreatment methods for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Carlos Martín; Marcet, M.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    , and to a two-fold increase of cellulose content in the pretreated solids, while steam explosion solubilised only 60% of xylan and 35% of lignin and increased cellulose content in the solid material by one third. Wet oxidation formed more aliphatic acids and phenolics, and less furan aldehydes in the liquid......Alkaline wet oxidation and steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse were compared with regard to biomass fractionation, formation of by-products, and enzymatic convertibility of the pretreated material. Wet oxidation led to the solubilisation of 82% of xylan and 50% of lignin...... fraction than steam explosion did. A better enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was achieved for the wet-oxidised material (57.4 %) than for the steam-exploded material (48.9 %). Cellulose convertibility was lower for the whole slurry than for the washed solids in both pretreatments, but more...

  17. Removal of phenanthrene from soil by co-cultures of bacteria and fungi pregrown on sugarcane bagasse pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Gómez, B; Quintero, R; Esparza-García, F; Mesta-Howard, A M; Zavala Díaz de la Serna, F J; Hernández-Rodríguez, C H; Gillén, T; Poggi-Varaldo, H M; Barrera-Cortés, J; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2003-09-01

    Sixteen co-cultures composed of four bacteria and four fungi grown on sugarcane bagasse pith were tested for phenanthrene degradation in soil. The four bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginose, Ralstonia pickettii, Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas cepacea. The four fungi were identified as: Penicillium sp., Trichoderma viride, Alternaria tenuis and Aspergillus terrus that were previously isolated from different hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Fungi had a statistically significant positive (0.0001

  18. Highly Organic Soil Stabilization by Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Talib Mohd Khaidir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to develop alternative binders that are environment friendly by utilizing sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA in the organic soil stabilization. Together with SCBA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, calcium chloride (CaCl2 and silica sand (K7 were used as additives to stabilize the peat. In obtaining the optimal mix design, specimens of stabilized peat were tested in unconfined compression. It was found that stabilized peat comprising 20% and 5% (PCB1-20 and PCB2-5 partial replacement of OPC with SCBA 1 and SCBA 2 attain the maximum unconfined compressive strength (UCS and discovered greater than UCS of peat-cement (PC specimen. At the optimal mix design, the UCS of the stabilized peat specimens increased with increasing of curing time, preloading rate, OPC and K7 dosage. For PCB1-20 mixture, inclusion of a minimum OPC of 300kg/m3 and K7 of 500kg/m3 along with curing under 20kPa pressure is recommendable for the peat stabilization to be effective. However for PCB2-5, it suggested to use more OPC and K7 dosage or alternatively increase the preloading during curing to 40kPa in order to achieve target UCS. It can be concluded that SCBA 1 has better quality than SCBA 2 in peat stabilization especially the contribution made by its fine particle size.

  19. The influence of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado-García, M.A.; Hernández-Toledo, U.I.; Montes-García, P.; Valdez-Tamez, P.L.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash (UtSCBA) on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars. The SCBA was sieved for only five minutes through a No. 200 ASTM mesh, and fully characterized by chemical composition analysis, laser ray diffraction, the physical absorption of gas, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Mortar mixtures with 0, 10 and 20% UtSCBA as cement replacement and a constant 0.63 water/cementitious material ratio were prepared. Fresh properties of the mortars were obtained. The microstructural characteristics of the mortars at 1, 7, 28, 90 and 600 days were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The compressive strengths of the mortars at the same ages were then obtained. The results show that the addition of 10 and 20% UtSCBA caused a slight decrease in workability of the mortars but improved their microstructure, increasing the long-term compressive strength. [es

  20. Predictions of biochar production and torrefaction performance from sugarcane bagasse using interpolation and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Hsu, Hung-Jen; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Budzianowski, Wojciech M; Ong, Hwai Chyuan

    2017-12-01

    This study focuses on the biochar formation and torrefaction performance of sugarcane bagasse, and they are predicted using the bilinear interpolation (BLI), inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation, and regression analysis. It is found that the biomass torrefied at 275°C for 60min or at 300°C for 30min or longer is appropriate to produce biochar as alternative fuel to coal with low carbon footprint, but the energy yield from the torrefaction at 300°C is too low. From the biochar yield, enhancement factor of HHV, and energy yield, the results suggest that the three methods are all feasible for predicting the performance, especially for the enhancement factor. The power parameter of unity in the IDW method provides the best predictions and the error is below 5%. The second order in regression analysis gives a more reasonable approach than the first order, and is recommended for the predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane; Nanocomposito de acetato de celulose com nanocelulose obtida a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by

  3. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces surplus bagasse for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de bagaco para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchoa, Thales Brandao; Beneduzzi, Anderson Henrique; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of a cogeneration plant of a sugarcane industry of Sao Paulo State (Iracema) that privileges the commercialization of the bagasse surplus because it is located in a region where the consume of bagasse by the local industries is intense. Th e plant is composed by five boilers that produce 470 ton/h of steam at pressure of 2,2 MPa and temperature of 300 deg C and back-pressure turbines of simple stage for energy generation and for driving the millings, cutters, shredders, pumps and exhaust fans. Part of the steam generated is also utilized to supply consume of an associated company (OMTEK) that it produces acid ribonucleic and the bagasse excess is commercialized. For this, a thermodynamic study is made, as well as a detailed analysis of the technical and economical viability, determining some performance indexes, the global efficiencies, as well as the costs of production of electric and thermal energy. (author)

  4. Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

    2014-09-01

    Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120 h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376 g/L, 129.50 g/L, 56.03 g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse; Preparacao de membranas a partir de celulose obtida do bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis, E-mail: fernandes_eng@yahoo.com.b [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Pinho, Maria Noberta de [Instituto Superior Tecnico de Lisboa (IST) (Portugal), Dept. de Engenharia; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  6. Characterisation of lignins isolated from sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene glycol and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Zhang, Zhanying; Wellard, R. Mark; Bartley, John P.; O'Hara, Ian M.; Doherty, William O.S.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment processes using acidified aqueous ethylene glycol (EG) and ionic liquids (ILs) have been reported recently. In this study, recovery of lignins from these processes was conducted, as well as determination of their physico-chemical properties. The amount of lignins recovered from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim]Cl) with HCl as a catalyst and [bmim][CH 3 SO 3 ] was ∼42%, and ∼35%–36% by EG with HCl or H 2 SO 4 as a catalyst, respectively. The isolated lignins were characterised using wet chemistry, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and the results compared to soda lignin from NaOH pretreatment of bagasse. The IL and EG lignins contained no or trace amounts of carbohydrates, slightly lower hydrogen content but slightly higher oxygen contents than soda lignin. The IL and EG lignins contained more C-3 and C-5 reactive sites for Mannich reaction and had more p-hydroxypheny propane unit structures than soda lignin. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence (2D HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified the major substructural units in the lignins, and allowed differences among them to be studied. As EG lignins were extracted in very reactive environment, intermediate enol ethers were formed and led to cleavage reactions which were not apparent in the other lignins. 31 P NMR and infra-red spectroscopy results showed that IL and EG lignins had lower total hydroxyl content than soda lignin, probably indicating that a higher degree of self-polymerisation occurred during bagasse pretreatment, despite the use of lower temperature and shorter reaction time. On the basis of the salient features of these lignins, potential applications were proposed. - Highlights: • Lignins were recovered from ethylene glycol (EG) and ionic liquid (IL) processes. • IL and EG lignins contained no or trace amounts of carbohydrates. • IL and EG lignin had more C-3 and C-5 sites for Mannich reaction than soda

  7. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzos Sergios

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs, still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83% > >[C2mim]Cl(53% = [C4mim]Cl(53%. Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography. Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin

  8. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rice bran extract: an inexpensive nitrogen source for the production of 2G ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milessi, Thais S S; Antunes, Felipe A F; Chandel, Anuj K; Silva, Silvio S

    2013-10-01

    Selection of the raw material and its efficient utilization are the critical factors in economization of second generation (2G) ethanol production. Fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol by a suitable ethanol producing microorganism using cheap media ingredients is the cornerstone of the overall process. This study evaluated the potential of rice bran extract (RBE) as a cheap nitrogen source for the production of 2G ethanol by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 using sugarcane bagasse (SB) hemicellulosic hydrolysate. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB showed 12.45 g/l of xylose and 0.67 g/l of glucose along with inhibitors. It was concentrated by vacuum evaporation and submitted to sequential detoxification (neutralization by calcium hydroxide and charcoal adsorption). The detoxified hydrolysate revealed the removal of furfural (81 %) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (61 %) leading to the final concentration of glucose (1.69 g/l) and xylose (33.03 g/l). S. stipitis was grown in three different fermentation media composed of detoxified hydrolysate as carbon source supplemented with varying nitrogen sources i.e. medium #1 (RBE + ammonium sulfate + calcium chloride), medium #2 (yeast extract + peptone) and medium #3 (yeast extract + peptone + malt extract). Medium #1 showed maximum ethanol production (8.6 g/l, yield 0.22 g/g) followed by medium #2 (8.1 g/l, yield 0.19 g/g) and medium #3 (7.4 g/l, yield 0.18 g/g).

  10. Nanoecotoxicity assessment of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse modified with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Suely Patricia Costa; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabricio Souza; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera Lucia Scherholz Salgado

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In this work, we performed the preparation and characterization of the activated carbon obtained from pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (ACBP) and its modification with silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (ACBP-AgNPs). The focus was on the correlations between the material physico-chemical properties and its adverse effects/ecotoxicity on three environmental exposure bioindicators (i.e. E. coli, Hydra attenuata, and Lycopersicum esculentum) based on its possible life cycle. The materials were well characterized using integrated techniques (e.g. TEM, SEM-EDS, XPS, BET, DLS, and ICP-OES). The presence of AgNPs on the activated carbon surface was responsible for microbial growth inhibition (E. coli). Besides, ACBP modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its high adsorption capacity of organic pollutant models (i.e. phenol and methylene blue), making this material promising to environmental remediation and water purification. However, ACPB-AgNPs showed environmental risks, caused a moderate toxicity to the aquatic organism (H. attenuata, 1.94 mg L -1 , LC50) and delayed the tomato (L. esculentum) root development, including oxidative stress induction. Finally, to develop efficient, innovative and safe nanomaterials for environmental remediation technologies, the combination/integration of material physical and chemical methodologies with biological assays (ecotoxicity assessment) appears as a promising and necessary strategy towards a sustainable nanotechnology. (author)

  11. Nanoecotoxicity assessment of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse modified with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Suely Patricia Costa; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabricio Souza; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro, E-mail: suely.goncalves@lnnano.cnpem.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera Lucia Scherholz Salgado [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work, we performed the preparation and characterization of the activated carbon obtained from pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (ACBP) and its modification with silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (ACBP-AgNPs). The focus was on the correlations between the material physico-chemical properties and its adverse effects/ecotoxicity on three environmental exposure bioindicators (i.e. E. coli, Hydra attenuata, and Lycopersicum esculentum) based on its possible life cycle. The materials were well characterized using integrated techniques (e.g. TEM, SEM-EDS, XPS, BET, DLS, and ICP-OES). The presence of AgNPs on the activated carbon surface was responsible for microbial growth inhibition (E. coli). Besides, ACBP modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its high adsorption capacity of organic pollutant models (i.e. phenol and methylene blue), making this material promising to environmental remediation and water purification. However, ACPB-AgNPs showed environmental risks, caused a moderate toxicity to the aquatic organism (H. attenuata, 1.94 mg L{sup -1}, LC50) and delayed the tomato (L. esculentum) root development, including oxidative stress induction. Finally, to develop efficient, innovative and safe nanomaterials for environmental remediation technologies, the combination/integration of material physical and chemical methodologies with biological assays (ecotoxicity assessment) appears as a promising and necessary strategy towards a sustainable nanotechnology. (author)

  12. Functionalized Sugarcane Bagasse for U(VI) Adsorption from Acid and Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shouzheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-15

    The highly efficient removal of uranium from mine tailings effluent, radioactive wastewater and enrichment from seawater is of great significance for the development of nuclear industry. In this work, we prepared an efficient U(VI) adsorbent by EDTA modified sugarcane bagasse (MESB) with a simple process. The prepared adsorbent preserves high adsorptive capacity for UO 2 2+ (pH 3.0) and uranyl complexes, such as UO 2 (OH) + , (UO 2 ) 2 (OH) 2 2+ and (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0) and good repeatability in acidic environment. The maximum adsorption capacity for U(VI) at pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 is 578.0, 925.9 and 1394.1 mg/g and the adsorption capacity loss is only 7% after five cycles. With the pH from 3.0 to 5.0, the inhibitive effects of Na + and K + decreased but increased of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ . MESB also exhibits good adsorption for [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ] 4- at pH 8.3 from 10 mg/L to 3.3 μg/L. Moreover, MESB could effectively extract U(VI) from simulated seawater in the presence of other metals ions. This work provided a general and efficient uranyl enriched material for nuclear industry.

  13. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a potential feedstock for red pigment production by Monascus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; de Souza, Rebeca Andrade; Marcelino, Paulo Franco; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Dragone, Giuliano; Mussatto, Solange I; Santos, Júlio César

    2018-04-15

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate could be an interesting source for red pigment production by Monascus ruber Tieghem IOC 2225. The influence of different wavelength of light-emitting diode (LED) at 250 μmol.m -2 .s -1 of photon flux density on red pigment production by M. ruber in glucose-based medium was evaluated. Then, SCB hydrolysate was used as carbon source under the previously selected light incidence conditions. In glucose-based medium, the highest pigment production was achieved in fermentation assisted with orange LED light (8.28 UA 490nm ), white light (8.26 UA 490nm ) and under dark condition (7.45 UA 490nm ). By using SCB hydrolysate-based medium, the highest red pigment production (18.71 AU 490nm ) was achieved under dark condition and the glucose and cellobiose present in the hydrolysate were metabolized. SCB enzymatic hydrolysate was demonstrated to be a promising carbon source for high thermal stability red pigment production (activation energy of 10.5 kcal.mol -1 ), turning an interesting alternative for implementation in biorefineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Proposal of Cellulosic Ethanol to Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. Albarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction. Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the evaluated processes were self-sufficient in energy demand, being able to sell the surplus electricity to the grid, and presented water intake inside the environmental limit for São Paulo State, Brazil. The processes that evaluated the use of the bagasse fine fraction presented higher economic results compared with the use of the entire bagasse. Even though, due to the high enzyme costs, the payback calculated for the biorefineries were higher than 8 years for all cases that considered second generation ethanol and the net present value for the investment was negative. The reduction on the enzyme load, in a way that the conversion rates could be maintained, is the limiting factor to make second generation ethanol competitive with the most immediate uses of bagasse: fuel for the cogeneration system to surplus electricity production.

  15. The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvêa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-11-01

    The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical conversion of sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with co-substrates for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, A F; Costa, I A L; Silva, D D V; Dussán, K J; Villela, T R; Canettieri, E V; Carvalho, J A; Soares Neto, T G; Felipe, M G A

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnological production of xylitol is an attractive route to add value to a sugarcane biorefinery, through utilization of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane straw, whose availability is increasing in Brazil. Herein, supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate (xylose 57gL(-1)) with maltose, sucrose, cellobiose or glycerol was proposed, and their effect as co-substrates on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was studied. Sucrose (10gL(-1)) and glycerol (0.7gL(-1)) supplementation led to significant increase of 8.88% and 6.86% on xylose uptake rate (1.11gL(-1)h(-1) and 1.09gL(-1)), respectively, but only with sucrose, significant increments of 12.88% and 8.69% on final xylitol concentration (36.11gL(-1)) and volumetric productivity (0.75gL(-1)h(-1)), respectively, were achieved. Based on these results, utilization of complex sources of sucrose, derived from agro-industries, as nutritional supplementation for xylitol production can be proposed as a strategy for improving the yeast performance and reducing the cost of this bioprocess by replacing more expensive nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of ozonolysis pretreatment parameters on the sugar release, ozone consumption and ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Barrado, Enrique; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    A L9(3)(4) orthogonal array (OA) experimental design was applied to study the four parameters considered most important in the ozonolysis pretreatment (moisture content, ozone concentration, ozone/oxygen flow and particle size) on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Statistical analysis highlighted ozone concentration as the highest influence parameter on reaction time and sugars release after enzymatic hydrolysis. The increase on reaction time when decreasing the ozone/oxygen flow resulted in small differences of ozone consumptions. Design optimization for sugars release provided a parameters combination close to the best experimental run, where 77.55% and 56.95% of glucose and xylose yields were obtained, respectively. When optimizing the grams of sugar released by gram of ozone, the highest influence parameter was moisture content, with a maximum yield of 2.98gSUGARS/gO3. In experiments on hydrolysates fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided ethanol yields around 80%, while Pichia stipitis was completely inhibited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biorefineries based on coffee cut-stems and sugarcane bagasse: furan-based compounds and alkanes as interesting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal M, Valentina; Gómez P, Álvaro; Cardona A, Carlos A

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment for a biorefinery based on sugarcane bagasse (SCB), and coffee cut-stems (CCS). Five scenarios were evaluated at different levels, conversion pathways, feedstock distribution, and technologies to produce ethanol, octane, nonane, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). These scenarios were compared between each other according to raw material, economic, and environmental characteristics. A single objective function combining the Net Present Value and the Potential Environmental Impact was used through the Analytic Hierarchy Process approach to understand and select the best configurations for SCB and CCS cases. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance for SCB and CCS is the one that considers ethanol, furfural, and octane production (scenario 1). The global economic margin was 62.3% and 61.6% for SCB and CCS respectively. The results have shown the potential of these types of biomass to produce fuels and platform products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivity of main components and substituent distribution in esterified sugarcane bagasse prepared by effective solid phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tao; Zhang, Yanjuan; Chen, Yane; Hu, Huayu; Yang, Mei; Huang, Zuqiang; Chen, Dong; Huang, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Three main components of lignocellulose (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin isolated from sugarcane bagasse (SCB)) as well as holocellulose and SCB were modified with maleic acid by mechanical activation (MA)-assisted solid phase reaction (MASPR) technology. The order of reactivity was found to be lignin>hemicellulose>cellulose. The amorphous structure of lignin and hemicellulose mainly attributed to their better reactivity, and the modified lignin could reach a maximum degree of esterification (DE) of 93.45%. MA improved the accessibility and reactivity of cellulose, as the DE of modified cellulose gradually increased with milling time and reached the maximum value of 57.30% at 120min, which had significant effect on structure changes and DE of modified holocellulose and SCB. MA enhanced the esterification of all three components in lignocellulose with relatively high substituent distribution in them, and maleated SCB with a maximum DE of 64.17% was successfully prepared by this simple, green, and effective MASPR technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Xylanase and feruloyl esterase from actinomycetes cultures could enhance sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis in the production of fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Nanik; Kahar, Prihardi; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Hermiati, Euis; Lee, Jaemin; Yopi; Prasetya, Bambang; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2018-02-23

    The addition of enzymes that are capable of degrading hemicellulose has a potential to reduce the need for commercial enzymes during biomass hydrolysis in the production of fermentable sugars. In this study, a high xylanase producing actinomycete strain (Kitasatospora sp. ID06-480) and the first ethyl ferulate producing actinomycete strain (Nonomuraea sp. ID06-094) were selected from 797 rare actinomycetes, respectively, which were isolated in Indonesia. The addition (30%, v/v) of a crude enzyme supernatant from the selected strains in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with low-level loading (1 FPU/g-biomass) of Cellic® CTec2 enhanced both the released amount of glucose and reducing sugars. When the reaction with Ctec2 was combined with crude enzymes containing either xylanase or feruloyl esterase, high conversion yield of glucose from cellulose at 60.5% could be achieved after 72 h-saccharification.

  1. Saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse using enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 for sugars release and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cassia Pereira, Josiani; Travaini, Rodolfo; Paganini Marques, Natalia; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Bocchini Martins, Daniela Alonso

    2016-03-01

    The saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was studied. Fungal enzymes provided slightly higher sugar release than commercial enzymes, working at 50°C. Sugar release increased with temperature increase. Kinetic studies showed remarkable glucose release (4.99 g/L, 3%w/w dry matter) at 60°C, 8 h of hydrolysis, using an enzyme load of 10 FPU (filter paper unit). FPase and β-glucosidase activities increased during saccharification (284% and 270%, respectively). No further significant improvement on glucose release was observed increasing the enzyme load above 7.5 FPU per g of cellulose. Higher dry matter contents increased sugars release, but not yields. The fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided glucose-to-ethanol conversions around to 63%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  3. Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm 3 ) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

  4. Preliminary Study on Remediation of Contaminated Clay Soil Using Cement and Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azmi Mohamad Azim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposals of agricultural waste in a large volume have an extremely harmful effect on the environment if they are ineffectively treated. To solve this, several appropriate methods has been identified to produce new recycling technique of utilizing the agricultural waste. In this study, the feasibility of using sugarcane bagasse (SCB as partial replacement binder with cement to stabilized and solidified (S/S the contaminated soil are investigated. This paper focused on the strength and the leaching characteristic of lead (Pb contaminated soil treated with SCB and cement. Two tests, namely the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS test and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP were employed to measure the strength and leaching performance of S/S samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the UCS at 28 days was in a range of 0.82 to 5.66 MPa for sample containing cement and SCB compare to 0.29 MPa of control mix at the same age. The concentration of Pb in the leachates was within the limits specified by US EPA as low as 2.11 mg/L in 28 days. This shows that, the quality of S/S sample containing cement and SCB significantly improve the strength development as well as effectively in reducing the Pb leachability. Based on the finding, SCB could be useful as cheaper, easy available alternatives binder for the treatment of contaminated soil.

  5. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  6. Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

    2013-09-01

    Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels.

  7. Prospective evaluation of biorefinery routes in Brazil, from sugar cane bagasse as a basic feedstock; Avaliacao prospectiva das rotas de biorefinaria no Brasil, a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como materia-prima basica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Romulo Neves

    2009-12-15

    Bio refineries have been identified either as an alternative to oil refineries or as a supplement. This work seeks to understand these plants applied to the Brazilian case, which has in the alcohol-sugar sector a large number of lignocellulose material (sugar-cane bagasse) produced in large scale as a residue of the process of sugar and alcohol production. In this case, technological routes that are able to use this product as a basic feedstock for the industrial process will be described. Therefore, a model based on a set of economical and technological variables is applied to the routes. In this model, different profiles of bio refinery plants are described and compared with different hypothetical regions, which are characterized by a combination of both access to different amounts of raw material and different types of consumers. Overall, this work describes a model of both location and competition of the main bio refinery technological routes in Brazil that have the sugar-cane bagasse as the basic raw material. (author)

  8. Quantification of energy from early cultivars of sugarcane; Quantificacao da energia a partir de cultivares precoces de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Ivan; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jabotical, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: santinivan@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The success of energy generation from biomass of sugarcane is related to the amount of bagasse produced and the improvements of the equipment involved in the thermal balance of the sugarcane industrialization process. In this sense, the objective of this study was to quantify the production and productivity of bagasse in different early cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, the number of stems was counted in a meter, the weight of stems was obtained. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by calculating the estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the potential number of people who would benefit from the energy generated by the combustion of bagasse an evolving process of cogeneration power. Cultivar CTC 16 (best results), showed the highest value of TCH (100.66 t ha{sup -1}), production of bagasse (315.66 kg t {sup -1}), any product residue (32.00 t ha{sup -1}) and people who could benefit (9.33 x 106). The Cultivars SP91-1049 and IACSP93-3046 presented the results less satisfactory. (author)

  9. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  10. Desorption and photodegradation of methylene blue from modified sugarcane bagasse surface by acid TiO2 hydrosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Junxia; Chi Ruan; Guo Jia; Zhang Yuefei; Xu Zhigao; Xiao Chunqiao

    2012-01-01

    Waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was modified by pyromellitic dianhydride to improve its adsorption capacity for cationic dyes. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of the modified SCB for methylene blue was 564 mg g -1 , which was about 12 times than that obtained on the unmodified SCB. Methylene blue loaded modified SCB was regenerated by a self-clean eluent: TiO 2 hydrosol with pH ranged from 1 to 4, and HNO 3 solution with the same pH range was tested at the same time for comparison. Results showed that desorption kinetics of methylene blue in the hydrosol systems fit two-step kinetic model and controlled mainly by the slow step. As a self-clean eluent, acid hydrosol could firstly desorb and then photodegrade methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. After five desorption-photodegradation cycles, 78.3% of the absorbed dyes could be desorbed by using hydrosol (pH 2) as eluent. The hydrosol could be continuously used in desorption and photodegradation process, which would economize large volume of the eluent and moreover it would not bring secondary pollution.

  11. Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L

    2013-10-01

    Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane.

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different strategies for degradation of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Santana, Eliane Silva; Zanini, Guilherme Keppe; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; de Oliveira Pontes, Angélica; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Dal'Mas, Roberta Maria Menegaldo Tavares Soares; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2017-06-30

    Second generation (2G) ethanol is produced by breaking down lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In Brazil, sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as the lignocellulosic residue for this biofuel production. The enzymatic cocktails for the degradation of biomass-derived polysaccharides are mostly produced by fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. However, it is not yet fully understood how these microorganisms degrade plant biomass. In order to identify transcriptomic changes during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, we conducted a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling of both fungi growing on SEB as carbon source. Particular attention was focused on CAZymes, sugar transporters, transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins related to lignocellulose degradation. Although genes coding for the main enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction were expressed by both fungal strains since the beginning of the growth in SEB, significant differences were found in their expression profiles. The expression of these enzymes is mainly regulated at the transcription level, and A. niger and T. reesei also showed differences in TFs content and in their expression. Several sugar transporters that were induced in both fungal strains could be new players on biomass degradation besides their role in sugar uptake. Interestingly, our findings revealed that in both strains several genes that code for proteins of unknown function and pro-oxidant, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were induced during growth in SEB as carbon source, but their specific roles on lignocellulose degradation remain to be elucidated. This is the first report of a time-course experiment monitoring the degradation of pretreated bagasse by two important fungi using the RNA-seq technology. It was possible to identify a set of genes that might be applied in several biotechnology fields. The data suggest that these two microorganisms employ different strategies for biomass

  13. Sugarcane field residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on vegetable seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) var. ‘HoCP 96-540’ field residue and sugarcane baga...

