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Sample records for supplementation improves growth

  1. Dietary probiotic supplementation improves growth and the intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia.

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    Ramos, M A; Batista, S; Pires, M A; Silva, A P; Pereira, L F; Saavedra, M J; Ozório, R O A; Rema, P

    2017-08-01

    Probiotic administration can be a nutritional strategy to improve the immune response and growth performance of fish. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of a probiotic blend (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp.) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immune and oxidative stress responses and intestinal morphology in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The probiotic was incorporated into a basal diet at three concentrations: 0 g/kg (A0: control), 3 g/kg (A1: 1.0×106 colony forming unit (CFU)/g) and 6 g/kg (A2: 2.3×106 CFU/g diet). After 8 weeks of probiotic feeding, weight and specific growth rate where significantly higher in fish-fed A1 diet than in fish-fed A0. Alternative complement in plasma was significantly enhanced in fish-fed A2 when compared with A0. The hepatic antioxidant indicators were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Villi height and goblet cell counts increased significantly in the intestine of fish-fed A1 and A2 diets compared with A0. The dietary probiotic supplementation was maintained until 20 weeks of feeding. Then the selected immune parameters, digestive enzymes and apparent digestibility of diets were studied. No effect of probiotic feeding was observed after that longer period supplementation. The dietary supplementation of mixed species probiotic may constitute a valuable nutritional approach towards a sustainable tilapia aquaculture. The improvement of the immune responses and intestinal morphology play an important role in increasing growth performance, nutrient absorption and disease resistance in fish, important outcomes in such a competitive and developing aquaculture sector.

  2. A Novel Concept of Amino Acid Supplementation to Improve the Growth of Young Malnourished Male Rats.

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    Furuta, Chie; Murakami, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the relationship between plasma amino acids and protein malnutrition and at determining whether amino acid supplementation associated with malnutrition and growth improves linear growth in growing rats. Body length and plasma amino acids were measured in young male rats that were fed the following diet for 3 weeks, mimicking a low and imbalanced protein diets based on maize, a major staple consumed in developing countries: a 70% calorically restricted cornmeal-based diet (C), C + micronutrients (CM), CM + casein (CMC), CM + soy protein (CMS) or CMS + 0.3% lysine. A correlation analysis of linear growth and plasma amino acids indicated that lysine, tryptophan, branched-chain amino acids, methionine, and phenylalanine significantly correlated with body length. Supplementation with these 5 amino acids (AA1) significantly improved the body length in rats compared to CMC treatment whereas, nitrogen-balanced amino acid supplemented controls (AA2) did not (CM +1.2 ± 0.2, CMC +2.7 ± 0.3, CMS +2.1 ± 0.3, AA1 +2.8 ± 0.2, and AA2 +2.5 ± 0.3 cm). With securing proper amino acid balance, supplementing growth-related amino acids is more effective in improving linear growth in malnourished growing male rats. Analysis of the correlation between plasma amino acids and growth represents a powerful tool to determine candidate amino acids for supplementation to prevent malnutrition. This technology is adaptable to children in developing countries. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Cholesterol supplementation improves growth rates of Histomonas meleagridis in vitro.

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    Gruber, Janine; Pletzer, Alena; Hess, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Research on the energy metabolism of various protozoan parasites showed the essentiality and benefits of cholesterol in the cultivation of these organisms. However, not much is known about the energy metabolism of Histomonas meleagridis, although such information is of high importance to improve cultivation of the parasite for advancements in diagnostics, research and vaccine development. By supplementing a serum enriched cultivation medium with cholesterol, numbers of parasites could be doubled in comparison to unsupplemented negative controls. This effect was demonstrated for two different strains of the parasite, at different levels of in vitro-passages and for histomonads under xenic or monoxenic settings. Supplementing medium free of serum with cholesterol, resulted in significant growth of the parasite over 72 h. However, there were differences in growth behaviour in serum free medium between the different histomonad cultures and continuous passaging of the cultures without serum was not possible. Monitoring the bacterial growth of two different co-cultivated E. coli strains in monoxenic histomonad cultures during these experiments showed that there was no significant impact of cholesterol on the bacteria. Therefore, a direct effect of cholesterol on the parasite itself could be demonstrated. The results of these experiments supply new insights into the metabolism of H. meleagridis and it can be concluded that cholesterol is an important component to enhance parasite growth in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal amino acid supplementation for intrauterine growth restriction

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    Brown, Laura D; Green, Alice S; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dietary protein supplementation to improve fetal growth has been considered as an option to prevent or treat intrauterine growth restriction. However, in contrast to balanced dietary supplementation, adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who received high amounts of dietary protein supplementation have been observed. The responsible mechanisms for these adverse outcomes are unknown. This review will discuss relevant human and animal data to provide the background necessary for the development of explanatory hypotheses and ultimately for the development therapeutic interventions during pregnancy to improve fetal growth. Relevant aspects of fetal amino acid metabolism during normal pregnancy and those pregnancies affected by IUGR will be discussed. In addition, data from animal experiments which have attempted to determine mechanisms to explain the adverse responses identified in the human trials will be presented. Finally, we will suggest new avenues for investigation into how amino acid supplementation might be used safely to treat and/or prevent IUGR. PMID:21196387

  5. Leucine supplementation improves acquired growth hormone resistance in rats with protein-energy malnutrition.

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    Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xinying; Zhao, Jie; Wan, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chao; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    -CON group. Our data are the first to demonstrate that long-term supplementation with leucine improved acquired growth hormone resistance in rats with protein-energy malnutrition. Leucine might promote skeletal muscle protein synthesis by regulating downstream anabolic signaling transduction.

  6. Dietary supplementation with selenium yeast and tea polyphenols improve growth performance and nitrite tolerance of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

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    Long, Meng; Lin, Wang; Hou, Jie; Guo, Honghui; Li, Li; Li, Dapeng; Tang, Rong; Yang, Fan

    2017-09-01

    In order to explore the effects of dietary selenium yeast, tea polyphenols and their combination on growth of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) and its resistance to nitrite stress, 360 healthy Wuchang bream with initial body weight of (55.90 ± 2.60) g were randomly divided into four groups: a control group fed with basal diet and three treated groups fed with basal diets supplemented with 0.50 mg/kg selenium yeast, 50 mg/kg tea polyphenols, and the combination of 0.50 mg/kg selenium yeast and 50 mg/kg tea polyphenols, respectively. After 60 d of feeding, the growth performance of Wuchang bream was measured. Then 25 fish per tank were exposed to nitrite stress of 15.0 mg/L. The serum stress hormones, liver histology and hepatic antioxidant responses were evaluated before nitrite exposure (0 h) and at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after exposure. The results showed that before nitrite exposure, compared with the control, the weight gain, specific growth rate, liver total antioxidant capacity, the activities and transcriptional levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in the selenium yeast and combination groups were significantly increased, while feed conversion rate was decreased significantly, which suggested that the combined use of selenium yeast and tea polyphenols as well as the single selenium yeast supplementation improved growth performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity in fish. After nitrite exposure, compared with the control, liver total antioxidant capacity as well as the activities and transcription levels of catalase superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in three treatment groups were significantly increased in varying degrees whereas serum cortisol contents and liver malondialdehyde levels were decreased significantly. By contrast, the combined use of selenium yeast and tea polyphenols was more effective than the single supplementation with selenium yeast or tea polyphenols. In

  7. EXERCISE X BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION IN YOUNG TRAINED RATS: WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS ON BODY GROWTH?

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    Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation

  8. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

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    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages.

  9. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

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    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. ...

  10. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth?

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    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.

  11. Impact of multi-micronutrient supplementation on growth and morbidity of HIV-infected South African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van J.M.A.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory

  12. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

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    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  13. A COMMUNITY BASED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IRON AND ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION IN INFANTS: EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

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    T. Lind

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies of iron and zinc are associated with delayed development, growth faltering, and increased infectious disease morbidity during infancy and childhood. Combined iron and zinc supplementation may therefore be a logical preventive strategy. Objective: the objective of the study was to compare the effects of combined iron and zinc supplementation in infancy with the effects of iron and zinc as single micronutrients on growth, psychomotor development, and incidence of infectious disease. Design: Indonesian infants (n = 680 were randomly assigned to daily supplementation with 10 mg Fe (Fe group, 10 mg Zn (Zn group, 10 mg Fe and 10 mg Zn (Fe + Zn group, or placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. Anthropometric indexes, developmental indexes (bay ley scales of infant development; sid, and morbidity were recorded. Results: at 12 mo, two factor analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between Iron and Zinc for weight for age z score, knee heel length, and sid psychomotor development. Weight forage z score was higher in the Zn group than in the placebo and Fe + Zn groups, knee heel length was higher in the Zn and Fe groups than in the placebo group, and the sid psychomotor development index was higher in the Fe group than in the placebo group. No significant effect on morbidity was found. Conclusions: single supplementation with zinc significantly improved growth, and single supplementation with iron significantly improved growth and psychomotor development, but combined supplementation with iron and zinc had no significant effect on growth or development. Combined, simultaneous supplementation with iron and zinc to infants cannot be routinely recommended at the iron to zinc ratio used in this study.Key words: infants, growth, knee heel length, development, iron, zinc.

  14. Linear growth patterns in small for gestational age and preterm infants after zinc supplementation

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    Caecilia Nancy Setiawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW infants are at risk for growth disturbances due to intrauterine zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation is expected to improve the linear growth of LBW babies. Objective To assess the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in preterm and small for gestational age (SGA infants. Methods This quasi-experimental study had a pre- and post-test design. Subjects were LBW infants hospitalized in Kariadi Hospital during March-December 2011, consisted of SGA and preterm neonates. All subjects were given 5 mg of zinc syrup daily for 3 months. Subjects’ head circumference, weight, and length were measured monthly. Serum zinc levels were measured before and after supplementation. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test, independent T-test, and general linear model repeated measure. Results A total of 61 subjects were enrolled consisted of 31 preterm and 30 SGA neonates. Mean serum zinc levels in the preterm group were 168.2 (SD 54.5 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 163.6 (SD 50.7 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.049, while mean serum zinc levels in the SGA group were 174.8 (SD 46.6 μg/dL pre-supplementation and 167.4 (SD 49.4 μg/dL post-supplementation (P=0.271. Median percentage preterm weight and length increased from 87.3 to 102.4% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 95.8 to 103.9% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Median percentage SGA weight and length increased from 73.5 to 98.3% in the third month (P<0.001 and from 94.5 to 102.2% in the third month (P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Both, the preterm and SGA infants exhibit catch-up growth after three months of zinc supplementation. [

  15. Efficacy of multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving anemia, micronutrient status, growth, and morbidity of Peruvian infants.

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    López de Romaña, Guillermo; Cusirramos, Sandra; López de Romaña, Daniel; Gross, Rainer

    2005-03-01

    Anemia, micronutrient deficiencies, and growth faltering are still common in Peru. The study objective was to determine the efficacy of different micronutrient supplements in preventing growth failure, anemia, and micronutrient deficiencies in Peruvian infants. Three hundred and thirteen infants aged 6 to 12 mo participated in a double-blind, masked, controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive either a daily dose of iron (DI), a daily dose of multiple micronutrients (DMM), a weekly dose of multiple micronutrients, or a placebo (P) for 6 mo. None of the supplements tested prevented growth faltering or the morbidities common during infancy. Anemia and plasma homocysteine concentrations fell significantly in all groups during the study, but the mean change of plasma homocysteine during the trial period was significantly smaller in the DI group than in other groups, and the increase in hemoglobin concentrations was smaller in the P group than the micronutrient treatment groups. Plasma ferritin concentrations decreased least in the groups taking daily micronutrient supplements containing iron (DI and DMM). There were no significant differences among groups in mean final values or changes in plasma zinc, retinol, tocopherol, or riboflavin. Although the DMM intervention was the most efficacious for preventing anemia, iron, and zinc deficiencies, 15%, 20%, and 50% of this group still remained anemic, zinc deficient, and iron deficient, respectively, at the end of the study. Further research thus should investigate whether higher doses of iron and zinc, together with infection control measures, are more efficacious.

  16. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids improve performance and immune response of newly-received feedlot calves

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    Supplemental branched-chain AA (BCAA) improved N balance of steers during a simulated pathogen challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Steers (n = 120; initial BW = 376 ± 5 kg) were blocked by BW a...

  17. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development.

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    Delgado-Noguera, Mario F; Calvache, Jose Andres; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier; Kotanidou, Eleni P; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina

    2015-07-14

    differences in the describing of the outcome. One study (89 women) did not find any significant difference between the LCPUFA supplementation and the control group at four weeks postpartum (MD 1.00, 95%CI -1.72 to 3.72).No adverse effects were reported. Based on the available evidence, LCPUFA supplementation did not appear to improve children's neurodevelopment, visual acuity or growth. In child attention at five years of age, weak evidence was found (one study) favouring the supplementation. Currently, there is inconclusive evidence to support or refute the practice of giving LCPUFA supplementation to breastfeeding mothers in order to improve neurodevelopment or visual acuity.

  18. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

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    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (pmeat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (pmeat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (pmeat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  19. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR ON THE POST-WEANING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF PAK-KARAKUL LAMBS

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    M. A. MIRZA AND T. MUSHTAQ

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Corn steep liquor (CSL is a liquid by-product of wet milling process of maize-starch industry. A trial was conducted to examine the effect of supplementing various levels of CSL in the diet of 30 Pak-Karakul lambs. These lambs were randomly divided into five experimental groups. The control group (A was fed on basal diet having no CSL. The experimental groups B, C, D and E were fed on diets supplemented with CSL at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of the diet, respectively. The experimental diets were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals for 90 days. Results showed that supplementation of CSL at 5% of the diet improved both body weight gain and feed:gain. Corn steep liquor at higher supplemental rates i.e., 10 or 15% of the basal diet had non-significant effect on the growth or feed:gain of lambs. However, supplementation of CSL at 20% of the diet significantly depressed growth (P <0.01 and feed:gain (P<0.01. Growth rate in male lambs was significantly (P <0.01 higher than those of female lambs. Female lambs consumed more ration for each unit body weight gain than males. The results of the trial demonstrate that supplementation of CSL at 5% of the diet is useful for growth and feed:gain but higher levels of CSL considerably depress growth and increase feed:gain, leading to increased cost of production.

  20. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

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    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-06-01

    Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner's supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni²⁺-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni²⁺ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. © 2011 The Authors

  1. The effect of phytase and fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, bone quality, and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens.

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    Shang, Y; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Kim, W K

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and 2 levels of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, bone mineralization, and P utilization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly placed into 7 dietary treatments consisting of 6 replicates with 5 birds per pen. The experiment was designed as an augmented 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 0 or 500 U/kg of phytase and 0, 0.5% or 1% of FOS added to a reduced Ca (0.8%) and available P (0.25%) negative control diet (NC). A positive control diet (PC) that contained 1% Ca and 0.45% available P was also included. During the entire experimental period, phytase supplementation significantly improved (P Phytase supplementation increased femur BMD (P Phytase alone and in combination with 0.5% FOS increased P utilization significantly when compared with other treatments (P phytase supplementation in low Ca and P diets improved growth performance, bone quality, and P utilization. However, supplementing NC diets with phytase and FOS did not result in bone mineralization values comparable with that of the PC diet. The application of dietary FOS alone had a negative effect on broiler bone quality. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. The effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in preterm infants.

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    Díaz-Gómez, N Marta; Doménech, Eduardo; Barroso, Flora; Castells, Silvia; Cortabarria, Carmen; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in premature infants. Thirty-six preterm infants (gestational age: 32.0 +/- 2.1 weeks, birth weight: 1704 +/- 364 g) participated in a longitudinal double-blind, randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated either to the supplemental (S) group fed with a standard term formula supplemented with zinc (final content 10 mg/L) and a small quantity of copper (final content 0.6 mg/L), or to the placebo group fed with the same formula without supplementation (final content of zinc: 5 mg/L and copper: 0.4 mg/L), from 36 weeks postconceptional age until 6 months corrected postnatal age. At each evaluation, anthropometric variables and bioelectrical impedance were measured, a 3-day dietary record was collected, and a blood sample was taken. We analyzed serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), insulin growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-1, zinc and copper, and the concentrations of zinc in erythrocytes. The S group had significantly higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes and lower serum copper levels with respect to the placebo group. We found that the S group had a greater linear growth (from baseline to 3 months corrected age: Delta score deviation standard length: 1.32 +/-.8 vs.38 +/-.8). The increase in total body water and in serum levels of sALP was also significantly higher in the S group (total body water: 3 months; corrected age: 3.8 +/-.5 vs 3.5 +/-.4 kg, 6 months; corrected age: 4.5 +/-.5 vs 4.2 +/-.4 kg; sALP: 3 months; corrected age: 140.2 +/- 28.7 vs 118.7 +/- 18.8 micro g/L). Zinc supplementation has a positive effect on linear growth in premature infants.

  3. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

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    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  4. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Growth Outcomes in Children under 5 Years of Age

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    Enju Liu

    2018-03-01

    publication bias and small study effect could not be excluded, the current meta-analysis indicates that zinc supplementation in infants and early childhood, but not pregnancy, increases specific growth outcomes, with evidence for a potentially stronger effect after 2 years of age. These findings inform recommendation and policy development for zinc supplementation to improve growth among young children.

  5. Successful treatment of refractory TAFRO syndrome with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor using thyroxine supplements.

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    Oka, Satoko; Ono, Kazuo; Nohgawa, Masaharu

    2018-04-01

    Although the clinical significance of hypothyroidism in TAFRO syndrome is unknown, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels decreased with improvements in the condition of our refractory TAFRO cases after thyroxine supplement therapy. Our results indicate that elevated VEGF levels are a potential factor in the pathogenesis and anasarca of TAFRO syndrome with hypothyroidism.

  6. Modulation of growth performance, immunological responses and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 by supplementing dietary inosine monophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kader

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated to examine supplemental effects of dietary inosine monophosphate (IMP on growth performance, feed utilization, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Disease resistance to experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae was also assessed. A semi-purified basal diet was supplemented with 0 (IMP0, Control, 1 (IMP1, 2 (IMP2, 4 (IMP4 and 8 (IMP8 g purified IMP kg−1 diet to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (0.59 g for 60 days. The results indicated that supplementation of IMP significantly (P  0.05. Among whole body proximate composition and somatic parameters, condition factor was significantly influenced by dietary supplementation of IMP. A wide variation in hematological parameters were observed and dietary supplementation increased the hematocrit content (P  0.05. Total serum protein (TSP, lysozyme activity (LA, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and bactericidal activity (BA tended to increase with the supplementation of dietary IMP. TSP and SOD were significantly improved with ≥4 g kg−1 supplementation, while LA with 8 g kg−1 and BA with ≥1 g kg−1 supplementations. IMP supplemented groups showed higher (P > 0.05 cumulative survival compared to that of supplementation free control group. IMP supplemented diet groups also showed significantly higher BA in the post challenge test. Based on the overall performances, the results of the current study indicated that the inclusion of IMP in Nile tilapia diet can improve growth performance, feed utilization, haematological and immunological parameters; and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia. Keywords: Nucleotides, Inosine monophosphate, Growth, Immunity, Disease resistance, Nile tilapia, Streptococcus agalactiae

  7. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EFFECT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH AND BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF BROILERS

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    Kamdev Sethy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To access the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa supplementation on growth and blood chemistry of broiler chickens, seventy five day old straight run coloured synthetic broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups (25 chicks per group. Group I served as control (without any supplementation, where as birds in groups II and III were supplemented with 0.5% and 1.0% Curcuma longa powder respectively and the trail was lasted for 7 weeks, during which weekly body weight changes were recorded. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment to study the blood profile of birds. The results indicated that addition of Curcuma longa powder caused significant (P0.05 effect on blood biochemical parameters of bird. The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary Curcuma longa powder to improve body weight and Hb concentration of broiler chickens.

  9. Effects of Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Fetal Growth Factors: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh.

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    Alison D Gernand

    Full Text Available Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation improves birth weight through increased fetal growth and gestational age, but whether maternal or fetal growth factors are involved is unclear. Our objective was to examine the effect of prenatal MM supplementation on intrauterine growth factors and the associations between growth factors and birth outcomes in a rural setting in Bangladesh. In a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of MM vs. iron and folic acid (IFA supplementation, we measured placental growth hormone (PGH at 10 weeks and PGH and human placental lactogen (hPL at 32 weeks gestation in maternal plasma (n = 396 and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1 in cord plasma (n = 325. Birth size and gestational age were also assessed. Early pregnancy mean (SD BMI was 19.5 (2.4 kg/m2 and birth weight was 2.68 (0.41 kg. There was no effect of MM on concentrations of maternal hPL or PGH, or cord insulin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-1. However, among pregnancies of female offspring, hPL concentration was higher by 1.1 mg/L in the third trimester (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0 mg/L; p = 0.09 for interaction; and among women with height <145 cm, insulin was higher by 59% (95% CI: 3, 115%; p = 0.05 for interaction in the MM vs. IFA group. Maternal hPL and cord blood insulin and IGF-1 were positively, and IGFBP-1 was negatively, associated with birth weight z score and other measures of birth size (all p<0.05. IGF-1 was inversely associated with gestational age (p<0.05, but other growth factors were not associated with gestational age or preterm birth. Prenatal MM supplementation had no overall impact on intrauterine growth factors. MM supplementation altered some growth factors differentially by maternal early pregnancy nutritional status and sex of the offspring, but this should be examined in other studies.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470.