  14. Enzymatic saccharification of liquid hot water and dilute sulfuric acid pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risanto, L.; Fitria; Fajriutami, T.; Hermiati, E.

    2018-03-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) are potential feedstocks for the production of bioethanol. In this study OPEFB and SB were pretreated by liquid hot water and dilute sulfuric acid (3% H2SO4), and continued with enzymatic saccharification. Heating treatment for both methods was conducted in an autoclave at 121 °C for 1 hr. The saccharification was performed up to 72 hours with cellulase enzyme loading of 10, 20, and 30 FPU per g biomass. Results showed that OPEFB and SB pretreated with H2SO4 produced higher reducing sugars than those pretreated by liquid hot water. Higher enzyme loading also resulted in higher reducing sugars. Reducing sugars obtained from enzymatic saccharification of OPEFB were higher than those obtained from SB. The highest total reducing sugars (50.48 g/100 g biomass) was obtained from OPEFB pretreated with 3% H2SO4 at enzyme loading of 30 FPU per g biomass.

  15. Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities of Candida guilliermondii as a function of different treatments of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate employing experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lourdes A; Vitolo, Michele; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2002-01-01

    The sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, which is rich in xylose, can be used as culture medium for Candida guilliermondii in xylitol production. However, the hydrolysate obtained from bagasse by acid hydrolysis at 120 degrees C for 20 min has by-products (acetic acid and furfural, among others), which are toxic to the yeast over certain concentrations. So, the hydrolysate must be pretreated before using in fermentation. The pretreatment variables considered were: adsorption time (15,37.5, and 60 min), type of acid used (H2So4 and H3Po4), hydrolysate concentration (original, twofold, and fourfold concentrated), and active charcoal (0.5, 1.75 and 3.0%). The suitability of the pretreatment was followed by measuring the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XD) activity of yeast grown in each treated hydrolysate. The response surface methodology (2(4) full factorial design with a centered face) indicated that the hydrolysate might be concentrated fourfold and the pH adjusted to 7.0 with CaO, followed by reduction to 5.5 with H3PO4. After that it was treated with active charcoal (3.0%) by 60 min. This pretreated hydrolysate attained the high XR/XD ratio of 4.5.

  16. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO_2) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  17. Applying functional metagenomics to search for novel lignocellulosic enzymes in a microbial consortium derived from a thermophilic composting phase of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lívia Tavares; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Carneiro, Deisy Guimarães; de Souza, Robson Assis; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Dos Santos, Josenilda Carlos; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; da Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia Maria Lopes

    2016-09-01

    Environments where lignocellulosic biomass is naturally decomposed are sources for discovery of new hydrolytic enzymes that can reduce the high cost of enzymatic cocktails for second-generation ethanol production. Metagenomic analysis was applied to discover genes coding carbohydrate-depleting enzymes from a microbial laboratory subculture using a mix of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure in the thermophilic composting phase. From a fosmid library, 182 clones had the ability to hydrolyse carbohydrate. Sequencing of 30 fosmids resulted in 12 contigs encoding 34 putative carbohydrate-active enzymes belonging to 17 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families. One third of the putative proteins belong to the GH3 family, which includes β-glucosidase enzymes known to be important in the cellulose-deconstruction process but present with low activity in commercial enzyme preparations. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of seven selected proteins, including three β-glucosidases, showed low relatedness with protein sequences deposited in databases. These findings highlight microbial consortia obtained from a mixture of decomposing biomass residues, such as sugar cane bagasse and cow manure, as a rich resource of novel enzymes potentially useful in biotechnology for saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate.

  18. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhaes, R S; Souza, A E; Santos, G T A; Silva, R A [Universidade Estadual Paulista - Unesp/FCT - Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Romero, M; Ma Rincon, J, E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.br [Instituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion - IETCC/CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-29

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO{sub 2}, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  19. Ecotoxicological and microbiological assessment of sewage sludge associated with sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommaggio, Lais Roberta Deroldo; Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Sant' Anna, Débora de Andrade E Silva; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2018-01-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) obtained after sewage treatment process may contain several toxic substances. Bioremediation can decrease the toxicity of the sludge, mainly when it is associated with stimulant agents, such as sugarcane bagasse (B). Samples of pure SS (SSP); SS+B; SS+Soil; and SS+B+Soil were bioremediated for 1, 3, and 6 months (T1, T2, and T3, respectively). After each period, the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic potentials of the solid samples and their respective aqueous extracts (aqueous eluate and percolate water) were evaluated by the Allium cepa test. A microbiological analysis of the samples was also performed after each period tested. All solid samples of SS+B (in T1, T2, and T3) and the solid sample of SSP (treatment T3) showed a significant decrease of cell division (cytotoxic effects). The aqueous eluate extracts of SS+B (T1 and T3) and SSP (T2 and T3) induced cytotoxic effect. The solid sample of SS+B (T2 and T3) and aqueous extracts of SSP (T1) were genotoxic, indicating a harmful effect of SS on A. cepa, even after 6 months of bioremediation. There was an alternation in the microbial community both in diversity and in abundance, with the predominance of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. The tested bioremediation periods were not sufficient for the complete detoxification of SS, and the use of B did not seem to contribute to the degradation of the pollutants to inert compounds. These data emphasize that a specific relationship should exist between the sludge characteristic and the biostimulating agent used to promote a more efficient bioremediation. These results suggest the necessity to study longer periods of biodegradation and the use of other decomposing agents for greater safety and sustainability for the agricultural use of this residue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Veana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents; the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid. Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse.

  1. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  2. Assessment of cellulose purification methods from the residue of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for the production of cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Lais Angelice de; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Marconcini, José Manoel; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Over the years, there is a growing trend in the reuse of residues from the agricultural industries due to social, environmental and economic demands. The production of Brazilian sugarcane in the 2014/15 season was more than 640 million tons, estimating that one third of this total is bagasse [1]. After enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse in order to give the 2G ethanol, remains a solid fibrous residue which can be repurposed in other processes. This study evaluated four methods for the purification of the resulting solid fibrous residue from the enzymatic hydrolysis process of bagasse, with the intention of obtaining cellulose. Measurements of the crystallinity index (CI) of the cellulose contained in the samples were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The enzymatic hydrolysis of generates a fibrous solid residue with contents of lignin and cellulose. This residue was subjected to four purification methods: I) 100 mL of NaOH (5%, w/w) at 55 °C was added to 5 g of residue and 43 mL of H 2 O 2 (35%, v/v) under stirring for 1.5 hours; II) the same procedure was repeated on the resulting material from I; III) 105 mL of solution 10:1 (ν/ν) of CH 3 COOH and HNO 3 at 60 °C was added to 5 g of residue under stirring for 30 minutes; IV) reaction with a solution composed of 1 ml of CH 3 COOH and 2.5 g of NaClO 2 at 70 °C under stirring for 1 hour and after that time, the procedure was repeated twice and then the solution was kept under stirring for further 3 hours. The crystallinity indexes found for the purification procedures were: I) 81.7%; II) 83.2%; III) 52.1% e IV) 77.2%. The best result was found for the material subjected to the method II. This process (II) generated a material composed of high content of crystalline cellulose. References: [1] CONAB (National Supply Company), 2015. (author)

  3. Use of Sugarcane Bagasse with Different Particle Sizes to Determine the Relationship between Physical Properties and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The supramolecular structures of a substrate, such as crystallinity, specific surface area, average pore size, and cellulase adsorption capacity, etc., affect the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass. It is unclear which of these factors is most important for efficient hydrolysis. To eliminate the influence of the hemicellulose content and the lignin, sugarcane bagasse samples with the same cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content but with different particle sizes were used as substrates to investigate the relationship between physical properties and enzymatic conversion efficiency. When the content of hemicellulose and lignin was not significantly different, the decrease in the crystallinity index (CrI and the increase in the specific surface area (SSA, cellulase adsorption, average pore size, and the cellulase adsorption per SSA could give rise to higher enzymatic convertibility. The effects of the CrI and the average pore size were more pronounced than the effects of the SSA, the cellulase adsorption capacity, and the cellulase adsorption per SSA. According to the developed formula, the CrI was more influential than the average pore size under the specific conditions.

  4. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases. Glycoside hydrolase (GH family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated.

  5. Disruption of sugarcane bagasse lignocellulosic structure by means of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with microwave-assisted heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Tu, Yi-Jian; Sheen, Herng-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pretreatment of dilute sulfuric acid on bagasse using microwave heating. → An increase in reaction temperature destroyed bagasse significantly. → Pretreated bagasse particles were characterized by fragmentation and swelling. → When the temperature was 190 o C, the fragmentation of particles became pronounced. → The influence of heating time on bagasse structure was not significant. - Abstract: Disruption of lignocellulosic structure of biomass plays a key role in producing bioethanol from lignocelluloses. This study investigated the impact of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment on bagasse structure using microwave heating. Three reaction temperatures of 130, 160 and 190 o C with two heating times of 5 and 10 min were considered and a number of instruments were employed to analyze the properties of the bagasse particles. On account of microwave irradiation into the solution with dielectric heating, the experiments indicated that an increase in reaction temperature destroyed the lignocellulosic structure of bagasse in a significant way. The pretreated bagasse particles were simultaneously characterized by fragmentation and swelling. When the reaction temperature was as high as 190 o C, the fragmentation of particles became fairly pronounced so that the specific surface area of the pretreated material grew substantially. Meanwhile, almost all hemicellulose was removed from bagasse and the crystalline structure of cellulose disappeared. In contrast, the feature of lignin was remained clearly. However, a comparison between the heating times of 5 and 10 min revealed that the influence of the heating time on the lignocellulosic structure was not significant, indicating that the pretreatment with 5 min was sufficiently long.

  6. A new approach for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using hydrodynamic cavitation assisted-pretreatment and column reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Kamoei, Douglas Viana; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Han, Jong-In; Santos, Júlio César Dos

    2018-05-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was adopted to assist alkaline-hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). In the following condition: 0.29 M of NaOH, 0.78% (v/v) of H 2 O 2 , 9.95 min of process time and 3 bar of inlet pressure, 95.4% of digestibility of cellulosic fraction was achieved. To take the best use of the pretreated biomass, the overall process was intensified by way of employing a packed bed flow-through column reactor and thus enabling to handle a high solid loading of 20%, thereby leading to cellulose and hemicellulose conversions to 74.7% and 75%, respectively. In the fermentation step, a bubble column reactor was introduced to maximize ethanol production from the pretreated SCB by Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124, resulting in 31.50 g/L of ethanol, 0.49 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.68 g/L.h of productivity. All this showed that our HC-assisted NaOH-H 2 O 2 pretreatment strategy along with the process intensification approach might offer an option for SCB-based biorefineries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-melanin containing pullulan production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Aureobasidium pullulans in fermentations assisted by light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Orsi, Camila Ayres; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Marcelino, Paulo Franco; Menegatti, Carlos Renato; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Dos Santos, Júlio César

    2017-04-01

    Pullulan is a polymer produced by Aureobasidium pullulans and the main bottleneck for its industrial production is the presence of melanin pigment. In this study, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of different wavelengths were used to assist the fermentation process aiming to produce low-melanin containing pullulan by wild strain of A. pullulans LB83 with different carbon sources. Under white light using glucose-based medium, 11.75g.L -1 of pullulan with high melanin content (45.70UA 540nm .g -1 ) was obtained, this production improved in process assisted by blue LED light, that resulted in 15.77g.L -1 of pullulan with reduced content of melanin (4.46UA 540nm .g -1 ). By using sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate as carbon source, similar concentration of pullulan (about 20g.L -1 ) was achieved using white and blue LED lights, with lower melanin contents in last. Use of LED light was found as a promising approach to assist biotechnological process for low-melanin containing pullulan production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by combined diluted acid with oxidate ammonolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xuefang; Wang, Can; Qi, Gaoxiang; Huang, Chao; Luo, Mutan; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to propose a biorefinery pretreatment technology for the bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) into biofuels and N-fertilizers. Performance of diluted acid (DA), aqueous ammonia (AA), oxidate ammonolysis (OA) and the combined DA with AA or OA were compared in SB pretreatment by enzymatic hydrolysis, structural characterization and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Results indicated that DA-OA pretreatment improves the digestibility of SB by sufficiently hydrolyzing hemicellulose into fermentable monosaccharides and oxidating lignin into soluble N-fertilizer with high nitrogen content (11.25%) and low C/N ratio (3.39). The enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB mainly composed of glucose was more suitable for the production of ABE solvents than the enzymatic hydrolysates from OA pretreated SB containing high ratio of xylose. The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB produced 12.12g/L ABE in 120h. These results suggested that SB could be utilized efficient, economic, and environmental by DA-OA pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electricity from bagasse in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbohwa, C.; Fukuda, S.

    2003-01-01

    Zimbabwe has suffered electrical power shortages resulting in electrical energy imports rising to between 40% and 50% of total energy needs. Electricity generation capacity has stagnated at around 2000 Megawatts (MW e ) since 1985, when two thermal units totaling 440 MW e were completed at Hwange. The effective capacity is 1.75 GW e . The current plan is to increase capacity by installing 600 MW e at Hwange at a cost of at least US $ 600 million. Raising this level of capital is difficult hence over the last 15 years there has been a failure to increase capacity. This article is based on a study of bagasse cogeneration in Zimbabwe and Mauritius conducted over a two-year period. It discusses technology improvements that can be made in the sugar sector to improve process and energy efficiency for the purposes of becoming an independent power producer that supplies power to the grid continuously throughout the year. Power plant investment in the sugar industry offers a bridging and realizable alternative for electricity generation in Zimbabwe. Investment in a 35 MW e bagasse (moisturized fiber left when sugar has been extracted from sugarcane) system would require a capital of about US$ 35 million using modern technology based on experiences in Mauritius and Reunion. A technical and economic evaluation and analysis reveals that bagasse power development is technically and economically feasible if electricity is priced at the long-term marginal cost. At current import prices, financial assistance from the global environment facility and/or the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol would be necessary. The solving of the current political and economic problems in the country would pave the way for attracting a technical partner and development, of bagasse power using domestic and international financing

  11. Ethanol production in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with interconnected reactors employing hydrodynamic cavitation-pretreated sugarcane bagasse as raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Ienny, João Vitor; Marcelino, Paulo Franco; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Antunes, Felipe A F; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Santos, Júlio César Dos

    2017-11-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB) pretreated with alkali assisted hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was investigated for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bioethanol production in interconnected column reactors using immobilized Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124. Initially, HC was employed for the evaluation of the reagent used in alkaline pretreatment. Alkalis (NaOH, KOH, Na 2 CO 3 , Ca(OH) 2 ) and NaOH recycled black liquor (successive batches) were used and their pretreatment effectiveness was assessed considering the solid composition and its enzymatic digestibility. In SSF process using NaOH-HC pretreatment SCB, 62.33% of total carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed and 17.26g/L of ethanol production (0.48g of ethanol/g of glucose and xylose consumed) was achieved. This proposed scheme of HC-assisted NaOH pretreatment together with our interconnected column reactors showed to be an interesting new approach for biorefineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Properties of a composite of polyethylene and cellulose fibers of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, G.R.; Gonzalez, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    One way of revalorizing agricultural wastes is to combine them with synthetic polymers to obtain adequate materials for certain purposes. In this paper, a trial was made to incorporate the maximum possible amount of lignocellulose fibers from sugarcane bagasse into a polyethylene matrix. The mixture was performed by means of a laboratory extruder with corotating twin screw. During the extrusion of polyethylene, the fiber was gradually added through the feeding hopper. A composition of about 50 % (w/w) of PE - fiber was obtained. Higher fiber content resulted in a lack of cohesion of the extruded material. The extruded bars were molded into 3-mm sheets by compression molding at 140 C degrees and 20 Ton. Irradiation of the molded sheets was performed with the aim of improving the material properties. Water absorption was measured according to the procedures of ASTM D 570-95, at 25 C degrees, 60 C degrees and 100 C degrees, in comparison with non-irradiated material. Less than 4 % (w/w) water absorption was measured at the higher temperatures, with no significant differences between irradiated and control samples. At 25 C degrees, after 168-h immersion, water absorption of irradiated samples was 5.3 % while control ones absorbed 6.5%. No dimensional changes were noticed after drying of the tested probes. According to these results, the material presented very good resistance to the action of water. However, no important effect was obtained by irradiation. This suggests that either the irradiation dose or the irradiation conditions were not adequate to induce an appreciable degree of crosslinking. This aspect will be studied by means of irradiation with increasing doses and measuring the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties of obtained materials will also be studied. (author)

  13. Intake and ingestive behavior in lambs fed low-digestibility forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antônio E; Carvalho, Gleidson G P; Pires, Aureliano J V; Silva, Robério R; Santos, Paulo E F; Murta, Rogério M; Pereira, Fabiano M; Carvalho, Bruna M A; Maranhão, Camila M A; Rufino, Luana M A; Santos, Stefanie A; Pina, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets consisting of fresh sugarcane with urea, bagasse treated with calcium oxide, and urea ammoniated sugarcane bagasse supplemented with concentrate mixture in 50:50 ratio were evaluated. For this, 34 wethers Santa Inês in their growing phase, with an average age of 3.0 ± 0.6 months and a mean initial live weight of 17.8± 5.2 kg were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design and subjected to visual observation periods of 5 days, for 24 h a day, during the experimental period. Dry matter (DM) intake and intake efficiency of DM were higher (P  0.05). Grams of dry matter per ruminated bolus were similar among animals fed with fresh sugarcane and ammoniated bagasse (P > 0.05) but lower (P  0.05) to those found for feeding efficiency. The number of feeding and rumination periods was not affected (P > 0.05) by diet. Based on the intake and ingestive behavior responses, the fresh sugarcane with urea compared to bagasse treated with calcium oxide and ammoniated bagasse was found to be the better alternative feed for use in lamb diets.

  14. Improving bioethanol production from sugarcane: evaluation of distillation, thermal integration and cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marina O.S.; Modesto, Marcelo; Ensinas, Adriano V.; Nebra, Silvia A.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Rossell, Carlos E.V.

    2011-01-01

    Demand for bioethanol has grown considerably over the last years. Even though Brazil has been producing ethanol from sugarcane on a large scale for decades, this industry is characterized by low energy efficiency, using a large fraction of the bagasse produced as fuel in the cogeneration system to supply the process energy requirements. The possibility of selling surplus electricity to the grid or using surplus bagasse as raw material of other processes has motivated investments on more efficient cogeneration systems and process thermal integration. In this work simulations of an autonomous distillery were carried out, along with utilities demand optimization using Pinch Analysis concepts. Different cogeneration systems were analyzed: a traditional Rankine Cycle, with steam of high temperature and pressure (80 bar, 510 o C) and back pressure and condensing steam turbines configuration, and a BIGCC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle), comprised by a gas turbine set operating with biomass gas produced in a gasifier that uses sugarcane bagasse as raw material. Thermoeconomic analyses determining exergy-based costs of electricity and ethanol for both cases were carried out. The main objective is to show the impact that these process improvements can produce in industrial systems, compared to the current situation.

  15. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm W; Despland, Laure M; Lake, Neal J; Yee, Lachlan H; Anstoetz, Manuela; Arif, Elisabeth; Parr, Jeffery F; Doumit, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia) where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α -quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product.

  16. Direct hydrogen production from dilute-acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using the newly isolated Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum MJ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin-Bin; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2017-05-03

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two severe global problems, and biological hydrogen production from lignocellulose shows great potential as a promising alternative biofuel to replace the fossil fuels. Currently, most studies on hydrogen production from lignocellulose concentrate on cellulolytic microbe, pretreatment method, process optimization and development of new raw materials. Due to no effective approaches to relieve the inhibiting effect of inhibitors, the acid pretreated lignocellulose hydrolysate was directly discarded and caused environmental problems, suggesting that isolation of inhibitor-tolerant strains may facilitate the utilization of acid pretreated lignocellulose hydrolysate. Thermophilic bacteria for producing hydrogen from various kinds of sugars were screened, and the new strain named MJ1 was isolated from paper sludge, with 99% identity to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The hydrogen yields of 11.18, 4.25 and 2.15 mol-H 2 /mol sugar can be reached at an initial concentration of 5 g/L cellobiose, glucose and xylose, respectively. The main metabolites were acetate and butyrate. More important, MJ1 had an excellent tolerance to inhibitors of dilute-acid (1%, g/v) pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (DAPSBH) and could efficiently utilize DAPSBH for hydrogen production without detoxication, with a production higher than that of pure sugars. The hydrogen could be quickly produced with the maximum hydrogen production reached at 24 h. The hydrogen production reached 39.64, 105.42, 111.75 and 110.44 mM at 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DAPSBH, respectively. Supplementation of CaCO 3 enhanced the hydrogen production by 21.32% versus the control. These results demonstrate that MJ1 could directly utilize DAPSBH for biohydrogen production without detoxication and can serve as an excellent candidate for industrialization of hydrogen production from DAPSBH. The results also suggest that isolating unique

  17. Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil from energy, environmental, and economic perspectives: Profit or expense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Junqueira, Tassia L.; Pavanello, Lucas G.; Cavalett, Otávio; Mantelatto, Paulo E.; Bonomi, Antonio; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from Brazilian sugarcane biorefineries was assessed. • Energy from biogas could be used for electricity or vehicular fuel replacement. • Biogas in cogeneration could release bagasse for second-generation ethanol production. • Environmental analysis showed decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutant load. • Diesel replacement was the most economically attractive alternative. - Abstract: The need to improve the sustainability of bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has intensified the search for process energy optimization coupled with the environmental suitability of the generated coproducts and wastes. In this scenario, the anaerobic digestion of vinasse (the most abundant effluent from a sugarcane biorefinery) arises as an interesting alternative because, in addition to promoting the stabilization of organic matter, it also enables energy generation from biogas. In this work, vinasse anaerobic digestion in biorefineries was evaluated in terms of energy, environmental, and economic considerations. The energy potential from vinasse of a single sugarcane biorefinery, which is generally lost due to its application to soil with no treatment, was found to be comparable to the electricity supply demand of a city of approximately 130,000 inhabitants or to the surplus energy from bagasse burning that is exported by some sugarcane mills in Brazil. On a national level, such energy is comparable to the electricity generated by some hydroelectric plants, reaching 7.5% of the electricity generated by the world’s largest hydroelectric plant. When burned in boilers, biogas could be used to stimulate second-generation ethanol production because almost 12% of the bagasse could be released from burning and the biogas used to attenuate the process energy demand. As an alternative fuel, biogas could replace up to 40% of the annual diesel supply in the agricultural operations of a sugarcane biorefinery and still

  18. Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-03-30

    The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Napolitano, C.M.; Galvão, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH. - Highlights: ► We study the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose in sugarcane bagasse. ► We study the combination of three pretreatments: electron beam processing, EBP followed by hydrothermal and by diluted acid treatment. ► The electron beam processing increased the enzymatic hydrolysis from 8% to 15% with 20 kGy. ► The enzymes used were commercial preparations, as Celluclast 1.5 L and β-glycosidase. ► The EBP with 50 kGy increased on 20% the yield of EH of cellulose after TH and 30% after AH.

  20. FeCl3-catalyzed ethanol pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse boosts sugar yields with low enzyme loadings and short hydrolysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdan; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Yuan, Hongyou; Lyu, Gaojin; Xie, Jun

    2018-02-01

    An organosolv pretreatment system consisting of 60% ethanol and 0.025 mol·L -1 FeCl 3 under various temperatures was developed in this study. During the pretreatment, the highest xylose yield was 11.4 g/100 g raw material, representing 49.8% of xylose in sugarcane bagasse. Structural features of raw material and pretreated substrates were characterized to better understand how hemicellulose removal and delignification affected subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The 160 °C pretreated solid presented a remarkable glucose yield of 93.8% for 72 h. Furthermore, the influence of different additives on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated solid was investigated. The results indicated that the addition of Tween 80 shortened hydrolysis time to 6 h and allowed a 50% reduction of enzyme loading to achieve the same level of glucose yield. This work suggested that FeCl 3 -catalyzed organosolv pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly and reduce the hydrolysis time and enzyme dosage with the addition of Tween 80. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Successive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse in a packed bed flow-through column reactor aiming to support biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Hilares, R; Reséndiz, A L; Martínez, R T; Silva, S S; Santos, J C

    2016-03-01

    A packed bed flow-through column reactor (PBFTCR) was used for pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Alkaline pretreatment was performed at 70 °C for 4h with fresh 0.3M NaOH solution or with liquor recycled from a previous pretreatment batch. Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124 was used for fermentation of sugars released after enzymatic hydrolysis (20 FPU g(-1) of dry SCB). The highest results for lignin removal were 61% and 52%, respectively, observed when using fresh NaOH or the first reuse of the liquor. About 50% of cellulosic and 57% of hemicellulosic fractions of pretreated SCBs were enzymatically hydrolyzed and the maximum ethanol production was 23.4 g L(-1) (ethanol yield of 0.4 gp gs(-1)), with near complete consumption of both pentoses and hexoses present in the hydrolysate during the fermentation. PBFTCR as a new alternative for SCB-biorefineries is presented, mainly considering its simple configuration and efficiency for operating with a high solid:liquid ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Processing and properties of eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films filled with cellulose nanocrystals from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achaby, Mounir; El Miri, Nassima; Aboulkas, Adil; Zahouily, Mohamed; Bilal, Essaid; Barakat, Abdellatif; Solhy, Abderrahim

    2017-03-01

    Novel synthesis strategy of eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films have been exploited using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose (PVA/CMC) blend matrix as a potential in food packaging application. The CNC were extracted from sugarcane bagasse using sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and they were successfully characterized regarding their morphology, size, crystallinity and thermal stability. Thereafter, PVA/CMC-CNC bio-nanocomposite films, at various CNC contents (0.5-10wt%), were fabricated by the solvent casting method, and their properties were investigated. It was found that the addition of 5wt% CNC within a PVA/CMC increased the tensile modulus and strength by 141% and 83% respectively, and the water vapor permeability was reduced by 87%. Additionally, the bio-nanocomposites maintained the same transparency level of the PVA/CMC blend film (transmittance of ∼90% in the visible region), suggesting that the CNC were dispersed at the nanoscale. In these bio-nanocomposites, the adhesion properties and the large number of functional groups that are present in the CNC's surface and the macromolecular chains of the PVA/CMC blend are exploited to improve the interfacial interactions between the CNC and the blend. Consequently, these eco-friendly structured bio-nanocomposites with superior properties are expected to be useful in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cellulase Production Potentials of the Microbial Profile of Some Sugarcane Bagasse Dumping Sites in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated cellulase production potentials of the microbial profile of three sugarcane bagasse dumping sites at Zango area, Ilorin, Nigeria. The microbial isolates were screened for cellulase production with a view to select the best organism for eventual cellulase production. Pour Plate method was used for the isolation and a total of thirteen (13 different organisms including both fungal and bacterial species were isolated and screened. Six (6 fungal isolates identified as Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Neurospora sitophilus, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum were isolated, while seven (7 different bacterial species isolated include Clostridium cellobioparum, Clostridium thermocellum,Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumillus, Lactobacillus spp, Pseudomonas flavescens and Serratia spp. Generally, bacterial isolates were more in abundance than fungal species. However; fungal isolates were constant and were isolated through the experimental period of three weeks. All the isolates showed cellulase production potential in varying degrees as reflected in the clearance zone around their colonies. Fungal isolates produced more cellulase than the bacterial isolates. Mucor racemosus had the highest clearance zone (75.0 mm among the fungal isolates while Clostridium cellobioparum (35.0 mm were the best producer among bacterial isolates. The least producer among fungal isolates, Penicillium citrinum (40.0 mm, is a little more than the bacterial cellulase producer (35.0 mm and is far greater than the least bacterium Serratia spp (14.0 mm.