  10. Threonine supplementation reduces dietary protein and improves lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Wen, Z G; Qiao, S Y; Hou, S S

    2017-12-01

    1. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of threonine (Thr) supplementation on reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and the effects of Thr on lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. The effects of dietary CP concentration (160, 190 and 220 g/kg) and Thr supplemental concentration (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 g/kg) on growth performance, carcass, liver lipid and plasma profiles were determined in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age. 2. A total of 720-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage for each treatment according to average body weight. 3. Dietary Thr supplementation improved growth performance and breast muscle percentage at all CP diets, and ducks fed Thr-supplemented diets had higher plasma concentrations of some plasma amino acids. Thr supplementation reduced the concentrations of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol in liver, and plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterin concentration at 160 and 190 g/kg CP, whereas it increased triglyceride concentration at 160 g/kg CP. 4. Thr requirements based on quadratic broken-line model estimation were 6.6 and 7.0 g/kg for optimal average daily gain (ADG), and 6.7 and 7.3 g/kg for breast muscle percentage of Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age at 190 and 220 g/kg CP, respectively. The dietary Thr requirements and estimated ADG (55.18 vs. 55.86 g/d/bird) and breast muscle percentage (2.79% vs. 2.75%) of Pekin ducks did not differ between 190 and 220 g/kg CP according to the t-test results. 5. Dietary CP level could be reduced to 190 g/kg in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age with Thr supplementation to balance dietary amino acids, and Thr supplementation prevented excess liver lipid deposition in this instance.

  11. Supplemental effects of biofloc powder on growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Chorong Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a biofloc powder on growth performance and non-specific immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven experimental diets were prepared with supplementation of graded levels of dried biofloc powder by 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0% (designated as Con, BF0.5, BF1, BF2, BF4, BF6, and BF8, respectively. Triplicate groups of shrimp (1.01 ± 0.01 g were hand-fed with one of the diets four times a day. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P ˂ 0.05 higher growth performance and feed utilization were obtained in BF4 groups compared to those fed the Con diet. The innate immunity of shrimp was improved by the dietary supplementation of biofloc. Dietary inclusion of biofloc at the level of 4.0% significantly increased disease resistance of shrimp against Vibrio harveyi. The results indicate that biofloc might be used as a dietary supplement for growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp.

  12. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  13. Role of dietary seaweed supplementation on growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax

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    Maria João Peixoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to appraise growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax when fed diets supplemented with seaweeds. A control diet (without supplementation was tested against 6 practical diets supplemented either with Gracilaria spp., Ulva spp., or Fucus spp., at 2.5 or 7.5% levels, plus an additional diet with a blend of the three seaweeds, each supplemented at 2.5% (Mix. Seabass juveniles (24.0 ± 6.3 g were fed the experimental diets for 84 days. Dietary seaweed supplementation had no effect on growth rate (DGI: 1.0–1.1, voluntary feed intake (11.3–12.6 g kg −1 ABW−1 day−1, feed conversion ratio (FCR: 1.2–1.4 and protein efficiency ratio (PER: 1.5–1.8. Lipase activity was significantly higher in fish fed Mix diet when compared to control (P < 0.05. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx was significantly affected by seaweeds presence regardless its level of supplementation (P < 0.05. The innate immune system was significantly altered by dietary seaweed supplementation (P < 0.05. Fish fed the 7.5% seaweed supplemented diets had a significant decrease in the ACH50 level, when compared to fish fed 2.5% seaweed supplemented diets (P < 0.05. Moreover, a combined effect of seaweed and supplementation level significantly affected lysozyme (LYS activity (P < 0.05. Fish fed diet with Ulva at 2.5% had an increase in LYS when compared to fish fed control and Ulva at 7.5% diets. Overall, our results indicate that the use of dietary seaweed supplementation improves immune and antioxidant responses in European seabass without compromising growth performance.

  14. Effects of zinc supplementation on catch-up growth in children with failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seul-Gi; Choi, Ha-Neul; Yang, Hye-Ran; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2017-12-01

    Although globally the numbers of children diagnosed with failure to thrive (FTT) have decreased, FTT is still a serious pediatric problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation for 6 months on growth parameters of infants and children with FTT. In this retrospective study, of the 114 participants aged between 4 months and 6 years, 89 were included in the zinc supplementation group and were provided with nutrition counseling plus an oral zinc supplement for 6 months. The caregivers of the 25 participants in the control group received nutrition counseling alone. Medical data of these children, including sex, age, height, weight, serum zinc level, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) level were analyzed. Zinc supplementation for 6 months increased weight-for-age Z-score and serum zinc levels (5.5%) in the zinc supplementation group of underweight category children. As for stunting category, height-for-age Z-score of the participants in the zinc supplementation group increased when compared with the baseline, and serum zinc levels increased in the normal or mild stunting group. Serum IGF1 levels did not change significantly in any group. Thus, zinc supplementation was more effective in children in the underweight category than those in the stunted category; this effect differed according to the degree of the FTT. These findings suggest that zinc supplementation may have beneficial effects for growth of infants and children with FTT, and zinc supplementation would be required according to degree of FTT.

  15. Viability and growth characteristics of Lactobacillus in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-02-01

    Ten strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for their viability in soymilk. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTDC 8833, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633 and L. gasseri FTDC 8131 displayed higher viability in soymilk and were thus selected to be evaluated for viability and growth characteristics in soymilk supplemented with B-vitamins. Pour plate analyses showed that the supplementation of all B-vitamins studied promoted the growth of lactobacilli to a viable count exceeding 7 log CFU/ml. alpha-Galactosidase specific activity of lactobacilli as determined spectrophotometrically showed an increase upon supplementation of B-vitamins. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that this led to increased hydrolysis of soy oligosaccharides and subsequently higher utilization of simple sugars. Production of organic acids as determined via high-performance liquid chromatography also showed an increase, accompanied by a decrease in pH of soymilk. Additionally, the supplementation of B-vitamins also promoted the synthesis of riboflavin and folic acid by lactobacilli in soymilk. Our results indicated that B-vitamin-supplemented soymilk is a good proliferation medium for strains of lactobacilli.

  16. Effects of Supplemental Irrigation on Yield and Growth Indices of Three

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    M. Parsa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield and growth indices of three chickpea cultivars, an experiment was conducted during the 2007 growing season at Mashhad (Iran. Six irrigation regimes including I1; full irrigation, I2; irrigation at branching, I3; irrigation at flowering, I4; irrigation at pod formation, I5; irrigation at seed filling stage and I6; dry farming without irrigation (main factors. Three Kabuli chickpea cultivars ILC482, Jam, Karaj 12-60-31 (sub factors in a spilt block experiment based on randomized block design with three replications. There were significant differences between supplemental irrigation levels on grain yield. The results showed that grain yield in supplemental irrigation at flowering stage was more than to supplemental irrigation at branching, podding and seed filling stages (respectively 3.3, 3.1 and 23%. Within the three cultivars, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were highest and lowest in ILC482 and Karaj 12-60-31 cultivars respectively. The results showed that supplemental irrigation at flowering stage increased dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. The results showed that flowering stage in chickpea cultivars was sensitive to drought stress so, ILC482 cultivar also showed more tolerance to water stress condition.

  17. A novel embryo culture media supplement that improves pregnancy rates in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, A R; Bianco-Miotto, T; Pringle, K G; Peura, A; Bent, S; Zhang, J; Nottle, M B; Thompson, J G; Roberts, C T

    2017-03-01

    The preimplantation embryo in vivo is exposed to numerous growth factors in the female reproductive tract, which are not recapitulated in embryo culture media in vitro The IGF2 and plasminogen activator systems facilitate blastocyst development. We hypothesized that the addition of IGF2 in combination with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen could improve rates of blastocyst hatching and implantation in mice. B6BcF1 and CBAB6F2 mouse embryos were divided into one of four supplemented culture media treatment groups: (1) control (media only); (2) 12.5 nM IGF2; (3) 10 µg/mL uPA and 5 µg/mL plasminogen; or (4) a combination of IGF2, uPA and plasminogen treatments. Embryo development to blastocyst stage and hatching were assessed before transfer to pseudopregnant recipient females and implantation, pregnancy rates and postnatal growth were assessed. After 90.5 h of culture, IGF2 + U + P treatment increased the percentage of B6BcF1 embryos that were hatching/hatched and percentage developing to blastocyst stage compared with controls (P culture, IGF2, uPA and plasminogen supplementation of culture media can improve pregnancy success, but the effect of treatment is dependent on the mouse strain. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. Growth Factor Stimulation Improves the Structure and Properties of Scaffold-Free Engineered Auricular Cartilage Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Renata G.; Joazeiro, Paulo P.; Bianco, Juares; Kunz, Manuela; Weber, Joanna F.; Waldman, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of the external ear to correct congenital deformities or repair following trauma remains a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. Previously, we have developed a novel approach to create scaffold-free, tissue engineering elastic cartilage constructs directly from a small population of donor cells. Although the developed constructs appeared to adopt the structural appearance of native auricular cartilage, the constructs displayed limited expression and poor localization of elastin. In the present study, the effect of growth factor supplementation (insulin, IGF-1, or TGF-β1) was investigated to stimulate elastogenesis as well as to improve overall tissue formation. Using rabbit auricular chondrocytes, bioreactor-cultivated constructs supplemented with either insulin or IGF-1 displayed increased deposition of cartilaginous ECM, improved mechanical properties, and thicknesses comparable to native auricular cartilage after 4 weeks of growth. Similarly, growth factor supplementation resulted in increased expression and improved localization of elastin, primarily restricted within the cartilaginous region of the tissue construct. Additional studies were conducted to determine whether scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs could be developed in the 3D shape of the external ear. Isolated auricular chondrocytes were grown in rapid-prototyped tissue culture molds with additional insulin or IGF-1 supplementation during bioreactor cultivation. Using this approach, the developed tissue constructs were flexible and had a 3D shape in very good agreement to the culture mold (average error tissue structure and 3D shape of the external ear, future studies will be aimed assessing potential changes in construct shape and properties after subcutaneous implantation. PMID:25126941

  19. Effect of fortified complementary food supplementation on child growth in rural Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee; Mitra, Maithilee; Ali, Hasmot; Merrill, Rebecca D; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Parveen, Monira; Fuli, Rachel D; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, Md Munirul; Klemm, Rolf; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; West, Keith P

    2015-12-01

    Growth faltering in the first 2 years of life is high in South Asia where prevalence of stunting is estimated at 40-50%. Although nutrition counselling has shown modest benefits, few intervention trials of food supplementation exist showing improvements in growth and prevention of stunting. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in rural Bangladesh to test the effect of two local, ready-to-use foods (chickpea and rice-lentil based) and a fortified blended food (wheat-soy-blend++, WSB++) compared with Plumpy'doz, all with nutrition counselling vs nutrition counselling alone (control) on outcomes of linear growth (length and length-for-age z-score, LAZ), stunting (LAZ food groups, provided with one of the allocated supplements daily for a year. Growth deceleration occurred from 6 to 18 months of age but deceleration in LAZ was lower (by 0.02-0.04/month) in the Plumpy'doz (P = 0.02), rice-lentil (food groups relative to the control. In rural Bangladesh, small amounts of daily fortified complementary foods, provided for a year in addition to nutrition counselling, modestly increased linear growth and reduced stunting at 18 months of age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Impact of exogenous lipase supplementation on growth, intestinal function, mucosal immune and physical barrier, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zeng, Yun-Yun; Xu, Shu-De; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of exogenous lipase supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal growth and function, immune response and physical barrier function, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 450 grass carp (255.02 ± 0.34 g) were fed five diets for 60 days. There were 5 dietary treatments that included a normal protein and lipid diet containing 30% crude protein (CP) with 5% ether extract (EE), and the low-protein and high-lipid diets (28% CP, 6% EE) supplemented with graded levels of exogenous lipase supplementation activity at 0, 1193, 2560 and 3730 U/kg diet. The results indicated that compared with a normal protein and lipid diet (30% CP, 5% EE), a low-protein and high-lipid diet (28% CP, 6% EE) (un-supplemented lipase) improved lysozyme activities and complement component 3 contents in the distal intestine (DI), interleukin 10 mRNA expression in the proximal intestine (PI), and glutathione S-transferases activity and glutathione content in the intestine of young grass carp. In addition, in low-protein and high-lipid diets, optimal exogenous lipase supplementation significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) contents (P exogenous lipase supplementation significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents (P exogenous lipase supplementation significantly elevated the mRNA levels of tight junction proteins (Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin b, Claudin c and Claudin 3) (P exogenous lipase supplementation improved growth, intestinal growth and function, intestinal immunity, physical barrier, and regulated the mRNA expression of related signal molecules of fish. The optimal level of exogenous lipase supplementation in young grass carp (255-771 g) was estimated to be 1193 U kg(-1) diet. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

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    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    , total glutathione and catalase responses and digestive capacity (amylase, chymotrypsin, trypsin and lipase. Growth performance parameters showed no significant difference, but all supplemented treatments tended to have better results than control. Plasma peroxidase was improved by dietary seaweed supplementation. Plasm lysozyme increased in R7.5% group when compared to the other dietary groups (Table 1. Amylase, chymotrypsin and trypsin had low activity, while lipase had higher activity. Catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione s-transferase were not statistically different among the dietary treatments. Nevertheless, these enzymes tended to have higher activity on supplemented treatments than control. Total glutathione and lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in R2,5% and, R7,5% and M, respectively (Table 1. Results indicate seaweed supplementation may improve immune and antioxidant responses in gilthead seabream. Further studies are needed in order to access the protective effects of dietary seaweed supplementation in fish subjected to stress conditions.

  2. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Saseendran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p0.05 among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5% and carnitine (150 mg/kg improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers.

  4. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  5. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  6. Growth factor stimulation improves the structure and properties of scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G Rosa

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the external ear to correct congenital deformities or repair following trauma remains a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. Previously, we have developed a novel approach to create scaffold-free, tissue engineering elastic cartilage constructs directly from a small population of donor cells. Although the developed constructs appeared to adopt the structural appearance of native auricular cartilage, the constructs displayed limited expression and poor localization of elastin. In the present study, the effect of growth factor supplementation (insulin, IGF-1, or TGF-β1 was investigated to stimulate elastogenesis as well as to improve overall tissue formation. Using rabbit auricular chondrocytes, bioreactor-cultivated constructs supplemented with either insulin or IGF-1 displayed increased deposition of cartilaginous ECM, improved mechanical properties, and thicknesses comparable to native auricular cartilage after 4 weeks of growth. Similarly, growth factor supplementation resulted in increased expression and improved localization of elastin, primarily restricted within the cartilaginous region of the tissue construct. Additional studies were conducted to determine whether scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs could be developed in the 3D shape of the external ear. Isolated auricular chondrocytes were grown in rapid-prototyped tissue culture molds with additional insulin or IGF-1 supplementation during bioreactor cultivation. Using this approach, the developed tissue constructs were flexible and had a 3D shape in very good agreement to the culture mold (average error <400 µm. While scaffold-free, engineered auricular cartilage constructs can be created with both the appropriate tissue structure and 3D shape of the external ear, future studies will be aimed assessing potential changes in construct shape and properties after subcutaneous implantation.

  7. Endurance exercise and growth hormone improve bone formation in young and growth-retarded chronic kidney disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Guterman, Mayan; Rabkin, Ralph; Landau, Daniel; Segev, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with both short stature and abnormal bone mineralization. Normal longitudinal growth depends on proper maturation of epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) chondrocytes, leading to the formation of trabecular bone in the primary ossification centre. We have recently shown that linear growth impairment in CKD is associated with impaired EGP growth hormone (GH) receptor signalling and that exercise improved insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signalling in CKD-related muscle atrophy. In this study, 20-day-old rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD) or sham surgery (C) and were exercised with treadmill, with or without GH supplementation. CKD-related growth retardation was associated with a widened EGP hypertrophic zone. This was not fully corrected by exercise (except for tibial length). Exercise in CKD improved the expression of EGP key factors of endochondral ossification such as IGF-I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteocalcin. Combining GH treatment with treadmill exercise for 2 weeks improved the decreased trabecular bone volume in CKD, as well as the expression of growth plate runt-related transcription factor 2, RANKL, metalloproteinase 13 and VEGF, while GH treatment alone could not do that. Treadmill exercise improves tibial bone linear growth, as well as growth plate local IGF-I. When combined with GH treatment, running exercise shows beneficial effects on trabecular bone formation, suggesting the potential benefit of this combination for CKD-related short stature and bone disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth Response and Feed Utilization of Giant Gourami (Osphronemus goramy Juvenile Feeding Different Protein Levels of the Diets Supplemented with Recombinant Growth Hormone

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    DARMAWAN SETIA BUDI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the growth and dietary utility of juvenile giant gourami. The rGH was mixed with chicken egg yolk and sprayed on to artificial feed with different protein levels (34, 28, and 21%; isoenergy. Each treatment group of gourami was paired with a control group that received feed of the same protein level, but without rGH supplementation. Juvenile of giant gourami (weight 15.83 ± 0.13 g were fed diets containing rGH, to apparent satiation, 2 times a week. Fish were reared from less than 2 months old for 42 days in 100 L glass aquaria at an initial density of 10 fish per aquarium. At the end of this period, the biomass and daily growth rate (SGR of the fish were measured and the feed conversion ratio calculated and compared. Our data showed that fish fed rGH-supplemented diets experienced higher growth than fish in the control groups and showed that fish with higher protein diets experienced higher growth than the groups with less protein diets. The group with the highest biomass gain, SGR, and lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was the group fed a 34% protein diet supplemented with rGH. Furthermore, biomass gain, SGR, and FCR in the rGH treatment group with a 28% protein diet matched the measurements of the non-rGH control group receiving a 34% protein diet (P > 0.05. We conclude that giant juvenile gourami given feed supplemented with recombinant growth hormone will experience increased growth and dietary utility compared with gourami given the same feed without supplementation.

  9. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

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    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  10. Supplementation of milk formula with galacto-oligosaccharides improves intestinal micro-flora and fermentation in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Xiao-ming; Zhou, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Wei-hua; Yu, Wen-liang; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Wei-li; Wu, Sheng-mei; Van Beusekom, Christien M; Schaafsma, Anne

    2004-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in human milk may protect infants by improving the intestinal micro-flora and fermentation. This study was to investigate effects of infant formula milk consisting of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal microbial populations and the fermentation characteristics in term infants in comparison with that of human milk. The test formula (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) was supplemented with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl. Human milk and another formula without oligosaccharides (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) were used as positive and negative control respectively. Growth, stool characteristics, and side effects of the recruited infants were recorded after 3 and 6 months' follow-up, and the fecal species were collected for the analysis of intestinal micro-flora, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and pH. At the end of 3- and 6-month feeding period, intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk when compared with infants fed with negative control formula; however, there was no statistically significant difference between GOS supplemented formula and human milk groups. Stool characteristics were influenced by the supplement and main fecal SCFA (acetic), and stool frequency were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk, while the fecal pH was significantly decreased as compared with that of negative control (P effects (including crying, regurgitation and vomiting). Supplementing infant formula with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl stimulates the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in the intestine and stool characteristics are similar to in term infants fed with human milk.

  11. Effect of garlic and neem leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and carcass traits in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Rajendra Kharde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present experiment was designed to study the effect of supplementation of garlic and neem leaf powder (NLP on growth performance and carcass yields in broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 210-day-old commercial male broiler chicks (Ven Cobb were procured and randomly distributed in to seven treatments, each treatment had six replicates with five chicks per each replicate. Growth trial was conducted in a randomized block design comprising seven dietary treatments. T1 was served as control. T2 and T3 were fed with garlic powder (GP 0.5, 1 g/kg feed respectively. T4 and T5 were given with NLP 1, 2 g/kg feed respectively. T6 was fed with 0.5 g/kg GP and 1.0 g/kg NLP. T7 was treated with 1.0 g/kg GP and 2.0 g/kg NLP. The body weight, feed consumption of individual bird was recorded at weekly interval and the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR were calculated. At the end of 42 day, six birds from each dietary group were sacrificed to estimate the dressing yield and relative weights of giblet (liver, heart and gizzard. Results: Supplementation of garlic and NLP alone and their combination significantly (p0.05 influence was observed in carcass parameters like dressing yield and giblet yield (heart, gizzard and liver in all treatment groups. Conclusions: Supplementation of GP alone showed poor performance, but when it was supplemented in combination with NLP there was improvement in performance parameters. These results indicated that the combination of GP and NLP can be used as alternates to coccidiostats for improving the performance. Such meat can be used as a designer meat as fetch higher price if marketed as branded item.