  4. Design and optimization of hydrogen production from hydrothermally pretreated sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Lais Américo; Braga, Juliana Kawanishi; Motteran, Fabrício; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen production from hydrothermally pretreated (200 °C for 10 min at 16 bar) sugarcane bagasse was analyzed using response surface methodology. The yeast extract concentration and the temperature had a significant influence for hydrogen production (p-value 0.027 and 0.009, respectively). Maximum hydrogen production (17.7 mmol/L) was observed with 3 g/L yeast extract at 60 °C (C10). In this conditions were produced acetic acid (50.44 mg/L), butyric acid (209.71 mg/L), ethanol (38.4 mg/L), and methane (6.27 mmol/L). Lower hydrogen productions (3.5 mmol/L and 3.9 mmol/L) were observed under the conditions C7 (2 g/L of yeast extract, 35.8 °C) and C9 (1 g/L of yeast extract, 40 °C), respectively. The low yeast extract concentration and low temperature caused a negative effect on the hydrogen production. By means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 20% of similarity was observed between the archaeal population of mesophilic (35 and 40 °C) and thermophilic (50, 60 and 64 °C) reactors. Likewise, similarity of 22% was noted between the bacterial population for the reactors with the lowest hydrogen production (3.5 mmol/L), at 35.8 °C and with the highest hydrogen production (17.7 mmol/L) at 60 °C demonstrating that microbial population modification was a function of incubation temperature variation.

  5. An Analysis of the Thermal Conductivity of Composite Materials (CPC-30R/Charcoal from Sugarcane Bagasse Using the Hot Insulated Plate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Salgado-Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of new thermally insulating composite materials from solid residues such as charcoal from sugarcane bagasse (CSB is of great importance because it takes advantage of materials that might otherwise pollute the environment. Therefore, for this study, we obtained composite materials based on a portland cement (CPC-30R matrix and CSB particles with a 4 : 1 water-cement ratio and CSB concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight. The thermal conductivities of these materials were characterized following ASTM guideline C177, their CSB morphological properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their compositions were determined using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The results show that the composite materials have reduced thermal conductivities. The metallic oxide percentage composition of the CSB was also determined. It was observed that there was a reduction in thermal conductivity when CSB was used as compared to 100% CPC-30R, and the influence of the CSB concentration on thermal conductivity was measured.

  6. Quality evaluation of compost produced from agro-industrialbyproducts of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bohórquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh by products of the sugar industry (sugarcane sludge, bagasse and vinasse incorporated into the soil generate a negative impact on plants. Therefore, compost is an alternative solution to the use of sugarcane byproducts, which must meet the requirements of the Colombian technical standard 5167 for use as biofertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of compost made from different combinations of products of the milling process of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Composting piles were established in the Ingenio Riopaila-Castilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, using a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. 100% sugarcane sludge (T1, 75% sugarcane sludge and 25% bagasse (T2, 50% bagasse and 50% sugarcane sludge (T3, 25% sugarcane sludge and 75% bagasse (T4 and 100% bagasse (T5, all supplemented with 2 m3 of vinasse. The response variables: pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, organic matter, moisture retention, the carbon-nitrogen ratio, the total oxidizable organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese and zinc, were evaluated at the time when the initial compost piles were prepared, and the 42, 51, 59, 73 and 90 days after beginning the process. The results showed that the carbon-nitrogen mixtures initial ratio is critical for obtaining a good quality of compost. The T3 provided the best quality with the highest content of nutrients. The composting time ensuring adequate maturation levels for nutrients in the compost was 90 days.

  7. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  8. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Gopal, Anand R.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  9. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm W. Clark

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α −quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product. Keywords: Materials Science, Civil Engineering

  10. Optimization of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with filter cake: Effects of macronutrients supplementation on conversion kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F; Schüch, Andrea; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with sugarcane filter cake was investigated with a special focus on macronutrients supplementation for an optimized conversion process. Experimental data from batch tests and a semi-continuous experiment operated in different supplementation phases were used for modeling the conversion kinetics based on continuous stirred-tank reactors. The semi-continuous experiment showed an overall decrease in the performance along the inoculum washout from the reactors. By supplementing nitrogen alone or in combination to phosphorus and sulfur the specific methane production significantly increased (P0.99), the use of the depicted kinetics did not provide a good estimation for process simulation of the semi-continuous process (in any supplementation phase), possibly due to the different feeding modes and inoculum source, activity and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  12. The Effect of Sugarcane Bagassès Size on the Properties of Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhou, Guoqiang; Li, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The influence of milled bagasse particle size on their reducing sugar and lignin content during dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymolysis was investigated. The biomass crystal structures of hydrolyzed residues and enzymolyzed substrates were studied with X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that the conversion ratio of reducing sugar declined with decreasing milled bagasse particle size. The conversion ratio of reducing sugar after acid hydrolysis decreased from 31.3% to 28.9%. The smaller of the milled bagasse particle size was, the higher of the klason lignin content of hydrolyzed residuals was, which resulted in a decline in conversion ratio of reducing sugar during enzymolysis. In this study, the optimal size of milled bagasse particles was 10 to 20 meshes. The total reducing sugar conversion ratio was 61.5%, consisting of 31.3% in hydrolysis and 30.2% in enzymolysis. After hydrolysis, the specific surface area and pore size increased, and the fiber length was shortened. The inner microfiber bundles were exposed, which improved the accessibility of cellulase and the efficiency of enzymolysis.

  13. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  14. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3, A. sydowii (SBCM7 and A. fumigatus (SBC4. The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g. For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g and 4.0 (573 U/g, respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

  15. Biosorption of styrene from synthetic wastewater by sugar cane waste(Bagass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, styrene removal from wastewater by using sugarcane waste (bagasse as an adsorbent was studied. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were determined; the effects of bagasse particle size and concentration, solutions pH, and temperature on the biosorption of styrene were studied in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibrium data was successfully fitted to Langmuir isotherms (R2=0.986 and Freundlich isotherms (R2=0.96. Also, the kinetics of biosorption was fitted to pseudo-second order equations (K2=0.00146 g mg-1 min-1, qe=24.5 mg g-1 for particle size range of 88-105 μm. According to the obtained results, an empirical equation was presented that could be used to calculate the percentage of styrene adsorption. The results showed that an increase in temperature caused a decrease in styrene removal. Moreover, maximum uptake was observed with NaOH-treated bagasse. It was found that an increase in average particle size decreased the biosorption rate. According to the calculated heat of adsorption, this sorption can be classified as a chemical biosorption. The optimum uptake was determined to be 88% at a pH equal to 12.1, a temperature of 35 oC, a particle size of 420-500 μm, and a bagasse concentration of 1 g L-1.

  16. Enhancement of certain agro-cellulosic wastes through radiation processing for livestock feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, D.M.H.; Zakaria, S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was undertaken with air-dried peanut hulls, sugarcane bagasse, corn stalks, concobs, banana leaves, wheat straw and broad bean straw to determine the effect of radiation treatment up to 3 MGY on their chemical composition and the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on treated wastes. The effect of gamma irradiation on crude protein, fat and ash of these wastes was negligible. While radiation treatment reduced the content of crude fiber in all these wastes with corresponding increases in dry matter digestibility in vitro, as a function of radiation dose. When peanut hulls, sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were exposed to gamma rays at 0, 1, 2 and 3 MGy a linear reduction in fiber components (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin), increased in glucose yield enzymatic hydrolysis and dry matter digestibility were observed for peanut hulls, sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw. The findings confirm that irradiation of fibrous vegetable materials could convert them into a valuable feed supplement

  17. Evaluation of the environmental aging and mechanical properties of the polypropylene/sugarcane bagasse composites; Avaliacao do envelhecimento ambiental e das propriedades mecanicas dos compositos de polipropileno/bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Rayane Lima de Moura; Mulinari, Daniella Regina [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with fibers from sugarcane bagasse composites in different proportions were prepared. Also environmental aging was conducted for the composites and their mechanical properties determined. The results showed that chemical treatment caused changes in color and chemical composition of the fibers, removing impurities and amorphous constituents such as lignin and hemicellulose, techniques of FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed these data. Also, it was observed that addition of natural fiber in PP matrix provided an improvement in the mechanical properties materials. The weathering test revealed a slight mass gain after 75 days, but it was clear that the inclusion of fibers has a higher mass gain compared to pure PP. (author)

  18. Disease resistance in sugarcane – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramesh Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops cultivated world-wide both under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. The crop gains economic importance by virtue of its industrial potential in terms of products like crystal white sugar, bagasse, pressmud, power etc. Among the various production constraints of the crop, diseases are seen as a major threat for sustaining the productivity of sugarcane. Conventional Breeding is a lengthy process and it involves almost more than 10 years for the release of a commercial variety. Many varieties with superior agronomical traits have succumbed to diseases like red rot and smut during the course of cultivation, which hitherto at the time of release were rated to be resistant. The breakdown of disease resistance is attributed to the possible emergence of new virulent pathotypes. This situation has warranted a pertinent need to have a thorough understanding on inheritance pattern and mechanism of disease resistance in sugarcane, which would aid for quick screening of disease resistant clones and successful management of the diseases, respectively. Overall, there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant disease resistance, thanks to the advent of robust molecular tools. An integration of the tools of “Omics” namely genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. has further strengthened in deciphering plant-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. With the accomplishments in elucidating sugarcane ESTs, which was ably supported by employing the next generation sequencing platforms to unlock the secrets of pathogenomics in sugarcane, it is now made possible to further improve our understanding on disease resistance in sugarcane. Giving the scenario, the future looks evenmore promising, wherein convincing results are in the offing to thoroughly unravel the enigmatic relationship between sugarcane and its important pathogens.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SUPPLY IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE BASED RATION ON BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Wati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and protein supply in sugarcane bagasse based ration on the body composition of sheep. The study was consisted of two steps of experiment. The first step of experiment used two rumen cannulated adult rams to create formulation of three diets with different synchronization index, namely 0.37; 0.50 and 0.63 respectively. The experimental diets were designed to be iso-energy, iso-nitrogenous and iso-neutral detergent fibre (iso-NDF. The second step of experiment was to determine the body composition of sheep fed the experimental diets, which were created in the first experiment. The body composition of fifteen rams were determined on week 0; 4; and 8 of experimental period, these were accomplished using the technique of urea dilution. The alteration of synchronization index did not affect on feed intake, ratio of ruminal acetate to propionate and serum glucose concentration, but dry matter (DM digestibility was affected (P<0.05 by the treatment of synchronization index in the diet. The alteration of synchronization index in the diet did not affect on the percentage of body protein, fat and water significantly, though body weight of sheep gained slightly during the experimental period.

  20. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone P., E-mail: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A. [Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Planning, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Watson, Helen K. [School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KZN (South Africa); Lynd, Lee Rybeck [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth, NH (United States); Elmissiry, Mosad [New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Johannesburg, GT (South Africa); Cortez, Luís A. B. [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-12-26

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  1. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A.; Watson, Helen K.; Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Elmissiry, Mosad; Cortez, Luís A. B.

    2016-01-01

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  2. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  3. Production and productivity of sugar cane bagasse during 2008/2009 crop season for electrical energy conservation; Producao e produtividade de bagaco de cana-de-acucar ao longo da safra 2008/2009, visando a cogeracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify sources of energy generation, Brazil has encouraged cogeneration of energy from biomass. Among the various biomasses sources, sugar cane bagasse is one that combines the best economic attributes to be due mainly to industrial production in large quantities. This study aimed to evaluate the bagasse productive potential of two varieties of sugarcane during the harvest period. The experiment was conducted at UNESP, Jaboticabal County. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot, having the two sugarcane cultivars as plots, and the split times of the 11 tests during the season and 3 replications. Were estimated production (kg tc{sup -1}) and productivity (t ha{sup -1}) residue for each cultivar in their own times. The cultivars showed differences from the average production of mulch. However, obtained similar behavior throughout the season, characterized by progressive cuts. For bagasse Productivity, the cultivars showed differences in average values and behavior throughout the season. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 had the best performance in relation to production and productivity of bagasse, can be used for cogeneration for most of the season. The cultivar RB855536 presented a lower performance, achieving low production and productivity of bagasse, indicating its lower potential in relation to energy generation. (author)

  4. Improvement of biotechnological xylitol production by glucose during cultive of Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of glucose on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii was examined by adding it to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate medium to obtain different glucose:xylose ratios (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2.5. Under experimental conditions, increasing glucose:xylose ratio improved the assimilation of the xylose present in the hydrolysate by yeast, resulting in biomass increase, and in the formation of xylitol and glycerol/ethanol by-products. Maximum values of xylitol yield (0.59 g g-1 and volumetric productivity (0.53 g l-1.h-1 were obtained with glucose:xylose ratio of 1:5, resulting in the higher conversion efficiency (64.3%.O efeito da glicose na bioconversão de xilose em xilitol por Candida guilliermondii foi avaliado em hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de cana com diferentes relações glicose:xilose (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2,5. Sob as condições experimentais, o aumento da relação glicose:xilose favoreceu a assimilação da xilose presente no hidrolisado, resultando em aumento da biomassa celular e aumento da formação de xilitol e dos sub-produtos glicerol e etanol. Os valores máximos do fator de conversão de xilose em xilitol (0,59 g g-1 e da produtividade volumétrica de xilitol (0,53 g l-1.h-1 foram obtidos com a relação glicose:xilose 1:5, resultando na maior eficiência de conversão (64,3%.

  5. Microstructural analysis of the potential of sugarcane bagasse ash as a pozzolan material in cement composites; Analise microestrutural do potencial das cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar como material pozolanico em compositos cimenticios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.M.; Assuncao, C.C.; Guimaraes, L. de M.; Malmonge, J.A.; Tashima, M.M; Akasaki, J.L., E-mail: jorge.akasaki@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2016-07-01

    For civil construction, the ash obtained by burning sugarcane bagasse (SCBA) in sugar-cane industry is being treated as a pozzolan material because, in addition to containing high amounts of silicon and aluminium oxides, can promote reduction of the environmental impact caused by cement production, since this alternative material may partially replace the Portland cement.The present study evaluated the pozzolanic potential of the SCBA, from different states of Brazil (Sao Paulo (SP), Goias (GO) and Mato Grosso (MT)). The reactivity of the material was analyzed by microstructural characterization, besides the pastes production (lime / SCBA and cement / SCBA) for the analysis of the hydration products formed, which are evaluated by TG and SEM. There was a decrease in the formation of ettringite in the matrixes, inversely proportional to the amount of ash, which favored the reduction of the cracking in cementitious matrices. It has also observed that the pastes produced with the ashes from State of SP showed greater fixation of lime and, consequently, a high reactivity. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis for power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Joaquim E.A.; Macedo, Isaias C.

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the technical, economic and environmental (GHG emissions mitigation) performance of power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass, considering conversion plants adjacent to a sugarcane mill in Brazil. Systems performances were simulated for a projected enzymatic saccharification co-fermentation plant (Ethanol option) and for a commercial steam-Rankine power plant (Electricity option). Surplus bagasse from the mill would be used as fuel/raw material for conversion, while cane trash collected from the field would be used as supplementary fuel at the mill. For the Electricity option, the sugarcane biorefinery (mill+adjacent plant) would produce 91 L of ethanol per tonne of cane and export 130 kWh/t of cane, while for the Ethanol option the total ethanol production would be 124 L/t of cane with an electricity surplus of 50 kWh/t cane. The return on investment (ROI) related to the biochemical conversion route was 15.9%, compared with 23.2% for the power plant, for the conditions in Brazil. Considering the GHG emissions mitigation, the environmentally preferred option is the biochemical conversion route: the net avoided emissions associated to the adjacent plants are estimated to be 493 and 781 kgCO 2 eq/t of dry bagasse for the Electricity and Ethanol options, respectively. - Research Highlights: → Power generation would present better profitability than ethanol production from sugarcane residues in Brazil, in the reference scenario adopted here. → The Ethanol option would be able to mitigate more GHG emissions in Brazil. → The economics for the ethanol production technology are more likely to improve in the future.

  7. Batch and multi-step fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse at high solid loadings for high sugar and ethanol titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Dong, Lei; Chen, Liang; Liu, Dehua

    2013-05-01

    Formiline pretreatment pertains to a biomass fractionation process. In the present work, Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed with cellulases by batch and multi-step fed-batch processes at 20% solid loading. For wet pulp, after 144 h incubation with cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g dry solid, fed-batch process obtained ~150 g/L glucose and ~80% glucan conversion, while batch process obtained ~130 g/L glucose with corresponding ~70% glucan conversion. Solid loading could be further increased to 30% for the acetone-dried pulp. By fed-batch hydrolysis of the dried pulp in pH 4.8 buffer solution, glucose concentration could be 247.3±1.6 g/L with corresponding 86.1±0.6% glucan conversion. The enzymatic hydrolyzates could be well converted to ethanol by a subsequent fermentation using Saccharomices cerevisiae with ethanol titer of 60-70 g/L. Batch and fed-batch SSF indicated that Formiline-pretreated substrate showed excellent fermentability. The final ethanol concentration was 80 g/L with corresponding 82.7% of theoretical yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Yeasts Able to Assimilate Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate and Produce Xylitol Associated with Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Thiago Silveira Rocha Matos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta were collected from the Central Amazon Rainforest. Their guts were dissected and a total of 20 microbial colonies were isolated using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. They were identified as having 10 distinct biochemical profiles, and genetic analysis allowed identification as three clades in the genera Candida, Williopsis, and Geotrichum. All colonies were able to assimilate D-xylose and 18 were able to produce xylitol, especially a strain of Geotrichum, with a maximum yield of 0.502 g·g−1. These results agree with a previous prediction that the microbial community associated with xylophagous insects is a promising source of species of biotechnological interest.

  9. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  10. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A. [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos, DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP, CP 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Koehlinger, John [Energy Consultant. 1322 Hepburn Ave 1, Louisville, KY 40204 (United States); Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto [ENEA Trisaia Research Centre. Prot-STP. SS106 Jonica, Rotondella (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed. (author)

  11. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A.; Koehlinger, John; Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0

  12. Optimization of endoglucanase production from thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis RT-17 and its application for saccharification of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, R.; Qadir, F.; Ahmed, A.; Shariq, M.; Zafar, U.; Khan, S.A.

    2018-01-01

    Thermostable cellulases are required for a variety of commercial processes. Bacillus is a house of thermostable proteins. Screening of indigenously isolated strains of bacteria revealed the promising production of cellulase by a strain, RT-17, at 50 degree C. The strain was identified on the basis of biochemical and molecular characteristics as B. licheniformis. The factors affecting cellulase production from B. licheniformis RT-17 were evaluated for their significant effect using Plackett Burman Design and were optimized by employing Box-Behnken Design. The model predicted 9.808 IU/ml of endoglucanase (EG) under optimum conditions of 50 degree C; 10% inoculum size; pH 5; and 1% peptone in fermentation medium. Practically, a titer of 9.128 IU/ml was obtained, showed the validity of the model. The enzyme preparation from B. licheniformis RT-17 was applied in combination with xylanase and pectinase preparations from indigenous yeasts for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). A higher degree of synergy (7.1 folds) was observed when yeast pectinase was used with bacterial cellulase for the hydrolysis of alkali treated SCB. Whereas, the degree of synergy was lower when bacterial cellulase was mixed with yeast xylanase. The study revealed the possibility of utilization of combination of yeast and bacterial enzymes for biomass saccharification. (author)

  13. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  14. Recent trends on techno-economic assessment (TEA of sugarcane biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ali Mandegari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability challenges, e.g., climate change, resource depletion, and expanding populations, have triggered a swift move towards a circular bio-economy which is expected to evolve progressively in the coming decades. However, the transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy requires the exploitation of scientific innovations and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Biorefineries have been extensively investigated for biofuel production from first and second generation feedstocks, whereas some research activities have been conducted on production of biochemical and biopolymers from renewable resources. Techno-economic evaluation of diverse technologies for production of biofuels and biochemical is a crucial step for decision making in the development of bio-economy. This contribution focuses on the economic studies carried out on biorefineries converting sugarcane bagasse, due to its availability and importance in the South African context, into value-added products. Recent studies on biofuel production via biochemical pathway, e.g., ethanol, butanol, or thermochemical pathway, e.g., methanol and bio jet fuel as well as production of biochemicals with high market demands and diverse applications such as lactic acid, succinic acid, and xylitol have been briefly reviewed. In addition, an overview on the production of biopolymers such as polyl-lactic acid and bio-based monomers, i.e., butanediol, from sugarcane bagasse is reported.

  15. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cristina Campos Antoniêto

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0, neutral (pH 7.0, and alkaline (pH 10.0 medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry.

  16. Nutrient digestibility response to sugarcane bagasse addition and corn particle size in normal and high Na diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, S-B

    2018-04-01

    Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0.16 or 0.4%). Protein digestibility coefficient was measured using pooled distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Meanwhile, starch and gross energy digestibility coefficients were measured using pooled duodenal, distal jejunal, and distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Coarsely ground corn (CC) resulted in improved ileal protein digestibility (P digestibility in the duodenum (P digestibility in distal ileum (P digestibility (P digestibility only in birds fed the diet with finely ground corn (FC) and 0.16% Na. These findings demonstrate that SB and CC are able to improve nutrient digestibility. It can be recommended for the poultry industry to use SB and coarsely ground corn in feed to improve the utilization of nutrients.

  17. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent's surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  18. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  19. Characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse by {sup 1}H-NMR; Caracterizacao de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar por {sup 1}H-RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes, E-mail: d.a.cerqueira@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Uberlendia (IQ/UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Rui A. [Universidade de Coimbra (UC) (Portugal). Dept. de Bioquimica; Valente, Artur J.M. [Universidade de Coimbra (UC) (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms present at the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH{sub 3} ) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression was carried out in order to remove the peak of residual water in the materials and the peak related to impurities in cellulose triacetate. Degree of substitution values obtained through the resonance deconvolution were compared to those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. The determined degrees of substitution of the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60. (author)

  20. Dietary sugarcane bagasse and coarse particle size of corn are beneficial to performance and gizzard development in broilers fed normal and high sodium diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2017-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, ileal microflora, litter quality, and bird welfare under a wet litter challenge model. A total of 672 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with corn particle size-coarse 3,576 μm (CC) or fine 1,113 μm (FC) geometric mean diameter, SB - 0 or 2% and sodium (Na) - 0.16 or 0.40% with increased Na level to induce wet litter. A 3-way particle size × Na × SB interaction (P litter quality and bird welfare were observed, but higher Na increased litter moisture and footpad dermatitis (FPD) scores (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that SB independently or in combination with CC improves performance in older birds regardless of Na level in diets, possibly through improved gizzard development and gut microflora of birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Carbon exergy tax applied to biomass integrated gasification combined cycle in sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Filho, Valdi Freire da; Matelli, José Alexandre; Perrella Balestieri, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies based on energy renewable sources is increasing worldwide in order to diversify the energy mix and satisfy the rigorous environmental legislation and international agreements to reduce pollutant emission. Considering specific characteristics of biofuels available in Brazil, studies regarding such technologies should be carried out aiming energy mix diversification. Several technologies for power generation from biomass have been presented in the technical literature, and plants with BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) emerge as a major technological innovation. By obtaining a fuel rich in hydrogen from solid biomass gasification, BIGCC presents higher overall process efficiency than direct burning of the solid fuel in conventional boilers. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium model of a BIGCC configuration for sugarcane bagasse. The model embodies exergetic cost and CO_2 emission analyses through the method of CET (carbon exergy tax). An exergetic penalty comparison between the BIGCC technology (with and without CO_2 capture and sequestration), a natural gas combined cycle and the traditional steam cycle of sugarcane sector is then presented. It is verified that the BIGCC configuration with CO_2 capture and sequestration presents technical and environmental advantages when compared to traditional technology. - Highlights: • We compared thermal cycles with the exergetic carbon exergy tax. • Thermal cycles with and without carbon capture and sequestration were considered. • Burned and gasified sugarcane bagasse was assumed as renewable fuel. • Exergetic carbon penalty tax was imposed to all studied configurations. • BIGCC with carbon sequestration revealed to be advantageous.

  2. {sup 1}H-NMR characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse; Caracterizacao de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar por {sup 1}H-RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Daniel A., E-mail: daniel.cerqueira@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Rui de A. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Bioquimica; Valente, Artur J.M. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms of the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH{sub 3}) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression of some signals was carried out in order to remove the residual water resonance in the materials and those related to impurities in cellulose triacetate as well. A deconvolution method for the computation of the degree of substitution of acetylation is proposed. The degrees of substitution for the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60, in good agreement with those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. (author)

  3. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to evaluate pretreated sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for cellulase production under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Crestana, Silvio; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2014-03-01

    The enzymatic cocktail of cellulases is one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels and other chemicals. Here, the influence of liquid hot water, dilute acid, alkali, and combined acid/alkali pretreatments on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) used for cellulase production was investigated by means of spectroscopic and imaging techniques. Chemical composition and structural characteristics, such as crystallinity (determined by X-ray diffraction), functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy), were used to correlate SCB pretreatments with enzymatic biosynthesis by a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The combined acid/alkali pretreatment resulted in a SCB with higher cellulose content (86.7%). However, the high crystallinity (74%) of the resulting biomass was detrimental to microbial uptake and enzyme production. SCB pretreated with liquid hot water yielded the highest filter paper cellulase (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase activities (0.4, 14.9, and 26.1 U g(-1), respectively). The results showed that a suitable pretreatment for SCB to be used as a substrate for cellulase production should avoid severe conditions in order to preserve amorphous cellulose and to enhance the physical properties that assist microbial access.

  5. Comparative thermogravimetric analyses of co-combustion of textile dyeing sludge and sugarcane bagasse in carbon dioxide/oxygen and nitrogen/oxygen atmospheres: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenhao; Wen, Shaoting; Liu, Jingyong; Xie, Wuming; Kuo, Jiahong; Lu, Xingwen; Sun, Shuiyu; Chang, Kenlin; Buyukada, Musa; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2018-05-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of co-combustion of textile dyeing sludge (TDS) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) were studied using thermogravimetric analysis in CO 2 /O 2 and N 2 /O 2 atmospheres. Our results showed that the comprehensive combustion characteristic index (CCI) of the blends was improved by 1.71-4.32 times. With the increased O 2 concentration, co-combustion peak temperature decreased from 329.7 to 318.2 °C, with an increase in its maximum weight loss rate from 10.04 to 14.99%/min and its CCI by 1.31 times (β = 20 °C·min -1 ). To evaluate the co-combustion characteristics, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (entropy, Gibbs free energy and enthalpy changes, and apparent activation energy) were obtained in the five atmospheres. The lowest apparent activation energy of the TB64 blend was obtained in oxy-fuel atmosphere (CO 2 /O 2  = 7/3). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddadee, Bancha; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Watts, Daniel J.; Pitakaso, Rapeepan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes

  7. Growth and metal uptake of energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in different metal mine tailings with soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhang, Yuebin; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Shaochun; Guo, Jiawen; Li, Rudan; Wu, Songlin; Chen, Baodong

    2014-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of growing energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in three different metal mine tailings (Cu, Sn and Pb/Zn tailings) amended with uncontaminated soil at different mixing ratios. The results indicated that sugarcane was highly tolerant to tailing environments. Amendments of 20% soil to Sn tailings and 30% soil to Cu tailings could increase the biomass of cane-stem for use as the raw material for bioethanol production. Heavy metals were mostly retained in roots, which indicated that sugarcane was useful for the stabilization of the tailings. Bagasse and juice, as the most valuable parts to produce bioethanol, only accounted for 0.6%-3% and 0.6%-7% of the total metal content. Our study supported the potential use of sugarcane for tailing phytostabilization and bioenergy production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Novaes Franco-Cirigliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01 U·mL−1 was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v and CSL 1.2% (w/v within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54 U mL−1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8 mM, the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34 U·mL−1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5 kDa were detected by zymogram.

  9. Etude des possibilités de valorisation agricole des écumes et de la bagasse de canne à sucre de SOSUHO (Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita-Ngadi, J.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the possibilities of agricultural valorisation of sugarcane scums and bagasse of SOSUHO (Gabon. As a first step towards the general use of organic fertilizers in improving poor agricultural yields of soils in the province of Haut-Ogooue, in Gabon, we studied germination and growth of seven different types of plants (maize, Zea mays L. var. 60 ; rice Oryza sativa Var. 1345 ; cacao-tree, Theobroma cacao Var. Forastero ; gombo, Hibiscus esculantus Clenson Spineless var ; culin, Cucurbita pepo Basma var ; aubergine, Solanum melongena, Asgrow var ; soya-bean, Glycine max tropical var. on two six months old sugar cane residues. These residues, froth and bagasse were used by hemselves or mixed with earth or sand. By comparison with commercial compost, we found that froth and bagasse do not inhibit the germination of the seeds studied. However, we found that the growth of all species studied was better in froth than in bagasse. The results of chemical analysis carried out on these residues can explain partially the good growth observed in froth themselves or mixed with earth.

  10. Fundamental and molecular composition characteristics of biochars produced from sugarcane and rice crop residues and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J

    2016-01-01

    Biochar conversion of sugarcane and rice harvest residues provides an alternative for managing these crop residues that are traditionally burned in open field. Sugarcane leaves, bagasse, rice straw and husk were converted to biochar at four pyrolysis temperatures (PTs) of 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, and 750 °C and evaluated for various elemental, molecular and surface properties. The carbon content of biochars was highest for those produced at 650-750 °C. Biochars produced at 550 °C showed the characteristics of biochar that are commonly interpreted as being stable in soil, with low H/C and O/C ratios and pyrolysis fingerprints dominated by aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. At 550 °C, all biochars also exhibited maximum CEC values with sugarcane leaves biochar (SLB) > sugarcane bagasse biochar (SBB) > rice straw biochar (RSB) > rice husk biochar (RHB). The pore size distribution of biochars was dominated by pores of 20 nm and high PT increased both smaller and larger than 50 nm pores. Water holding capacity of biochars increased with PT but the magnitude of the increase was limited by feedstock types, likely related to the hydrophobicity of biochars as evident by molecular composition, besides pore volume properties of biochars. Py-GC/MS analysis revealed a clear destruction of lignin with decarboxylation and demethoxylation at 450 °C and dehydroxylation at above 550 °C. Overall, biochar molecular compositions became similar as PT increased, and the biochars produced at 550 °C demonstrated characteristics that have potential benefit as soil amendment for improving both C sequestration and nutrient dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugarcane biorefineries: Case studies applied to the Brazilian sugar–alcohol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renó, Maria Luiza Grillo; Olmo, Oscar Almazán del; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced system of co-generation improves the energy performance of biorefineries. • Sugarcane straw as additional source of fuel in the biorefinery resulted positive. • The farming and transport of sugarcane cause the main environmental impacts. - Abstract: The use of biomasses is becoming increasingly appealing alternative, to give an partial solution lack of energy, with an ecofriendly approach, having on sugarcane a solid fundament; that receives the new and valuable complement of the innovative concept of the biorefineries it is productive installations, that can be summarized as to reach the higher overall yield from the raw materials, with the lowest environmental impact, at minimum energy input and giving the maximum of the energy output. The biorefinery is the true valuable option of a wide diversification, with by-products like the single cell protein and biogas from the distillery vinasse, new oxidants like methanol, second generation biofuels, biobutanol, etc. In this context this paper presents a study of five different configurations of biorefineries. Each case study being a system based on an autonomous distillery or sugar mill with an annexed distillery and coproduction of methanol from bagasse. The paper includes the use of sugarcane harvest residues (mainly straw) and a BIG–GT plant (Biomass Integrated Gasification–Gas Turbine) as alternatives to fulfill the energy demands of the complex

  12. Utilização do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrados para novilhos Nelore em confinamento Levels of sugarcane bagasse in diets with high concentrate for Nellore steers in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Leme

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos submetidos a dietas de alto concentrado contendo 15, 21 ou 27% da matéria seca em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos Nelore, com peso médio em jejum de 279 kg e 24 meses de idade, confinados por um período de 98 dias. Não foram observados efeitos significativos para as características de ganho médio diário (média =1,461 kg e eficiência alimentar. Foi observado efeito linear entre matéria seca ingerida e níveis de bagaço, com maior consumo nos tratamentos com menor percentagem de bagaço. Consistente com o comportamento do consumo, o peso do fígado também apresentou efeito linear, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado. As características peso de carcaça quente, gordura renal e pélvica, área de olho de lombo e espessura de gordura subcutânea não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Entretanto, observou-se comportamento linear do rendimento de carcaça, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado, consistente com o nível energético da ração. Os resultados indicam a viabilidade do uso de 15 ou 21% de bagaço como único volumoso, em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrado contendo milho, polpa de citrus e farelo de soja para novilhos Nelore em confinamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle fed high concentrate diets containing 15, 21 or 27% of sugarcane bagasse in the dry matter. Twenty-four Nellore steers with 279 kg of shrunk body weight and 24 months of age, two per pen, were fed for 98 days. No significant effects were observed for average daily gain (mean =1.461 kg and feed efficiency among the treatments. It was observed a linear effect between dry matter intake and levels of bagasse, with greater intake in treatments with

  13. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars; Analise da viabilidade de utilizacao da cinza do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como adicao mineral em argamassas cimenticias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A., E-mail: jvfazzan@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Departamento de Fisica e Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  15. Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C P; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-10-21

    Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1) was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.

  16. Cell wall composition and lignin biosynthetic gene expression along a developmental gradient in an Australian sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Bewg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is an abundant source of lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production. Utilisation of bagasse for biofuel production would be environmentally and economically beneficial, but the recalcitrance of lignin continues to provide a challenge. Further understanding of lignin production in specific cultivars will provide a basis for modification of genomes for the production of phenotypes with improved processing characteristics. Here we evaluated the expression profile of lignin biosynthetic genes and the cell wall composition along a developmental gradient in KQ228 sugarcane. The expression levels of nine lignin biosynthesis genes were quantified in five stem sections of increasing maturity and in root tissue. Two distinct expression patterns were seen. The first saw highest gene expression in the youngest tissue, with expression decreasing as tissue matured. The second pattern saw little to no change in transcription levels across the developmental gradient. Cell wall compositional analysis of the stem sections showed total lignin content to be significantly higher in more mature tissue than in the youngest section assessed. There were no changes in structural carbohydrates across developmental sections. These gene expression and cell wall compositional patterns can be used, along with other work in grasses, to inform biotechnological approaches to crop improvement for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  17. Lignocellulose nanofibers prepared by ionic liquid pretreatment and subsequent mechanical nanofibrillation of bagasse powder: Application to esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Abe, Megumi; Tsukegi, Takayuki; Kuroda, Kosuke; Tsuge, Yota; Ogino, Chiaki; Taki, Kentaro; Taima, Tetsuya; Saito, Joji; Kimizu, Mitsugu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2018-02-15

    In the present study, we examined the efficacy of choline acetate (ChOAc, a cholinium ionic liquid))-assisted pretreatment of bagasse powder for subsequent mechanical nanofibrillation to produce lignocellulose nanofibers. Bagasse sample with ChOAc pretreatment and subsequent nanofibrillation (ChOAc/NF-bagasse) was prepared and compared to untreated control bagasse sample (control bagasse), bagasse sample with nanofibrillation only (NF-bagasse) and with ChOAc pretreatment only (ChOAc-bagasse). The specific surface area was 0.83m 2 /g, 3.1m 2 /g, 6.3m 2 /g, and 32m 2 /g for the control bagasse, ChOAc-bagasse, NF-bagasse, and the ChOAc/NF-bagasse, respectively. Esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites were prepared using the bagasse samples. ChOAc/NF-bagasse exhibited the best dispersion in the composites. The tensile toughness of the composites was 0.52J/cm 3 , 0.73J/cm 3 , 0.92J/cm 3 , and 1.29J/cm 3 for the composites prepared using control bagasse, ChOAc-bagasse, NF-bagasse, and ChOAc/NF-bagasse, respectively. Therefore, ChOAc pretreatment and subsequent nanofibrillation of bagasse powder resulted in enhanced tensile toughness of esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, V P; Pearce, G R

    1986-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200 degrees C for 5 min and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200 degrees C (1.72 MPa) for 5 min gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200 degrees C resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization.

  19. The influence of pH, temperature and hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.L.B. Rodrigues

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of pH, temperature and degree of hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural were almost totally removed in all the experiments, irrespective of pH and temperature and whether the charcoal was added before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Adding activated charcoal before the vacuum evaporation process favored the removal of phenolic compounds for all values of pH. Acetic acid, on the contrary, was most effectively removed when the activated charcoal was added after the vacuum evaporation process at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4. However, addition of activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4 favored the removal of both acetic acid and phenolic compounds.

  20. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pagotto Borin

    Full Text Available Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses, must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant.Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and β-glucan (that compose the most external

  1. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Background Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G) bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses), must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant. Results Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and β-glucan (that compose the most external

  2. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renouf, M.A.; Wegener, M.K.; Nielsen, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops-US corn and UK sugar beet-to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency

  3. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A. [School of Geography, Planning and Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wegener, M.K. [School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Nielsen, L.K. [Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops - US corn and UK sugar beet - to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency. (author)

  4. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, Andrés Felipe; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, and full supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30°C, 200rpm, for 48h in 125mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67gg(-1)) was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34gL(-1)h(-1)) was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDLOT SHEEP FED WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE HYDROLYZED WITH CALCIUM OXIDE GANHO EM PESO E CARACTERÍSTICAS DA CARCAÇA DE OVINOS CONFINADOS ALIMENTADOS COM BAGAÇO DE CANA HIDROLISADO COM ÓXIDO DE CÁLCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Willian Barbosa Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of calcium oxide (0.75; 1.5 and 2.25% in the sugarcane bagasse were studied with the objective of evaluating characteristics of the carcass in crossbred Santa Ines lambs. Twenty animals, with average live weight of 14 ± 4,5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The animals received concentrated containing corn, soybean meal and urea, and also the sugar cane bagasse. The slaughter reached 81 days of confinement. Means for hot and cold carcass weights, hot and cold carcass revenues, and chilling lost were 14.66 kg, 14.35 kg, 46.62%, 45.45% and 2.09%, respectively. Treatments did not affect the subjective measures, degree of fat covering and shape form, and the objective measures, ribeye area and kidney and cavity fat. The treatment of the sugar-cane bagasse with CaO increased the live weight, but did not affect the carcass characteristics in sheep.

    KEY WORDS:  Carcass quality, co-products, ruminant. Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de teores crescentes de óxido de cálcio (0,75; 1,5 e 2,25% no bagaço de cana-de-açúcar fornecido a ovinos mestiços da raça Santa Inês no ganho de peso e nas características da carcaça. Vinte ovinos, com peso vivo médio de 14 ± 4.5 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os animais receberam concentrado contendo milho, farelo de soja e ureia, e o bagaço com as doses de CaO. Realizou-se o abate dos ovinos após 67 dias de confinamento. As médias do peso de carcaça quente, peso de carcaça fria, rendimento de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça fria e quebra no resfriamento foram de 14,66 kg, 14,35 kg, 46,62%, 45,45% e 2,09%, respectivamente, não se observando efeito dos tratamentos, o que ocorreu também para as medidas subjetivas (grau de cobertura de gordura e conformação e para as medidas objetivas (área de olho de lombo, gordura perirenal e gordura cavitária. O tratamento do bagaço de cana

  6. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation...... products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...... using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed...

  7. Kinetics of diuron under aerobic condition and residue analysis in sugarcane under subtropical field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shishir; Pant, Ravi

    2017-10-10

    The phenylureas group includes persistent herbicides which are major pollutants to soil and water. Dissipation kinetics of diuron in different soils under sugarcane field conditions was investigated. Diuron was extracted with acetone and florisil solid phase extraction clean-up and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV. Diuron persisted for more than 100 days and dissipation followed monophasic first-order kinetics. Persistence was more in sandy loam compared to silty clay loam soil. Half-life of diuron in silty clay loam soil was 22.57 and 32.37 days and in sandy loam was 28.35 and 43.93 days at 2 and 4 kg ha-1applications, respectively. Average recovery in soil, bagasse, leaf-straw and juice ranged from 75.95% to 84.20%, 80.15% to 89.35%, 77.46% to 86.19% and 81.88% to 92.68%, respectively. The quantitation limits for soil, bagasse, leaf-straw and juice were 0.01, 0.03, 0.04 μg g -1 and 0.008 μg mL -1 , respectively. Application of diuron inhibited growth of soil microbes initially but they recovered later. At harvest, diuron residues were below maximum residue limits in all samples. The study revealed that under subtropical conditions, diuron is safe for use in weed management and would not pose any residual/environmental problem and that sugarcane crop could be used safe for human/animal consumption.

  8. Improvement of Aspergillus flavus saponin hydrolase thermal stability and productivity via immobilization on a novel carrier based on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A. Amin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soyasapogenol B (SB is known to have many biological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antiviral and anticancer activities. Enzymatic conversion of soyasaponins to SB was carried out using saponin hydrolase (SH extracted from Aspergillus flavus. The partially purified enzyme was immobilized on different carriers by physical adsorption, covalent binding or entrapment. Among the investigated carriers, Eupergit C and sugarcane bagasse (SCB activated by DIC and NHS were the most suitable two carriers for immobilization (the immobilized forms recovered 46.5 and 37.1% of the loaded enzyme activity, respectively. Under optimized immobilization conditions, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SBC recovered 87.7 and 83.3% of its original activity, respectively. Compared to free SH, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SCB showed higher optimum pH, activation energy, half-lives and lower deactivation constant rate. Also, their SB productivities were improved by 2.3- and 2.2-folds compared to free SH (87.7 and 83.3 vs. 37.5%, respectively. Hence, being SCB more sustainable and an inexpensive material, it can be considered a good alternative to Eupergit C as a support for SH immobilization. SH immobilization on industrially applicable and inexpensive carrier is necessary to improve SB yield and reduce its production cost. The chemical structure of SCB and the resulting cellulose derivatives were studied by ATR-IR spectroscopy. The thermal analysis technique was used to study the chemical treatment of SCB and coupling with the enzyme. This technique confirmed the removal of lignin and hemicellulose by chemical treatment of SCB.

  9. Biosurfactants produced by Scheffersomyces stipitis cultured in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as new green larvicides for the control of Aedes aegypti, a vector of neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Marcelino, Paulo Ricardo; da Silva, Vinícius Luiz; Rodrigues Philippini, Rafael; Von Zuben, Cláudio José; Contiero, Jonas; Dos Santos, Júlio César; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial metabolites with possible applications in various industrial sectors that are considered ecofriendly molecules. In recent years, some studies identified these compounds as alternatives for the elimination of vectors of tropical diseases, such as Aedes aegypti. The major bottlenecks of biosurfactant industrial production have been the use of conventional raw materials that increase production costs as well as opportunistic or pathogenic bacteria, which restrict the application of these biomolecules. The present study shows the potential of hemicellulosic sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a raw material for the production of a crystalline glycolipidic BS by Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL Y-7124, which resulted in an emulsifying index (EI24) of 70 ± 3.4% and a superficial tension of 52 ± 2.9 mN.m-1. Additionally, a possible new application of these compounds as biolarvicides, mainly against A. aegypti, was evaluated. At a concentration of 800 mg.L-1, the produced biosurfactant caused destruction to the larval exoskeletons 12 h after application and presented an letal concentration (LC50) of 660 mg.L-1. Thus, a new alternative for biosurfactant production using vegetal biomass as raw material within the concept of biorefineries was proposed, and the potential of the crystalline glycolipidic biosurfactant in larvicidal formulations against neglected tropical disease vectors was demonstrated.

  10. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 13 C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13 C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13 C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13 C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  12. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of sugarcane ethanol production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Carlos A.; Fuentes, Alfredo; Hennecke, Anna; Riegelhaupt, Enrique; Manzini, Fabio; Masera, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate GHG emissions and energy balances for the future expansion of sugarcane ethanol fuel production in Mexico with one current and four possible future modalities. We used the life cycle methodology that is recommended by the European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), which distinguished the following five system phases: direct Land Use Change (LUC); crop production; biomass transport to industry; industrial processing; and ethanol transport to admixture plants. Key variables affecting total GHG emissions and fossil energy used in ethanol production were LUC emissions, crop fertilization rates, the proportion of sugarcane areas that are burned to facilitate harvest, fossil fuels used in the industrial phase, and the method for allocation of emissions to co-products. The lower emissions and higher energy ratios that were observed in the present Brazilian case were mainly due to the lesser amount of fertilizers applied, also were due to the shorter distance of sugarcane transport, and to the smaller proportion of sugarcane areas that were burned to facilitate manual harvest. The resulting modality with the lowest emissions of equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2e ) was ethanol produced from direct juice and generating surplus electricity with 36.8 kgCO 2e /GJ ethanol . This was achieved using bagasse as the only fuel source to satisfy industrial phase needs for electricity and steam. Mexican emissions were higher than those calculated for Brazil (27.5 kgCO 2e /GJ ethanol ) among all modalities. The Mexican modality with the highest ratio of renewable/fossil energy was also ethanol from sugarcane juice generating surplus electricity with 4.8 GJ ethanol /GJ fossil .

  13. Effect of the litter material on drinking water quality in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of drinking water and its effect on broiler performance, drinking water quality was studied using six different litter materials. The presence of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli was investigated. The following litter materials were used in the trial: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped Napier grass (Pennisetum pupureum, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% wood shavings, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% rice husks, and plain sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L.. A number of 1620 Ross® one-day-old chicks were reared in 54 pens measuring 4.5 m² each, equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder. Water samples were collected in sterile tubes on days 28 and 42 of the rearing period, and submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Microbiological data were organized by classes expressed in a logarithm scale, where the lowest contamination corresponds to class 1 and the highest contamination to class 4. Results showed that total coliform contamination was higher on day 28 than in the end of the rearing period, and that E. coli presence was detected during both analyzed periods. The litter materials that presented lower degree of water contamination, predominantly class 1, were sugarcane bagasse and 50% of sugarcane bagasse and 50% of rice husks.

  14. FAILURE ANALYSIS IN TUBING OF AIR PREHEATER OF BOILER FROM A SUGARCANE MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for energy from sugarcane bagasse has made the sugar and alcohol mills search alternatives to reduce maintenance of the boilers, releasing more time to the production. The stainless steel use has become one of the main tools for such reduction. However, specification errors can lead to premature failures. This work reports the factors that led tubes of AISI 409 stainless steel fail after half season when applied in a air preheater of boiler from a sugarcane mill. In such application, the AISI 304 lasts about 15 seasons and the carbon steel about 3. A tube sent by the sugar mill was characterized by wet chemical analysis, optical microscopy and EDS. Results indicated chloride formation on the internal walls of the tube, which combined with the environment, accelerated the corrosion process. The carbon steel showed high lifetime due to a 70% higher thickness. Due to the work condictions is recommended the use of stainless steels with higher corrosion resistance, such as the traditional AISI 304 or the ferritic AISI 444, the last presents better thermal exchange.

  15. Biosurfactants produced by Scheffersomyces stipitis cultured in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as new green larvicides for the control of Aedes aegypti, a vector of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Franco Marcelino

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are microbial metabolites with possible applications in various industrial sectors that are considered ecofriendly molecules. In recent years, some studies identified these compounds as alternatives for the elimination of vectors of tropical diseases, such as Aedes aegypti. The major bottlenecks of biosurfactant industrial production have been the use of conventional raw materials that increase production costs as well as opportunistic or pathogenic bacteria, which restrict the application of these biomolecules. The present study shows the potential of hemicellulosic sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a raw material for the production of a crystalline glycolipidic BS by Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL Y-7124, which resulted in an emulsifying index (EI24 of 70 ± 3.4% and a superficial tension of 52 ± 2.9 mN.m-1. Additionally, a possible new application of these compounds as biolarvicides, mainly against A. aegypti, was evaluated. At a concentration of 800 mg.L-1, the produced biosurfactant caused destruction to the larval exoskeletons 12 h after application and presented an letal concentration (LC50 of 660 mg.L-1. Thus, a new alternative for biosurfactant production using vegetal biomass as raw material within the concept of biorefineries was proposed, and the potential of the crystalline glycolipidic biosurfactant in larvicidal formulations against neglected tropical disease vectors was demonstrated.

  16. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  17. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters determination of biomass fuel powders by differential thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, Saad A.; Mostafa, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The sugarcane bagasse powder has better energy value compared to the cotton stalks. • Bagasse moisture is entrained in its cell walls and its evaporation needs more energy. • The cotton stalks is more reactive and readily combustible than the bagasse powders. • A lower E and A 0 has been found for bagasse compared with cotton stalks powders. • Calculated E of bagasse and cotton stalks by direct and integral methods are different. - Abstract: The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the two biomass materials (sugarcane bagasse and cotton stalks powders) were evaluated using a differential thermo-gravimetric analyzer under a non-isothermal condition. Two distinct reaction zones were observed for the two biomasses. The direct Arrhenius plot method and the integral method were applied for determination of kinetic parameters: activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction. The weight loss curve showed that pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and cotton stalks took place mainly in the range of 200–500 °C. The activation energy of the sugarcane bagasse powder obtained by the direct Arrhenius plot method ranged between 43 and 53.5 kJ/mol. On the other side, the integral method shows larger values of activation energy (77–87.7 kJ/mol). The activation energy of the cotton stalks powder obtained by the direct Arrhenius plot method was ranged between 98.5 and 100.2 kJ/mol, but the integral method shows larger values of activation energy (72.5–127.8 kJ/mol)

  18. Effect of Dicamba and 2,4 dichlorophenoxiacetic acid on sugarcane somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve sugarcane germplasm, produce microbial disease-free material, detect resistance to diseases and pests, etc., in vitro propagation of sugarcane has been established in many commercial varieties. In this sense, the aim of this work was to analyze the efficiency of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D and 3,6-dichloro -2- methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba to induce somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plantlets from sugarcane varieties C26670, RB855546, V99245, V756, V781, V0050, CC8592, CC8475. For induction of embryogenic callus, leaf discs in tillering stage of 1 cm diameter and 2 mm thick, were inoculated on Murashige-Skoog, 1962 medium (MS, supplemented with 50 ml.l-1 coconut water, 30 g.l-1sucrose and two different treatments: 3 mg.l-1 2,4D or 6.63 mg.l-1 Dicamba, both of them in total darkness at 25 °C, during 1 month. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to ½ MS salts supplemented with coconut water 200 ml.l-1 and sucrose 60 g.l-1 and incubated under continuous light, 25 °C, for 2 months. The highest percent of embryogenic callus induction was obtained in media supplemented with Dicamba, an average of 70.83 % of embryogenic callus by variety, while in media with 2,4-D, 62.08 % of embryogenic callus was obtained by variety. An average of 89,00 % of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media with Dicamba and an average of 66.12% of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media supplemented with 2,4D. Using Dicamba it was possible to establish an efficient somatic embryogenesis protocol for these sugarcane varieties.