  12. Growth performance of goats supplemented with Mucuna pruriens in North Cameroon

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    E. Pamo Tendonkeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the level of supplementation with Mucuna pruriens on growth performances of West African Dwarf bucks and digestibility of the rations during the dry season in North Cameroon was studied at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development polyvalent station of Garoua between November 2004 and July 2005. A total of 24 West African Dwarf male goats were divided into three groups of eight bucks each, fed with a basal diet made up of Andropogon gayanus and Ficus sycomorus, and supplemented with 0, 100 and 150 g of M. pruriens. The evaluation of the live weight, average daily weight gain and body condition score was carried out every 14 days during 90 days. At the end of this phase, the evaluation of carcass weight and yield was carried out on two slaughtered bucks per group. Then, nine goats were divided into three groups of three animals, and each group was subjected to one of the three above treatments in order to study the influence of the level of supplementation of M. pruriens on the digestibility of the basal diet. The results showed that, in absence of M. pruriens in the ration, the live weight, the average daily weight gain and the body condition score were 10.44 kg, - 10 g and 1.87, respectively. With 100 g of M. pruriens in the ration, the live weight, the average daily weight gain and the body condition score were 12.16 kg, 9 g and 2.94, whereas it was 12.98 kg, 18 g and 3.56, respectively, with a ration containing 150 g of M. pruriens. The carcass weight and yield, and the weight at slaughter increased significantly (P < 0.05 with the increase of the level of M. pruriens in the ration. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter was 45.25, 62.34 and 70.97%, respectively, with the rations containing 0, 100 and 150 g of M. pruriens. The nitrogen digestibility was 38.46, 55.29 and 60.95%, respectively, with the same ration. It appears that the supplementation of the rations with M. pruriens during the dry season

  13. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

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    Erica E Alexeev

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity.Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d from birth to postnatal day (PD 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35 and passive avoidance (PD40 tests were used to evaluate cognitive development.Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed.Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  14. Dietary supplementation of biofloc influences growth performance, physiological stress, antioxidant status and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghua; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Guodong; Xia, Bin; Li, Yuquan

    2018-01-01

    Bioflocs are rich in various probiotics and bioactive compounds, which play an important role in improving growth and health status of aquatic organisms. A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, physiological stress, antioxidant status, expression of immune-related genes and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Juvenile sea cucumbers were fed five experimental diets containing graded levels of biofloc from 0% to 20% (referred as B0, B5, B10, B15 and B20, respectively). The results showed that the sea cucumbers at dietary supplementation levels of 10%-15% biofloc had significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) compared to control group (diet B0). Digestive enzyme activity increased with the increasing of dietary biofloc level, while no significant difference was found between diets B15 and B20. Dietary supplementation of biofloc also had significant influences on physiological stress parameters except for lactate. There was no significant discrepancy in total coelomocytes counts (TCC) in coelomic fluid of sea cucumber between the treatments. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst of cellular immune at 15% and 20% biofloc levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS), lysozyme (LSZ), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities of sea cucumber were found at highest dietary supplementation level of 20% biofloc. The expression patterns of immune-related genes (i.e., Hsp90, Hsp70, p105, Rel, NOS and LSZ) in tissues of sea cucumber were analyzed between the experimental diets, and a general trend of up-regulation was observed at higher biofloc levels. Furthermore, dietary 10%-20% biofloc significantly reduced cumulative mortality of sea cucumber after being challenged with Vibrio splendidus. In conclusion, dietary

  15. Effects of dietary probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation on growth performance and serum IgG concentrations in broilers. One thousand two hundred one-day old Ross-308 broiler chicks of mixed sex were randomly divided into four treatment groups of 300 birds each. The treatments ...

  16. Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis By Colleen Labbe, M.S. | June 1, 2013 Vitamin D supplements likely do not improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to results from a clinical trial ...

  17. Supplementation of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Cyclic Glycine-Proline in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Parkinson Patients: Potential Treatment to Improve Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Function

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    Dawei Fan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 function is impaired in Parkinson disease. Cyclic glycine-proline (cGP, a metabolite of IGF-1, is neuroprotective through improving IGF-1 function. Parkinson disease patients score lower on Hospital-associated Anxiety and Depression Scale after supplementing blackcurrant anthocyanins (BCA, which may be associated with IGF-1 function. We evaluated the changes of cGP and IGF-1 before and after the supplementation. Methods: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were collected from 11 male patients before and after 28 day supplementation of BCA. The concentrations of IGF-1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP-3, and cGP were measured using ELISA and HPLC-MS assays. The presence of cGP in the BCA was evaluated. Results: cGP presented in the BCA. BCA supplementation increased the concentration of cGP (p < 0.01, but not IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in the CSF. CSF concentration of cGP was correlated with plasma concentration of cGP (R = 0.68, p = 0.01 and cGP/IGF-1 molar ratio (R = 0.66, p = 0.01. The CSF/plasma ratio was high in cGP and low in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. Conclusion: cGP is a natural nutrient to the BCA. The increased CSF cGP in Parkinson disease patients may result from the central uptake of plasma cGP. Given neurotrophic function, oral availability, and effective central uptake of cGP, the BCA has the potential to be developed to treat neurological conditions with IGF-1 deficiency.

  18. Growth performance and development of internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calf supplementation with calcium propionate at various stages of growth period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Wanbao; Zhang, Yawei; Jiang, Yuming; Meng, Qingxiang; Zhou, Zhenming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium propionate (CaP) supplementation on performance, the development of the internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calves at various stages of growth period, 54 male Jersey calves (age = 7 ± 1 d, body weight(BW) = 23.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups. While control calves were fed basis dietary with no additives (0CaP), other treatment calves were fed basis dietary supplementation with CaP at 50 (5CaP) or 100 (10CaP) g kg−1 dry matter. The experiment lasted 160 d and was divided into three feeding stages: Stage 1 (d 0 to 30), Stage 2 (d 31 to 90), and Stage 3 (d 91 to160). Six calves from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered on days 30, 90, and 160 when at the conclusion of each experimental feeding stage. The BW of calves increased with 10CaP after feeding 90 d, whereas it increased with 5CaP and 10CaP at feeding 120d and 160d compared to 0CaP. The 10CaP group improved average daily gain (ADG) of calves at stage 2, and d120-160 of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The ADG of 5CaP was greater than the 0CaP group only at 120–160 d of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The results of feed efficiency were in agreed with ADG as no dry matter intake difference at all stages of growth period. The 10CaP treatment exhibited the greatest spleen weight among the treatment at the end of the experiment; the liver weight of the 5CaP and 10CaP calves at feeding 90 d and of the 10CaP calves at feeding 160 d and were greater than those of the 0CaP animals. The CaP at the tested doses increased the rumen weight after feeding 90d of Jersey calves, and also improved the development of intestine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with calcium propionate at the tested doses caused a beneficial effect in the growth performance and gastrointestinal tract traits of Jersey calves, thus to add 10% CaP before feeding 90 days was better and 5% CaP supplementation was expected at the period for

  19. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

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    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  20. Efficacy of a foodlet-based multiple micronutrient supplement for preventing growth faltering, anemia, and micronutrient deficiency of infants: the four country IRIS trial pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuts, Cornelius M; Lombard, Carl J; Benadé, A J Spinnler; Dhansay, Muhammad A; Berger, Jacques; Hop, Le Thi; López de Romaña, Guillermo; Untoro, Juliawati; Karyadi, Elvina; Erhardt, Jürgen; Gross, Rainer

    2005-03-01

    Diets of infants across the world are commonly deficient in multiple micronutrients during the period of growth faltering and dietary transition from milk to solid foods. A randomized placebo controlled trial was carried out in Indonesia, Peru, South Africa, and Vietnam, using a common protocol to investigate whether improving status for multiple micronutrients prevented growth faltering and anemia during infancy. The results of the pooled data analysis of the 4 countries for growth, anemia, and micronutrient status are reported. A total of 1134 infants were randomized to 4 treatment groups, with 283 receiving a daily placebo (P), 283 receiving a weekly multiple micronutrient supplement (WMM), 280 received a daily multiple micronutrient (DMM) supplement, and 288 received daily iron (DI) supplements. The DMM group had a significantly greater weight gain, growing at an average rate of 207 g/mo compared with 192 g/mo for the WMM group, and 186 g/mo for the DI and P groups. There were no differences in height gain. DMM was also the most effective treatment for controlling anemia and iron deficiency, besides improving zinc, retinol, tocopherol, and riboflavin status. DI supplementation alone increased zinc deficiency. The prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies at baseline was high, with anemia affecting the majority, and was not fully controlled even after 6 mo of supplementation. These positive results indicate the need for larger effectiveness trials to examine how to deliver supplements at the program scale and to estimate cost benefits. Consideration should also be given to increasing the dosages of micronutrients being delivered in the foodlets.

  1. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  2. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  3. Effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognition through 2 y of age in rural Bangladesh: the JiVitA-3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Kim, Jeongyong; Mehra, Sucheta; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Wu, Lee; Klemm, Rolf; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P

    2016-10-01

    Childhood undernutrition may have prenatal origins, and the impact of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth is not well known. We assessed the effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on child growth and cognitive development. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, prenatal MM supplementation compared with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation was examined for its impact on growth assessed longitudinally from birth up to 24 mo of age (n = 8529) and, in a subsample (n = 734), on cognitive function at 24 mo of age by use of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition test. Prevalence of stunting at birth [length for age z score (LAZ): growth. Ponderal and linear growth velocities were somewhat slower from 3 to 12 mo of age in the MM group than in the IFA group, but not from 12 to 24 mo of age. There was no difference between groups on composite scores of cognition, language, and motor performance at 24 mo of age. In this Bangladeshi trial, maternal pre- and postnatal MM supplementation resulted in improvements in LAZ and reduction in stunting through 3 mo of age, but not thereafter and had no impact on cognitive and motor function at 2 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT000860470. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm ( larva on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

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    X. H. Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01, average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.01. During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08. In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01, ADFI (p<0.05 and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07 during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05. In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05 and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03 were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  5. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, S.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  6. Optimising nutrition to improve growth and reduce neurodisabilities in neonates at risk of neurological impairment, and children with suspected or confirmed cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Morag J; Parr, Jeremy R; Montague-Johnson, Chris; Braddick, Oliver; Laler, Karen; Williams, Nicola; Baker, Bonny; Sullivan, Peter B

    2015-03-17

    Neurological impairment is a common sequelae of perinatal brain injury. Plasticity of the developing brain is due to a rich substrate of developing neurones, synaptic elements and extracellular matrix. Interventions supporting this inherent capacity for plasticity may improve the developmental outcome of infants following brain injury. Nutritional supplementation with combination docosahexaenoic acid, uridine and choline has been shown to increase synaptic elements, dendritic density and neurotransmitter release in rodents, improving performance on cognitive tests. It remains elusive whether such specific 'neurotrophic' supplementation enhances brain plasticity and repair after perinatal brain injury. This is a two year double-blind, randomised placebo controlled study with two cohorts to investigate whether nutritional intervention with a neurotrophic dietary supplement improves growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates at significant risk of neurological impairment (the D1 cohort), and infants with suspected or confirmed cerebral palsy (the D2 cohort). 120 children will be randomised to receive dietetic and nutritional intervention, and either active supplement or placebo. Eligible D1 neonates are those born Toddler Development III at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include visuobehavioural and visual neurophysiological assessments, and growth parameters including weight, height, and head circumference. This is the first study to supplement neonates and infants with perinatal brain injury with the combination of factors required for healthy brain development, throughout the period of maximal brain growth. A further study strength is the comprehensive range of outcome measures employed. If beneficial, supplementation with brain phosphatide precursors could improve the quality of life of thousands of children with perinatal brain injury. Current Controlled trials: ISRCTN39264076 (registration assigned 09/11/2012), ISRCTN15239951 (registration assigned 23/04/2010).

  7. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni

    2002-01-01

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  8. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  9. Effect of low protein diets and lysine supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was to assess the effect of feeding low protein diet with or without supplemental lysine to meet NRC (1998) requirement on growth performance, carcass trait, meat composition, and meat quality of pigs. An experiment of 126 days was conducted on 21 crossbred Landrace pigs (average weight 11.72 ...

  10. Effect of supplementation of Zn-biocomplex in ration on the growth of young sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation of graded levels of Zn-bio-complex in concentrate on the growth of young sheep was studied. Fourty young Thin Tailled sheeps were devided into 4 groups of Zn-bio complex treatments. Zink-bio-complex was produced by IRIAP’s laboratory. King grass powder (CP = 10.4% and concentrate (CP=15.5% were given as a basal diet. King grass powder and drinking water were given ad libitum. The concentrate was given daily at 200 g h-1d-1 supplemented with 0 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R1, 50 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R2, 100 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R3, and 200 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R4. The initial live weight of sheep was 11.99 ± 0.17kg h-1. Live weight were measured fortnightly and feed consumption were measured daily. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks with 4 weeks prior adaptation periods. Data obtained were analyzed statistically based on Completely Randomized Design. The results of experiment showed that the supplementation of Zn-bio-complex improved the live weight from 57.60 g h-1d-1 (R1 to 85.47, 72.14 and 67.86 g h-1d-1 with the feed conversion ratio improvement from 11.9 (R1 to 8.0, 9.6 and 10.5 for treatment R2, R3 and R4 respectively (P0.05 for R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. It can be concluded that the supplementation of Zn-bio-complex at the level of 50 mg Zn kg-1 in daily concentrate resulted in the best response on live weight gain and feed conversion ratio of young sheep.

  11. Comparison of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) growth rate in culture media supplemented with or without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdian, Narges; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Ganji-Arjenaki, Mahbobe; Doosti, Abbas; Amiri, Beheshteh

    2015-12-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is a member of the FGF family secreted by different kinds of cells like HDFs and it is an important nutritional factor for cell growth and differentiation. The HDFs release bFGF in culture media at very low. The present study aims to investigate the HDFs growth rate in culture media supplemented either with or without bFGF. In brief, HDFs were isolated from human foreskin sample and were cultured in vitro in media containing bFGF and lack of this factor. The cells growth rate was calculated by trypan blue. The karyotyping was performed using G-banding to investigate the chromosomal abnormality of HDFs in both groups. Total RNA of each groups were extracted and cDNA samples were synthesized then, real-time Q-PCR was used to measure the expression level of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes normalized to internal control gene (GAPDH). The karyotype analysis showed that HDFs cultured in media or without bFGF had normal karyotype (46 chromosomes, XY) and chromosomal abnormalities were not observed. The cell growth rates in both groups were normal with proliferated exponentially but the slope of growth curve in HDFs cultured in media containing bFGF was increased. Karyotyp test showed that bFGF does not affect on cytogenetic stability of cells. The survey of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes by real-time Q-PCR showed that the expression level of these genes were up-regulated when adding bFGF in culture media (p culture media with growth factor like bFGF could enhance the proliferation and differentiation capacity of cells and improve cells growth rate. Similarly, fibroblast growth factors did not induce any chromosomal abnormality in cells. Furthermore, in HDFs cultured in bFGF supplemented media, the p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes were up-regulated and suggesting an important role for bFGF in cell-cycle regulation and progression and fibroblast division stimulation. It also suggests that the effects of bFGF on different cell types with

  12. Short communication : Supplementation of fructo-oligosaccharides does not improve insulin sensitivity in heavy veal calves fed different sources of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A. J.; Gilbert, M. S.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Vonk, R. J.

    Heavy veal calves (4–6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  13. Dietary phosphatidylcholine impacts on growth performance and lipid metabolism in adult Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Wen, Hua; Lu, Xing; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Yu, Li-Juan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet. Weight gain and specific growth rate were unaffected. Dietary PC increased PC content in the liver and decreased crude fat content in the liver, viscera and body. SFA and MUFA increased and PUFA decreased in muscle with increasing dietary PC. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A 2 and secreted phospholipase A 2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the brain and heart in PC-supplemented fish. PC reduced fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in the liver and visceral tissue but increased expression in muscle. Hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase expression increased in the liver with increasing dietary PC. Growth hormone mRNA expression was reduced in the brain and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression in liver reduced with PC above 6·5 g/kg. Our results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with PC improves feed efficiency and reduces liver fat in adult Nile tilapia, without increasing weight gain, representing a novel dietary approach to reduce feed requirements and improve the health of Nile tilapia.

  14. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  15. The influence of dietary supplementation on testicular growth rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty adult Merino rams were fed a ration with a 16% protein and. 75% TDN content. Live body mass increased by 51,4% and testes volume by 111,7% in 210 days. Testicular growth responded rapidly to supplementation and testes volume increased by86,5% inonly 60days. Inanother experiment diets of four groups of 15 ...

  16. Simple educational intervention will improve the efficacy of routine antenatal iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Hemantha M; Premaratne, Samanthi P; Palihawadana, Thilina; Wijeratne, Sumeda

    2010-06-01

    Sri Lanka has a policy of free provision of iron supplements to pregnant women. However, iron deficiency anemia remains common in pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that educating women regarding improving bioavailability could improve the efficacy of iron supplementation. The education focused on how best supplements could be taken and on how they should be stored. We carried out a study using a quasi-experimental design on a group of women attending for antenatal care at a suburban University Obstetric Unit in Sri Lanka. The control group had care free of charge including iron supplementation and antihelminthic therapy. In addition, the study group received an education in small groups regarding maximizing bioavailability of iron. Hemoglobin and iron status of the women were compared between the groups at recruitment and at 34 weeks of gestation. The two groups were equally matched in demographic data, and hemoglobin and iron status. There were significant differences between the two groups at 34 weeks in the hemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, anemia rates and the number with low ferritin (P tablets in ways that improved their bioavailability. A simple health education improved the efficacy of iron supplementation in this population. Such interventions should be an integral part of iron supplementation programs, especially in populations whose habits tend to reduce the bioavailability of iron.

  17. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  18. Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation enhances growth performance and alleviates aluminum toxicity in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the protection offered by the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 against waterborne Al exposure in tilapia. Fish were allocated to control, CCFM639-only, Al-only or Al plus CCFM639 groups. The fish were exposed to 2.73mg/L Al ions for 4 weeks. The probiotic was incorporated into the fish diet at 10 8 CFU/g and provided twice daily. Our results showed that L. plantarum CCFM639 significantly enhanced feed utilization, growth performance and antioxidant ability in the absence of waterborne Al exposure. When fish were exposed to Al, dietary supplementation with the strain effectively decreased the death rate and accumulation of Al in tissues, and enhanced growth performance. Moreover, Al-induced changes in hematobiochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress and histopathology were also alleviated. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 may be a novel dietary supplement for fish to enhance growth performance and prevent aquaculture and food safety problems induced by Al pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Dietary lactoferrin supplementation to gilts during gestation and lactation improves pig production and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marefa Jahan

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF, a sialylated iron-binding glycoprotein, performs multiple beneficial functions including modulating immunity and improves neurodevelopment, health and growth performance. Maternal LF intervention for gilts (first parity sows on the performance of gilts and their offspring remains unknown. In the current study gilts were fed with a commercial pig feed supplemented with 1g LF /day (treatment group or 1g milk casein/day (control group from day 1 post mating throughout pregnancy and lactation for about 135 days. The milk production and body weight gain was monitored. The immunoglobulin concentrations in the serum of gilts and piglets were measured using ELISA. Our study showed that maternal LF supplementation to the gilt (1 significantly increased milk production at different time points (day 1, 3, 7 and 19 of lactation compared to the control (p<0.001; (2 significantly increased body weight gain of their piglets during the first 19 days of life compared to the control group (p<0.05; (3 tended to increase pregnancy rate, litter size and birth weight, number of piglets born alive, and decrease the number of dead and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR piglets; (4 significantly increased the concentration of serum IgA in gilt and serum sIgA in piglet (p<0.05. In summary, maternal Lf intervention in gilts can improve milk production, pig production and serum IgA and sIgA levels, and therefore plays a key role in shaping the performance of their progeny.

  20. The impact of prenatal vitamin A and zinc supplementation on growth of children up to 2 years of age in rural Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawirohartono, Endy P; Nyström, Lennarth; Ivarsson, Anneli; Stenlund, Hans; Lind, Torbjörn

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether prenatal vitamin A and/or Zn supplementation affects postnatal growth. Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial monitoring growth in children from birth up to 24 months of age. Central Java, Indonesia. Children (n 343) of mothers participating in a double-blinded, randomized controlled study of vitamin A and/or Zn supplementation during pregnancy. We report the effects of prenatal supplementation on infant growth, measured as weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ ), from 0 to 24 months, as well as differences in growth faltering among the supplementation groups. For HAZ, the absolute differences between the vitamin A-only and vitamin A + Zn groups at 3 and 9 months were 0·34 SD and 0·37 SD, respectively, and the absolute difference between the vitamin A-only and Zn-only groups at 18 months was 0·31 SD. Compared with placebo, none of the supplements affected growth. Defining growth faltering as a downward crossing of two or more major percentile lines, 50-75% of the children were found to be growth faltering within 9 months of age, whereas 17% and 8% scored <-2 SD for WAZ and HAZ, respectively. Prenatal supplementation did not reduce the prevalence of growth faltering. Prenatal vitamin A supplementation had a small but significant effect on postnatal growth of children's length until 18 months of age compared with supplementation with either vitamin A + Zn or Zn alone, but not compared with placebo. It had no effects on other anthropometric measures and did not reduce the prevalence of growth faltering. Future studies should duplicate these findings before recommendations can be made.

  1. The effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women and child physical growth in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Briony; Buettner, Petra; Watt, Kerrianne; Clough, Alan; Brimblecombe, Julie; Judd, Jenni

    2015-10-01

    The beneficial effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent child growth is unclear and may depend upon the mother entering pregnancy adequately nourished or undernourished. Systematic reviews to-date have included studies from high-, middle- and low-income countries. However, the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation should not be generalised. This review assesses the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women from low- and middle-income countries on child growth. A systematic review of articles published in English (1970-2015) was conducted via MEDLINE, Scopus, the Cochrane Register and hand searching. Only peer-reviewed experimental studies analysing the effects of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women from low- and middle-income countries with measures of physical growth as the primary outcome were included. Two reviewers independently assessed full-text articles against inclusion criteria. Validity of eligible studies was ascertained using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP QAT). In total, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported on birthweight, five on birth length, three on birth head circumference, and one on longer-term growth. Standardised mean differences were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis. Balanced protein energy supplementation significantly improved birthweight (seven randomised controlled trials, n = 2367; d = 0.20, 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.38, P = 0.02). No significant benefit was observed on birth length or birth head circumference. Impact of intervention could not be determined for longer-term physical growth due to limited evidence. Additional research is required in low- and middle-income countries to identify impacts on longer-term infant growth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. L-Citrulline Supplementation Enhances Fetal Growth and Protein Synthesis in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Aurélie; Parnet, Patricia; Nowak, Christel; Tran, Nhat-Thang; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from either maternal undernutrition or impaired placental blood flow, exposing offspring to increased perinatal mortality and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease during adulthood. l-Citrulline is a precursor of l-arginine and nitric oxide (NO), which regulates placental blood flow. Moreover, l-citrulline stimulates protein synthesis in other models of undernutrition. The aim of the study was to determine whether l-citrulline supplementation would enhance fetal growth in a model of IUGR induced by maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet. LP dams were randomly allocated to drink tap water either as such or supplemented with l-citrulline (2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), an isonitrogenous amount of l-arginine, or nonessential l-amino acids (NEAAs). On day 21 of gestation, dams received a 2-h infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-valine until fetuses were extracted by cesarean delivery. Isotope enrichments were measured in free amino acids and fetal muscle, liver, and placenta protein by GC-mass spectrometry. Fetal weight was ∼29% lower in the LP group (3.82 ± 0.06 g) than in the control group (5.41 ± 0.10 g) (P growth in a model of IUGR, and the effect may be mediated by enhanced fetal muscle protein synthesis and/or increased NO production. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effects of wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hee Han

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc, with an average 27.75± 1.319 kg body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Four-phase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i corn-soybean meal (SBM – based diet (CON, ii corn-SBM – based diet+15% of wheat (W15, iii corn-SBM – based diet+30% of wheat (W30, iv corn-SBM – based diet+45% of wheat (W45, and 5 corn-SBM–based diet+60% of wheat (W60. Results There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08 when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08. The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, L*, a*, and b* values were not significantly different among dietary treatments. Conclusion Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.