  19. Effect of Bagasse Chemical Pulping and Coupling Agent on the Physical - Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Bagasse pulp/Low density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of reinforcing bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers and applying coupling agent MAPE (Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene on physical-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE composites were studided. Fresh bagasse were collected from an experimental field in Khuzestan and after investigating anatomy and chemical properties of Different pulp fibers including monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (BS bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UNS bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were prepared. Then, composites with 30wt.% fiber content were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding processing. The mechanical and physical properties of these composites were analyzed and compared. Results revealed that the chemical pulping dissolved a fraction of lignin and hemicelluloses so that the linkage potential and aspect ratio of bagasse fibers was improved and consequently, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability. The best overall properties were achieved with MEA and AS/AQ fibers. Addition of 5% (wt/wt of coupling agent MAPE resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile strength, tensile modulus and impact strength in line with the improvement of the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion making more effective the transfer of stress from the matrix to the rigid reinforcement.

  20. PENURUNAN KADAR PROTEIN LIMBAH CAIR TAHU DENGAN PEMANFAATAN KARBON BAGASSE TERAKTIVASI (Protein Reduction of Tofu Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Purnawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penurunan kadar protein limbah tahu telah dilakukan dengan pemanfaatan karbon Bagasse teraktivasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum dari karbon teraktivasi NaOH dan H2SO4 dalam menurunkan kadar protein limbah cair tahu dan mengetahui jenis isoterm adsorpsi dari karbon aktif yang digunakan untuk menyerap protein limbah cair tahu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan konsentrasi NaOH yang optimum untuk aktivasi karbon aktif 15%, massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH adalah 2 g dan penurunan kadar proteinnya 71,95%, sedangkan massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 adalah 1 g dengan penurunan kadar protein sebesar 38,19%. Waktu kontak optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi  NaOH dan H2SO4 adalah 12 jam. Adsorpsi protein oleh karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH mengikuti isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich sedangkan karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 dominan mengikuti isoterm Freundlich.   ABSTRACT The protein reduction of tofu wastewater using activated carbon from bagasse  had been conducted. The purposes of this research were to analysis optimum condition of activated carbon bagsse using NaOH and H2SO4 for reduction protein in tofu wastewater, and analysis adsorption isotherm of activated carbon with protein. The result showed that optimum mass of carbon bagasse activated NaOH was  2 g with 71.95% protein reduction, while carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 has 1 g with 38.19% protein reduction. The optimum contact time between protein and activated carbon (with NaOH and H2SO4 was happened in 12 hours. Adsorption protein with carbon bagasse activated NaOH had followed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm, while adsorption with carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 dominantlyhad followed Freundlich adsorption isotherm

  1. Bioethanol and power from integrated second generation biomass: A Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Márcia R.; Seleghim, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The impacts of integrating new sugarcane conversion using bagasse and straw. • Industrial conversion of sugarcane into energy carriers: ethanol and electricity. • A reference sugarcane industrial was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. • Simultaneously optimal ethanol production and electricity generation occur at low burning bagasse rates. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to assess the impacts of integrating new biomass conversion technologies into an existing sugarcane industrial processing plant in terms of its multi-objective optimal operating conditions. A typical sugarcane mill is identified and a second generation ethanol production pathway is incorporated to give the operator the possibility of controlling the ratio between the rates of burning bagasse and straw (sugarcane tops and leaves) to their second generation processing to achieve optimal ethanol and electricity outputs. A set of equations describing the associated conversion unit operations and chemical reactions is simulated by the Monte Carlo method and the corresponding operating envelope is constructed and statistically analyzed. These equations permit to calculate ethanol production and electricity generation in terms of a virtually infinite number of scenarios characterized by two controlled variables (burning bagasse and straw mass flow rates) and several uncontrolled variables (biomass composition, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin yields, fermentation efficiencies, etc.). Results reveal that the input variables have specific statistical characteristics when the corresponding operating states lay near the maximum energy limit (Pareto frontier). For example, since the objectives being optimized are intrinsically antagonistic, i.e. the increase of one dictates the decrease of the other, it is better to convert bagasse to ethanol via second generation pathway because of the high energy requirements of its dewatering prior to combustion and low heat

  2. Gathering straw energy balance for co-generation in sugarcane mills; Balanco energetico do recolhimento da palha para cogeracao de energia em usinas de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Joao Paulo Soto; Bizzo, Waldir Antonio; Carvalho, Danilo Jose; Berton, Rafael Piatto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Linero, Francisco Antonio Barba [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: jpsveiga@fem.unicamp.br, bizzo@fem.unicamp.br, linero@ctc.com.br, liar@fem.unicamp.br, rpberton@fem.unicamp.br

    2012-11-01

    With the requirement and expansion of sugarcane harvest without burning the straw in the field of began to be seen as a potential fuel for co-generation sugarcane mills together bagasse. This study examined the productivity and three ways of gathering and transportation of straw in order to determine the potential energy available in biomass residues and their respective energy consumption on gathering and transport operations. To this were determined parameters for the production of waste per hectare, minimum quantity to be left in the field for maintenance of soil organic carbon and erosion reducing, the amount of straw recovered and milled at the mill, material humidity and diesel and electricity consumption of each step to obtain the final balance of energy recovered. (author)

  3. Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman; Syverud, Kristin; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Ghasemain, Ali; Resalati, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of using bagasse microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in bagasse paper. Two different types of MFC were produced from DED bleached soda bagasse pulp. The MFC was added to soda bagasse pulp furnishes in different amounts. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) was selected as retention aid. The results show that addition of MFC increased the strength of paper as expected. Interestingly, 1% MFC in combination with 0.1% C-PAM yielded similar drainage time as the reference pulp, which did not contain MFC. In addition, the samples containing 1% MFC and 0.1% C-PAM yielded (i) a significant increment of the tensile index, (ii) a minor decrease of opacity and (iii) preserved Gurley porosity. Hence, this study proves that small fractions of MFC in combination with adequate retention aids can have positive effects with respect to paper properties, which is most interesting from an industrial point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. RESEARCH OF THE ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Omar Prieto García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research a study of the adsorption of acetic, benzoic, butanoic, fumaric, maleic and succinic acids on sugarcane baggase ash is made. The adsorber material is characterized through physical criteria such as apparent and pictometric density, compressibility, porosity, superficial area and tortuosity. The sample has been examined by X-rays Diffraction, thermal analysis, IR-quality analysis. The isotherm for the sorption process is determined, where it is shown that the Freundlich model is adjusted to benzoic acid, the Langmuir and Toth model to acetic acid, Bunauer- Emmett- Teller (BET model to succinic acid and the butiric, maleic and fumaric acids are adjusted to Langmoir model. It is established that the first-order model is adjusted to the adsorption kinetics of the acetic and benzoic acids; while the rest of the acids are adjusted to a second-order model, in the case of the butanoic, succinic and maleic acids it is possible the occurrence of chemisorption processes.

  5. Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anjum Zia*, Rana Faisal, Rao Zahid Abbas1, Gull-e-Faran, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Junaid Ali Khan3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing and 0.4% by sugarcane bagass. The fibrinolytic activity achieved by fibrin clot lysis method was 5.5, 5.08, 5.16 and 4.75 units using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass, respectively.

  6. {sup 13}C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wei, E-mail: weicao@hqu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • {sup 13}C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used {sup 13}C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. {sup 13}C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that {sup 13}C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  7. Ion exchange properties of carboxylate bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Bagasse fibers were chemically modified using three different reactions: esterification using monochloro acetic acid, esterification using succinic anhydride, and oxidation using sodium periodate and sodium chlorite to prepare cation exchanger bearing carboxylic groups. Bagasse was crosslinked using epichlorohydrin before chemical modification to avoid loss of its constituents during the chemical modification. The structure of the prepared derivatives was proved using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical methods. The ability of the prepared bagasse cation exchangers to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cu +2 , Ni +2 , Cr +3 , Fe +3 ), on a separate basis or in a mixture of them, at different metal ion concentration was tested. Thermal stability of the different bagasse derivative was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  8. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future.

  9. Características físicas e mecânicas de misturas de solo, cimento e cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Physical and mechanical characteristics of soil-cement-bagasse ash mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Del C. Mesa Valenciano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por finalidade analisar algumas características de misturas de solo, cimento e cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar para sua possível utilização na fabricação de materiais alternativos de construção. Para tal, amostras de cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar foram submetidas a um tratamento prévio que consistia de peneiramento e moagem, antes de serem incorporadas às misturas de solo e cimento. Diferentes combinações de cimento-cinzas foram estudadas, determinando-se, para cada uma delas, a consistência normal e a resistência à compressão simples, aos 7 e 28 dias. Posteriormente, corpos-de-prova moldados com tais misturas de solo-cimento-cinzas foram submetidos a ensaios de compactação, compressão simples e absorção de água. Os resultados indicaram a possibilidade de substituir até 20% do cimento Portland, na mistura, por cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, sem prejuízo da resistência à compressão simples.This work was done with the objective of studying some physical and mechanical characteristics of the sugarcane bagasse ash added to a soil-cement mixture, in order to obtain an alternative construction material. The sugarcane bagasse ash pre-treatment included both sieving and grinding, before mixing with soil and cement. Different proportions of cement-ash were tested by determining its standard consistence and its compressive resistance at 7 and 28 days age. The various treatments were subsequently applied to the specimens molded with different soil-cement-ash mixtures which in turns were submitted to compaction, unconfined compression and water absorption laboratory tests. The results showed that it is possible to replace up to 20% of Portland cement by sugarcane bagasse ash without any damage to the mixture's compressive strength.

  10. CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO 2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Bagasse cogeneration projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development. This study assesses the maximum theoretical as well as the realistically achievable CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO 2 mitigation by the use of bagasse for power generation through cogeneration process in India. The preliminary results indicate that the annual gross potential availability of bagasse in India is more than 67 million tonnes (MT). The potential of electricity generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 34 TWh i.e. about 5575 MW in terms of the plant capacity. The annual CER potential of bagasse cogeneration in India could theoretically reach 28 MT. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of bagasse cogeneration based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 20-26 million. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of bagasse cogeneration for power generation is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 20 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  11. Effect of delignification process on physical properties of sugarcane baggase paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Natalia; Sapei, Lanny; Purwanto, Edy; Adiarto, Tokok

    2017-05-01

    Wood fiber derived cellulose has been mainly used as the raw material in the papermaking. However, currently the paper production capacity is greater than the availability of wood. To overcome this problem, there have been many attempts to use non-wood fibers as substitutes for papermaking such as the fibrous materials derived from agriculture wastes. In this research, the paper was made from sugarcane bagasse which was previously delignified using soda process. The research was conducted by varying NaOH concentrations of 8 -16%, delignification temperatures of 60- 100°C and times of 30 -150 min. The aim of the research was to study the effect of delignification process on physical properties of sugarcane baggase soda pulping. The results showed the increase in tensile strengths as the NaOH concentrations increased. Tensile strength was increasing up to optimum temperature and time and then decreased. The water uptake results showed the opposite tendencies with those of tensile strength. The optimum condition was achieved at the NaOH concentration of 10 %, delignification temperature of 80 °C, and time of 90 min. Tensile strength and water uptake achieved at this optimum condition were 27.42 N/mm2 and 240 g/m2, respectively.

  12. Use of vinasse and sugarcane bagasse for the production of enzymes by lignocellulolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mamede Aguiar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, three strains of Pleurotus and Trichoderma reesei were cultivated in media with pre-treated bagasse and vinasse. Cellulolytic and lignolytic activities and biomass production were analyzed. The treatment of the bagasse with 2% H2O2 + 1.5% NaOH + autoclave resulted in a greater fiber breakage increasing the cellulose level up to 1.2 times and decreasing 8.5 times the hemicellulose content. This treatment also resulted in a high lignolytic activity for all cultures utilized. T. reesei produced laccase, peroxidase and manganese-peroxidase in all the treatments, having its manganese-peroxidase activity raging from 1.9 to 4.8 times higher than the basidiomycetes.Recentemente o uso de material lignocelulolítico tem mostrado um importante avanço na produção de biocombustíveis. O bagaço e a vinhaça são resíduos oriundos do processamento da cana de açúcar e contem um alto teor de carbono, que geralmente é usado na co-geração de energia e ração animal. Três linhagens de Pleurotus e um ascomiceto, Trichoderma reesei, foram cultivados em bagaço pré-tratado e vinhaça. As atividades lignolíticas e celulolíticas foram analisadas, tanto quanto a produção de biomassa. Foi observado que o tratamento no bagaço com 2% H2O2 + 1.5% NaOH + autoclave resultou numa maior quebra da fibra, aumentando o teor de celulose em 1.2 vezes mais e diminuiu em 8.5 vezes o conteúdo de hemicelulose. Este tratamento também resultou numa alta atividade lignolítica pelos fungos utilizados. O ascomiceto T. reesei produziu lacase, peroxidase e manganês-peroxidase em todos os tratamentos, tendo uma atividade de manganês-peroxidase variando entre 1.9 a 4.8 vezes mais que nos basidiomicetos.

  13. Use of PVA-gel immobilized cells: a new strategy for biotechnological production of Xylitol from sugarcane bagasse hidrolysate/ Uso de células imobilizadas em gel de PVA: uma nova estratégia para produção biotecnológica de Xilitol a partir de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is one of the most abundant residues in Brazil due to the large number of sugaralcohol industries. This biomass contains a high concentration of carbohydrates, which can be converted into products of high economic value, such as xylitol. Xylitol, a polyol with anticariogenic properties, is similar in sweetening power to sucrose, and has high potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Several studies have been carried out to produce xylitol by biotechnological processes. However, there is little information on the use of immobilized cells in these bioprocesses. The objective of this review was to present a new possibility to produce xylitol by biotechnological processes, using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and immobilized cells in PVA-gel.O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar é um dos resíduos mais abundantes no Brasil devido ao grande número de indústrias sucroalcooleiras. Esta biomassa contém elevado teor de carboidratos, podendo ser utilizada na produção de compostos de interesse econômico como o xilitol. O xilitol é um poliol de cinco carbonos que apresenta poder adoçante semelhante ao da sacarose e propriedades anti-cariogênicas, tendo elevado potencial de uso nas indústrias alimentícias e farmacêuticas. Diversos estudos buscando o desenvolvimento de processos de produção de xilitol por via biotecnológica têm sido realizados, entretanto pouco tem sido escrito sobre a utilização de células imobilizadas no bioprocesso. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma possibilidade de produção de xilitol a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de canade-açúcar, em sistema com células imobilizadas em gel de álcool polivinílico.

  14. Use of rum and sugar cane bagasse in the removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil; Uso de cachaza y bagazo de cana de azucar en la remocion de hidrocarburos en suelo contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using two different types of agricultural residues, filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith, as amendment and bulking agents. To test these approaches, a microcosms test was applied to soil contaminated with 14 300 mg kg-1 of TPH and 23.14 mg kg-1 of PAH. The soil treatments consisted of the following ratios of soil to residue (%/%): 100:0, 98:2, 98:4 and 98:6, and macronutrient addition was based on a carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (C:N:P, %/ % / %) of 100:10:1. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith treatments, in which the TPH removal efficiency was 60.1% using sugar cane bagasse pith and 51.4% with filter cake mud. A filter cake mud ratio of 96:4 produced the highest observed removal efficiency of PAH (43%), and a sugarcane bagasse pith ratio of 98:2 resulted in a PAH removal efficiency of 41%. Filter cake mud treatment could be an alternative for use in the bioremediation process of soils polluted with hydrocarbons. [Spanish] El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la eficiencia de remocion de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos (HAP) y de hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP) de un suelo contaminado con petroleo crudo, utilizando dos tipos de residuos agroindustriales, la cachaza y el bagazo de cana de azucar como enmiendas y texturizante. Para ello, se realizaron pruebas en microcosmos de cultivos solidos para la biorremediacion de un suelo contaminado con 14300 mg kg-1 de HTP y 23.14 mg kg-1 de HAP. Las relaciones suelo: residuo utilizadas en las pruebas fueron las siguientes (%): 100:0, 98:2, 96:4 y 94:6, y la adicion de macronutrimentos con base en la relacion carbono/nitrogeno/fosforo (%%%) de 100:10:1. El analisis estadistico indico que hay diferencias

  15. Suitability of green solvent in pre treating agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Li Wan; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Chua, Adeline Seak May

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural wastes such as palm oil residue, rice husk and sugarcane bagasse have been found to occupy the largest fraction in the total biomass generated in Malaysia. These residues are normally lacking of commercial values and have limited alternative uses. Since they are being generated substantially every year, their disposal has caused a serious problem to the society and the environment. Hence, it is essential to discover the potentials of converting these wastes into wealth. One of the major drawbacks which hinder their effective utilization is due to their recalcitrant nature. Thus, pretreatment is necessary in order to disrupt the complex carbohydrate structures in the substrate and improves its digestibility. The present study showed the efficiencies of various mediums namely ionic liquid, acid, alkali and water in pre treating sugarcane bagasse. The performances of these pretreatment mediums were evaluated by the reducing sugar generated after enzymatically hydrolysed the treated substrate. The results obtained were compared with the untreated sugarcane bagasse. In this study, substrate treated by ionic liquid has yielded the highest amount of reducing sugar followed by alkali treated substrate. The performance of untreated bagasse is found to be better than acid and water treated bagasse. These results showed that ionic liquid which has been identified as the green solvent can be an effective medium in pre treating the sugarcane bagasse. This finding has given a new prospect in the production of value added products from agricultural wastes. (author)

  16. Glass-ceramic material of the Si-Ca-K system sintered from sugarcane bagasse ash; Material vitro-ceramico do distema SiO{sub 2}-CaO-K{sub 2}O sinterizado a partir de cinza de bagaco de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Silva, R.A.; Santos, G.C.; Santos, G.T.A., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia; Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IETCC/CSIC), Madri (Spain). Inst. de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja; Reynoso, V.C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2009-07-01

    This study analyses the crystallization of glasses obtained from two samples of sugarcane bagasse ash - SCBA (named Cinza 07 and Cinza 08) mixed with carbonates (calcium and potassium). The glasses and their crystallization were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations of the ashes show that they consist mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with iron, potassium and aluminum oxides as minor elements. For the sample Cinza07 the DTA data presents broad and overlaid crystallization peaks, indicating crystallization of more than two different phases. The DTA results of samples with different grain-size distribution show that the crystallization peak intensities increase as the sample grain-size decreases, suggesting that surface crystallization actively participate on the mechanism of crystallization. For the sample Cinza 08 the DTA data presents two well defined peaks. In this case, the more intense peak was evaluated to obtain kinetic data (Eat= 355 kJ/mol) to the major phase (Wollastonita). (author)

  17. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  18. Valorisation of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in the Manufacture of Lime-Stabilized Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jijo; Pandian, Pitchai Kasinatha

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the potential of lime in the manufacture of stabilized soil blocks and the valorisation of a solid waste, Bagasse Ash (BA), in its manufacture. A locally available soil was collected from a field and characterized in the soil laboratory as a clay of intermediate plasticity. This soil was stabilized using lime, the quantity of which was determined from the Eades and Grim pH test. The soil was stabilized using this lime content, amended with various BA contents during mixing, and moulded into blocks of 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm. The blocks were then moist cured for a period of 28 days, following which they were subjected to compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence tests. The results of the tests revealed that the addition of BA resulted in enhanced compressive strength of the blocks, increased the water absorption marginally, and resulted in no efflorescence in any of the combinations, although the limited combinations in the study could not produce enough strength to meet the specifications of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The study revealed that BA can be effectively valorised in the manufacture of stabilized soil blocks.

  19. Digestibilidade dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte alimentados com rações contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar obtido pelo método de extração por difusão ou por moagem convencional Digestibility of nutrients and ruminal characteristics in beef cattle fed rations containing sugarcane bagasse obtained by diffusion or conventional milling extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Márcio Arakaki Rabelo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da utilização do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN, obtido pelo método de extração do açúcar por difusão (BINdif ou moagem convencional (BINmoa como fonte de fibra íntegra, associado ao bagaço tratado sob pressão e vapor (BTPV sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte. Quatro machos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com fístulas ruminais e peso vivo médio inicial de 380 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental quadrado latino 4 × 4. Os tratamentos foram compostos das combinações dos bagaços: 5% BINmoa + 45% BTPV; 5% BINdif + 45% BTPV; 10% BINdif + 40% BTPV; 15% BINdif + 35% BTPV. A utilização do BIN obtido por difusão, mesmo no nível mais elevado, não teve efeito sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes (MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA e EE da dieta. Entretanto, o fornecimento do bagaço obtido por difusão provocou redução nos consumos de MS, MO, PB e FDN em relação ao bagaço obtido por moagem. A produção total de ácidos graxos voláteis no rúmen, a porcentagem molar dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, a relação acético/propiônico, o pH ruminal e a concentração ruminal de nirogênio amoniacal não diferiram entre os bagaços fornecidos. A utilização do bagaço obtido pelo processo de difusão ou de moagem convencional como fonte de fibra íntegra associado ao bagaço tratado sob pressão e vapor não prejudicou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte alimentados com rações contendo 50% de concentrado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding sugarcane bagasse, obtained by extraction of sugar using diffusion (BINdif or conventional milling (BINmoa method, as a fiber source associated with bagasse treated under pressure and steam (BTPV on nutrient digestibility and ruminal characteristics in beef cattle. Four Nellore young bulls (380 kg

  20. Enhancing biogas production from vinasse in sugarcane biorefineries: Effects of urea and trace elements supplementation on process performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Batista, Karla; Silva, Witan; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate and trace elements supplementation were investigated in a semi-continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system to enhance process stability and biogas production from sugarcane vinasse. Phosphate in form of KH2PO4 induced volatile fatty acids accumulation possibly due to potassium inhibition of the methanogenesis. Although nitrogen in form of urea increased the reactor's alkalinity, the process was overloaded with an organic loading rate of 6.1gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 3.6days. However, by supplementing urea and trace elements a stable operation even at an organic loading rate of 9.6gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 2.5days was possible, resulting in 79% higher methane production rate with a stable specific methane production of 239mLgCOD(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sartório Raymundo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment units could be operated with flexibility. From the results, it was possible to conclude that sugar cane bagasse could be an adequate bioadsorbent.Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de remoção do corante carcinogênico congo red de sistemas aquosos. Os resultados mostraram uma elevada eficiência de remoção sendo de 64 ± 6% para soluções sintéticas de vermelho congo, e 94 ± 5% para efluente industrial enriquecido com vermelho congo utilizando 10 g de bioadsorvente. A capacidade máxima adsotiva encontrada foi de 4,43 mg/g. Os testes de percolação revelaram independência das porcentagens adsortivas em relação às vazões das colunas. Estes resultados indicam viabilidade de uso do bagaço de cana-de-açucar no tratamento de efluentes contendo o congo red.

  2. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative

  3. Fermentation strategy for second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate by Spathaspora passalidarum and Scheffersomyces stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Simone C; Soares, Lauren B; Biazi, Luiz Eduardo; Nascimento, Viviane M; Costa, Aline C; Rocha, George Jackson M; Ienczak, Jaciane L

    2017-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of released sugars in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass is a central feature for second generation ethanol (E2G) production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used industrially in the production of first generation ethanol (E1G) convert sucrose, fructose, and glucose into ethanol. However, these yeasts have no ability to ferment pentose (xylose). Therefore, the present work has focused on E2G production by Scheffersomyces stipitis and Spathaspora passalidarum. The fermentation strategy with high pitch, cell recycle, fed-batch mode, and temperature decrease for each batch were performed in a hydrolyzate obtained from a pretreatment at 130°C with NaOH solution (1.5% w/v) added with 0.15% (w/w) of anthraquinone (AQ) and followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The process strategy has increased volumetric productivity from 0.35 to 0.38 g · L -1  · h -1 (first to third batch) for S. stipitis and from 0.38 to 0.81 g · L -1  · h -1 for S. passalidarum (first to fourth batch). Mass balance for the process proposed in this work showed the production of 177.33 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. passalidarum compared to 124.13 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. stipitis fermentation. The strategy proposed in this work can be considered as a promising strategy in the production of second generation ethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2211-2221. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...

  5. Allelopathic impact of HoCP 96-540 field residue on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  6. Kinetic modeling of formic acid pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiliang; Fu, Shiyu; Zhan, Huaiyu; Chai, Xinsheng; Lucia, Lucian A

    2008-05-14

    Organic solvent or organosolv pulping processes are alternatives to soda or kraft pulping to delignify lignocellulosic materials for the production of paper pulp. Formic acid, a typical organosolv system, has been presently examined under atmospheric pressure to pulp bagasse fibers. It was shown that efficient bagasse pulping was achieved when the formic acid concentration was limited to 90% (v/v). A statistical kinetic model based on the experimental results for the delignification of bagasse during formic acid pulping was developed that can be described as follows: D (delignification) = 0.747 x C(formicacid) (1.688) x (1 - e(-0.05171t)), an equation that can be used to predict the lignin content in formic acid during the pulping process. The delignification of bagasse by 90% formic acid was almost completed after approximately 80 min, while extended pulping did not improve the delignification but tended to degrade the carbohydrates in bagasse, especially the hemicelluloses, which were rapidly hydrolyzed at the onset of pulping.

  7. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  8. Bioethanol production from ball milled bagasse using an on-site produced fungal enzyme cocktail and xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaban, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yano, Shinichi; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Ruanglek, Vasimon; Champreda, Verawat; Pichyangkura, Rath; Rengpipat, Sirirat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is one of the most promising agricultural by-products for conversion to biofuels. Here, ethanol fermentation from bagasse has been achieved using an integrated process combining mechanical pretreatment by ball milling, with enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Ball milling for 2 h was sufficient for nearly complete cellulose structural transformation to an accessible amorphous form. The pretreated cellulosic residues were hydrolyzed by a crude enzyme preparation from Penicillium chrysogenum BCC4504 containing cellulase activity combined with Aspergillus flavus BCC7179 preparation containing complementary beta-glucosidase activity. Saccharification yields of 84.0% and 70.4% for glucose and xylose, respectively, were obtained after hydrolysis at 45 degrees C, pH 5 for 72 h, which were slightly higher than those obtained with a commercial enzyme mixture containing Acremonium cellulase and Optimash BG. A high conversion yield of undetoxified pretreated bagasse (5%, w/v) hydrolysate to ethanol was attained by separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes using Pichia stipitis BCC15191, at pH 5.5, 30 degrees C for 24 h resulting in an ethanol concentration of 8.4 g/l, corresponding to a conversion yield of 0.29 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars. Comparable ethanol conversion efficiency was obtained by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process which led to production of 8.0 g/l ethanol after 72 h fermentation under the same conditions. This study thus demonstrated the potential use of a simple integrated process with minimal environmental impact with the use of promising alternative on-site enzymes and yeast for the production of ethanol from this potent lignocellulosic biomass. 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cell wall proteome of sugarcane stems: comparison of a destructive and a non-destructive extraction method showed differences in glycoside hydrolases and peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderan-Rodrigues, Maria Juliana; Jamet, Elisabeth; Douché, Thibaut; Bonassi, Maria Beatriz Rodrigues; Cataldi, Thaís Regiani; Fonseca, Juliana Guimarães; San Clemente, Hélène; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-11

    Sugarcane has been used as the main crop for ethanol production for more than 40 years in Brazil. Recently, the production of bioethanol from bagasse and straw, also called second generation (2G) ethanol, became a reality with the first commercial plants started in the USA and Brazil. However, the industrial processes still need to be improved to generate a low cost fuel. One possibility is the remodeling of cell walls, by means of genetic improvement or transgenesis, in order to make the bagasse more accessible to hydrolytic enzymes. We aimed at characterizing the cell wall proteome of young sugarcane culms, to identify proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis. Proteins were extracted from the cell walls of 2-month-old culms using two protocols, non-destructive by vacuum infiltration vs destructive. The proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. A predicted signal peptide was found in 84 different proteins, called cell wall proteins (CWPs). As expected, the non-destructive method showed a lower percentage of proteins predicted to be intracellular than the destructive one (33% vs 44%). About 19% of CWPs were identified with both methods, whilst the infiltration protocol could lead to the identification of 75% more CWPs. In both cases, the most populated protein functional classes were those of proteins related to lipid metabolism and oxido-reductases. Curiously, a single glycoside hydrolase (GH) was identified using the non-destructive method whereas 10 GHs were found with the destructive one. Quantitative data analysis allowed the identification of the most abundant proteins. The results highlighted the importance of using different protocols to extract proteins from cell walls to expand the coverage of the cell wall proteome. Ten GHs were indicated as possible targets for further studies in order to obtain cell walls less recalcitrant to deconstruction. Therefore, this work contributed to two goals: enlarge the coverage of the sugarcane

  10. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%.

  12. Potencial da cinza do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar como material de substituição parcial de cimento Portland Potential of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial replacement material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos O. de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, voltado para a avaliação do potencial da cinza do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar (CBC como material de substituição parcial do cimento Portland em argamassa, objetivou apresentar opção viável para a destinação deste resíduo, cuja quantidade gerada aumentará significativamente nos próximos anos, em decorrência da ampliação do setor de produção de álcool combustível; além disso, o emprego da CBC como adição mineral, substituindo parte do cimento em argamassas e concretos, contribui para a redução do impacto ambiental desses materiais, em boa parte decorrente da produção do cimento. O procedimento experimental abordou não só caracterização da CBC mas também a avaliação, através de ensaios físicos e mecânicos, em que os resultados mostraram que o bagaço apresenta rendimento de CBC de 10%, com a cinza sendo composta de 84% de SiO2 e 5% de Carbono. A sílica na CBC apresenta-se na fase amorfa e nas fases cristalinas de cristobalita e quartzo. Os índices de atividade pozolânica comprovam a reatividade da CBC. Do ponto de vista da resistência à compressão, argamassas com teores de CBC entre 0 e 30% indicaram a possibilidade de substituição de até 20% do cimento pela CBC.This study is focused on the evaluation of the effects of the partial replacement of Portland cement by sugarcane bagasse ash (CBC in mortars. The main objective was to find a suitable destination for an agricultural residue generated in an increasing amount in Brazil, as a result of the boom of the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel to gasoline. Also, the use of CBC as a mineral admixture in mortars and concretes contributes to a decrease in the environmental impact of these materials related to cement production. Experimental techniques were applied both for the CBC characterization and for the evaluation of its use as a mineral admixture in mortars, based on mechanical and physical tests. The yield of CBC from sugarcane

  13. Reutilización de plástico pet, papel y bagazo de caña de azúcar, como materia prima en la elaboración de concreto ecológico para la construcción de viviendas de bajo costo

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Pari, César Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In the present research was determined the results of reusing the PET plastic, paper and sugarcane bagasse waste as raw material in the manufacture of concrete ecological for the cheapest house building. For mix design, the extra forte Portland cement, gravel 1/2", coarse sand and the PET plastic, paper and sugarcane bagasse waste were used as raw material, these waste replaced to the coarse sand in weight percentages of 5%, 10% and 20% respectively. Specimens of simple concrete and concrete ...

  14. Enhancing the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Djarwanti, Noegroho; Umri Ukoi, Nafisah

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with stabilization of expansive soil on a laboratory experimental basis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the enhancement of the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash. The soil is treated with bagasse ash by weight (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) based on dry mass. The performance of bagasse ash stabilized soil was evaluated using physical and strength performance tests, namely the plasticity index, standard Proctor compaction, and percentage swelling. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) test was conducted to evaluate the clay mineral, whereas an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was to the chemical composition of bagasse ash. From the results, it was observed that the basic tests carried out proved some soil properties after the addition of bagasse ash. Furthermore, the plasticity index decreased from 53.18 to 47.70%. The maximum dry density of the specimen increased from 1.13 to 1.24 gr/cm3. The percentage swelling decreased from 5.48 to 3.29%. The outcomes of these tests demonstrate that stabilization of expansive soils using bagasse ash can improve the strength.

  15. Green and sustainable succinic acid production from crude glycerol by engineered Yarrowia lipolytica via agricultural residue based in situ fibrous bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Shi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2018-02-01

    In situ fibrous bed bioreactor (isFBB) for efficient succinic acid (SA) production by Yarrowia lipolytica was firstly developed in our former study. In this study, agricultural residues including wheat straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse were investigated for the improvement of isFBB, and sugarcane bagasse was demonstrated to be the best immobilization material. With crude glycerol as the sole carbon source, optimization for isFBB batch fermentation was carried out. Under the optimal conditions of 20g sugarcane bagasse as immobilization material, 120gL -1 crude glycerol as carbon source and 4Lmin -1 of aeration rate, the resultant SA concentration was 53.6gL -1 with an average productivity of 1.45gL -1 h -1 and a SA yield of 0.45gg -1 . By feeding crude glycerol, SA titer up to 209.7gL -1 was obtained from fed batch fermentation, which was the highest value that ever reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitropropagation in Temporary Immersion System of sugarcane plants variety `RB 872552' derived from somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Medeiros de Araújo Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a temporary immersion system (TIS to multiply sugarcane (Saccharum spp. plants obtained by somatic embryogenesis (SE. SE was induced from immature leaf segments that were grown in culture medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP. Embryo formation occurred in 81% of the inoculated explants and 254 plants were regenerated. Ninety plants were transferred to TIS and cultured in medium supplemented with BAP. After three subcultures, 60 000 plantlets were obtained and transferred to rooting media. After 30 days of acclimatization period plantlets were well developed and exhibited a 96% survival. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the combined use of two important techniques of in vitro culture (SE and shoot multiplication in TIS to sugarcane in vitro propagation. Key words: acclimatization, 6-benzylaminopurine, Saccharum spp.

  17. Antioxidant enzymes activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Medeiros de Araujo Silva; Ulisses, Claudia; Lacerda E Medeiros, Maria Jaislanny; Cavalcante Granja, Manuela Maria; Willadino, Lilia; Camara, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to induce direct somatic embryogenesis from segments of immature leaves of the RB872552 variety of sugarcane and to correlate this morphogenic event with oxidative stress. Two previously described protocols were utilized for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane with different supplementations of the culture medium and different incubation conditions. For the conversion of embryos into plants was used ms medium without phytoregulators. Histological analyses and activity of antioxidant enzymes were also conducted for the embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues. The formation of somatic embryos was obtained in 81 % of the explants with the combination of regulators 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) when incubated under 16 h photoperiod. With regards to the antioxidant enzymes, there was increased activity of peroxidase and an increase in the soluble protein content in embryogenic tissues, whereas lower activities of polyphenol oxidase and catalase appeared in these tissues compared to nonembryogenic tissues. It could be inferred that oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane.

  18. Litter materials and the incidence of carcass lesions in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different litter materials on litter compaction, broiler feathering and the incidence of carcass lesions. In the experiment, 3240 one-day-old Ross® chicks were selected by sex and distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (two sex and six litter materials. The following litter materials were used: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped Napier grass, 50% sugar cane bagasse plus 50% wood shavings, 50% sugar cane bagasse plus 50% rice husks, and pure sugar cane bagasse. Litter compaction was weekly assessed using a penetrometer. On days 21, 35 and 42 of the experimental period, feathering on the back and legs was scored according to a 0 - 10 scale. On day 42, birds were slaughtered and the presence of bruises, scratches and footpad lesions was recorded. Litter material had no effect on bird feathering. Carcass lesions (scratches, bruises and footpad lesions were influenced by the litter material evaluated. Birds reared on sugarcane bagasse and chopped Napier grass presented more scratches, bruises and footpad lesions than the others. Dermatitis was more evident in birds reared on sugarcane bagasse, chopped Napier grass and the combination of litter materials. It was found that males presented higher incidence of dermatitis and footpad lesions than females. Each litter material presented different compaction degrees, which increased along the experimental period. Sugarcane bagasse, chopped Napier grass and the combination of bedding materials presented the highest degree of compaction, compared with wood shavings and rice husks.

  19. Sugarcane-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sílvio

    2017-03-17

    Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials. By means of conversion processes (chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical), sugarcane biomass can be transformed into high-value bioproducts to replace petrochemicals, as a bioeconomy model.

  20. Biodegradable foams based on starch, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan and sugarcane fibers obtained by extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Debiagi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable foams made from cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, sugarcane bagasse fibers and chitosan were obtained by extrusion. The composites were prepared with formulations determined by a constrained ternary mixtures experimental design, using as variables: (X1 starch / PVA (100 - 70%, (X2 chitosan (0 - 2% and (X3 fibers from sugar cane (0 - 28%. The effects of varying proportions of these three components on foam properties were studied, as well the relationship between their properties and foam microstructure. The addition of starch/PVA in high proportions increased the expansion index and mechanical resistance of studied foams. Fibers addition improved the expansion and mechanical properties of the foams. There was a trend of red and yellow colors when the composites were produced with the highest proportions of fibers and chitosan, respectively. All the formulations were resistant to moisture content increase until 75% relative humidity of storage.

  1. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  2. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  3. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  4. Production of itaconic acid by Ustilago maydis from agro wastes in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOKULA MD. RAFI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Itaconic acid (IA is one of the hopeful substances within the cluster of organic acids. IA is used in artificial glass, bioactive compounds in pharmacy, medicine, agriculture, for the synthesis of fiber, resin, plastic, rubber, paints, surfactant, ion-exchange resins and lubricant. Most recurrently used microorganism for commercial production of IA is Aspergillus terreus. Some filamentous fungi belonging to Ustilaginales also produce IA. In the present work, an attempt was made to produce IA by Ustilago maydis employing Solid State Fermentation (SSF from various agro wastes like ground nut shells, rice bran, rice husk, orange pulp, ground nut oil cake, orange pulp and sugarcane bagasse as carbon substrates, which were used after pretreatment. 10 g of each substrate was taken in a 500 ml conical flasks separately and supplemented with 20 mL nutrient solution containing glucose, at pH 3. One milliliter inoculum containing 1×107 spores was added and moisture was maintained at 60%. After incubation at 32°C for 5 days, the acid production was estimated by spectrophotometric method and by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, the yield of itaconic acid was promising with all the above substrates, where orange pulp, sugarcane bagasse and rice bran supported higher yields.

  5. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  6. Stabilization of expansive soil using bagasse ash & lime | Wubshet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7-5 soil on the AASHTO classification was stabilized using 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 15% bagasse ash in combination with 3% lime by dry weight of the soil. The effect of the additives on the soil was investigated with respect to plastcity, ...

  7. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated

  8. Influence of Proportion and Size of Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber on the Properties of Sweet Potato Starch Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Tirado, J. P.; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R.; Siche, Raúl

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was the proportion and size of cane bagasse fiber in the physical (density and thickness), mechanical (flexural strength and tensile at break) and thermal (TG and DTG) properties of trays made from sweet potato starch. A fiber size of 75-45 µm and a 2.5% ratio allowed to obtain trays with low thicknesses and densities, but with more compact structures that improved the mechanical properties of trays made from sweet potato starch alone. In addition, higher thermal stability and lower decomposition rate are shown for trays with fiber size 75-45 µm and ratios of 2.5% and 5%. These results show that the smaller fiber size improves the properties of the sweet potato starch trays and that these trays can be used to replace the expanded polymer (EPS) for use in dry foods.

  9. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  10. Evaluation of Two Biosorbents in the Removal of Metal Ions in Aqueous Using a Pilot Scale Fixed-bed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gadelha Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the adsorption of toxic metal ions copper, nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions using low cost natural biomass (sugar cane bagasse and green coconut fiber in pilot scale fixed-bed system. The Hydraulic retention time (HRT was 229 minutes and the lowest adsorbent usage rate (AUR found was 0.10 g.L-1 for copper using green coconut fibers. The highest values of adsorption capacities founded were 1.417 and 2.772 mg.g-1 of Cu(II ions for sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fibers, respectively. The results showed that both sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fiber presented potential in the removal of metal ions copper, nickel and zinc ions from aqueous solution and the possible use in wastewater treatment station.

  11. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  12. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  13. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R"2 > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T_B = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  14. Esterification of oily-FFA and transesterification of high FFA waste oils using novel palm trunk and bagasse-derived catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel palm trunk and bagasse derived catalysts have been prepared. • Reduction of FFAs from 42 to <1 wt.% in 15 min under pseudo-infinite methanol. • Transesterification of waste oil results in FAME yield of 80.6–83.2% in 4 h. • Pseudo-infinite methanol affords two-folds FAME yield of conventional methods. - Abstract: Waste cooking oil is increasingly becoming a significant component of biodiesel feedstock and its conversion to FAME requires coupling of esterification and transesterification processes. In this study, new environmentally benign catalysts were prepared from oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse, which are sustainable because of the superfluity of oil palm trunk and abundant supply of bagasse. Effect of preparation variable, surface acidity and textural properties, pre-esterification of FFA in oil matrices and transesterification of waste oil under pseudo-infinite methanol and conventional methods were investigated. The preparation variable, H 2 SO 4 impregnation time showed marginal effect on sulfonic acid density after 6 h, and the corresponding values for 6–10 h impregnations were 1.33 ± 0.01–1.41 ± 0.01mmol g −1 for OPT and 1.44 ± 0.01–1.48 ± 0.01mmol g −1 for SCB catalysts. In esterification of palmitic acid, activity of catalysts with different H 2 SO 4 impregnation time correlates with their sulfonic acid density. The catalysts demonstrated rapid esterification of FFA in oil matrices under pseudo infinite methanol, reducing its content from 42 wt.% to <1 wt.% in just 15 min. Similarly, the conversions of waste oil by OPT and SCB derived catalysts were 80.6% and 83.2%, respectively after 4 h under pseudo-infinite methanol, and 43.7% and 45%, respectively after 6 h under conventional method. These catalysts have shown remarkable properties that are suitable for biodiesel production from waste oil

  15. Utilization of Baggase Waste Based Materials as Improvement for Thermal Insulation of Cement Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Eeydzah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building materials having low thermal load and low thermal conductivity will provide thermal comforts to the occupants in building. In an effort to reduce the use of high energy and waste products from the agricultural industry, sugarcane bagasse and banana bagasse has been utilize as an additive in the manufacture of cement brick. The aim of this study is to investigate the insulation and mechanical properties of brick that has been mixed with bagasse and its effectiveness as thermal insulation using heat flow meter. Waste bagasse is being treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and is characterized using SEM and XRF. The samples produced with two different dimensions of 50 mm × 50 mm × 50 mm and 215mm × 102.5mm × 65mm for thermal conductivity test. Next, the sample varies from 0% (control sample, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% in order to determine the best mix proportion. The compressive strength is being tested for 7, 14 and 28 days of water curing. Results showed that banana bagasse has lower thermal conductivity compared to sugarcane bagasse used, with compressive strength of 15.6MPa with thermal conductivity 0.6W/m.K.

  16. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Núñez-Jaquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement. Six prismatic specimens (7×7×10 cm with an embedded steel rod were prepared. Three contained 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement and the other three did not. All specimens were placed in a 3.5% NaCl solution and the corrosion rate was determined using polarization resistance. The results showed that reinforced concrete containing sugar cane bagasse ash has the lowest corrosion rates in comparison to reinforced concrete without the additive.

  17. Enhancement of ethanol production from green liquor-ethanol-pretreated sugarcane bagasse by glucose-xylose cofermentation at high solid loadings with mixed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanzhi; Li, Pengfei; Lei, Fuhou; Xing, Yang; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Efficient cofermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we demonstrate pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-Ethanol) by adding different GL amounts. The common Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CSC) and thermophilic S. cerevisiae (TSC) strains were used and different yeast cell mass ratios (CSC to TSC) were compared. The simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSF/SSCF) process was performed by 5-20% (w/v) dry substrate (DS) solid loadings to determine optimal conditions for the co-consumption of glucose and xylose. Compared to previous studies that tested fermentation of glucose using only the CSC, we obtained higher ethanol yield and concentration (92.80% and 23.22 g/L) with 1.5 mL GL/g-DS GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB at 5% (w/v) solid loading and a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Using 10% (w/v) solid loading under the same conditions, the ethanol concentration increased to 42.53 g/L but the ethanol yield decreased to 84.99%. In addition, an increase in the solid loading up to a certain point led to an increase in the ethanol concentration from 1.5 mL GL/g-DS-pretreated SCB. The highest ethanol concentration (68.24 g/L) was obtained with 15% (w/v) solid loading, using a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:3 (w/w). GL-Ethanol pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method for improving both glucan and xylan conversion efficiencies of SCB. There was a competitive relationship between the two yeast strains, and the glucose and xylose utilization ability of the TSC was better than that of the CSC. Ethanol concentration was obviously increased at high solid loading, but the yield decreased as a result of an increase in the viscosity and inhibitor levels in the fermentation system. Finally, the SSCF of GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB with mixed S. cerevisiae strains increased ethanol concentration and was an

  18. The behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Whardani, Putri Nurul Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) has the ability to flow and self-compacting. One of the benefit of SCC can reduced the construction time and labor cost. The materials to be used for see slightly different with the conventional concrete. Less coarse aggregate to be used up to 50%. The maximum size of coarse aggregate was also limited e.g. 10 mm. Other material was quartz sand with grain size of 50-650 µm. For reducing the around of cement, bagasse ash was used as partial replacement of cement. In this research, the variations of w/c to be used, e.g. 0.275, 0.300, 0.325 and the percentage of bagasse ash substitution were 10%, 15%, and 20%. EFNARC standard was conducted for slump flow test following the V-funnel test and L-box shape test. The maximum value of slump flow test was 75.75 cm, V-funnel test was 4.95 second, and L-box test was 1.000 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 0% of bagasse ash. The minimum value of slump flow test was 61.50 cm, V-funnel test is 21.05 second, and L-box test was 0.743 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 20% of bagasse ash. The maximum value of compressive strength was 67.239 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 15% of bagasse ash. And the minimum value of compressive strength was 41.813 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 20% bagasse ash.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Features Evaluation of Two Methods of Sugarcane Harvesting (with aim of Energy and Sugar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Andekaeizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugarcane is an important plant in the world that cultivate for the production of sugar and energy. For this purpose, evaluation of Sugarcane (SC and Energycane (EC methods is necessary. Energy is vital for economic and social development and the demand for it is rising. The international community look toward alternative to fossil fuels is the aim of using liquid fuel derived from agricultural resources. According to calculations, about 47% from renewable energy sources in Brazil comes from sugarcane so as, the country is known the second largest source of renewable energy. Sugarcane in Brazil provides about 17.5% of primary energy sources. Material such as bagasse and ethanol are derived from sugarcane that provide 4.2% and 11.2 % consumed energy, respectively . In developing countries, the use of this product increase in order to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of starch and sugar and thus independence in bioethanol production. Evaluation of energy consumption in manufacturing systems, show the measurement method of yield conversion to the amount of energy. Many of products of Sugarcane have ability to produce bioenergy. Many materials obtain from sugarcane such as, cellulosic ethanol, biofuels and other chemical materials. Hence, Energycane is introduced as a new method of sugarcane harvesting. But, one of the problems of this method is high cost and high energy consumption of harvester. So that the total cost of Energycane method is 38.4 percent of production total costs, whereas, this cost, in Sugarcane method is 5.32 percent of production total costs. In a study that was conducted by Matanker et al (2014 with title “Power requirements and field performance in harvesting EC and SC”, the power requirements of some components of sugarcane harvester and its field capacity, in Sugarcane and Energycane methods were examined. The consumed power by basecutter, elevator and chopper was measured in terms of Mega grams

  20. Screening for sugarcane brown rust in first clonal stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Sydow) was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize b...

  1. Thermal performance evaluation of a four pan jaggery processing furnace for improvement in energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal R.; Shendage, D.J.; Pillai, Indu R. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2010-12-15

    The jaggery making from sugarcane is one of the traditional process industries contributing to the local employment and entrepreneurship opportunities to the rural population. Jaggery is a condensed form of sugarcane juice produced by evaporation of moisture. Bagasse which is internally generated during juice extraction from sugarcane is used as the fuel for evaporation in a jaggery furnace. Any efficiency improvement in the thermal performance of a jaggery furnace leads to bagasse saving which provides additional revenue for the jaggery manufacturer. A procedure for thermal evaluation using mass and energy balance for a jaggery furnace is proposed to establish furnace performance and loss stream analysis. The proposed method is used to investigate a four pan traditional jaggery furnace in India. The loss stream analysis indicates that the theoretical energy required for jaggery processing is only 29% of total energy supplied by bagasse combustion. The major loss is associated with heat carried in flue gas and wall losses. The air available for combustion depends upon the draft created by chimney in natural draft furnaces. The oxygen content in the flue gas is a measure of degree of combustion. A controlled fuel feeding based on the oxygen percentage in the flue gases is proposed and demonstrated. The traditional practice of fuel feeding rate is changed to control feeding rate leading to reduction in specific fuel consumption from 2.39 kg bagasse/kg jaggery to 1.73 kg bagasse/kg jaggery. This procedure can be used for evaluation of jaggery furnaces for identification and quantification of losses, which will help in improving thermal energy utilization. (author)

  2. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masarin Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during

  3. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  4. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  5. Prospecting sugarcane resistance to Sugarcane yellow leaf virus by genome-wide association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debibakas, S; Rocher, S; Garsmeur, O; Toubi, L; Roques, D; D'Hont, A; Hoarau, J-Y; Daugrois, J H

    2014-08-01

    Using GWAS approaches, we detected independent resistant markers in sugarcane towards a vectored virus disease. Based on comparative genomics, several candidate genes potentially involved in virus/aphid/plant interactions were pinpointed. Yellow leaf of sugarcane is an emerging viral disease whose causal agent is a Polerovirus, the Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) transmitted by aphids. To identify quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to yellow leaf which are of direct relevance for breeding, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a sugarcane cultivar panel (n = 189) representative of current breeding germplasm. This panel was fingerprinted with 3,949 polymorphic markers (DArT and AFLP). The panel was phenotyped for SCYLV infection in leaves and stalks in two trials for two crop cycles, under natural disease pressure prevalent in Guadeloupe. Mixed linear models including co-factors representing population structure fixed effects and pairwise kinship random effects provided an efficient control of the risk of inflated type-I error at a genome-wide level. Six independent markers were significantly detected in association with SCYLV resistance phenotype. These markers explained individually between 9 and 14 % of the disease variation of the cultivar panel. Their frequency in the panel was relatively low (8-20 %). Among them, two markers were detected repeatedly across the GWAS exercises based on the different disease resistance parameters. These two markers could be blasted on Sorghum bicolor genome and candidate genes potentially involved in plant-aphid or plant-virus interactions were localized in the vicinity of sorghum homologs of sugarcane markers. Our results illustrate the potential of GWAS approaches to prospect among sugarcane germplasm for accessions likely bearing resistance alleles of significant effect useful in breeding programs.

  6. Biomass Morphology Subjected to Different Chemical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutan, Norsuzailina Mohamed; Masjida Mazlan, Siti; Taib, Siti Noor Linda; Lee, Delsye Teo Ching; Hassan, Alsidqi; Kudnie Sahari, Siti; Mohamad Said, Khairul Anwar; Rahman Sobuz, Habibur

    2018-03-01

    A growing interest of sugarcane bagasse fibre composite has been observed in recent years due to its attractiveness properties such as low specific weight, renewable source and producible with low investment at low cost. However, these materials have a low interfacial adhesion between fibre and matrix which lead to reduction in certain mechanical properties of the composite. To overcome this problem, studies show that certain chemical treatments on the surface of the fibres are some alternatives that significantly increase the adhesion reinforcement/matrix, in some cases improving its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different type of chemical treatment which are alkali and acid treatment on sugarcane bagasse fibre surface morphology. Seeking to improve the adhesion fibre matrix, the fibre has been treated with 5% of NaOH and 5% of HCL solution with added of bagasse fibre used in the range of 0% to 3% of cement weight respectively. Through SEM investigation, it is confirmed that chemical treatment helps to remove hemicelluloses from raw bagasse fiber as well as improved fibre matrix adhesion.