  4. Taurine supplementation of plant derived protein and n-3 fatty acids are critical for optimal growth and development of cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Aaron M; Barrows, Frederic T; Place, Allen R

    2013-09-01

    We examined growth performance and the lipid content in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed a taurine supplemented (1.5 %), plant protein based diet with two fish oil replacements. The first fish oil replacement was a thraustochytrid meal (TM + SOY) plus soybean oil (~9 % CL) and the second was a canola oil supplemented with the essential fatty acids (EFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (~8 % CL). The diet using the thraustochytrid meal plus soybean oil performed equivalently to the fish oil diet; both resulting in significantly higher growth rates, lower feed conversion ratios, and higher survival than the supplemented canola oil diet, even though all three diets were similar in overall energy and met known protein and lipid requirements for cobia. The poor performance of the canola oil diet was attributed to insufficient addition of EFA in the supplemented canola oil source. Increasing levels of EFA in the supplemented canola oil above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1) would likely improve results with cobia. When fish fed either of the fish oil replacement diets were switched to the fish oil control diet, fatty acid profiles of the fillets were observed to transition toward that of the fish oil diet and could be predicted based on a standard dilution model. Based on these findings, a formulated diet for cobia can be produced without fish products providing 100 % survivorship, specific growth rates greater than 2.45 and feed conversion ratios less than 1.5, as long as taurine is added and EFA levels are above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1).

  5. Polyphenols and IUGR pregnancies: Maternal hydroxytyrosol supplementation improves prenatal and early-postnatal growth and metabolism of the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vazquez-Gomez

    Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol is a polyphenol with antioxidant, metabolism-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether supplementing the maternal diet with hydroxytyrosol during pregnancy can improve pre- and early post-natal developmental patterns and metabolic traits of the offspring. Experiment was performed in Iberian sows fed a restricted diet in order to increase the risk of IUGR. Ten sows were treated daily with 1.5 mg of hydroxytyrosol per kg of feed between Day 35 of pregnancy (30% of total gestational period until delivery whilst 10 animals were left untreated as controls. Number and weight of offspring were assessed at birth, on post-natal Day 15 and at weaning (25 days-old. At weaning, body composition and plasma indexes of glucose and lipids were measured. Treatment with hydroxytyrosol was associated with higher mean birth weight, lower incidence of piglets with low birth weight. Afterwards, during the lactation period, piglets in the treated group showed a higher body-weight than control piglets; such effects were even stronger in the most prolific litters. These results suggest that maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol may improve pre- and early post-natal development of offspring in pregnancies at risk of IUGR.

  6. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  7. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group, and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05. Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (p0.05. It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  8. Effect of fat supplementation on leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; García-Tornadú, Isabel; Shroeder, Guillermo; Salado, Eloy E; Gagliostro, Gerardo; Delavaud, Carole; Chilliard, Yves; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effect of fat supplementation on plasma levels of hormones related to metabolism, with special attention to leptin, in cows in early lactation and in feedlot steers. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows received no fat or else 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum. In experiment 2, part of the corn in the basal concentrate was replaced with 0.7 kg of the same oil such that the diets were isocaloric; 18 cows received the fat-substituted diet and 18 a control diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 75 postpartum. In experiment 3, calcium salts of fatty acids were added to the basal diet of 14 feedlot steers for 80 d; another 14 steers received a control diet. The basal plasma levels of leptin were higher in the cows than in the steers. Dietary fat supplementation did not affect the leptin levels in the lactating cows but lowered the levels in the feedlot steers despite greater energy intake and body fatness (body weight) in the steers receiving the supplement than in those receiving the control diet. The levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin were decreased with dietary fat supplementation in the lactating cows but were unaffected in the steers, suggesting that responses to fat ingestion depend on the physiological state of the animal, including age and sex. Finally, no effects of supplementary fat on the level of growth hormone were demonstrated in any of the models.

  9. Effects of different levels of protein supplements in the diet of early-weaned yaks on growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP supplements to the diet of early-weaned yaks on their growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response. Forty 3-month-old weaned yaks were selected and assigned to four dietary groups (Control, 17, 19 and 21% CP. Dietary CP supplements had a significant effect on average daily gain (ADG, crypt depth (CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum, villous height (VH (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and CD/VH (jejunum and ileum. Average daily gain, CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and VH (ileum showed quadratic increases as the dietary CP increased, whereas CD/VH (jejunum and ileum ratios showed quadratic decreases. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, glucose (GLU, immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ concentrations increased significantly, whereas albumin (ALB, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST decreased significantly with dietary CP supplements. Dietary CP supplements significantly increased the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and the nuclear factor of activated T cell transcription factor (NFAT for gene expression. As the dietary CP supplements increased, IL-6, IFN-γ and NF-AT gene expression showed quadratic increases. These results showed that the appropriate dietary CP supplementation improved the growth performance and intestinal development of earlyweaned yaks and thus that the CP supplements were beneficial and enhanced the humoral immunity response of yaks.

  10. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Maidelys; Martínez, Yordan; Ni, Hengjia; Jiang, Hongmei; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel; Wu, Xiaosong; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rosales, Manuel; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes . On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved ( P < 0.05) the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased ( P < 0.05) the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower ( P < 0.05) when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased ( P < 0.05) the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  11. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidelys Iser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment, which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum, serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P<0.05 the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P<0.05 the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P<0.05 when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P<0.05 the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  12. Heterogeneous engineered cartilage growth results from gradients of media-supplemented active TGF-β and is ameliorated by the alternative supplementation of latent TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albro, Michael B; Nims, Robert J; Durney, Krista M; Cigan, Alexander D; Shim, Jay J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has become one of the most widely utilized mediators of engineered cartilage growth. It is typically exogenously supplemented in the culture medium in its active form, with the expectation that it will readily transport into tissue constructs through passive diffusion and influence cellular biosynthesis uniformly. The results of this investigation advance three novel concepts regarding the role of TGF-β in cartilage tissue engineering that have important implications for tissue development. First, through the experimental and computational analysis of TGF-β concentration distributions, we demonstrate that, contrary to conventional expectations, media-supplemented exogenous active TGF-β exhibits a pronounced concentration gradient in tissue constructs, resulting from a combination of high-affinity binding interactions and a high cellular internalization rate. These gradients are sustained throughout the entire culture duration, leading to highly heterogeneous tissue growth; biochemical and histological measurements support that while biochemical content is enhanced up to 4-fold at the construct periphery, enhancements are entirely absent beyond 1 mm from the construct surface. Second, construct-encapsulated chondrocytes continuously secrete large amounts of endogenous TGF-β in its latent form, a portion of which undergoes cell-mediated activation and enhances biosynthesis uniformly throughout the tissue. Finally, motivated by these prior insights, we demonstrate that the alternative supplementation of additional exogenous latent TGF-β enhances biosynthesis uniformly throughout tissue constructs, leading to enhanced but homogeneous tissue growth. This novel demonstration suggests that latent TGF-β supplementation may be utilized as an important tool for the translational engineering of large cartilage constructs that will be required to repair the large osteoarthritic defects observed clinically. Copyright © 2015

  13. Effect of Probiotic supplementation on Growth parameters of Osmanabadi Kids

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    A.B. Kanduri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on growth parameters viz. body weight, body height, chest girth and body length of Osmanabadi kids. A multi-strain commercially available probiotic (Protexin containing Lactobacillus species, Streptococcus species and Yeast was administered orally at a dose rate of 2 gm per 25 kg body weight daily for 2 months to the treatment group. At the end of the first and second week, all the growth parameters were higher in the treatment group as compared to the control group, though the difference was not statistically significant. However, from the third week onwards, all growth parameters were significantly higher in the treatment group as compared to the control group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 29-30

  14. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  15. Effect Of Dried Whey Milk Supplement On Some Blood Biochemical And Immunological Indices In Relation To Growth Performance Of Heat Stressed Bovine baladi Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was carried out under hot environmental conditions, where temperature-humidity index was equivalent to 86 - 90 and 78 - 80 during day and night, respectively. Twelve bovine Baladi calves of 8 - 10 months old and 112 kg average initial live body weight were used in this study. The calves were divided into two groups of 6 animals each to study the effect of supplementation of dried whey milk on some blood biochemical and immunological indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions of Egypt. The results showed that supplementation of dried whey milk to the diet of heat-stressed calves at the level of 150 g / calf / day reduced significantly each of respiration rate and rectal temperature as well as serum lipid concentrations and their fractions e.g. total cholesterol and phospholipids. Also, dried whey milk supplement caused a significant decline in both AST and ALT activities and reduced significantly alpha globulin concentration, while non-significant changes were observed in each of beta globulin, gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G. However, supplementing dried whey milk to growing calves increased significantly serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorous, T 3 and T 4 . Moreover, dried whey milk improved significantly both feed efficiency and daily gain of growing calves. It could be concluded that addition of dried whey milk to the diet reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate and induced an improvement in most blood biochemical parameters and growth performance of heat-stressed bovine Baladi calves.

  16. Dietary supplementation of Lonicera macranthoides leaf powder improves amino acid profiles in serum and longissimus thoracis muscle of growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimin Long

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 60-days feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of Lonicera macranthoides leaf (LML on growth performance, meat quality, and free amino acid profiles in growing-finishing pigs. L. macranthoides leaves were harvested, air-dried and milled to powder. A total of 288 crossbred barrows (Large White × Landrace with an average initial BW of 54.0 ± 3.4 kg were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups and fed either a basal diet or a diet supplemented with 0.5% or 1.0% LML powder. Results showed that diet supplemented with LML powder did not affect average daily feed intake (ADFI and feed: gain ratio (P > 0.05 in growing-finishing pigs. Moreover, diet supplemented with LML powder showed no significant effects on carcass traits (P > 0.05 including dressing percentage, backfat thickness and loin muscle area, and meat quality traits (P > 0.05 including meat color, intramuscular fat and cooking loss. However, diet supplemented with LML powder significantly improved free amino acid profiles in serum and longissimus thoracis muscle in growing-finishing pigs. Most importantly, dietary LML powder increased total free amino acids content (P < 0.001 and essential free amino acid content (P < 0.001 in longissimus thoracis muscle. These results indicate that LML has the potential to improve the nutritional value of meat through improving free amino acid profiles.

  17. Long-term effects of food supplementation and psychosocial intervention on the physical growth of Colombian infants at risk of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, C M; Herrera, M G; Mora, J O

    1990-02-01

    280 Colombian infants at risk of malnutrition were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups formed by the presence/absence of 2 interventions: (1) food supplementation for the entire family, from mid-pregnancy until the target child was 3 years old, and (2) a twice-weekly home-visiting program to promote cognitive development, from birth until age 3. All families received free medical care and were studied prospectively. At 3 years of age, children who had received food supplementation averaged 2.6 cm and 642 grams larger than controls. Home visiting and supplementation together reduced the number of children with severe growth retardation. 3 years after intervention (age 6), supplementation effects remained. Children in the home visit condition had become larger than controls, by 1.7 cm and 448 grams. The interactive effect to reduce stunting was marginally significant at this age, and the overall distribution of scores was improved. Other results suggest that changes in family functioning as well as biological mechanisms account for the observed pattern of results.

  18. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  19. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol) and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K; Niu, Y; Zheng, X C; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Zhang, M; Huang, X X; Zhang, L L; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group), and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05). Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural rather than synthetic vitamin E reduced MDA accumulation in the thigh (pnatural nor synthetic vitamin E supplementation altered muscular mRNA abundance of genes related to oxidative stress (p>0.05). It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  20. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  1. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of Dietary Supplemental Vitamins and Periods of Administration on Growth Performance and Antibody Titre of Broiler Chickens Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odutayo, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of supplemental vitamins and varying administration periods on growth performance and antibody titre of broiler chickens vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND. A total of 300 unvaccinated against ND Arbor Acre day-old chicks were used for the study for 8 wk. Birds were brooded together on day 1 of age, and 30 chicks were selected randomly for evaluating the maternally derived antibody titre against ND. At 2 days of age, the remaining 270 chicks were divided based on weight equalization into 9 treatment groups and replicated thrice. The 9 treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of 4 supplemental vitamins (A, C, E and combination of A, C, E and 2 periods of administration (3 days pre- and post-ND vaccinations with a control. The birds were managed intensively throughout the experimental period, ND vaccines were administered on the 5th (i/o and 24th (Lasota day of age, respectively. Supplemental combined vitamins A, C and E at 0.15, 16.67 and 3.03 mg/kg, respectively, resulted in higher (P < 0.05 final body weight of 1785.00 g/bird and better feed conversion ratio (FCR of 2.89. Also, birds fed vitamin A supplemented diet 3 d pre-i/o vaccine had higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (75.20 against ND while higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (741.33 was also obtained in birds fed diet supplemented with vitamin E 3 d post-Lasota vaccination. Conclusively, broiler chickens diets can be supplemented with combined vitamins A, C, and E for better growth performance measured as final body weight and FCR, in addition, vitamins A (0.45mg/kg and E (9.1mg/kg dietary supplementation at 3 d pre-i/o and 3 d post-Lasota vaccines, respectively, can be adopted for improved antibody production.

  3. Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S T; Lee, J-W; Mun, H-S; Yang, C-J

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated male goats were used to determine the effects of feeding green tea by-products (GTB) on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation. Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with four levels of GTB (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%). Four replicate pens were assigned to each treatment with three goats per replicate. Increasing dietary GTB tended to linearly increase the overall average weight gain and feed intake (p = 0.09). Water holding capacity, pH and sensory attributes of meat were not affected by GTB supplementation, while cooking loss was reduced both linearly and quadratically (p goat meat were improved by GTB supplementation. Increasing dietary GTB quadratically increased protein and decreased crude fat (p goat meat. The proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA increased linearly (p meat were lower in the 2.0% GTB-supplemented group in all storage periods (p meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation when supplemented as a feed additive in goat diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

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    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  5. Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, performance index (PI, and carcass characteristics in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days on Vanaraja strain of broiler birds. Different dietary supplement such as sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal and coriander seed meal were used in the basal diet. All day-old 150 male chicks were individually weighed and distributed into five groups having 30 birds in each. Each group was further sub-divided into triplicates having 10 birds in each. Group T1served as control and rest groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 as treatment groups. Birds in T1 group were fed basal ration only, however, T2 , T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed basal ration mixed with 2.5% sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal, and coriander seed meal individually, respectively. Results: Broilers supplemented with herbs/spices showed improvement in growth attributes and carcass characteristics. Broilers fed with herbs at the rate of 2.5% had higher feed intake except sugar beet and coriander seed meal fed group. The body weight and weight gain was also significantly (p0.05 affected. Average giblet percentage of all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher than control and was found to be highest in neem leaf meal fed group. Average by-product percentage was found to be highest in linseed fed group. Conclusion: Various herbs such as sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander seed meals affected the growth performance, and carcass trait showed positive inclination toward supplemented groups in broilers. The exact mode of action of these herbs/spices is still not clear, however, one or more numbers of active compounds present in these supplements may be responsible.

  6. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation level to diets of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the birds were offered the same grower feed and fresh water ad libitum. Indigenous Venda hens supplemented with ascorbic acid produced chicks with improved (P<0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate and live weight at 7 weeks of age. However, ascorbic acid supplementation to the diets of indigenous ...

  7. Supplemental feeding of captive neonatal koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eri; Shindo, Izumi; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Kido, Nobuhide

    2017-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated. The amount of formula fed was determined according to the product instructions, and offspring weight was monitored. Slower than normal growth was not initially noticed in the first offspring. This caused delayed commencement of supplemental feeding. An attempt was made to counteract this by providing more formula for a longer period; however, this meant No. 1 was unable to eat enough eucalyptus when weaning. Supplemental feeding was started earlier for the second offspring than for the first, and was terminated at weaning; this juvenile showed a healthy body weight increase. Furthermore, it was able to eat eucalyptus leaves at an earlier stage than No. 1. Although No. 1 showed delayed growth, both koalas matured and are still living. This study showed that supplemental feeding is useful for koalas, if the mother will accept human intervention. The key factors for successful supplemental feeding of koalas identified by comparing the two feeding systems observed in this study are that: (1) it should be initiated as soon as insufficient growth is identified; and (2) it should be terminated before weaning age. Zoo Biol. 36:62-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  9. Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban to lactating ewes on milk yield and growth rate of lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekoya, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Tamminga, S.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on the milk yield of ewes and growth rate of their lambs. The experiment was done with animals that had been fed for 16 months on a basal diet of teff straw supplemented with concentrates alone (0% S.

  10. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  12. Growth performance and oxidative status in piglets supplemented with verbascoside and teupolioside

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    G. Pastorelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred forty piglets, half female and half barrows, 8.1 ± 1.40 kg LW, were divided into 6 experimental groups and fed ad libitum with a diet supplemented with the following levels of antioxidants: 0 (CON + = positive control added with 100 mg lincomicine/kg, 5 (LT = low teupolioside or LV = low verbascoside, 10 (HT = high teupolioside; HV = high verbascoside; LT+LV mg/kg of diet for 56 days. Body weight and feed intake were recorded on d0, 14 and 56 of the trial. Ten piglets from each group were selected and blood collected by anterior vena cava puncture at 0, 14 and 56 d for reactive oxygen metabolite (ROMs determination. HV showed final weight higher than the other groups (P<0.05, and oxidative stability was improved by both integrations of verbascoside. These results support the view that Verbascoside influences the growth performances and oxidative status of piglets.

  13. Growth performance and haematology of the laboratory rat, rattus norvegicus fed on protein supplements and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)

  14. Omega-3 supplementation improves cognition and modifies brain activation in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Isabelle; Hughes, Matthew; Rowsell, Renee; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew; Crewther, Sheila; Crewther, David

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich supplementations on cognitive performance and functional brain activation. A double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design, with a 30-day washout period between two supplementation periods (EPA-rich and DHA-rich) was employed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained during performance of Stroop and Spatial Working Memory tasks prior to supplementation and after each 30-day supplementation period. Both supplementations resulted in reduced ratio of arachidonic acid to EPA levels. Following the EPA-rich supplementation, there was a reduction in functional activation in the left anterior cingulate cortex and an increase in activation in the right precentral gyrus coupled with a reduction in reaction times on the colour-word Stroop task. By contrast, the DHA-rich supplementation led to a significant increase in functional activation in the right precentral gyrus during the Stroop and Spatial Working Memory tasks, but there was no change in behavioural performance. By extending the theory of neural efficiency to the within-subject neurocognitive effects of supplementation, we concluded that following the EPA-rich supplementation, participants' brains worked 'less hard' and achieved a better cognitive performance than prior to supplementation. Conversely, the increase in functional activation and lack of improvement in time or accuracy of cognitive performance following DHA-rich supplementation may indicate that DHA-rich supplementation is less effective than EPA-rich supplementation in enhancing neurocognitive functioning after a 30-day supplementation period in the same group of individuals.