  7. Adsorption of gold (III) from aqueous solutions on bagasse ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, G.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential of cheap biomass materials for the recovery of gold from industrial, and electroplating waste water effluents, adsorption of gold (III) from dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid on bagasse ash has been studied under various experimental conditions by using batch technique. Percentage extraction of gold (III) on bagasse ash was determined from its distribution coefficients as a function of contact time, pH, adsorbent, adsorbate concentrations, and temperature. The uptake of gold (III) by bagasse ash is time, pH, metal concentration, amount of adsorbate, and temperature dependent. Adsorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, and the Freundlich equations. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash have been determined at three different temperatures. The positive value of heat of adsorption; delta H 44.52 kJ/mol shows that the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash is endothermic where as the negative value of delta G = -0.5303 kJ/mol at 318 K shows the spontaneity of the process. Delta G becomes more negative with increase in temperature which shows that the adsorption is more favorable at higher temperatures. Under the optimal adsorption conditions the adsorption capacity of gold is 0.70 mg /g of the adsorbent out of which 0.65 mg of gold gets desorbed with 0.1 % thiourea solution. (author)

  8. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  9. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...

  10. Compósitos biodegradáveis de amido de mandioca e resíduos da agroindústria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Almeida Marengo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to produce biodegradable composites using starch and different agro-industrial wastes (coconut fiber, soy bran and sugarcane bagasse using a baking process, and to study the effects of these components on the resultant composite properties. The addition of different residues yielded trays with different properties. Samples manufactured with soy bran showed the highest density and water uptake at relative humidities ≥ 60%. The addition of sugarcane bagasse resulted in less dense and resistant samples whereas coconut fiber composites showed the highest breaking stress. The samples fabricated in this study represent an alternative packaging option for foods with low water content.

  11. Sugarcane crop residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on oat (Avena sative L.), morningglory (Ipomoea purpurea L.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelopathy, the chemical interaction between plants, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development, and can include compounds released from a crop that adversely impact crop or weed species. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Sacchar...

  12. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse, an energy crop residue, with NaOH for the production of fermentable substrates, was investigated. Optimal conditions for the alkaline pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse were realized at 10% NaOH (w/w dry matter). A delignification of 46% was then observed,

  14. Bioaccumulation of the synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals in single and binary systems by Candida tropicalis grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium: Modelling optimal conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and inhibition kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D.; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-01-01

    Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, K s , and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium.

  15. Production of poly(malic acid) from sugarcane juice in fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans: Kinetics and process economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peilian; Cheng, Chi; Lin, Meng; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) is a biodegradable polymer with many potential biomedical applications. PMA can be readily hydrolyzed to malic acid (MA), which is widely used as an acidulant in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMA production from sucrose and sugarcane juice by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 was studied in shake-flasks and bioreactors, confirming that sugarcane juice can be used as an economical substrate without any pretreatment or nutrients supplementation. A high PMA titer of 116.3g/L and yield of 0.41g/g were achieved in fed-batch fermentation. A high productivity of 0.66g/L·h was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with cell recycle. These results compared favorably with those obtained from glucose and other biomass feedstocks. A process economic analysis showed that PMA could be produced from sugarcane juice at a cost of $1.33/kg, offering a cost-competitive bio-based PMA for industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical and chemical properties of selected agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons and their ability to adsorb geosmin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.; Losso, J.N.; Rao, R.M. [Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Food Science; Marshall, W.E. [USDA-ARS, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected physical and chemical properties of agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons made from pecan shells and sugarcane bagasse, and compare those properties to a commercial coal-based activated carbon as well as to compare the adsorption efficiency of these carbons for geosmin. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of pecan shell- and bagasse-based carbons to the commercial carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, showed that pecan shell carbon, but not the bagasse carbon, compared favorably to Filtrasorb 400, especially in terms of surface area, bulk density, ash and attrition. A carbon dosage study done in a model system showed the amount of geosmin adsorbed to be greater for Filtrasorb 400 and the bagasse-based carbon at low carbon concentrations than for the pecan shell carbons, but geosmin adsorption was similar in all carbons at higher carbon dosages. Application of the Freundlich isotherm model to the adsorption data showed that carbons made by steam activation of pecan shells or sugarcane bagasse had geosmin adsorption characteristics most like those of the commercial carbon. In terms of physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, steam-activated pecan shell carbon most resembled the commercial carbon and has the potential to replace Filtrasorb 400 in applications involving removal of geosmin from aqueous environments. (author)

  18. GH53 Endo-Beta-1,4-Galactanase from a Newly Isolated Bacillus licheniformis CBMAI 1609 as an Enzymatic Cocktail Supplement for Biomass Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Evandro Antonio; Machado, Carla Botelho; Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Ward, Richard John; Sato, Hélia Harumi; Ruller, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Galactanases (endo-β-1,4-galactanases-EC 3.2.1.89) catalyze the hydrolysis of β-1,4 galactosidic bonds in arabinogalactan and galactan side chains found in type I rhamnogalacturan. The aim of this work was to understand the catalytic function, biophysical properties, and use of a recombinant GH53 endo-beta-1,4-galactanase for commercial cocktail supplementation. The nucleotide sequence of the endo-β-1,4-galactanase from Bacillus licheniformis CBMAI 1609 (Bl1609Gal) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the biochemical and biophysical properties of the enzyme were characterized. The optimum pH range and temperature of Bl1609Gal activity were 6.5-8 and 40 °C, respectively. Furthermore, Bl1609Gal showed remarkable pH stability, retaining more than 75 % activity even after 24 h of incubation at pH 4-10. The enzyme was thermostable, retaining nearly 100 % activity after 1-h incubation at pH 7.0 at 25-45 °C. The enzymatic efficiency (K cat /K m ) against potato galactan under optimum conditions was 241.2 s(-1) mg(-1) mL. Capillary zone electrophoresis demonstrated that the pattern of galactan hydrolysis by Bl1609Gal was consistent with that of endogalactanases. Supplementation of the commercial cocktail ACCELLERASE(®)1500 with recombinant Bl1609Gal increased hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by 25 %.

  19. Investigating the efficiency of co-composting and vermicomposting of vinasse with the mixture of cow manure wastes, bagasse, and natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Daneshpajou, Monavvar; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Babaei, Ali Akbar

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation of ethanol as a product of sugarcane agro-industry causes the discharge of large amounts of a liquid waste called vinasse into the environment. In this study, co-composting followed by vermicomposting process of the mixtures of vinasse, cow manure, and chopped bagasse was performed for 60days using earthworms of Eisenia fetida species. The results showed that the trend of changes in C/N was decreasing. The pH of the final fertilizer was in alkaline range (8.1-8.4). The total potassium decreased during the process, ranging from 0.062 to 0.15%, while the total phosphorus increased and its values ranged from 0.06 to 0.10%. The germination index (GI) for all samples was 100%, while the cellular respiration maturity index wascompost. The results of this study indicate that the compost obtained from the co-composting-vermicomposting process could be used as a sound soil amendment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioethanol from lignocelluloses: Status and perspectives in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Karp, Susan Grace; Buckeridge, Marcos; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana; Gottschalk, Leda Maria Fortes; Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Araújo, Juliana de Amorim; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2010-07-01

    The National Alcohol Program--PróAlcool, created by the government of Brazil in 1975 resulted less dependency on fossil fuels. The addition of 25% ethanol to gasoline reduced the import of 550 million barrels oil and also reduced the emission CO(2) by 110 million tons. Today, 44% of the Brazilian energy matrix is renewable and 13.5% is derived from sugarcane. Brazil has a land area of 851 million hectares, of which 54% are preserved, including the Amazon forest (350 million hectares). From the land available for agriculture (340 million hectares), only 0.9% is occupied by sugarcane as energy crop, showing a great expansion potential. Studies have shown that in the coming years, ethanol yield per hectare of sugarcane, which presently is 6000 L/ha, could reach 10,000 L/ha, if 50% of the produced bagasse would be converted to ethanol. This article describes the efforts of different Brazilian institutions and research groups on second generation bioethanol production, especially from sugarcane bagasse. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  2. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA 3 , 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  3. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing, E-mail: yyq287346@163.com; Xu, Jingsheng, E-mail: xujingsheng@126.com

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. - Highlights: • We cloned ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3 from sugarcane accession Badila. • We examined interactions among VPg, ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with VPgs of SCMV, SrMV and SCSMV. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with SceIF4E2 but not SceIF4E1 or SceIF4E3.

  4. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. - Highlights: • We cloned ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3 from sugarcane accession Badila. • We examined interactions among VPg, ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with VPgs of SCMV, SrMV and SCSMV. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with SceIF4E2 but not SceIF4E1 or SceIF4E3.

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings for the conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspeta, Luis; Caro-Bermúdez, Mario A.; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol. • Ethanosolv-pretreatment variables were statistically adjusted. • 91% of total sugars found in agave bagasse were recovered. • 225 g/L glucose from 30%-consistency hydrolysis using mini-reactors with peg-mixers. • 0.25 g of ethanol per g of dry agave bagasse was obtained. - Abstract: Agave bagasse is the lignocellulosic residue accumulated during the production of alcoholic beverages in Mexico and is a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. A factorial design was used to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and concentrations of acid and ethanol on ethanosolv pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of agave bagasse. This method and the use of a stirred in-house-made mini-reactor increased the digestibility of agave bagasse from 30% observed with the dilute-acid method to 98%; also allowed reducing the quantity of enzymes used to hydrolyze samples with solid loadings of 30% w/w and glucose concentrations up to 225 g/L were obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysates. Overall this process allows the recovery of 91% of the total fermentable sugars contained in the agave bagasse (0.51 g/g) and 69% of total lignin as co-product (0.11 g/g). The maximum ethanol yield under optimal conditions using an industrial yeast strain for the fermentation was 0.25 g/g of dry agave bagasse, which is 86% of the maximum theoretical (0.29 g/g). The effect of the glucose concentration and solid loading on the conversion of cellulose to glucose is discussed, in addition to prospective production of about 50 million liters of fuel ethanol using agave bagasse residues from the tequila industry as a potential solution to the disposal problems

  6. Kenaf and cowpea as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Typically, a Louisiana sugarcane field is replanted every four years due to declining yields, and,...

  7. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because

  8. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  9. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Sacchromyces cervisae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64% followed by rice straw (40% and wheat straw (34%. Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L and wheat straw (44 g/L using medium composition of (% 0.25 (NH42SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  10. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, S.E.; Sokker, S.S.; Dessooki, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  11. Purification and Characterization of Thermostable Cellulase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... Methods: Molecular community structure of the newly selected thermophilic bacterial ... Keywords: Thermostable cellulase, Sugarcane bagasse, Purification, Characterization, Hot spring ... Currently, one.

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APPLICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH AS A PARTIAL CEMENT. REPLACEMENT MATERIAL ... evironmental and economical advantages CON also be exploited by using ... strength, Water penetration depth. fration time, material.

  13. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roniram Pereira da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 14' 05'' S, 48º 17' 09'' W with two different soil types, namely: an eutroferric Red Latosol (RLe with high-clay texture (clay content = 680 g kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol (RLa with clayey texture (clay content = 440 g kg-1. A randomized block design with five replications and four treatments (crop sequences was used. The crop sequences during the sugarcane fallow period were soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunn hemp/soybean, soybean/fallow/soybean, and soybean. Soil use was found not to affect chemical properties and sugarcane productivity of RLe or RLa. The soybean/millet/soybean sequence improved aggregation in the acric Latosol.

  14. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Gong, Aihua; Li, Jianan; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. (paper)

  15. Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bagasse/Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of bagasse/glass fiber/polypropylene hybrid composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and their properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber the melting temperature (Tm and the crystallisation temperature (Tc shift to higher temperatures and the degree of crystallinity (Xc increase. These findings suggest that the fibers played the role of a nucleating agent in composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that by the incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber into polypropylene, the storage modulus ( and the loss modulus ( increase whereas the mechanical loss factor (tanδ decrease. To assess the effect of reinforcement with increasing temperature, the effectiveness coefficient C was calculated at different temperature ranges and revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of fibers was more noticeable. The fiber-matrix adhesion efficiency determined by calculating of adhesion factor A in terms of the relative damping of the composite (tan δc and the polymer (tan δpand volume fraction of the fibers (Фf. Calculated adhesion factor A values indicated that by adding glass fiber to bagasse/polypropylene system, the fiber-matrix adhesion improve. Hybrid composite containing 25% bagasse and 15% glass fiber showed better fiber-matrix adhesion.

  16. Physicochemical study of bagasse and bagasse ash from the sugar industries of NWFP, pakistan and its recycling in cement manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, K.; Amin, N.U.; Shah, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse and bagasse ash, obtained from the local sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, were analyzed for both physical and chemical parameters. Among the physical parameters, the moisture, ash contents, volatile matter, loss on ignition, and calorific value have been determined while the chemical constituents such as SiO/sub 2/, AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/O, K/sub 2/O, carbon and sulfur were also determined in both baggase and baggase ash. The physicochemical characterization of baggase ash suggests that it can be used as a part of the cement admixture, which could be cost effective and environmentally sustainable. (author)

  17. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  18. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Silvio R., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Souza, Agda E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira — FEIS, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira – SP (Brazil); Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja — IETCC, CSIC, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  19. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Silvio R.; Souza, Agda E.; Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma.

    2014-01-01

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO 3 ) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings

  20. Influence of gamma radiation in the mechanical properties of partially biodegradable foams of PP/HMSP blends with sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Mascarenha, Yago; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    Polymers are used in various applications and in different market segments generating enormous amounts of wastes in environment. Among residues components in landfills are polymeric materials, as PP, contributing with 20 to 30% of total solids residues. As polymeric materials are immune to microbial degradation, remain in soil and in landfills as a semi-permanent residue. Environmental concerning toward residues reduction is nowadays directed to the development of renewable polymers for manufacturing of materials that degrade under environment, as biodegradable polymeric foams. High density structural foams are especially used in civil construction, replacing metals, woods and concrete, with a major purpose of materials cost reduction. This work aims to the study of biodegradability in PP/HMSPP blends with sugarcane bagasse at 10, 15, 30 and 50% further irradiated at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. The biodegradability was assessed via Soil Burial Test. Tensile strength and elongation at break results proved that natural fibers reinforcement characteristic was not affected by gamma radiation, responsible by degradation and consequent biodegradability acceleration in structural foams. (author)

  1. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  2. Characterization for Post-treatment Effect of Bagasse Ash for Silica Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Patcharin Worathanakul; Wisaroot Payubnop; Akhapon Muangpet

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of bagasse ash for silica sources is one of the most common application for agricultural wastes and valuable biomass byproducts in sugar milling. The high percentage silica content from bagasse ash was used as silica source for sodium silicate solution. Different heating temperature, time and acid treatment were studies for silica extraction. The silica was characterized using various techniques including X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electro...

  3. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  4. Effect of sugarcane waste in the control of interrill erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Cardoso Valim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane uses different cropping systems that result in varying quantities of crop waste, this may influence soil erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the loss of soil and water, the infiltration rate, and soil surface roughness in an area cultivated with sugarcane (Saccharum spp.. Six treatments with different levels of plant waste were evaluated: sugarcane without plant waste; sugarcane with 4.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 8.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 12.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 16.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; and burned sugarcane. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, totalling 24 experimental plots. As soil depth increased, there is reduction in macroporosity, total soil porosity, organic carbon content, mean geometric diameter and weighted mean diameter of the soil aggregates, whereas the bulk density of the soil displays the opposite trend. The presence of sugarcane waste on the soil surface increases the time required for the initiation of surface runoff. Sugarcane waste does not alter soil surface roughness, and at the minimum amount of waste administered (4 Mg ha-1 reduces losses of soil and water and increases the infiltration rate. The lack of soil surface coverage after harvesting the sugarcane contributes to soil and water loss, and reduces the rate of stable infiltration of water into the soil.

  5. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO 2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  6. Vermicompostagem de lodo de esgoto urbano e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Vermicomposting of urban sewage sludge and sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D. da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar alterações químicas no substrato orgânico no decorrer do processo de vermicompostagem de diferentes combinações de lodo de esgoto urbano (LEU com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BC, além de sua qualidade final como adubo orgânico, realizou-se um experimento em laboratório e campo. Os vermicompostos foram obtidos a partir dos tratamentos T1 = 150 kg de LEU; T2 = 121,6 kg de LEU + 97,30 kg de BC; T3 = 59 kg de LEU + 97,30 kg de BC; T4 = 35,5 kg de LEU + 97,30 kg de BC e T5 = 23,10 kg de LEU + 97,30 kg de BC. Para a realização do processo de vermicompostagem, foram utilizadas minhocas vermelhas-da-Califórnia (Eisenia fetida. As características químicas determinadas nos vermicompostos produzidos indicaram que os mesmos podem ser utilizados como adubo orgânico, principalmente no que se refere ao conteúdo de matéria orgânica, pH, relação C/N, concentração de nitrogênio e fósforo. As concentrações de metais pesados situaram-se abaixo dos limites de toxicidade, considerados pela legislação internacional. Aumento da proporção de LEU como substrato proporcionou aumento na concentração final de N, Ca e Mg, diminuídas de K.The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical alterations in the substrate with time of the vermicomposting involving different combinations of urban sewage sludge (USS and sugarcane bagasse (SB, besides it's quality as organic fertilizer. The vermicomposts were obtained from the treatments T1= 150 kg of USS; T2 = 121.6 kg of USS + 97.30 kg of SB; T3 = 59 kg of USS + 97.30 kg of SB; T4 = 35.5 kg of USS + 97.30 kg of SB; T5= 23.10 kg of USS + 97.30 kg of SB. For the vermicomposting process, Red-California earthworm (Eisenia fetida was utilized. Chemical characteristics determined in the vermicomposts indicate that it can be used as organic fertilizer, mainly with regard to organic matter content, pH, C/N ratio, nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Heavy metal

  7. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Kumar Saw; Chandan Datta

    2009-01-01

    Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA) to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy comp...

  8. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  9. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  10. Biosorptive removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions from water by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... such as seaweeds (Williams and Edyvean, 1997), sugarcane bagasse ... due to their structural composition (they mainly contain cel- lulose ...... study of chromium biosorption by red, green and brown seaweed biomass.

  11. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0 to severe infection (4 with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for genotypes in the first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program in Florida. Data were collected from 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and replicated check cultivars in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % infection, and severity in each family and progeny of female parent were determined, and their coefficients of variation (CV within and among families (females were estimated. Considerable variation exists in rust ratings among families or females. The families and female parents with high susceptibility or resistance to brown rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study can help scientists to evaluate sugarcane crosses and parents for brown rust disease, to use desirable parents for crossing, and to improve genetic resistance to brown rust in breeding programs.

  12. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  13. Application of cellulosic nanofibers to replace with imported long- fiber pulps in paper made from bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, different additives of cellulose nanofibers, cationic starch and polyacrylamide to bagasse pulp and their impact on the handsheet strengths were investigated aiming to replace with imported long-fiber softwood pulp in Pars paper factory. For this purpose, first 3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers, 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers, 0.5, 0.7 and 1% cationic starch, and 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1% cationic polyacrylamide were added separately to bagasse pulp. In the next stage,3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers and 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers along with 0.5% cationic starch or 0.05% cationic polyacrylamide were used. The results showed, adding nano-cellulose fibers along with cationic polyacrylamide or starch have increased handsheet strengths significantly. Yet, the best treatment was the addition of 3% nano-lignocellulose along with 0.5% cationic starch which resulted in the higher tensile and burst strengths and lower tear and fold strengths than that of adding 12.5% long fibers to bagasse pulp. So that, comparing with paper made from pure bagasse pulp it showed the increase of 16.57% in tensile index, 8.47% in burst index, 9.77% in tear index, and 168.85% in folding strength.

  14. Genetic Divergence in Sugarcane Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...

  15. Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African sugar industry has a potential for cogeneration of steam and electricity using bagasse. The sugar industry has the potential to generate about 960 MW per year from bagasse based on the average of 20 million tons of sugar cane...

  16. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  17. Concentration on Callus Induction in Sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protocols for in vitro micro propagation of sugarcane through callus culture from foliage leaves (Bugun et al., ... protocol for specific genotypes. Sucrose is the most important type of sugar produced from sugarcane. ... laboratories via plant tissue culture technique. (Lorenzo and Ganzalez, 1998). This allows for an extended ...

  18. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil.

  19. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane mosaic disease caused by sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane worldwide. Field survey was conducted to assess the presence of the viruses involve in ...

  20. Enzymic saccharification of some pretreated agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gammal, S.M.A.; Sadek, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Cellulosie wastes, artichoke leaves and stalks, sugar-cane bagasse and fennel seeds after extraction of essential oils were treated with various concentrations of peracetic acid at 100/sup 0/C, 60/sup 0/C and room temperature several times, washed with water and ethanol and air dried. The degree of enzymatic solubilization of each treated cellulosic waste was measured with Aspergillus niger cellulase (Endo-1,4-B-Glucanase; 1,4-(1,3; 1,4)-..beta..-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase; EC 3. 2.1.4). Artichoke waste and sugar-cane bagasse were solubilized more efectively by the enzymethan fennel waste. Data are presented describing the effect of time, enzyme and substrate concentration on the rate of enzymic hydrolysis. Infrared spectra of the treated and untreated cellulosic materials were recorded.

  1. Production of thermophilic and acidophilic endoglucanases by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of thermophilic and acidophilic endoglucanases by mutant Trichoderma atroviride 102C1 using agro-industrial by-products. ... The effect of the carbon (sugarcane bagasse: SCB) and nitrogen (corn steep liquor: CSL) sources on ...

  2. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. SINTESIS SILIKA AEROGEL DENGAN BAHAN DASAR ABU BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazriati Nazriati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SILICA AEROGEL FROM BAGASSE ASH. Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid (SA. Silicic acid solution was then added with TMCS and HMDS as surface modifier agent. In order to form gel pH must be adjusted to final pH of 8-9 by addition of NH4OH solution. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. Characterization of products was done by measuring its pore volume, surface area, and hydrophobisity (contact angle. TMCS serves as water expeller from the pores and subsequently surface was modified by HMDS and TMCS. HMDS content will linearly increase surface area, pore volume, and the contact angle of the resulting silica aerogel. Characteristics of silica aerogel was generated by varying the composition of the SA:TMCS:HMDS resulting has a surface area of 50-488 m2/g, pore volume from 0.2 to 0.9 m3 /g, the contact angle of 48-119 and pore diameter ranging from 5.7-22.56 nm. Based on the resulting pore diameter, the synthesized of silica aerogel categorized as mesoporous.      Abstrak   Sintesis silika aerogel dari bahan dasar abu bagasse dilakukan dengan ekstraksi basa dan diikuti dengan sol-gel. Abu bagasse diekstrak dengan NaOH pada suhu didihnya sambil diaduk selama satu jam, menghasilkan sodium silikat. Selanjutnya, sodium silikat dilewatkan resin penukar ion, menghasilkan asam silicic (SA. Larutan asam silicic kemudian ditambahkan trimethy­l­chlorosilane (TMCS dan hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS sebagai agen pemodifikasi permukaan. Untuk terjadinya gel pH diatur hingga mencapai 8-9 dengan penambahan larutan NH4OH. Gel yang dihasilkan kemudian di-aging dan dikeringkan pada tekanan ambien pada suhu dan

  4. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016 have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review.

  5. Ethanologenic potential of the bacterium Bacillus cereus NB-19 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Ethanologenic bacterium was cultivated in a suspension of sugarcane ... bagasse is very useful for obtaining yields of the different products including cell mass and ethanol as ... the resources for the green fuel generation.

  6. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  7. Sequential high pressure extractions applied to recover piceatannol and scirpusin B from passion fruit bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganó, Juliane; Aguiar, Ana C; Moraes, Damila R; Jara, José L P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Passion fruit seeds are currently discarded on the pulp processing but are known for their high piceatannol and scirpusin B contents. Using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), these highly valuable phenolic compounds were efficiently extracted from defatted passion fruit bagasse (DPFB). PLE was performed using mixtures of ethanol and water (50 to 100% ethanol, w/w) as solvent, temperatures from 50 to 70°C and pressure at 10MPa. The extraction methods were compared in terms of the global yield, total phenolic content (TPC), piceatannol content and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The DPFB extracts were also compared with those from non-defatted passion fruit bagasse (nDPFB). Identification and quantification of piceatannol were performed using UHPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that high TPC and piceatannol content were achieved for the extracts obtained from DPFB through PLE at 70°C and using 50 and 75% ethanol as the solvent. The best PLE conditions for TPC (70°C, 75% ethanol) resulted in 55.237mgGAE/g dried and defatted bagasse, whereas PLE at 70°C and 50% ethanol achieved 18.590mg of piceatannol/g dried and defatted bagasse, and such yields were significantly higher than those obtained using conventional extraction techniques. The antioxidant capacity assays showed high correlation with the TPC (r>0.886) and piceatannol (r>0.772). The passion fruit bagasse has therefore proved to be a rich source of piceatannol and PLE showed high efficiency to recover phenolic compounds from defatted passion fruit bagasse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of second-generation processes for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to liquid biofuels in terms of energy efficiency, pinch point analysis and Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, A.M.; Melamu, Rethabi; Knoetze, J.H.; Görgens, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Process evaluation of thermochemical and biological routes for bagasse to fuels. • Pinch point analysis increases overall efficiencies by reducing utility consumption. • Advanced biological route increased efficiency and local environmental impacts. • Thermochemical routes have the highest efficiencies and low life cycle impacts. - Abstract: Three alternative processes for the production of liquid transportation biofuels from sugar cane bagasse were compared, on the perspective of energy efficiencies using process modelling, Process Environmental Assessments and Life Cycle Assessment. Bio-ethanol via two biological processes was considered, i.e. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (Process 1) and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (Process 2), in comparison to Gasification and Fischer Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic fuels (Process 3). The energy efficiency of each process scenario was maximised by pinch point analysis for heat integration. The more advanced bio-ethanol process was Process 2 and it had a higher energy efficiency at 42.3%. Heat integration was critical for the Process 3, whereby the energy efficiency was increased from 51.6% to 55.7%. For both the Process Environmental and Life Cycle Assessment, Process 3 had the least potential for detrimental environmental impacts, due to its relatively high energy efficiency. Process 2 had the greatest Process Environmental Impact due to the intensive use of processing chemicals. Regarding the Life Cycle Assessments, Process 1 was the most severe due to its low energy efficiency

  9. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months.