  15. Cordyceps militaris improves tolerance to high intensity exercise after acute and chronic supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katie R.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Roelofs, Erica J.; Trexler, Eric T.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effects of a mushroom blend containing cordyceps militaris on high intensity exercise after 1- and 3-weeks of supplementation. Twenty-eight individuals (Mean ± SD; Age=22.7 ± 4.1 yrs; Height=175.4 ± 8.7 cm; Weight=71.6 ± 12.0 kg) participated in this randomized, repeated measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion (TTE), and ventilatory threshold (VT) were measured during a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Relative peak power output (RPP), average power output (AvgP), and percent drop (%drop) were recorded during a 3-minute maximal cycle test with resistance at 4.5% body weight. Subjects consumed 4 g·d−1 mushroom blend (MR) or maltodextrin (PL) for 1 week. Ten volunteers supplemented for an additional 2 weeks. Exercise tests were separated by at least 48-hours and repeated following supplementation periods. One week of supplementation elicited no significant time × treatment interaction for VO2max (p=0.364), VT (p=0.514), TTE (p=0.540), RPP (p=0.134), AvgP (p=0.398), or %drop (p=0.823). After 3-weeks, VO2max significantly improved (p=0.042) in MR (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1), but not PL (+0.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Analysis of 95% confidence intervals revealed significant improvements in TTE after 1- (+28.1 s) and 3-weeks (+69.8 s) in MR, but not PL, with additional improvements in VO2max (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) and VT (+0.7 l·min−1) after 3-weeks. Acute supplementation with a cordyceps militaris containing mushroom blend may improve tolerance to high intensity exercise; greater benefits may be elicited with consistent chronic supplementation. PMID:27408987

  16. Exogenous protease supplementation of poultry by-product meal-based diets for broilers: Effects on growth, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, T; Mirza, M A; Nawaz, H; Shahid, M

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of three levels (0%, 3% and 6%) of poultry by-product meal (PBM) with or without protease on broiler growth, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility from 1 to 35 days. Two hundred and forty birds (n = 240) were fed equi-caloric and equi-nitrogenous (ME 2850 kcal/kg; CP 20%) diets throughout the experiment. The enzyme supplementation increased feed intake (p  .05) from 1 to 21 days. Increasing level of PBM decreased feed intake (p < .05), but body weight gain was improved (p < .05) at 3% PBM level during 1 to 21 days. The feed:gain was improved (p < .05) in birds fed diets containing 3% PBM. The feed:gain was also improved in birds fed diets containing 3% PBM from 1 to 35 days. However, feed intake and body weight gain in birds fed diets containing PBM remained unaffected. An interaction (p < .01) on feed intake between enzyme and PBM was noticed during 1 to 21 days. However, no interaction was recorded for body weight gain and feed:gain. The per cent carcass yield improved (p < .01) in birds fed diets supplemented with enzyme. The per cent breast meat yield was depressed (p < .005) in birds fed diets containing PBM. Apparent metabolizable energy (p < .001), nitrogen retention (p < .01), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (p < .001), and apparent digestibility coefficient for nitrogen (p < .01) improved in birds fed diets containing enzyme; however, a reverse was noticed in those fed diets containing only PBM. In conclusion, inclusion of 3% PBM along with supplementation of exogenous protease improved performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Growth and fruit body formation of Pleurotus ostreatus on media supplemented with inorganic selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace mineral chemically related to sulfur and tellurium. In the body selenium combines with protein molecules to form selenoproteins and it is distributed in low concentrations and unequally in air, soil and water all over the world. Edible mushrooms are known to be selenium accumulators. Since mushrooms contain relatively high protein levels, and they can accumulate large amounts of selenium, it is reasonable to expect that selenium could be incorporated into proteins. The growth of mycelia and fruit body formation of different medicinal mushroom strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Hk-35 and P70 over the wide range of concentrations of inorganic form of selenium were examined. Mushrooms were cultivated on agar base media and on substrates based on sawdust. Vegetative growths of mycelium were measured as colony diameter in pure cultures supplemented with inorganic form of Se supplements, prepared as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 in concentrations of: 1, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/l. Inorganic form of Se supplements, showed stimulation effects (in concentration of 1-50 mg/l and toxic effects in higher concentration. On the standard industrial sawdust based substrate, supplemented with 100 mg/kg Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3, accumulation of Se in fruit bodies was determined by the method of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The readings were performed on Varian SpectrAA-10 spectrophotometer equipped with VGA-76. Se as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 was effectively taken up from substrates and accumulated in fruit bodies. Mushrooms accumulated selenium between 120 and 250 mg/kg dry weight. In mushrooms cultivated without Se supplement, Se contents were only about 1 mg/kg and in substrate about 0.1 mg/kg.

  18. Use of Bacillus Subtilis PB6 as a potential antibiotic growth promoter replacement in improving performance of broiler birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sathishkumar; Das, Partha Pratim; Saini, Prakash Chandra; Roy, Barun; Chatterjee, Paresh Nath

    2017-08-01

    The intestinal gut health is one of the primary determinants of broiler growth and performance. Among the various enteric diseases, necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens, which can result in severe economic losses in poultry farming. Antibiotics like bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and avilamycin (AVL) are commonly used antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feed to control necrotic enteritis in birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 was reported to prevent necrotic enteritis and improve performance in birds. This paper investigated the influence of Bacillus subtilis PB6 in improving the performance of broiler birds in comparison with BMD and avilamycin. A 35 day trial was conducted with 240 day-old commercial broiler chicks (VenCobb 400), which were divided into four treatment groups, where each treatment group was composed of 6 replicates each containing 10 birds, for a total of 60 birds per treatment. The treatment groups included a negative control (no AGP), Bacillus subtilis PB6, BMD, and avilamycin. The parameters analyzed included body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, villus histomorphometry, and European efficiency factor (EEF). Bacillus subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) improved body weight and FCR (8 points) compared to the control. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 or BMD had higher (P < 0.05) body weight compared to all other treatment groups. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 significantly improved the villus height (P < 0.05) compared to control and other AGP groups. The EEF was found to be the highest in the B. subtilis PB6 supplemented group at 35th day as compared to other treatment groups. The combined data from this study indicate that supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 improves overall performance of broilers compared to BMD and avilamycin, and can be used as potential AGP replacement in poultry farming. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Chromium supplementation improved post-stroke brain infarction and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Mao, Frank Chiahung; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lai, Nai-Wei; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is common after acute stroke and is associated with a worse outcome of stroke. Thus, a better understanding of stress hyperglycemia is helpful to the prevention and therapeutic treatment of stroke. Chromium is an essential nutrient required for optimal insulin activity and normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Beyond its nutritional effects, dietary supplement of chromium causes beneficial outcomes against several diseases, in particular diabetes-associated complications. In this study, we investigated whether post-stroke hyperglycemia involved chromium dynamic mobilization in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and whether dietary supplement of chromium improved post-stroke injury and alterations. Stroke rats developed brain infarction, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Post-stroke hyperglycemia was accompanied by elevated secretion of counter-regulatory hormones including glucagon, corticosterone, and norepinephrine, decreased insulin signaling in skeletal muscles, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Correlation studies revealed that counter-regulatory hormone secretion showed a positive correlation with chromium loss and blood glucose increased together with chromium loss. Daily chromium supplementation increased tissue chromium levels, attenuated brain infarction, improved hyperglycemia, and decreased plasma levels of glucagon and corticosterone in stroke rats. Our findings suggest that stroke rats show disturbance of tissue chromium homeostasis with a net loss through urinary excretion and chromium mobilization and loss might be an alternative mechanism responsible for post-stroke hyperglycemia.

  20. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  1. Effect of Nutrient Dilution and Glutamine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Small Intestine Morphology and Immune Response of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid gheshlagh olyayee

    2016-11-01

    proliferation. Conclusion The results of present study revealed that formulation of diets with Ross 308 nutrient recommendation and 0.5% Gln supplementation improved growth performance and enhancement of immune system function was observed in chicks fed diet with 1% Gln supplementation and Ross 308 nutrient recommendation.

  2. Prevention and management of "do not return" notices: a quality improvement process for supplemental staffing nursing agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade-Oshifogun, Jochebed Bosede; Dufelmeier, Thaddeus

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a quality improvement process for "do not return" (DNR) notices for healthcare supplemental staffing agencies and healthcare facilities that use them. It is imperative that supplemental staffing agencies partner with healthcare facilities in assuring the quality of supplemental staff. Although supplemental staffing agencies attempt to ensure quality staffing, supplemental staff are sometimes subjectively evaluated by healthcare facilities as "DNR." The objective of this article is to describe a quality improvement process to prevent and manage "DNR" within healthcare organizations. We developed a curriculum and accompanying evaluation tool by adapting Rampersad's problem-solving discipline approach: (a) definition of area(s) for improvement; (b) identification of all possible causes; (c) development of an action plan; (d) implementation of the action plan; (e) evaluation for program improvement; and (f) standardization of the process. Face and content validity of the evaluation tool was ascertained by input from a panel of experienced supplemental staff and nursing faculty. This curriculum and its evaluation tool will have practical implications for supplemental staffing agencies and healthcare facilities in reducing "DNR" rates and in meeting certification/accreditation requirements. Further work is needed to translate this process into future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Tran, Hoainam; Kim, Inho

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics can serve as alternatives to antibiotics to increase the performance of weaning pigs, and the intake of probiotics is affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a probiotic complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. From day 22 to day 42, both high-nutrient-density and probiotic complex supplementation diets increased (P probiotic complex supplementation diets had higher (P probiotic complex supplementation diets. Interactive effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed from day 22 to day 42 and overall, where probiotic complex improved ADFI more dramatically in low-nutrient-density diets. The beneficial effects of probiotic complex (Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium butyricum) supplementation on ADFI is more dramatic with low-nutrient-density diets. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Can Supplementation of Vitamin D Improve Aerobic Capacity in Well Trained Youth Soccer Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębska Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no clear evidence that vitamin D effectively improves physical capacity in high-level athletes. The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their aerobic capacity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one that was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20, and the placebo group (PG, n = 16, not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT. The data of the vitamin D level, PWC170, lactate threshold (LT were collected just before and after the intervention. A significant increase in vitamin D concentration (119% was observed in the supplemented group, while the non-supplemented group showed a decrease of 8.4%. The studied subjects improved VO2max results by 20% in the SG, and by 13% in the PG. The improvement in velocity at the LT was similar in both groups. Results of this study show that vitamin D can have a positive, though moderate, effect on aerobic performance in players subjected to high-intensity training in the form of small-sided games for 8 weeks.

  5. Growth Performance of Lambs Fed Diet Supplemented with Rice Bran Oil as Such or as Calcium Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Bhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty two Malpura lambs (21 d old were divided into three groups of 14 each consisting of 8 females and 6 males. Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams twice daily up to weaning (13 wks and offered free choice concentrate and roughage in a cafeteria system. The lambs in control group were fed conventional concentrate mixture, in RBO group concentrate mixture fortified with 4% industrial grade rice bran oil and in Ca-soap rice bran oil (as in RBO group was supplemented in the form of calcium soap. The concentrate intake decreased(p≤0.05 in RBO group as a result total dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake decreased compared to control whereas Ca-soap prepared from the same rice bran oil stimulated the concentrate intake leading to higher total dry matter, crude protein and energy intakes. The digestibility of dry matter (p≤0.05, organic matter (p≤0.05 and crude protein (p≤0.05 was higher in RBO group followed by Ca-soap and control whereas no effect was observed for ether extract digestibility. Higher cholesterol (p≤0.05 content was recorded in serum of oil supplemented groups (RBO and Ca-soap while no effect was recorded for other blood parameters. Rice bran oil as such adversely affected and reduced the body weight gain (p≤0.001 of lambs in comparison to control whereas the Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in lambs. Fat supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acids (p≤0.05 and individual volatile fatty acid concentration which increased at 4 h post feeding. Fat supplementation also reduced (p≤0.05 total protozoa count. Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved pre slaughter weight (p≤0.05 and hot carcass weight (p≤0.05. It is concluded from the study that rice bran oil in the form of calcium soap at 40 g/kg of concentrate improved growth, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality as compared to rice bran oil as such and control groups.

  6. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Bone Growth in Young Rats and Microarchitecture and Remodeling in Ageing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. C. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent skeletal disorder in the elderly that causes serious bone fractures. Peak bone mass achieved at adolescence has been shown to predict bone mass and osteoporosis related risk fracture later in life. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol compound, may have the potential to promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption. However, it is unclear whether it can aid bone growth and bone mass accumulation during rapid growth and modulate bone metabolism during ageing. Using rat models, the current study investigated the potential effects of resveratrol supplementation during the rapid postnatal growth period and in late adulthood (early ageing on bone microarchitecture and metabolism. In the growth trial, 4-week-old male hooded Wistar rats on a normal chow diet were given resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg/day or vehicle control for 5 weeks. In the ageing trial, 6-month-old male hooded Wistar rats were treated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 3 months. Treatment effects in the tibia were examined by μ-computer tomography (μ-CT analysis, bone histomorphometric measurements and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR gene expression analysis. Resveratrol treatment did not affect trabecular bone volume and bone remodeling indices in the youth animal model. Resveratrol supplementation in the early ageing rats tended to decrease trabecular bone volume, Sirt1 gene expression and increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in bone, all of which were statistically insignificant. However, it decreased osteocalcin expression (p = 0.03. Furthermore, serum levels of bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides type I collagen (CTX-1 were significantly elevated in the resveratrol supplementation group (p = 0.02 with no changes observed in serum levels of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. These results in rat models suggest that resveratrol supplementation does not significantly affect bone

  7. Growth Factor Supplementation Improves Native and Engineered Meniscus Repair in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Lara C.; Lee, Gregory C.; Huang, Kevin L.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Few therapeutic options exist for meniscus repair after injury. Local delivery of growth factors may stimulate repair and create a favorable environment for engineered replacement materials. In this study, we assessed the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (a pro-mitotic agent) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) (a pro-matrix formation agent) on meniscus repair and the integration/maturation of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds for meniscus tissue engineering. Circular meniscus repair constructs were formed and refilled with either native tissue or scaffolds. Repair constructs were cultured in serum-containing media for 4 and 8 weeks with various growth factor formulations, and assessed for mechanical strength, biochemical content, and histological appearance. Results showed that either short-term delivery of bFGF or sustained delivery of TGF-β3 increased integration strength for both juvenile and adult bovine tissue, with similar findings for engineered materials. While TGF-β3 increased proteoglycan content in the explants, bFGF did not increase DNA content after 8 weeks. This work suggests that in vivo delivery of bFGF or TGF-β3 may stimulate meniscus repair, but that the time course of delivery will strongly influence success. Further, this study demonstrates that electrospun scaffolds are a promising material for meniscus tissue engineering, achieving comparable or superior integration compared to native tissue. PMID:22698946

  8. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Supplementation of protease, alone and in combination with fructooligosaccharide to low protein diet for finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Cheong, Jin Young; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, In Ho

    2017-12-01

    Effects of adding protease with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) to low protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal noxious gas emission were evaluated in 160 finishing pigs (57.70 ± 1.16 kg) in a 9-week study. Pigs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, PC: positive control diet (15.97% crude protein (CP)); NC: negative control diet (12.94% CP); PRO: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease; PROFOS: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease and 0.1% FOS. During weeks 4-9 and weeks 0-9, gain : feed ratio was impaired (P diet compared with those fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets. Pigs fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets had higher (P diet. Pigs fed PROFOS diet had reduced (P diets. These data indicate that reducing dietary CP concentrations impaired growth performance, decreased ATTD of CP and reduced ammonia emissions. Supplementation of protease in low CP diet improved growth performance and increased ATTD of CP. Dietary supplementation with protease and FOS in low CP diet improved growth performance, increased ATTD of CP and decreased fecal ammonia emission. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hua; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-07-01

    LPS is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, including preterm delivery, fetal death, teratogenicity, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Previous reports showed that zinc protected against LPS-induced teratogenicity. In the current study, we investigated the effects of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR. All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with LPS (75 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Some pregnant mice were administered zinc sulfate through drinking water (75 mg elemental Zn per liter) throughout the pregnancy. As expected, an i.p. injection with LPS daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in 36.4% (4/11) of dams delivered before GD18. In dams that completed the pregnancy, 63.2% of fetuses were dead. Moreover, LPS significantly reduced fetal weight and crown-rump length. Of interest, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protected mice from LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly alleviated LPS-induced IUGR and skeletal development retardation. Further experiments showed that zinc supplementation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2. Zinc supplementation also significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in mononuclear sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells of the labyrinth zone. It inhibited LPS-induced placental AKT phosphorylation as well. In conclusion, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  11. A Dietary Supplement Containing and Velvet Bean Improves Sleep Quality in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Impaired sleep quality is commonplace within industrialized societies, as evidenced by the increasing number of prescription sleep aids available. Certain herbal preparations have been suggested to provide a natural benefit to sleep; however, limited controlled data are available documenting this benefit. In the present study we tested the effect of an experimental dietary supplement, containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean, on sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Methods Eighteen healthy and active men and women, with evidence of impaired sleep quality, consumed the supplement daily for 28 days. The PSQI was administered before and after the intervention period. As indicators of safety, resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured, and a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel were determined. Results Sleep quality was influenced by the supplement, as evidenced by an improvement in every category of the PSQI questionnaire ( P < 0.05, with most category scores improving approximately 50% from pre to post intervention. No adverse outcomes were noted with use of the supplement, as indicated by no change in resting heart rate, blood pressure, or any bloodborne parameter. Conclusions An investigational dietary supplement containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean improves sleep quality in men and women. Additional placebo controlled trials are needed to corroborate these findings in individuals with self-reported sleeping difficulty.

  12. Specific protein supplementation using soya, casein or whey differentially affects regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity in rats; implications for the treatment of gut injury and stimulating repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchbank, Tania; Mandir, Nikki; Calnan, Denis; Goodlad, Robert A; Podas, Theo; Playford, Raymond J

    2018-01-24

    Modulation of regional growth within specific segments of the bowel may have clinical value for several gastrointestinal conditions. We therefore examined the effects of different dietary protein sources on regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity as potential therapies. Rats were fed for 14 days on isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising elemental diet (ED) alone (which is known to cause gut atrophy), ED supplemented with casein or whey or a soya protein-rich feed. Effects on regional gut growth and intraluminal growth factor activity were then determined. Despite calorie intake being similar in all groups, soya rich feed caused 20% extra total body weight gain. Stomach weight was highest on soya and casein diets. Soya enhanced diet caused greatest increase in small intestinal weight and preserved luminal growth factor activity at levels sufficient to increase proliferation in vitro. Regional small intestinal proliferation was highest in proximal segment in ED fed animals whereas distal small intestine proliferation was greater in soya fed animals. Colonic weight and proliferation throughout the colon was higher in animals receiving soya or whey supplemented feeds. We conclude that specific protein supplementation with either soya, casein or whey may be beneficial to rest or increase growth in different regions of the bowel through mechanisms that include differentially affecting luminal growth factor bioactivity. These results have implications for targeting specific regions of the bowel for conditions such as Crohn's disease and chemotherapy.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation with a chlorella by-product on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H K; Park, S B; Kim, C H

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of different dietary levels of a Chlorella by-product (CBP) on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with four replicated pens consisting of 30 chicks. The basal diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Three additional diets were prepared by supplementing 25, 50 or 75 g/kg of CBP to the basal diet. The diets were fed to the broilers ad libitum for 35 days. Result indicated that increasing inclusion level of CBP improved BW gain (linear, p < 0.05). There was no effect of inclusion level of CBP in diets on total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels during the 35 days. Plasma IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations increased (linear, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP in diets. Supplementation of CBP in the diets increased (linear, p < 0.05) the concentrations of Lactobacillus in the caecal content and decreased (linear, p < 0.05) the concentrations of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in the caecal content. Villus height increased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP in diets. Crypt depth increased (quadratic, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP, and a decreased villus height: crypt depth ratio (quadratic, p < 0.05) was observed as inclusion level of CBP in diets increased. The results of the current experiment indicate that dietary supplementation of CBP improves growth performance of birds. Dietary CBP has improving Lactobacillus spp. concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, plasma immunoglobulin concentrations and intestinal mucosal morphology. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  15. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bheekhee, H.; Hulman, B.; Boodoo, A.A.; Ramnauth, R.K.; Lam Heung Yuen, R.; Fakim, R.; Dobee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  16. Human growth hormone stabilizes walking and improves strength in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if daily low-dose treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (somatropine) can stabilize or improve muscle strength and walking capability in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy. The patient was treated with daily injections of somatropine, except...... for a 6-month pause, over a period of 4.5 years. Efficacy was assessed by repeated muscle dynamometry tests and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT). Strength improved in most muscle groups on treatment, deteriorated in the 6-month off treatment, and improved again when treatment was resumed. The 6MWT stabilized...... during the initial 18-month treatment period, then deteriorated in the 6 months off treatment and improved to pre-trial levels when treatment was resumed. The findings suggest that supplementation with somatropine, within physiological ranges, may improve muscle strength and stabilize walking capability...

  17. Clinical and Metabolic Response to Selenium Supplementation in Pregnant Women at Risk for Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Rahavi, Azam; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-07-01

    Data on the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic profiles in women at risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are scarce. This study was designed to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in pregnant women at risk for IUGR. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 women at risk for IUGR according to abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform. Participants were randomly assigned to intake either 100 μg selenium supplements as tablet (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 10 weeks between 17 and 27 weeks of gestation. After 10 weeks of selenium administration, a higher percentage of women in the selenium group had pulsatility index (PI) of women at risk for IUGR resulted in improved PI, TAC, GSH, hs-CRP, and markers of insulin metabolism and HDL-C levels, but it did not affect MDA, NO, FPG, and other lipid profiles.Clinical trial registration number http://www.irct.ir : IRCT201601045623N64.

  18. Potential reproduction and response of selenium and zinc mineral supplementation on quality of goat samosir semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswoyo, P.; Tafsin, M.; Handarini, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of suppllementattion of selenium and zinc on semen quality and growth of samosir goat. The experimental design used latin square design (4x4). The treatment supplementation mineral on multi nutrient block (MNB) composed of without sipplementation (p0), +10ppm selenium (p1), +10ppm zinc (p2), +10ppm selenium and +10ppm zinc (p3). The result showed that supplementation mineral selenium and zinc increased significantly (pgoat were supplemented by selenium and zinc influenced motility, viability, volume concentration, and responding hypo osmotic swelling (HOS). Combination supplementation selenium and zinc significanly had higher semen quality than ither treatment. It is concluded that supplementation selenium and zinc improve growth and semen quality of samosir goat.

  19. Improving the nutritional quality and shelf life of broiler meat by feeding diets supplemented with fermented pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S T; Ko, S-Y; Yang, C-J

    2017-12-01

    1. Four experimental diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% fermented pomegranate by-products (FPB) were supplied to 320d-old broilers to evaluate the effects of FPB on growth performance, nutritional composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat. 2. Dietary supplementation of FPB linearly increased the weight gain and feed intake of broilers with linear reduction in feed conversion ratio. 3. The crude protein, iron, magnesium, and sodium content were linearly higher, whereas cholesterol was linearly lower in the breast meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. In thigh meat, linearly lower ether extract and cholesterol with higher moisture was noted in response to increasing levels of FPB. 4. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was both linearly and quadratically lower in breast and thigh meat, whereas those of monounsaturated fatty acids of breast (linear and quadratic) and n-3 fatty acids of breast and thigh (linear) meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented broilers. The n-6/n-3 ratio of breast meat was linearly lower in response to FPB supplementation. The hypocholesterolaemic to hypercholesterolaemic ratio of thigh meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented groups. 5. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pH value were lower in the breast and thigh meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. 6. Thus, additive supplementation of the diet with up to 2% FPB improved the nutritional quality, fatty acid profile and shelf life of broiler meat.

  20. Growth Hormone Supplementation in the Luteal Phase Before Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare Protocol for In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Caitlin; Seethram, Ken; Roberts, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) acts in both early and late follicular development to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells and to increase the production of estradiol in animal and human ovaries. Investigators have therefore explored GH supplementation to improve outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, with the greatest interest in women with diminished ovarian reserve. Recent meta-analyses indicate that GH supplementation can be beneficial for poor responders undergoing IVF. In most studies, GH has been given concomitantly with gonadotropins during the follicular phase; this may not be optimal, since follicular recruitment begins during the preceding luteal phase. We therefore wished to examine the effect of GH supplementation in the luteal phase before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with a microdose GnRH agonist flare (MDF) protocol in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. We performed a retrospective matched case-control study of patients undergoing treatment at a private IVF facility between June 2012 and July 2013. Patients identified as poor responders to COH were offered adjuvant GH treatment as part of their ovarian stimulation regimen. The patients in the experimental group chose to take GH, 3.33 mg daily by subcutaneous injection for 14 days, before starting COH. All patients had an MDF stimulation protocol using 450 IU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) daily. A total of 42 women were included in the study. There were 14 women in the experimental group (GH) and 28 controls (C) matched for age, BMI, and day 3 FSH level. There was no difference between the groups in clinical pregnancy rate (GH = 29%, C = 32%, P = 0.99), number of mature oocytes retrieved (GH = 2.5, C = 5.0, P = 0.13), cycle cancellation rate (GH = 21%, C = 14%, P = 0.88), duration of COH (GH = 10.1, C = 10.1, P = 0.93), or mean peak estradiol level (GH = 4174 pmol/L, C = 5105 pmol/L, P = 0.44). The administration of growth hormone during the

  1. Prebiotic Supplementation has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Sealey, Wendy M.; Conley, Zachariah B.; Bensley, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health, and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westsl...

  2. Immune response and growth of Lates calcarifer fed on hydrolized protein-supplemented diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Novriadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was aimed to investigate the effects of protein hydrolysates on growth performance and immune response of the Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer Bloch. The experiment was performed in two different rearing period, namely nursery and grow out by using completely randomized design. Experimental fish were fed with three types of diets and each treatment was repeated three times: a local commercial diet (control, coated or not, with 2%, and 3% of protein hydrolysates. Challenge test was performed with Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a density of 105 sel/mL by using immersion method. The results showed that the the neutrofil, leukocyte and monocyte of the fish fed on protein hydrolisates were significantly higher than those non-supplemented group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the lymphocyte on the fish treated with hydrolisates showed no difference amongst treatments (P<0.05. The growth performance of Asian sea bass fed on protein hydrolisates significantly improved the total fish weight (g, relative weight gain, specific growth rate, final weight (g and final length (cm in comparison to the control (P<0.05 both at nursery and grow out phase. Higher survival both at the nursery and grow out phase were obtained by the group fed with 3% protein hydrolisates: 97.28±0.18% and 86.0±4.32%. Followed with 2% supplementation level 96.75±0.28% and 78.4±7.7%. The lowest survival was shown by the control group with 93.65±0.13% and 20.1±21.1% from nursery and grow-out phase respectively. Results of challenged test showed that the protein hydrolisates supplementation was able to improve the post-challenged survival and resistency of Asian sea bass against V. parahaemolyticus infection. Fish treated with 3% protein hydrolisates generated higher survival 78,33±2,89%, followed by treatment 2% 73,33±5,77%, and control 31,67±7,64% after five days post immersion (P<0.05. Keywords: Asian sea bass, protein hydrolisates, growth, immune system

  3. Improved Starch Digestion of Sucrase-deficient Shrews Treated With Oral Glucoamylase Enzyme Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Buford L; Avery, Stephen E; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Kilani, Shadi B; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Burrin, Douglas G; Hodges, Benjamin E; Chacko, Shaji K; Opekun, Antone R; Hindawy, Marwa El; Hamaker, Bruce R; Oda, Sen-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase-deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, 2 α-amylases (Amy), and 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose. Amy breaks down insoluble starch to soluble dextrins; mucosal Mgam and Si can either directly digest starch to glucose or convert the post-α-amylolytic dextrins to glucose. Starch digestion is reduced because of sucrase deficiency and oral glucoamylase enzyme supplement can correct the starch maldigestion. The aim of the present study was to measure glucogenesis in suc/suc shrews after feeding of starch and improvement of glucogenesis by oral glucoamylase supplements. Sucrase mutant (suc/suc) and heterozygous (+/suc) shrews were fed with C-enriched starch diets. Glucogenesis derived from starch was measured as blood C-glucose enrichment and oral recombinant C-terminal Mgam glucoamylase (M20) was supplemented to improve starch digestion. After feedings, suc/suc and +/suc shrews had different starch digestions as shown by blood glucose enrichment and the suc/suc had lower total glucose concentrations. Oral supplements of glucoamylase increased suc/suc total blood glucose and quantitative starch digestion to glucose. Sucrase deficiency, in this model of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, reduces blood glucose response to starch feeding. Supplementing the diet with oral recombinant glucoamylase significantly improved starch digestion in the sucrase-deficient shrew.

  4. Effect of different level of concentrate supplementation on the periparturient growth performance of Ganjam goat in extensive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasish Sahu

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of concentrate supplementation to the pregnant Ganjam goats on their growth performance in periparturient period. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 pregnant Ganjam does of similar body weight, age and parity were divided into three treatment groups with 15 does in each. T1 : normal browsing at range system, T2 : normal browsing with concentrate supplementation @ 200g/day, T3 : normal browsing with concentrate supplementation @ 300g/day for 60 days before expected date of kidding. Observations regarding various growth performances were made following standard procedures. Results: Average daily concentrate feed intake for T2 was 160 g and 225 g for T3 . For the does in T1 , the body weights ranged from 34.59 ± 0.75 kg (at the beginning to 38.29 ± 0.75 kg (after 60 days of supplementation while for those in T2 it increased from 33.91 ± 0.70 kg to 38.71 ± 0.64 kg and for T3 itranged from 34.05 ± 0.64 to 39.55 ± 0.62 kg. The cumulative live weight gain during the period 0-60 days varied significantly among the different treatments with the lowest value in T1 (3.71 ± 0.27 kg to highest value in T3 (5.49 ± 0.22 kg although the initial body weights were same. The cumulative body weight gain during 0- 90 days postpartum was significantly higher in T1 (3.13 ± 0.46 kg compared to T3 (2.10 ± 0.19 kg. Significant difference in average daily gain during prepartum period was found in all groups as 61.78 ± 4.47, 79.89 ± 2.20, 91.56 ± 3.71 for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The average daily gain of the does during post partum period was 23.33 g (T3 , 24.30 g (T2 and 34.81 g (T1 perdoe indicating a statistically significant difference among the treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that on supplementation of concentrate between 160 to 225 g improved both prepartum and postpartum body condition of Ganjam goats. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 428-432

  5. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P insulin in the serum, higher (P insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832

  6. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  7. Effect of pre- and postpartum supplementation with lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid on reproductive performance and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in multiparous high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csillik, Z; Faigl, V; Keresztes, M; Galamb, E; Hammon, H M; Tröscher, A; Fébel, H; Kulcsár, M; Husvéth, F; Huszenicza, Gy; Butler, W R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of prepartum and postpartum (PP) supplementation with 2 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on reproductive parameters and some related metabolic factors in dairy cows. High-producing, multiparous Holstein Friesian cows (n = 60) were allotted to 3 treatment groups: the CLA1 group (n = 20) was supplemented with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA providing 7 g each of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA from d 21 (d 21) before expected calving until d 7 after artificial insemination (AI), that is, until 77 to 91 d PP; the CLA2 group (n = 20) was supplemented with the same amount of CLA beginning at calving until d 7 after AI; and the control group (n = 20) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and isolipidic diet. Blood samples were taken weekly to measure glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and leptin. Liver biopsy was performed in 10 cows per group for growth hormone receptor 1A and IGF-I mRNA analyses. At d 49 to 63 PP, ovulation was synchronized with the Pre-Synch protocol followed by fixed-time AI. Milk progesterone was monitored from calving until d 35 post-AI. Cows returning to estrus following AI were inseminated. Supplementation with CLA before calving improved the recovery of plasma leptin levels in the early PP period (from the day of calving until wk 3 PP; treatment effect). Later PP (wk 5), plasma IGF-I, and leptin remained significantly higher in both CLA1 and CLA2 groups compared with control, although hepatocellular IGF-I mRNA was not different among groups. Plasma IGF-I levels remained higher in both CLA-treated groups on the day of AI. Growth hormone receptor 1A mRNA levels in hepatic tissue decreased in all groups, reaching a nadir in the first week PP. Days to first PP ovulation did not differ between groups; however, both supplemented groups conceived earlier compared with control (d 97 ± 19, d 97 ± 23, and d 113 ± 30 for CLA1, CLA2, and control, respectively

  8. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  9. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects. Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone. Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo. Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development ( P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language. Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  10. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid modifies growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Deng, J P; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-06-01

    Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (12 pigs/group, male:female ratio 1:1). The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet (basal diet group), and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.05% -alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.0% -arginine (Arg group), 1% glutamic acid + 1.44% -alanine (Glu group), or 1.0% -arginine + 1.0% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). After a 60-d period of supplementation, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in growth performance and carcass traits of the pigs in the Arg group relative to the basal diet group; however, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and back fat showed a decrease ( 0.05) on the final BW, phase 2 ADFI, and average daily weight gain in pigs but decreased ( acid composition without affecting growth performance and s.c. fat in pigs, providing a novel strategy to enhance meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

  11. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  12. Efficacy of Selenium Supplement on Gene Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Jamilian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Selenium supplement has multiple important effects, including anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of selenium supplement on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor in gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods: This randomized double blind placebo control trial was performed on 40 patients suffering from GDM aged 18–40 years old. Participants were randomly divided into interventional group receiving 200mg/day selenium supplements (n=20 and control group receiving placebo (n=20 for 6 weeks. Primary outcome was gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF which were assessed in lymphocyte of GDM patients by RT-PCR method. Results: After 6 weeks intervention, in comparison with the control group, interventional group showed down regulation of gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF–α (p=0.02 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF–β (p=0.01 and up-regulation of gene expression of vascular endothelial (VEGF (p = 0.03 in lymphocytes of GDM. There was not any significant change following intervention with selenium regarding gene expression of interleukin IL-1 β and IL-8 in lymphocytes of GDM patients. Conclusion: 6 weeks supplementation with selenium in patients with GDM can cause down regulated gene expression of TNF-α and TGF–β, and up regulated gene expression of VEGF. Selenium supplement had not any effect on gene expression of IL-1 β and IL-8.

  13. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  14. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D.; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A.; Summers, Scott A.; Branch, D. Ware; Lane, Robert H.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P 30% elevated, P 5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P intrauterine growth-restricted rats. PMID:25395450

  16. Bone marrow extract as a growth supplement for human iliac apophyseal chondrocyte culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Balakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Human bone marrow is rich in various growth factors which may support the chondrocyte growth. This study was conducted to compare the culture characteristics of human growth plate chondrocyte in foetal bovine serum (FBS and human autologous bone marrow extract (BME in monolayer culture. Methods: Iliac crest apophyseal cartilage was harvested from four donors, aged between two and nine years, undergoing hip surgery. Chondrocytes were propagated under two culture conditions, with 10 per cent FBS and 10 per cent autologous BME harvested from the same donors. Cells were harvested at 7, 14 and 21 days to assess viability, morphology, cell count and immunocytochemistry. Results: With an initial seeding density of 2500 cells/cm 2 , the average yield in monolayer cultured with FBS was 3.35 × 10 5 , 5.9 × 10 5 , 14.1 × 10 5 and BME was 0.66 × 10 5 , 1.57 × 10 5 and 3.48 × 10 5 at 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Viability was 98.21 per cent with FBS and 97.45 per cent with BME at 21 days. In BME supplemented cultures, hyaline phenotype was maintained up to 21 days. The yield was higher in the FBS supplemented group; however, the phenotype could not be maintained by the FBS group as long as BME group. Interpretation & conclusions: Autologous BME was found to be a safer alternative to FBS for human studies. BME could maintain the hyaline phenotype for a longer time. Ways to enhance the cell yield needs to be explored in future studies.

  17. Effects of dietary nanocrystalline cellulose supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal development and lipid metabolism of meat ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyue Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal development, and lipid metabolism was assessed in 600 one-day-old male meat ducks (Cherry Valley ducks from 1 to 35 d of age. Diets were supplemented with 0, 200, 500, 800 and 1,500 mg/kg NCC during both the starter (1–14 d and grower (15–35 d phases. Each dietary treatment consisted of 8 replicate cages of 15 birds. Supplementation of NCC was associated with dose dependent increases in BW gain and feed intake (P < 0.01 during 1–14 d of age and in BW at 35 d of age. As NCC content increased, the percentage of breast meat weight (P < 0.05 and leg (with bone weight (P < 0.05 linearly increased, while the percentage of abdominal fat weight (P < 0.01 linearly decreased in ducks at 35 d of age. Supplementation of NCC resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the weight (P < 0.05 and density (P < 0.01 of the cecum. The percentage of total hepatic lipid content (P < 0.01 at 14 d of age and serum triglyceride (TG concentration (P = 0.052 at 35 d of age linearly decreased with increasing of dietary NCC addition. In conclusion, inclusion of 1,500 mg/kg NCC in feed resulted in the greatest improvements in duck performance, intestinal development and lipid deposition.

  18. Peptide (Lys-Leu) and amino acids (Lys and Leu) supplementations improve physiological activity and fermentation performance of brewer's yeast during very high-gravity (VHG) wort fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huirong; Zong, Xuyan; Cui, Chun; Mu, Lixia; Zhao, Haifeng

    2017-12-22

    Lys and Leu were generally considered as the key amino acids for brewer's yeast during beer brewing. In the present study, peptide Lys-Leu and a free amino acid (FAA) mixture of Lys and Leu (Lys + Leu) were supplemented in 24 °P wort to examine their effects on physiological activity and fermentation performance of brewer's yeast during very high-gravity (VHG) wort fermentation. Results showed that although both peptide Lys-Leu and their FAA mixture supplementations could increase the growth and viability, intracellular trehalose and glycerol content, wort fermentability, and ethanol content for brewer's yeast during VHG wort fermentation, and peptide was better than their FAA mixture at promoting growth and fermentation for brewer's yeast when the same dose was kept. Moreover, peptide Lys-Leu supplementation significantly increased the assimilation of Asp, but decreased the assimilation of Gly, Ala, Val, (Cys)2, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, Arg, and Pro. However, the FAA mixture supplementation only promoted the assimilation of Lys and Leu, while reduced the absorption of total amino acids to a greater extent. Thus, the peptide Lys-Leu was more effective than their FAA mixture on the improvement of physiological activity, fermentation performance, and nitrogen metabolism of brewer's yeast during VHG wort fermentation. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  20. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( Pcobia.

  1. Acetate supplementation induces growth arrest of NG2/PDGFRα-positive oligodendroglioma-derived tumor-initiating cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Long

    Full Text Available Cancer is associated with globally hypoacetylated chromatin and considerable attention has recently been focused on epigenetic therapies. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA, the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA, the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate and ultimately acetyl-Coenzyme A for histone acetylation, are reduced in oligodendroglioma. The short chain triglyceride glyceryl triacetate (GTA, which increases histone acetylation and inhibits histone deacetylase expression, has been safely used for acetate supplementation in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. We demonstrate that GTA induces cytostatic G0 growth arrest of oligodendroglioma-derived cells in vitro, without affecting normal cells. Sodium acetate, at doses comparable to that generated by complete GTA catalysis, but not glycerol also promoted growth arrest, whereas long chain triglycerides promoted cell growth. To begin to elucidate its mechanism of action, the effects of GTA on ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase protein levels and differentiation of established human oligodendroglioma cells (HOG and Hs683 and primary tumor-derived oligodendroglioma cells that exhibit some features of cancer stem cells (grade II OG33 and grade III OG35 relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu were examined. The nuclear localization of ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase-1 in untreated cells was regulated during the cell cycle. GTA-mediated growth arrest was not associated with apoptosis or differentiation, but increased expression of acetylated proteins. Thus, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a safe, novel epigenetic therapy to reduce the growth of oligodendroglioma cells without affecting normal neural stem or oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation or differentiation.

  2. Effects of dietary symbiotic supplementation on growth performance and duodenum histology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica reared in different flooring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Coskun

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary symbiotic supplementation on the growth performance and duodenum histological parameters of quail reared in different flooring systems. A total of 160 mixed-sex healthy quail (47±0.32 g aged 14 days were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design with four replicates, each including five males and five females. Two flooring systems (wire floor as control and wood shavings bedding and two dietary treatments (symbiotic supplementation and no supplementation were tested. Birds were transferred to four-tier cages for the trial. Each kilogram of the commercial diet included 224 g crude protein and 3,080 kcal metabolizable energy. The experiment lasted 21 days. Daily weight gain and gastrointestinal tract weight were statistically higher in the wood shavings and wood shavings + symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control group. Villi length was higher in the wood shavings + symbiotic and symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control and wood shavings groups. The wood shavings groups had longer villi than control group. Villi width was higher in wood shaving + symbiotic-supplemented groups compared with the other treatment groups. The litter system of wood shavings and symbiotic supplementation provide better growth performance to quail by developing their duodenum histomorphological parameters and digestive tract.

  3. Dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend enhances intestinal function in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dan; Li, Baocheng; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Di; Chen, Hongbo; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Ying; Ding, Binying; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-05-16

    The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB. On day 20 of the trial, blood and intestinal tissue samples were obtained from piglets. Compared with the control, AAB supplementation reduced (P sodium-independent amino acid transporters (b 0,+ AT and y + LAT1), aquaporin (AQP) 3, AQP8, AQP10, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and glutathione S-transferase omega-2, and protein abundances of AQP3, AQP4, claudin-1, occludin and myxovirus resistance 1; and the numbers of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus genus in the colon digesta. Collectively, these comprehensive results indicate that dietary AAB supplementation plays an important role in improving piglet growth and intestinal function.

  4. Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in broilers fed Bacillus subtilis -supplemented diet. ... In conclusion, B. subtilis-type probiotics contributed positively to better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers. Keywords: ...

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea waste on growth, digestive enzyme and lipid metabolism of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qingmei; Han, Chunyan; Zhong, Yanmei; Wen, Rushu; Zhong, Ming

    2017-04-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with green tea waste (GTW) on growth, digestive enzyme and lipid metabolism of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus. The fish (initial mean body weight, 12.63 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets that included 0 (control), 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 or 6.4 % of GTW in triplicate aquaria, twice daily. Growth performance, plasma metabolites content and liver and intestine digestive enzyme activities were determined. Fish accepted well all experimental diets during the trial, and no mortality was observed. The weight gain increased (P tilapia to improve growth performance, digestion efficacy and fat metabolism.

  6. Effect of dietary supplemented andrographolide on growth, non-specific immune parameters and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Kusunur Ahamed; Raman, Ram Prakash; Prasad, Kurcheti Pani; Kumar, Kundan; Nilavan, Ezhil; Kumar, Saurav

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dietary andrographolide (EC 50%) on growth, non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with formulated diet containing andrographolide as T0 (0.00%), T1 (0.05%), T2 (0.10%), T3 (0.20%), T4 (0.40%) and T5 (0.80%) for 42 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (RPS) was recorded over 14 days post challenge. Blood and serum samples were collected for nonspecific immune parameters on 14, 28 and 42 days of feeding and growth performance was evaluated at the end of experiment. The results revealed that fishes fed with andrographolide showed significant (p andrographolide were found to be significantly (p andrographolide at the level of 0.10% showed significantly (P andrographolide supplemented diet has a stimulatory effect on non-specific immune parameters along with improved growth performance and increased disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection in L. rohita fingerlings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different butyrate supplementations on growth and health of weaning pigs challenged or not with E. coli K88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Trevisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a full factorial design (4 diets X challenge, Yes/No, 72 weaning pigs were assigned to one of the diets: Control; experimental diets, obtained with the addition of 2 g/kg free sodium butyrate (fNaB, or 0.6 g/kg fat-protected sodium butyrate (pNaB, or 2 g/kg INVE-NutriAd commercial mixture (Mix, based on 75 g/kg protected butyrate. Oral challenge with Escherichia coli K88 was done on 2/3 of pigs on d 7. Pigs were slaughtered on d 13. The mortality in challenged pigs, tended to be higher in control group (50.0% than in the three supplemented groups (23.5%. Growth tended to be increased averagely by the supplements (p=0.100 after the challenge, that also significantly reduced growth. In general the diet did not affect the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and Lactobacilli, the K88-specific IgA activity in blood, the morphology of oxyntic mucosa and the expression of H+/K+-ATPase gene. The supplementations tended to increase villous length of jejunum (p=0.101. On the whole, growth, villous height and surviving rate can be positively affected either when the supplementation is done by free butyrate, by protected butyrate or by the special Inve Nutri-Ad product and these effects are distributed both on pigs infected or not with Escherichia coli K88.