  10. The aptitude of the soils for the production of sugarcane. Part 2: Comparison of two methods at ‘Ciudad Caracas’ sugarcane mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Arzola Pina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to compare two methods for determining the aptitude of soils for growing Sugarcane in Cuba. The information was provided by three sugarcane farms owned by Ciudad Caracas sugarcane mill in the municipality of Santa Isabel de Las Lajas in Cienfuegos. The information of the soils from each farm was taken from the 1:25 000 scale cadastral maps designed by Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG. Rainfall data was collected from the nearby stations rain gauges. And the sugarcane yield was reported by each farm. The aptitude of the soils was determined by two methods (AGRO 24 de 1993 y Arzola de 1999 using the information available. Results showed that both methods are appropriate for selecting soils with higher productive potential, and are a useful tool for making right decisions for optimizing the land use at each sugarcane farm.

  11. Prospecting Agro-waste Cocktail: Supplementation for Cellulase Production by a Newly Isolated Thermophilic B. licheniformis 2D55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Muinat Olanike; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; AbdulRahman, Nor' Aini

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria isolated from thermophilic environment that can produce cellulase as well as utilise agro-waste biomass have a high potential for developing thermostable cellulase required in the biofuel industry. The cost for cellulase represents a significant challenge in converting lignocellulose to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Among three potential bacteria examined, Bacillus licheniformis 2D55 (accession no. KT799651) was found to produce the highest cellulolytic activity (CMCase 0.33 U/mL and FPase 0.09 U/mL) at 18-24 h fermentation when grown on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a carbon source in shake flask at 50 °C. Cellulase production process was further conducted on the untreated and NaOH pretreated rice straw (RS), rice husk (RH), sugarcane bagasse (BAG) and empty fruit bunch (EFB). Untreated BAG produced the highest FPase (0.160 U/mL), while the highest CMCase (0.150 U/mL) was supported on the pretreated RH. The mixture of untreated BAG and pretreated RH as agro-waste cocktail has remarkably improved CMCase (3.7- and 1.4-fold) and FPase (2.5- and 11.5-fold) compared to the untreated BAG and pretreated RH, respectively. The mechanism of cellulase production explored through SEM analysis and the location of cellulase enzymes of the isolate was also presented. Agro-waste cocktail supplementation provides an alternative method for an efficient production of cellulase.

  12. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Turra de Ávila, Márcio; Pacca, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m 3 ha −1 y −1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha −1 y −1 of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradão (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in São Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradão, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and −7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. -- Highlights: ► LCA of ethanol and biodiesel joint production system. ► Sugarcane based biorefinery assessment in Brazil. ► Original Brazilian LCI data on ethanol and palm oil biodiesel production. ► Biofuel LCA with LUC sensitivity analisis for the Brazilian Cerrado Region.

  13. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with bown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant ...

  14. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with brown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant c...

  15. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the existing usage of fossil fuels, thereby minimizing negative environmental impacts. Due to mechanical harvesting of sugarcane, the amount of pointer and straw has increased in sugarcane fields, becoming inputs of great energy potential.

  16. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ..... Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods,.

  17. Multiscale Alterations in Sugar Cane Bagasse and Straw Submitted to Alkaline Deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cleilton S. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rabelo, Sarita C. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Ciesielski, Peter N. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Roberto, Inês C. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rocha, George J. M. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Driemeier, Carlos [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    2018-01-31

    Alkaline deacetylation has emerged as a promising chemistry for pretreatments performed prior to enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. This process avoids complex pressurized reactors and opens new opportunities for lignin covalorization. In this work, we evaluate the chemical and morphological response of sugar cane bagasse and straw submitted to alkaline treatments. Alkaline solutions for deacetylation (0.4% w/w NaOH, 70 degrees C, 3 h) as well as proximal conditions (0.1-0.7% NaOH, 55-85 degrees C, 1-5 h) chosen by 23 experimental design were evaluated. The deacetylation treatment removes ~90% of the acetyl groups and 20-30% of the lignin from both bagasse and straw, while removal of ~20% of the xylan and glucan is observed in straw, but not in bagasse. Considering nanoscale structural alterations, neither cellulose cocrystallization (evaluated by X-ray diffraction) nor formation of lignin aggregates (evaluated by thermoporometric signature) are observed after the alkaline conditions, in contrast to observations after hydrothermal treatments. Furthermore, calorimetric thermoporometry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies show substantial introduction of nanoscale porosity and loosening of the tissue and cell wall structures, indicating desirable mechanical weakening and gains in enzyme accessibility. These results provide fundamental and practical knowledge for biorefineries based on alkaline deacetylation of sugar cane bagasse and straw.

  18. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  19. Structural Changes of Bagasse dusring the Homogeneous Esterification with Maleic Anhydride in Ionic Liquid 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The maleation of bagasse could greatly increase the compatibility between bagasse and composite matrixes, and the percentage of substitution (PS of bagasse maleates could be regulated in the homogeneous system. However, due to the complicated components and the linkages of bagasse, it was difficult to control the reaction behaviors of each component. In this paper, the detailed structural changes of bagasse during the homogeneous maleation in ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl were comparatively investigated with the three main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin from bagasse. The PS of the maleated bagasse was 12.52%, and the PS of the maleated cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin were 13.50%, 10.89%, and 14.03%, respectively. Fourier translation infrared (FT-IR and NMR analyses confirmed that the three main components were all involved in the homogeneous maleation. 1H-13C HSQC analysis indicated that the predominant monoesterification of cellulose, diesterification of hemicelluloses and lignin, and the degradation of the three main components simultaneously occurred. Besides, the quantitative analysis from 1H-13C HSQC revealed the relative PS of reactive sites in each component. 31P NMR results showed that the reactivity of lignin aliphatic hydroxyls was higher than that of phenolic ones, and the reactivity of phenolic hydroxyls followed the order of p-hydroxyphenyl hydroxyls > guaiacyl hydroxyls > syringyl hydroxyls.

  20. A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, Tyron; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2006-01-01

    The energetic utilisation of agricultural residues is considered to be an important element in any strategy to achieve renewable energy targets. In the approximately 80 cane-sugar producing countries there is potential to make better use of the fibrous residue known as bagasse. Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as 'green', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. This paper compares their projected environmental benefits from a life-cycle perspective, using South African data. Mass and energy analyses were prepared for the two systems and a base case (producing sugar with current methods), relative to the annual sugarcane production on one hectare. In both cases, the environmental burdens avoided by replacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy were included. The results obtained confirm that for all the impact categories considered, both 'bioenergy' products result in environmental benefits. The co-generation option results in lower energy-related emissions (i.e. lower global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials), whereas the fuel ethanol option is preferred in terms of resource conservation (since it is assumed to replace oil not coal), and also scores better in terms of human and eco-toxicity if assumed to replace lead-bearing oxygenates

  1. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  2. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining pulp was delignified by alkali for 120 minutes at 170C using, separately, NaOH load of 15, 20 and 25% of weight of the pulp. The delignified pulp was further bleached twice with 4% H2O2 charge of weight of the pulp to produce high α-cellulose pulp. The water liquor was evaporated and further hydrolysed and dehydrated with diluted H2SO4 in a stainless steel reactor to produce furfural. The result shows that the optimal pretreatment of steam explosion for 4 min at 218C leads to the yield of α-cellulose pulp at 193-201 g∙kg-1 of the original bagasse, and that furfural can be produced from xylose present in the liquor with a maximum conversion factor of 0.16.

  3. Integrated management of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass is a difficult perennial weed to manage in Louisiana sugarcane. Research was conducted to compare interrow tillage practice, postharvest residue management, and herbicide placement on bermudagrass proliferation and sugarcane yield. Tillage frequencies included conventional (four tillage...

  4. Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Using Bagasse-Derived Ethanol as a Gasoline Oxygenate in Mumbai (Bombay)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K.

    2000-12-07

    Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. About 15%--25% of the bagasse is left after satisfying the mills' energy requirements, and this excess bagasse can be used in a bioconversion process to make ethanol. It is estimated that a 23 million L/yr ({approximately}6 million gal/yr) ethanol facility is feasible by combining excess bagasse from three larger sugar mills in Maharashtra state. The plant could supply about half of the ethanol demand in Mumbai, assuming that all gasoline is sold as an E10 fuel, a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume. The life cycle assessment (LCA) performed in this study demonstrated the potentially significant benefits of diverting excess bagasse in Maharashtra to ethanol production, as opposed to disposing it by burning. In particular, lower net values for the ethanol production scenario were observed for the following: fossil energy consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide , hydrocarbons (except methane), SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, and methane. The lower greenhouse potential of the ethanol scenario is also important in the context of Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation because India is a developing country.

  5. Biomass refining for sustainable development : analysis and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the contribution of biomass refining to sustainable development, the technical, environmental and economic aspects are summarized in this thesis. This work begins from life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, sugarcane and bagasse,

  6. Pretreatment of various feedstocks for lactic acid production: detection of sugars, organic acids and furanics in liquid fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Barley straw, sugarcane bagasse and empty fruit bunches were pretreated under acid- and alkaline conditions. Solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and the concentration of dissolved monomeric sugars, organic acids and furanics was determined. Acid hydrolysis yielded monomeric xylose

  7. Evaluation of the juice brix of wild sugarcanes (Saccharum spontaneum indigenous to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Sakaigaichi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from the interspecific crossing between Saccharum officinarum and wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum. The introgression of valuable characteristics from wild sugarcane is recognized as extremely important, but this process typically requires long-term effort over multiple generations of backcrosses owing to the low sugar content of the initial interspecific hybrids. In this study, we aimed to identify Japanese wild sugarcanes with high juice brix in order to promote effective interspecific crossing of sugarcane. Sixty-four accessions from the Nansei Islands and 70 accessions from the Honshu were evaluated for juice brix. Wild sugarcanes with high juice brix were demonstrated to exist among wild sugarcanes indigenous to the Honshu. A significant difference was observed between the median juice brix values of wild sugarcanes of the Nansei Islands and those of the Honshu. The relationship between juice brix and stem traits was then examined in 20 wild sugarcanes, 10 each from the Nansei Islands and the Honshu. The reproducibility of juice brix value in both experiments was confirmed. In contrast to juice brix, stem traits, such as length, diameter, and volume, were typically smaller in wild sugarcanes from the Honshu. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between the index of stem volume and juice brix. In this study, we identified outstanding wild sugarcanes with high juice brix. Using germplasms from the identified wild sugarcanes in interspecific crossing could contribute to the increases in both yield and sugar content.

  8. Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Aigbodion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash(BAp particulate composites was investigated. The composites were produced by a double stir-casting method by varying bagasse ash from 2 to 10 wt.%. After casting the samples were solution heat-treated at a temperature of 500 °C in an electrically heated furnace, soaked for 3 h at this temperature and then rapidly quenched in water and thermal aged at temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. The ageing characteristics of these grades of composites were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, hardness and tensile test samples obtained from solution heat-treated composites samples subjected to the temperature conditions mentioned above. The results show that the uniform distribution of the bagasse ash particles in the microstructure of both the as-cast and age-hardened Al–Cu–Mg/BAp composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement in mechanical properties. The presence of the bagasse ash particles in the matrix alloy results in a much smaller grain size in the cast composites compared to the matrix alloy. The addition of bagasse ash particles to Al–Cu–Mg (A2009 does not alter the thermal ageing sequence, but it alters certain aspects of the precipitation reaction. Although thermal ageing is accelerated in the composites the presence of bagasse ash particles in A2009 reduces the peak temperatures.

  9. Efficient saccharification by pretreatment of bagasse pith with ionic liquid and acid solutions simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Wenjuan; Qi, Wei; Yan, Yongjie; Xu, Qingli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bagasse pith was pretreated by BMIMCl solution containing HCl and water. • Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl to maximize total sugar yield. • Cellulose was dissolved by BMIMCl and 95% of cellulose recovery was obtained. • The recovered cellulose was disrupted which is conducive to cellulase hydrolysis. • The total sugars yield is 89.9% obtained from pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis. - Abstract: Hydrolysis of hemicellulose and disruption of cellulose during pretreatment process are conducive to the following cellulase hydrolysis performance. In this work, bagasse pith was first pretreated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) solution containing 0–1.2% hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 30% water. The water (30%) added into the acidic ionic liquid (IL) solutions led to an increase in the biomass loading up to a biomass/IL solutions ratio of 1:10 (wt.%). Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl and cellulose was dissolved by [BMIM]Cl. In this process, 76.9% of hemicellulose conversion and 95% of cellulose recovery were obtained. The pretreated bagasse pith was then followed by hydrolysis with commercially available enzymes. The effects of pretreatment temperature, reaction time and acid concentration on cellulase hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse pith were investigated. Pretreatment of bagasse pith with [BMIM]Cl solutions containing 1.0% HCl at 120 °C for 30 min resulted in the glucose concentration of 92.3 g/l and yield of 94.5% after 72 h of cellulase hydrolysis. The maximum total reducing sugars yield reached to 89.9% after pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis

  10. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  11. Effects of inoculum to substrate ratio and co-digestion with bagasse on biogas production of fish waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Mustafa, Ahmed M; Sheng, Kuichuan

    2017-10-01

    To overcome the biogas inhibition in anaerobic digestion of fish waste (FW), effects of inoculum to substrate ratio (I/S, based on VS) and co-digestion with bagasse on biogas production of FW were studied in batch reactors. I/S value was from 0.95 to 2.55, bagasse content in co-digestion (based on VS) was 25%, 50% and 75%. The highest biogas yield (433.4 mL/gVS) with 73.34% methane content was obtained at an I/S value of 2.19 in mono-digestion of FW; the biogas production was inhibited and the methane content was below 70% when I/S was below 1.5. Co-digestion of FW and bagasse could improve the stability and biogas potential, also reducing the time required to obtain 70% of the total biogas production, although the total biogas yield and methane content decreased with the increase in bagasse content in co-digestion. Biogas yield of 409.5 mL/gVS was obtained in co-digestion of 75% FW and 25% bagasse; simultaneously 78.46% of the total biogas production was achieved after 10 days of digestion.

  12. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  13. partial replacement of partial replacement of cement with bagasse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    used and their performance in terms of known engineering properties was carried out. Bitumen content of .... Tests on Bagasse Ash: Chemical Composition (using mini pal which is .... Unpublished Msc Thesis, Department of Civil. Engineering ...

  14. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  15. Balanço de compostos nitrogenados e produção de proteína microbiana em novilhas leiteiras alimentadas com palma forrageira, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e uréia associados a diferentes suplementos Nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein production in crossbred heifers fed forage cactus, sugar cane bagasse and urea associated to different supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Silva Pessoa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da associação de palma forrageira ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e à uréia sobre o balanço de compostos nitrogenados e a produção de proteína microbiana em novilhas leiteiras recebendo ou não suplemento. Foram utilizadas 25 novilhas da raça Girolando, com peso vivo médio inicial de 227 kg, confinadas, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, estabelecidos de acordo com o peso dos animais. A ração controle (sem suplemento foi composta de 64,0% de palma forrageira, 30,0% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, 4,0% de mistura uréia:sulfato de amônio (9:1 e 2,0% de mistura mineral, com base na matéria seca (MS, e as rações experimentais, de 57,0% de palma forrageira, 26,0% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, 3,5% de mistura uréia:sulfato de amônio, 1,8% de mistura mineral e 11,7% de suplemento (0,5% do PV dos animais. Os suplementos testados foram: farelo de trigo, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão ou caroço de algodão. O balanço de nitrogênio não foi influenciado pelas dietas e apresentou valor médio de 49,3 g/dia. A suplementação com farelo de algodão ou com farelo de soja aumentou a excreção de nitrogênio na urina, a concentração de uréia e nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a excreção urinária de uréia e nitrogênio uréico. A associação da palma forrageira ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e à uréia, sem o uso de suplementos, permite eficiência de síntese microbiana de 105 gPBmic/kg de NDT consumido. A suplementação com caroço de algodão proporciona maior excreção urinária de alantoína e derivados de purina e melhor eficiência de síntese microbiana, portanto, é a mais indicada nestas condições.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of association of forage cactus to sugar cane bagasse and urea on nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein synthesis in milk heifers supplemented or not. Twenty-five Holstein-Gir crossbred heifers

  16. Análise da viabilidade da utilização da cinza de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar como substituição parcial do cimento Portland (doi.:10.5216/reec.V9i3.32023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gustavo Delalibera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Utilização de cinza de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar como material suplementar ao cimento Portland, visando minimizar a retirada de calcário, reduzindo a emissão de gás carbônico e preservando jazidas naturais. Foi avaliada a viabilidade do uso parcial de cinza de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar na substituição do cimento Porltand, através da análise de ensaios de resistência à compressão de corpos de prova cilíndricos de concreto aos 7, 14 e 28 dias de idade, apresentando uma substituição em massa de 10, 20 e 30% do cimento Portland. Considerando-se os resultados de resistência à compressão obtidos verificou-se que é viável a substituição parcial de cinza de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, desde que a relação água/cimento e a porcentagem em massa a ser substituída sejam adequadas. Deste maneira, espera-se que a utilização da cinza do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar possa interferir economicamente e ecologicamente na produção do concreto. ABSTRACT: This paper examines the sugarcane bagasse ash use as supplementary material to Portland cement for the purpose of minimize the limestone removal to reduce emissions carbonic gas preserving natural deposits. The feasibility sugarcane bagasse ash use were analyzed. Through an analysis of results test of cylindrical concrete on 7, 14 and 28 days that showed a 10, 20 and 30 percent weight replacement by Portland cement. The reviewed about this cement and sugarcane bagasse were realized. After that, a experimental study with analysis were realized. Test of granulometry were made in every material that we used for the concrete production. Based on these results, it was concluded that the sugarcane bagasse ash use is feasible, since the water/cement and the mass percentage replaced are appropriate.

  17. BTL: a solution to increase energy efficiency in the Brazilian alcohol business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Aguiar, Eduardo Falabella; Alves de Sousa, Sirlei Sebastiao; Barbosa de Oliveira, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    Brazil is the world largest producer of sugarcane, which has an energy potential of 1.2 barrels of petroleum per ton. On average, 55% of Brazilian sugarcane is converted into ethanol. When sugarcane is processed, the cane stalks are shredded and crushed to extract the cane juice while the fibrous outer residue (bagasse) is sent to the boiler to provide steam and electricity. With the availability of advanced cogeneration technologies, these units can nowadays employ the onsite bagasse resource to go beyond meeting their own energy requirements and produce surplus electricity. This work proposes a new route for 'green' diesel production. Gasification of biomass coupled with a high-conversion Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor. The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different chain lengths from a synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO). The large hydrocarbons can be further hydrocracked to form mainly a high-quality diesel. The fraction of short hydrocarbons is used in a Combined Cycle with the unconverted syngas. The perspectives for application of this route - production of FT synthesis fuels based on biomass residue - ate promising in Brazil. (auth)

  18. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Florencio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc., glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in “Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis” C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016 [1]. Keywords: Tricoderma reesei, Aspergillus Niger, Enzyme Production, Secretome

  19. Agrobiodiversity endangered by sugarcane farming in Mumias and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Victoria basin of Kenya and Uganda. In Kenya sugarcane is commercially grown in Western and Nyanza provinces, primarily by small scale farmers followed by large-scale farmers and company/factory nucleus estates (Gok,. 2002). While setting up infrastructure for sugarcane farming and processing, minimal input is ...

  20. Comparative study on agro-physiology of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.) genotypes at different irrigation co-efficient values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Z.; Mehmood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions. (author)

  1. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  2. 611 A QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATE OF WEEDS OF SUGARCANE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A survey was conducted in the sugarcane fields of Unilorin Sugar Research Institute, Ilorin in the southern. Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons with an objective to identify the current status of prevalent weeds in rainfed and irrigated sugarcane fields. A.

  3. Registration of ‘CP 09-1822’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘CP 09-1822’ (Reg. No. __; PI 686942 sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was released in June 2016 for commercial cultivation on sand (mineral) soils in Florida. This cultivar was developed through a collaborative sugarcane cultivar development program of the USDA-ARS, the University of F...

  4. Registration of ‘CP 09-1430’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘CP 09-1430’ (Reg. No. ; PI 686940 sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed and released (6 Jun. 2016) through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station , Canal Point, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. for use on ...

  5. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Kafashi

    2017-06-01

    These fluid properties were determined according to API standard. Statistical analyses showed that adding bagasse could successfully enhance the rheological behavior of the bentonite-based mud. Moreover, the formulation containing sugarcane increased viscosity up to almost two times. Gel strength and viscosity also increased overtime.

  6. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  7. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg......, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products...... fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial processing; and improving...

  8. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  9. Sugar cane bagasse pretreatment: An attempt to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    +1.5%NaOH. The pretreatment of bagasse with 2.0% H2O2 along with 1.5% NaOH enhanced the biosynthesis of cellulases by H. insolens. Production rate was also optimized with different parameters like thickness of fermentation medium, ...

  10. Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, Jean Vittorio

    The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and

  11. Effects of some added carbohydrates on cellulases and ligninase and decomposition of whole bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, P; Prabhu, K A

    1986-01-01

    Two basidiomycetes mould isolates were studied for the production of extracellular cellulases and ligninase in submerged shake culture using whole bagasse as substrate. The effects of some added carbohydrates on enzyme production, substrate decomposition and biomass formation were examined. In both cultures the addition of lactose stimulated biomass production and increased the decomposition of total carbohydrate and lignin contents of bagasse. Lactose was the only sugar which stimulated cellulase and ligninase in both cultures. 19 references.

  12. Determination of moisture in bagasse by neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Suarez, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time in Cuba organic samples were analyzed by neutron reflection method. The feasibility of this method to determinate the moisture grade in sugar cane bagasse is fixed. From 0 to 50w% moisture grade with 2-3% relative accuracy can be determinated using 10m. measuring time. 7 refs

  13. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  14. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as raw material for the production of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericci, C.; Indelicato, R.L.; Ferreira Neto, J.B.; Ribeiro, T.R.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Silva, G.F.B. Lenz e

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the sugar cane bagasse ash from three Sugar and Alcohol Plant of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. We intend to show the discrepancies between them, so that this raw material could be used with greater quality control in ceramic industries. The bagasse were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The ashes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and granulometric separation. The results indicated that the content of SiO 2 ranging from 50-80% by weight depends on the granulometry of the bagasse and on the region where it was collected. The analyses of X-ray diffraction indicate SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and Mg 2 P 2 O 7 as crystalline phases. (author)

  15. Design and fabrication of an exprerimental model of a seeding unit with widthwise sugarcane scions seeding for use in sugarcane planter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Akbarnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugarcane, a plant which sugar is extracted from, is planted in vast areas with hot and humid climate. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world. The next five major producers, in decreasing order, are India, China, Thailand, Pakistan and Mexico. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, typically three to four meters high and about 5 cm in diameter. The total area under sugarcane plantation in Iran (Khozestan Province is about 80,000 hectares with an average yield of 100 tons per hectare. To increase the yield per unit of land and reduce production costs and move toward sustainable agriculture, mechanization of agricultural operations seems inevitable. Planters are the most important of farm machinery among the mechanization equipment. Sugarcane cultivation is done both by hand and machine. Hand planting operations is laborious and painstaking work and work efficiency is so low and culture costs are so high. In Iran farms, the sugarcane plantation process is carried out manually by the farmers. Considering the climatic conditions, the agricultural soil composition and constitution, and the different plantation pattern used in Iran, the imported planting machines are not suitable for the farming conditions in the country. Moreover, the domestically produced machines, which are mostly based on the imported versions, do not provide adequate performance. Therefore, fabrication of a machine, capable of continuously lifting the sugarcane scions from a container and sending them to a dropper pipe, uniformly and in conformance with the climatic conditions of the sugarcane farms in the country, is of great importance. Materials and Methods In this research, initially, a field study was carried out to identify the problems and shortcomings of imported and copied planting machines in sugarcane farms, such as jamming of the scions conveying mechanism and the

  16. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  17. Properties Evaluation of High Density Polyethylene Composite Filled with Bagasse after Accelerated Weathered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Darabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites (WPCs are produced from a mixture of wood (in different sizes and resin (thermoset or thermoplastic. This product has many applications as structural and non-structural materials and since its emerge in market its use received an increasing trend. Adding wood flour to polymer not only improves its mechanical properties compared to net polymer, but also leads to products with moldability characteristics. With increasing demand of WPCs and reduction in forest harvest according to new protecting law of forestry, and lack of raw materials for producers, other lignocelluloses materials replace wood flour. Agricultural by-products such as hemp, coir, rice husk and bagasse (residual from sugar cane extraction are the examples that can be used in WPCs. As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs becomes more widespread, the resistance of its products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more concerned. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor, ultraviolet (UV light, rain, snow and atmospheric pollution, they will be degraded which is marked by color fade and loss in mechanical properties. Nowadays many manufactures of WPCs use bagasse as a raw material. Their production in different color and shapes are used as arbors and pergolas and also as decorative applications for outdoor uses. However, so far there has been no research done on the effects of weathering on composites made from bagasse. In present study, composites from bagasse and high density polyethylene, with and without pigments in master batch, have been made through extrusion. Then samples were exposed to accelerated weathering for 1440h. After this period of time samples were removed and their chemical, mechanical and surface qualities were studied. The results have shown that using bagasse as filler can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples. Moreover, adding pigments to WPCs can increase colorstability, while it

  18. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  19. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  20. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

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