  8. Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, C.G.; Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups.

  9. Does supplementation of in-vitro culture medium with melatonin improve IVF outcome in PCOS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Park, Eun A; Kim, Hyung Joon; Choi, Won Yun; Cho, Jung Hyun; Lee, Woo Sik; Cha, Kwang Yul; Kim, You Shin; Lee, Dong Ryul; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-01-01

    Human pre-ovulatory follicular fluid (FF) contains a higher concentration of melatonin than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin supplementation of culture medium on the clinical outcomes of an in-vitro maturation (IVM) IVF-embryo transfer programme for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Melatonin concentrations in the culture media of granulosa cells (GC) or cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) were measured and the clinical outcomes after using IVM media with or without melatonin were analysed. In the culture media of GC or COC, melatonin concentrations gradually increased. When human chorionic gonadotrophin priming protocols were used, implantation rates in the melatonin-supplemented group were higher than those of the non-supplemented control group (PPregnancy rates were also higher, although not significantly. The findings suggest that the addition of melatonin to IVM media may improve the cytoplasmic maturation of human immature oocytes and subsequent clinical outcomes. It is speculated that follicular melatonin may be released from luteinizing GC during late folliculogenesis and that melatonin supplementation may be used to improve the clinical outcomes of IVM IVF-embryo transfer. Melatonin is primarily produced by the pineal gland and regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. Interestingly, human pre-ovulatory follicular fluid contains a higher concentration of melatonin than serum. However, in contrast to animal studies, the direct role of melatonin on oocyte maturation in the human system has not yet been investigated. So, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin supplementation of culture medium on the clinical outcome of an in-vitro maturation (IVM) IVF-embryo transfer programme for PCOS patients. The melatonin concentrations in culture medium of granulosa cells (GC) or cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) were measured and the

  10. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  11. Protein supplementation improves physical performance in frail elderly people: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Rest, van de O.; Dirks, M.L.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Mensink, M.R.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to increase skeletal muscle mass and improve physical performance in frail elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of 24 weeks of dietary protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and

  12. [Effect of docosahexenoic acid supplementation on infant's growth and body mass index during maternal pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Shang, Y; Liu, Y J; Chang, X L; Yao, H Y; Liang, A M; Qi, K M

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the effects of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on infant's growth and BMI during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 1 516 healthy pregnant women delivered their babies in two maternal and child health care hospitals in Beijing and were chosen as the subjects in this cohort study from May to October 2015. Self-developed questionnaires were used to gather general information of the subjects, including age, height, weight, weight gain during pregnancy, delivery mode, DHA supplementation etc ., before giving birth. Information on body length, weight, head circumference and BMI at birth and 6 months postnatal, of the infants were recorded. Breast milk was collected to test the fatty acid profiles by using the gas chromatography (GC) method at one to three months postnatally. Results: The overall rate of DHA supplementation was 47.76% among the pregnant women, in which introduction of DHA from the early and second stage of the pregnancy accounted for 49.31% and 39.64% respectively. When DHA supplementation began from the early pregnant stage, the DHA concentration showed an increase in the milk ( P 0.05). Higher height and lower BMI were seen in the infants at birth and 6 months in the supplementation group when comparing to the non-supplementary group ( P pregnancy, there were positive correlations between DHA supplementation and height ( r =0.324, r =0.216), head circumference ( r =0.221, r =0.302) as well as the increment of head circumference ( r =0.276) at birth and 6 months ( P pregnancy. Conclusions: When DHA supplementation program was carried out during maternal pregnancy, it could increase the height and head circumference and inhibit the rapid increase of BMI in the infants BMI. Our findings seemed helpful in promoting brain development and preventing the childhood obesity.

  13. Multiple-enzyme supplementation on digestive traits, carcass characteristics, blood lipid parameters and growth performance of broilers fed a wheat-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Taheri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective A trial was conducted from 11 to 42 d post-hatch to investigate the effectiveness of the supplementation of a multiple-enzyme preparation (Natuzyme Plus in a wheat-based diet on digesta viscosity, pH and microbial population, villus morphology, feed passage time, nutrient retention, carcass characteristics, blood lipid parameters and growth performance of broiler chickens. Methods Three hundreds 10-d-old male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to three diets with five replicates of 20 birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were i a wheat-based diet (W, ii W+Natuzyme Plus (WN; 500 mg/kg of the diet, and iii a corn-based diet (C. Results Birds fed on the C diet had higher average daily gain (ADG, p0.05 difference compared to those of the C diet. Compared to those of the W diet, the WN diet showed the higher count of Lactobacilli and lower count of coliforms (p<0.01 and digesta viscosity (p<0.01. Conclusion In general, the results of this study showed that Natuzyme Plus supplementation in a wheat-based diet can be appropriate to achieve a comparable growth performance in broiler chickens to those given the C diet probably through improving digesta viscosity, VH, ET, TTAR of NT and EE, AMEn, count of Lactobacilli and coliforms.

  14. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chung-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920, 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451, 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021, 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047, 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1, respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021. The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation (p = 0.047 but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG supplementation.

  15. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within the ranges used in this experiment, does not negatively

  16. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  17. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  18. Effect of community-based food supplementation on improving growth of underweight children under five years of age in West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Bhakti Pulungan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of underweight children in West Nusa Tenggara is as high as 30%. This region had the third largest number of stunted children in the country. The local government has attempted to tackle this problem by providing supplementary food to underweight children. Objective To assess the success of the community-based food supplementation program onimproving children’s growth in West Nusa Tenggara. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study for 10 months in Paruga District Primary Health Care Unit, Bima, West Nusa Tenggara, in year 2012. Children were given supplementary food according to the Ministry of Health’s guidelines, consisting of formula milk, high calorie biscuits, and a 60-day supply of eggs, estimated to be sufficient to normalize their weights, for their age and sex.  A child’s weight and height were measured every 3 months and the results plotted on WHO growth charts for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (nutritional status. Z-score -2 SD was classified as normal for all three categories. Results Twenty-five children under five years of age participated in this study. Subjects’ median age was 29 months. None of the subjects had normal weight-for-age Z-score at the beginning of the study. Eighty-four percent (21/25 of the subjects were severely underweight. Only 8% (2/25 of the subjects had normal height-for-age Z-score and 88% (22/25 of them were severely stunted. However, 80% (20/25 of subjects had normal nutritional status (weight-for-height. Changes in weight-for-age Z-score varied throughout the study. The highest median score was in the tenth month of follow up (-3.82. The highest median height-for-age score and weight-for-height score were also in the last month of follow up. At the end of the study, only one subject had normal weight-for-age score (4% and none of the subjects had normal height-for-age scores.   Conclusion The 10-month supplementary food program for under

  19. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  20. Phosphorus utilization response of pigs and broiler chickens to diets supplemented with antimicrobials and phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McCormick

    2017-03-01

    adding tylosin improved (P < 0.05 tibia ash but did not affect nutrient utilization. Dietary phytase improved (P < 0.01 growth performance, tibia ash and apparent ileal digestibility and retention of P regardless of antimicrobial supplementation. Overall, phytase supplementation improved growth performance and nutrient digestibility and retention, regardless of supplementation of diets with antimicrobials. Supplementation of diets with antimicrobials did not affect P digestibility or retention because of a lack of interaction between antimicrobials and phytase, there was no evidence that P digestibility response to phytase is affected by supplementation with antimicrobials.

  1. Modification of the technical properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by supplementing the growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J A; Ross, R P; Sybesma, W F H; Fitzgerald, G F; Stanton, C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 μg/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 μg/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical properties

  2. Importance of vitamin and mineral supplementation in HIV/AIDS patients to improve their nutritional and immunological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Schalkwyk, F.V; Heever, WMJ. V.den.; Veldman, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition intervention aimed at preventing or reversing weight loss and wasting in HIV infection may help to improve quality of life and prolong survival. Micronutrient supplementation may help to strengthen the immune system and reduce the severity and impact of opportunistic infections in people living with HIV / AIDS. HIV contributes to malnutrition for physiological reasons related to the infection itself. HIV /AIDS, being a disease of the immune system, new strategies, including specific dietary nutrients (nutrient supplementation) to improve immune functions, quality of life and prolong survival in infected individuals, could provide additional/alternative approaches for therapeutic treatment in HIV infected subjects. Several vitamins and minerals are important in fighting HIV infection and its resultant effects, hence nutritional supplementation has been advocated. This review focuses on the importance of vitamin/mineral supplementation in HIV / AIDS subjects. (author)

  3. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Perinatal supplementation of 4-phenylbutyrate and glutamine attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and improves colonic epithelial barrier function in rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désir-Vigné, Axel; Haure-Mirande, Vianney; de Coppet, Pierre; Darmaun, Dominique; Le Dréan, Gwenola; Segain, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can affect the structure and function of the intestinal barrier and increase digestive disease risk in adulthood. Using the rat model of maternal dietary protein restriction (8% vs. 20%), we found that the colon of IUGR offspring displayed decreased mRNA expression of epithelial barrier proteins MUC2 and occludin during development. This was associated with increased mRNA expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker XBP1s and increased colonic permeability measured in Ussing chambers. We hypothesized that ER stress contributes to colonic barrier alterations and that perinatal supplementation of dams with ER stress modulators, phenylbutyrate and glutamine (PG) could prevent these defects in IUGR offspring. We first demonstrated that ER stress induction by tunicamycin or thapsigargin increased the permeability of rat colonic tissues mounted in Ussing chamber and that PG treatment prevented this effect. Therefore, we supplemented the diet of control and IUGR dams with PG during gestation and lactation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and histological analysis of colons from 120-day-old offspring revealed that perinatal PG treatment partially prevented the increased expression of ER stress markers but reversed the reduction of crypt depth and goblet cell number in IUGR rats. In dextran sodium sulfate-induced injury and recovery experiments, the colon of IUGR rats without perinatal PG treatment showed higher XBP1s mRNA levels and histological scores of inflammation than IUGR rats with perinatal PG treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that perinatal supplementation with PG could alleviate ER stress and prevent epithelial barrier dysfunction in IUGR offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Lafoux

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17-19 months of age. An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents.

  6. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafoux, Aude; Baudry, Charlotte; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Huchet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17-19 months of age). An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents.

  7. Feed intake and growth performance of goats supplemented with soy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplemental feeding of soy waste on the feed intake and growth rate of goats. Twenty male crossbred (Boer x local goats were assigned to two isonitrogenous diet groups: one of commercial pellet and the other of soy waste. The commercial pellet (1.0% and soy waste (0.8% were provided on the dry matter basis of body weight (BW per day, to the respective group of each diet. The soy waste group had lower daily intakes of total dry matter (0.79 vs. 0.88 kg and organic matter (665.71 vs. 790.44 g than the group fed pellet; however, the differences on daily intakes for grass (0.62 vs. 0.64 kg, crude protein (96.81 vs. 96.83 g, and neutral detergent fibre (483.70 vs. 499.86 g were not significant. No differences were observed between groups for BW gain. The feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram of BW gain were lower for the group fed soy waste than for the one fed pellet. Goats fed supplemental soy waste have a lower total dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, and feed cost per kilogram of body weight gain than those fed commercial pellets.

  8. Two weeks of watermelon juice supplementation improves nitric oxide bioavailability but not endurance exercise performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Williams, Ewan; Vanhatalo, Anni; Wylie, Lee J; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-09-30

    This study tested the hypothesis that watermelon juice supplementation would improve nitric oxide bioavailability and exercise performance. Eight healthy recreationally-active adult males reported to the laboratory on two occasions for initial testing without dietary supplementation (control condition). Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned, in a cross-over experimental design, to receive 16 days of supplementation with 300 mL·day(-1) of a watermelon juice concentrate, which provided ∼3.4 g l-citrulline·day(-1) and an apple juice concentrate as a placebo. Participants reported to the laboratory on days 14 and 16 of supplementation to assess the effects of the interventions on blood pressure, plasma [l-citrulline], plasma [l-arginine], plasma [nitrite], muscle oxygenation and time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. Compared to control and placebo, plasma [l-citrulline] (29 ± 4, 22 ± 6 and 101 ± 23 μM), [l-arginine] (74 ± 9, 67 ± 13 and 116 ± 9 μM) and [nitrite] (102 ± 29, 106 ± 21 and 201 ± 106 nM) were higher after watermelon juice supplementation (P watermelon juice (130 ± 11) and placebo (131 ± 9) conditions compared to the control condition (124 ± 8 mmHg; P watermelon juice condition than the placebo and control conditions (P watermelon juice: 550 ± 143 s) was not significantly different between conditions (P watermelon juice supplementation increased baseline plasma [nitrite] and improved muscle oxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise, it increased resting blood pressure and did not improve time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. These findings do not support the use of watermelon juice supplementation as a nutritional intervention to lower blood pressure or improve endurance exercise performance in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements, together with malaria and diarrhoea treatment, improve growth and prevent MAM in young Burkinabe children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Somé, Jerome W; Vosti, Stephen A; Brown, Kenneth H; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Zinéwindé P; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Supplementing young children’s diets with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) may prevent growth restriction, but the optimal amount of zinc to include in these products is uncertain. Objectives: To assess zinc-related functional responses among young Burkinabe children who received LNS without or with varied amounts of zinc, and to compare these outcomes among children who do or do not receive LNS and selected health services. Methods: In a partially masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 34 communities were assigned to immediate (II) or non-intervention (NI) cohorts. 2469 eligible II children were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups to receive LNS containing 0, 5 or 10 mg zinc (and placebo tablet) or LNS without zinc and 5 mg zinc tablet from 9 to 18 months of age. The daily ration of LNS was 20 g which provided 118 kcal along with 20 other micronutrients in addition to zinc. Weekly morbidity surveillance was conducted at children’s homes; malaria treatment was provided for confirmed malaria, and ORS for reported diarrhea. Children in NI (n = 797) received neither supplements nor illness treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were measured in all children. Results: Reported adherence was 97 ± 5% for LNS and tablets. Mean baseline Hb was 89 ± 15 g/L, and 91% were anemic (Hb <110 g/L). At 18 months, change in Hb was greater in II cohort than NI (+8 vs -1 g/L, p<0.0001), but 79% of II were still anemic (vs. 91% in NI). During the 9 month follow-up in the II cohort, the incidence of diarrhea and malaria was 1.15 ± 1.18 and 0.55 ± 0.54 episodes per 100 child-days, respectively and did not differ by intervention group. At baseline, mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ), weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) and MUAC were -1.21 ± 1.10, -0.99 ± 1.05 and 133 ± 12 mm, respectively, in all groups combined. Mean length, weight and MUAC were significantly greater

  10. Effect of cyadox on growth and nutrient digestibility in weanling pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laenette

    in pigs as growth promoting agents for improvement of weight gain and feed efficiency, ... dietary cyadox on the absorption and retention of amino acids and other ..... Effect of supplementing tylosin and olaquindox or copper on growth, tissue.

  11. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  12. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Lipid Parameters of Broilers Reared Under Normal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cancai; Huang, Yanling; Xiao, Fang; Lin, Xi; Lloyd, Karen

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr) source and concentration on growth performance, carcass traits, and some serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions for 42 days. A total of 252 1-day-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involved in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate (CrPro), Cr picolinate (CrPic), Cr chloride (CrCl3)) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4 and 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control diet. The results showed that dietary Cr supplementation tended to increase the breast muscle percentage compared with the Cr-unsupplemented control group (P = 0.0784), while Cr from CrPic tended to have higher breast muscle percentage compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0881). Chromium from CrPic also tended to increase the breast intramuscular fat (IMF) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0648). In addition, supplementation of 0.4 mg/kg Cr tended to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.0614). Compared with the control group, broilers fed Cr-supplemented diets had higher triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.0129) regardless of Cr source and Cr concentration. Chromium from CrPro and CrPic had lower total cholesterol (TC) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0220). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Cr has effects on carcass characteristics and serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions, while supplementation of organic Cr can improve carcass characteristics and reduce the cholesterol content in serum.

  13. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Improvement of Nutritive Value and Ruminal Fermentation of Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

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    K. Phesatcha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM and the second was urea (U supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1% silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also

  15. Chronic leucine supplementation improves glycemic control in etiologically distinct mouse models of obesity and diabetes mellitus

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    Hou Jue

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine may function as a signaling molecule to regulate metabolism. We have previously shown that dietary leucine supplementation significantly improves glucose and energy metabolism in diet-induced obese mice, suggesting that leucine supplementation could potentially be a useful adjuvant therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Since the underlying cause for obesity and type 2 diabetes is multifold, we further investigated metabolic effects of leucine supplementation in obese/diabetes mouse models with different etiologies, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Leucine supplementation was carried out in NONcNZO10/LtJ (RCS10 - a polygenic model predisposed to beta cell failure and type 2 diabetes, and in B6.Cg-Ay/J (Ay - a monogenic model for impaired central melanocortin receptor signaling, obesity, and severe insulin resistance. Mice in the treatment group received the drinking water containing 1.5% leucine for up to 8 months; control mice received the tap water. Body weight, body composition, blood HbA1c levels, and plasma glucose and insulin levels were monitored throughout and/or at the end of the study period. Indirect calorimetry, skeletal muscle gene expression, and adipose tissue inflammation were also assessed in Ay mice. Results Leucine supplementation significantly reduced HbA1c levels throughout the study period in both RCS10 and Ay mice. However, the treatment had no long term effect on body weight or adiposity. The improvement in glycemic control was associated with an increased insulin response to food challenge in RCS10 mice and decreased plasma insulin levels in Ay mice. In leucine-treated Ay mice, energy expenditure was increased by ~10% (p y mice whereas the expression levels of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue were significantly reduced. Conclusions Chronic leucine supplementation significantly improves glycemic control in multiple mouse models of

  16. Effect of supplementation of yeast with bacteriocin and culture on growth performance, cecal fermentation, microbiota composition, and blood characteristics in broiler chickens

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    C. Y. Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin and Lactobacillus cultures (mixture of Lactobacillus agilis BCRC 10436 and Lactobacillus reuteri BCRC 17476 supplements, alone or in combination, on broiler chicken performance. Methods A total of 300, 1-d-old healthy broiler chickens were randomly divided into five treatment groups: i basal diet (control, ii basal diet+0.25% yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YC, iii basal diet+0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (BA, iv basal diet+Lactobacillus cultures (LAB, and v basal diet +0.25% yeast with bacteriocin+Lactobacillus cultures (BA+LAB. Growth performance, cecal microbiota, cecal fermentation products, and blood biochemistry parameters were determined when chickens were 21 and 35 d old. Results The supplementation of YC, BA, and BA+LAB resulted in a significantly better feed conversion rate (FCR than that of the control group during 1 to 21 d (p<0.05. The LAB supplementation had a significant effect on the presence of Lactobacillus in the ceca at 35 d. None of the supplements had an effect on relative numbers of L. agilis and L. reuter at 21 d, but the BA supplementation resulted in the decrease of both Lactobacillus strains at 35 d. The BA+LAB supplementation resulted in higher short chain fatty acid (SCFA in the ceca, but LAB supplementation significantly decreased the SCFA at 35 d (p<0.05. All treatments tended to decrease ammonia concentration in the ceca at 21 d, especially in the LAB treatment group. The BA supplementation alone decreased the triacylglycerol (TG concentration significantly at 21 d (p<0.05, but the synergistic effect of BA and LAB supplementation was required to reduce the TG concentration at 35 d. The YC supplementation tended to increase the plasma cholesterol at 21 d and 35 d. However, the BA supplementation significantly decreased the cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level at 35 d. In conclusion, the BA

  17. Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and mineral supplements among resource-poor women in Bolivia.

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    Warnick, Elizabeth; Dearden, Kirk A; Slater, Sharon; Butrón, Betzabé; Lanata, Claudio F; Huffman, Sandra L

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that social marketing improves women's awareness and consumption of multivitamin and mineral supplements. Formative research and baseline and final surveys using a multistaged stratified cluster sample. Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Women 15 to 49 years old (n=1709 at baseline and n=1735 at final survey). Social marketing campaign using radio and television spots. Awareness and use of multivitamins, including VitalDía, the brand promoted as part of this social marketing campaign. Cross-tabulations to assess changes over time in awareness and use of multivitamins. Logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of multivitamin use. The campaign increased women's awareness and use of multiple supplements, including VitalDía. Awareness of multiple supplements nearly doubled among women with 6 to 8 years of schooling, tripled among women with 4 to 5 years of education, and more than quadrupled among women with less than 4 years of schooling. After 9 months of social marketing, 11% of women had taken VitalDía one or more times, 7% had taken it at least once in the last 3 months, and 4% had used it one or more times in the last month. Improvements in the use of VitalDía were evident for women of all socioeconomic and educational levels, with the greatest increases occurring in the least advantaged groups. Additionally, women who had a positive perception of the benefits of multivitamins were 1.7 times (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.3; P marketing of multiple supplements reached resource-poor women and can be used to bridge gaps in access, improve awareness of supplementation as an option, and increase the likelihood that women will try supplements.

  18. Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improves protein utilization efficiency while vitamin E supplementation reduces markers of the inflammatory response in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Cheol Kim; Bruce P.Mullan; John L.Black; Robert J.E.Hewitt; Robert J.van Barneveld; John R.Pluske

    2017-01-01

    Background:This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA),a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor,will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.Methods:The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6.6 ± 0.04 kg (mean ± SEM).The pigs were experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli and were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial design with the respective factors being without and with 125 ppm ASA and three levels ofVit E supplementation (50,100 or 200 IU/kg diet,dl-α-tocopheryl acetate).Results:Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improved average daily gain (P < 0.05) and tended to improve feed:gain ratio (P < 0.10) during the first 14 d after weaning.Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation also improved (P < 0.001) amino acid utilization efficiency (as assessed by plasma urea level) and tended to decrease (P < 0.10) PGE2 production in the liver without affecting small intestinal histology and tight junction protein mRNA expression in the jejunal epithelium.Vitamin E supplementation greater than 100 IU/kg diet sustained both the plasma Vit E concentration (P < 0.001) and plasma haptoglobin content (P < 0.001) after weaning.However,there was no additive effects of the combined supplementation of ASA and Vit E on performance,intestinal barrier function and inflammatory responses of weaned pigs.Conclusions:Although ASA and vitamin E improved amino acid utilization efficiency and reduced acute inflammatory responses,ASA and vitamin E did not additively reduce production of PGE2 and inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.

  19. Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10 kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10 kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  20. Neurodegenerative and Fatiguing Illnesses, Infections and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Use of Natural Supplements to Improve Mitochondrial Function

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    Garth L. Nicolson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many chronic diseases and illnesses are associated with one or more chronic infections, dysfunction of mitochondria and reduced production of ATP. This results in fatigue and other symptoms that occur in most if not all chronic conditions and diseases. Methods: This is a review of the published literature on chronic infections in neurodegenerative diseases and fatiguing illnesses that are also typified by mitochondrial dysfunction. This contribution also reviews the use of natural supplements to enhance mitochondrial function and reduce the effects of chronic infections to improve overall function in various chronic illnesses. Results: Mitochondrial function can be enhanced by the use of various natural supplements, notably Lipid Replacement Therapy (LRT using glyerolphospholipids and other mitochondrial supplements. In various chronic illnesses that are characterized by the presence of chronic infections, such as intracellular bacteria (Mycoplasma, Borrelia, Chlamydia and other infections and viruses, LRT has proven useful in multiple clinical trials. For example, in clinical studies on chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome and other chronic fatiguing illnesses where a large majority of patients have chronic infections, LRT significantly reduced fatigue by 35-43% in different clinical trials and increased mitochondrial function. In clinical trials on patients with multiple intracellular bacterial infections and intractable fatigue LRT plus other mitochondrial supplements significantly decreased fatigue and improved mood and cognition. Conclusions: LRT formulations designed to improve mitochondrial function appear to be useful as non-toxic dietary supplements for reducing fatigue and restoring mitochondrial and other cellular membrane functions in patients with chronic illnesses and multiple chronic infections.

  1. Modification of the Technical Properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by Supplementing the Growth Medium with Unsaturated Fatty Acids ▿

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    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Sybesma, W. F. H.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 μg/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 μg/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical properties

  2. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06).

  3. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

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    Jian Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16 or blank gels (n = 16 from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  4. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  5. Effects of copper supplement on growth and viability of strains used as starters and adjunct cultures for Emmental cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L Mato; Alatossava, T

    2008-10-01

    To determine the effects of supplemented copper (Cu2+) on growth and viability of strains used as starters and adjunct cultures for Emmental cheese manufacture. Thirteen strains belonging to Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus or Propionibacterium freudenreichii species were exposed to various copper concentrations in the proper growth medium at relevant growth temperatures, and the effects of supplemented copper on bacterial growth and cell viability were determined by optical density and pH measurements, also by platings. Among the species considered, L. delbrueckii was the most copper resistant and S. thermophilus the most sensitive to copper. Anaerobic conditions increased this sensitivity significantly. There was also a considerable amount of variation in copper resistance at strain level. Copper resistance is both a species- and strain-dependent property and may reflect variability in copper-binding capacities by cell wall components among species and strains. In addition, the chemical state of copper may be involved. This study revealed that copper resistance is a highly variable property among starter and adjunct strains, and this variability should be considered when strains are selected for Emmental cheese manufacture.

  6. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Healthy, singleton infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ≥80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512.

  8. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

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    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  9. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

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    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  10. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

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    Yi-Ju Hsu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice from four groups (n = 8 per group were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.

  11. Combinatorial therapy of exercise-preconditioning and nanocurcumin formulation supplementation improves cardiac adaptation under hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Sarita; Bhardwaj, Varun; Bansal, Anju; Saraswat, Deepika

    2017-09-26

    Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes. We hypothesize that a combinatorial therapy comprising preconditioning to mild aerobic treadmill exercise and supplementation with nanocurcumin formulation (NCF) consisting of nanocurcumin (NC) and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) might improve cardiac adaptation at high altitudes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats pre-conditioned to treadmill exercise and supplemented with NCF were exposed to cHH (7620 m altitude corresponding to pO2~8% at 28±2°C, relative humidity 55%±1%) for 3 weeks. The rat hearts were analyzed for changes in markers of oxidative stress (free radical leakage, lipid peroxidation, manganese-superoxide dismutase [MnSOD] activity), cardiac injury (circulating cardiac troponin I [TnI] and T [cTnT], myocardial creatine kinase [CK-MB]), metabolic damage (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and acetyl-coenzyme A levels, lactate and pyruvate levels) and bio-energetic insufficiency (ATP, p-AMPKα). Significant modulations (p≤0.05) in cardiac redox status, metabolic damage, cardiac injury and bio-energetics were observed in rats receiving both NCF supplementation and treadmill exercise-preconditioning compared with rats receiving only one of the treatments. The combinatorial therapeutic strategy showed a tremendous improvement in cardiac acclimatization to cHH compared to either exercise-preconditioning or NCF supplementation alone which was evident from the effective modulation in redox, metabolic, contractile

  12. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  13. Growth performance and haematological and immunological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings supplemented with dietary Ferulago angulata (Schlecht Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bohlouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Ferulago angulata extract on the growth, haematological, and immunological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings were evaluated. Basal diet was supplemented with 0 (control, 0.5, 1, and 2 g·kg-1 F. angulata and was randomly allocated to experimental fish of an initial average weight of 7.45 ± 0.02 g. After 8 weeks of experiment, the fish supplemented with F. angulata extract showed increased but non-significant (P > 0.05 growth performance. No significant differences were found between trial control groups in haematological indices such as red blood cell count, haematocrit, and haemoglobin, but there was a significant increase in white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes in the F. angulata extract groups (P < 0.05. Also, there were significant differences between the fish supplemented with dietary F. angulata extract and the control group regarding immunological indices, including immunoglobulin M, lysozyme, and classical and alternative complement pathway (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that the administration of F. angulata extract has a positive effect on the immunological indices and the immune system activity in rainbow trout fingerling.

  14. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  15. Performance of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    Full Text Available Abstract Improving the performance of mushroom in terms of high production and fast growth rate is essential in mushroom cultivation. In the present study the performance of Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated using varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. The results indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus was highly influenced by different levels of supplementation, with 8% WB, 18% WB and 2% MF having higher contamination rate. The low levels of supplementation gave significantly better mycelial growth rate (MGR and shorter colonisation period as observed that the control had highest MGR whereby 20% MF had lowest MGR. The pinning time (TP was shortest at the first flush with minimum of 3 days (12% MF. The higher levels of supplementation showed maximum biological efficiency (BE such as 14% MF, 12% WB and 14% WB. The yield was also higher at high levels of supplementation such as 20% MF and 8% MF being the exception in the lower levels. Based on the results it was observed that for fast production of oyster mushroom there is no need to supplement the maize stalk substrate but for improved productivity supplements can be added up to certain limits such as 14% MF and 12 WB.

  16. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Supplementation with Eskimo Skin Care improves skin elasticity in women. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segger, Dörte; Matthies, Andreas; Saldeen, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the question of whether supplementation with an oral oil formulation rich in natural stable fish oil can alter skin elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin roughness in healthy women. Twenty-four healthy women aged 40-60 years participated in a single-blind randomized trial for testing the effect of a proprietary oral supplement for skin nutrition (Eskimo Skin Care) on skin elasticity, TEWL, and skin roughness. Skin elasticity was measured by an optical cutometer, TEWL by a water-loss module based upon the vapour gradient principle, and skin roughness with a three-dimensional microtopography imaging system. Skin elasticity increased by 10% after 3 months of treatment with the supplement, a statistically significant increase in comparison with the control group (p=0.0298). There was a trend, though not statistically significant, towards a positive influence on the skin's barrier function. No effect on the skin roughness was observed. Eskimo Skin Care, an oral preparation rich in natural stable fish oil, can improve skin elasticity.

  18. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation improves autonomic nervous function and cognitive function in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Kajimoto, Osami; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-07-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of oral ubiquinol-10 supplementation in CFS patients using an open-label study and a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (RCT) study. Twenty patients with CFS were randomly enrolled in an 8-week open-label oral ubiquinol-10 (150 mg ubiquinol-10/day) study. The patients and the attending physicians were not blinded to the supplementation. Forty-three patients with CFS were randomly assigned to receive either ubiquinol-10 (150 mg/day) or placebo every day for 12 weeks. The patients and the attending physicians were blinded to the supplementation, and a total of 31 patients (N = 17 in the ubiquinol group and 14 in the placebo group) completed the study. The beneficial effects of ubiquinol-10 were observed in the open-label study we conducted prior to the RCT. The RCT results suggest that supplementation with ubiquinol-10 for 12 weeks is effective for improving several CFS symptoms. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):431-440, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  20. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis

  1. Beta-alanine supplementation improves jumping power and affects severe-intensity performance in professional alpine skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Micah; Bieri, Kathrin; Hoppeler, Hans; Norman, Barbara; Vogt, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Supplementation with beta-alanine may have positive effects on severe-intensity, intermittent, and isometric strength-endurance performance. These could be advantageous for competitive alpine skiers, whose races last 45 to 150 s, require metabolic power above the aerobic maximum, and involve isometric muscle work. Further, beta-alanine supplementation affects the muscle force-frequency relationship, which could influence explosiveness. We explored the effects of beta-alanine on explosive jump performance, severe exercise energy metabolism, and severe-intensity ski-like performance. Nine male elite alpine skiers consumed 4.8 g/d beta-alanine or placebo for 5 weeks in a double-blind fashion. Before and after, they performed countermovement jumps (CMJ), a 90-s cycling bout at 110% VO2max (CLT), and a maximal 90-s box jump test (BJ90). Beta-alanine improved maximal (+7 ± 3%, d = 0.9) and mean CMJ power (+7 ± 2%, d = 0.7), tended to reduce oxygen deficit (-3 ± 8%, p = .06) and lactate accumulation (-12 ± 31%) and enhance aerobic energy contribution (+1.3 ± 2.9%, p = .07) in the CLT, and improved performance in the last third of BJ90 (+7 ± 4%, p = .02). These effects were not observed with placebo. Beta-alanine supplementation improved explosive and repeated jump performance in elite alpine skiers. Enhanced muscle contractility could possibly explain improved explosive and repeated jump performance. Increased aerobic energy production could possibly help explain repeated jump performance as well.

  2. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  3. The effect of vitamin B12 supplementation in Nepalese infants on growth and development: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Kvestad, Ingrid; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Merina; Basnet, Sudha; Ranjitkar, Suman; Shrestha, Laxman; Shrestha, Prakash S

    2017-04-21

    Vitamin B 12 deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with poor cognitive development and growth. Vitamin B 12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and it is necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. The aim of the present study is to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B 12 on the neurodevelopment and growth of young children in Nepal. We are conducting an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 600 marginally stunted children 6-11 months old (length for age less than -1 z-score). Children are randomized to receive a lipid-based paste containing vitamin B 12 or placebo daily for 12 months. The main outcomes are changes in growth (z-scores) and in neurodevelopment measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, from baseline until the end of the study. If vitamin B 12 supplementation benefits early child development and growth, this will have consequences for dietary recommendations for malnourished children worldwide. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02272842 . Registered on 21 October 2014. Universal Trial Number: U1111-1161-5187. Registered on 8 September 2014.

  4. Protein-carbohydrate supplements improve muscle protein balance in muscular dystrophy patients after endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Ørngreen, Mette C; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals, postexercise protein supplementation increases muscle protein anabolism. In patients with muscular dystrophies, aerobic exercise improves muscle function, but the effect of exercise on muscle protein balance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated 1) muscle protein balance...

  5. Superoxide dismutase and taurine supplementation improves in vitro blastocyst yield from poor-quality feline oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, Małgorzata; Pasieka, Anna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2016-03-15

    Blastocyst production in vitro seems to be crucial part of assisted reproduction techniques in feline species. However, the results of cats' oocyte maturation and embryo development are still lower than those in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and taurine during maturation or culture would improve the blastocyst yield obtained from lower grades of oocytes, that are usually discarded, as not suitable for further in vitro purposes. To investigate the effect of antioxidants' addition, the good- and poor-quality oocytes, were cultured with the addition of 10-mmol taurine and 600 UI/mL SOD. The nuclear maturity, embryo development, and blastocyst quality were subsequently assessed. In control group, without antioxidant supplementation, significantly less poor-quality oocytes matured (42% vs. 62%) and more degenerated (35% vs. 20%), comparing to the experimental group supplemented with SOD and taurine. The amount of obtained blastocyst was much higher, when poor quality oocytes were supplemented with SOD and taurine (supplementation to IVM-4%; supplementation to IVC-5.5%; supplementation to IVM and IVC-5.9% of blastocyst), comparing to not supplemented control group (1.3%). The best blastocysts were obtained when poor oocytes had antioxidants added only during embryo culture (185 ± 13.4 blastomeres vs. 100 ± 1.5 in control). In the present study, we reported that the lower grades of oocytes can better mature and form significantly more blastocysts with better quality, when cultured with addition of SOD and taurine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production in DNA-supplemented Medium E. In addition to DNA or deoxyribonucleosides, nitrate, amino acids and vitamins were all required for anaerobic growth of JF-2. Bacillus mojavensisT (ABO21191), Bacillus mojavensis, strain ROB2 also required DNA or deoxyribonucleosides for anaerobic growth. The improved anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 was a prerequisite for studies that will lead to improved anaerobic biosurfactant production.

  7. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  8. Improving the uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation: what do women think?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Anna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong evidence of the benefits of preconception interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes, the delivery and uptake of preconception care in general and periconceptional folate supplementation in particular remains low. The aim of this study was to determine women's views of the barriers and enablers to the uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation. Methods Focus groups were undertaken in 2007 with 17 women of reproductive age (18-45 years. To identify key issues and themes within the data, focus groups were analysed using an inductive process of thematic analysis. Results Most women were unaware of the need to attend for preconception care and were surprised at the breadth of issues involved. Women also felt general practitioners (GPs should be more proactive in promoting preconception care availability but acknowledged that they themselves had to be thinking about pregnancy or becoming pregnant to be receptive to it. Barriers to periconceptional folate supplementation included confusion about reasons for use, dose, duration, timing and efficacy of folate use. Enablers included the desire to do anything they could to ensure optimum pregnancy outcomes, and promotional material and letters of invitation from their GP to advise them of the availability and the need for preconception care. Conclusion A number of important barriers and enablers exist for women regarding the delivery and uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation. It is essential that these patient perspectives are addressed in both the implementation of evidence based clinical practice guidelines and in the systematic design of an intervention to improve preconception care delivery.

  9. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  10. A brief dataset on the model-based evaluation of the growth performance of Bacillus coagulans and l-lactic acid production in a lignin-supplemented medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert; Venus, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Model-based characterization of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium (R. Glaser and J. Venus, 2016) [1]". This data survey provides the information on characterization of three Bacillus coagulans strains. Information on cofermentation of lignocellulose-related sugars in lignin-containing media is given. Basic characterization data are supported by optical-density high-throughput screening and parameter adjustment to logistic growth models. Lab scale fermentation procedures are examined by model adjustment of a Monod kinetics-based growth model. Lignin consumption is analyzed using the data on decolorization of a lignin-supplemented minimal medium.

  11. A brief dataset on the model-based evaluation of the growth performance of Bacillus coagulans and l-lactic acid production in a lignin-supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Glaser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Model-based characterization of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium (R. Glaser and J. Venus, 2016 [1]”. This data survey provides the information on characterization of three Bacillus coagulans strains. Information on cofermentation of lignocellulose-related sugars in lignin-containing media is given. Basic characterization data are supported by optical-density high-throughput screening and parameter adjustment to logistic growth models. Lab scale fermentation procedures are examined by model adjustment of a Monod kinetics-based growth model. Lignin consumption is analyzed using the data on decolorization of a lignin-supplemented minimal medium.

  12. Effects of dietary hawthorn extract on growth performance, immune responses, growth- and immune-related genes expression of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) and its susceptibility to Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhenzhu; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Tan, Lianjie; Xun, Pengwei; Huang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary hawthorn extract (HTE) supplementation on growth performance, immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, growth- and immune-related and heat shock protein genes expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet supplemented with HTE at 0 (Diet 1), 0.50 (Diet 2), 1.00 (Diet 3), 2.00 (Diet 4), 4.00 (Diet 5) and 10.00 (Diet 6) g kg -1 were fed to golden pompano for 8 weeks. The highest final body weight, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency rate were observed in fish fed Diet 2 (P Vibrio harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed Diet 2 and Diet 3 than the control group (P growth-related genes (IGF-I and IGF-II) were significantly up-regulated in fish fed HTE supplement (P growth performance and growth-related genes expression, strengthen immunity, and improve hepatic antioxidative abilities and resistance to Vibrio harveyi infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Creatine supplementation and swim performance: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Melissa J; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B

    2006-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle. Key PointsCreatine supplementation does not improve single sprint

  14. Use of a commercial probiotic supplement in meat goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Cazac, D; Rude, B J; Jackson-O'Brien, D; Parveen, S

    2009-02-01

    Sixty-three Boer crossbred goats were used in 5 separate experiments (Exp. 1 to 5) to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotic supplement on growth performance (Exp. 1 to 4), diet digestibility (Exp. 5), carcass traits (Exp. 3), and fecal bacterial populations (Exp. 4). Goats were either fed a commercially pelleted concentrate diet and supplemented with a commercial probiotic (PRO) that had shown anecdotal positive effects on goat growth and performance according to local goat producers, or they remained as controls. The dose of PRO used was within the labeled dose for sheep for all studies. For Exp. 1, goat BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 7 d for 56 d. For Exp. 2 to 4, BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 14 d. The first day of supplementation was considered d 0. Carcass traits were also collected at slaughter on d 57 for Exp. 3, and fecal samples were collected every 14 d for microbial culture for Exp. 4. For Exp. 5, which was a digestibility trial that lasted for 10 d, animals were placed in metabolic pens for collection of feces and orts. Growth performance of goats was not affected by probiotic supplementation, with the exception of performance in Exp. 2, in which ADG and G:F were improved (P goats compared with control goats on d 56 only (treatment x day interaction; P goats and 0.11 +/- 0.02 kg/d for control goats for ADG and 0.17 +/- 0.02 for PRO goats and 0.10 +/- 0.02 for control goats for G:F. Carcass weights and weights of fabricated cuts (shoulder, loin, leg, rack, shank, and total parts) as well as carcass length, leg circumference, loin eye area, and backfat were not influenced by PRO supplementation. Apparent digestibilities of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, and GE (on a DM basis) were similar for the PRO and control treatments. Fecal culture analysis of Escherichia coli and coliforms, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations were not influenced by the PRO treatment. Overall, although the PRO

  15. Core symptoms of autism improved after vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feiyong; Wang, Bing; Shan, Ling; Xu, Zhida; Staal, Wouter G; Du, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. Among the environmental factors, vitamin D3 (cholecaliferol) seems to play a significant role in the etiology of ASD because this vitamin is important for brain development. Lower concentrations of vitamin D3 may lead to increased brain size, altered brain shape, and enlarged ventricles, which have been observed in patients with ASD. Vitamin D3 is converted into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the liver. Higher serum concentrations of this steroid may reduce the risk of autism. Importantly, children with ASD are at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, possibly due to environmental factors. It has also been suggested that vitamin D3 deficiency may cause ASD symptoms. Here, we report on a 32-month-old boy with ASD and vitamin D3 deficiency. His core symptoms of autism improved significantly after vitamin D3 supplementation. This case suggests that vitamin D3 may play an important role in the etiology of ASD, stressing the importance of clinical assessment of vitamin D3 deficiency and the need for vitamin D3 supplementation in case of deficiency. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Effects of supplementing growing-finishing pig diets with Bacillus spp. probiotic on growth performance and meat-carcass grade qualitytraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seventy five pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc] with an initial body weight of 23.3±1.40 kg were used in the present study to investigate the influence of supplementation of a Bacillus spp. combination as probiotic (0%, 0.01%, and 0.02% with basal diet in growing-finishing pig diets on performance parameters with a feeding trial period of 16 weeks. Growth performance was analyzed at the start and at weeks 6, 12, and 16 of the experimental period. The entire experiment using probiotic supplementation in the diet revealed significant differences in average daily gain and gain:feed, but no effects on average daily feed intake. The result showed significant effects on digestibility of dry matter (0.002, nitrogen (0.069, and energy (0.099 at week 16; and number of fecal Lactobacillus (0.082, 0.041, E. coli (0.097, 0.052, and blood glucose (0.001, 0.049 at weeks 6 and 16. Dietary supplementation with Bacillus spp. probiotic resulted in a significant linear effect on sensory evaluation of meat color, drip loss at day 3, and carcass weight in pigs. In contrast, there was no significant difference in blood metabolic profiles and noxious gas emissions in this experiment. Dietary combination of Bacillus spp. can be used as a probiotic for enhancing the growth performances and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs.

  17. Toxic hepatitis in a group of 20 male body-builders taking dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timcheh-Hariri, Alireza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Aryan, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2012-10-01

    Dietary supplements have been used for decades for enhancing muscle growth. The harm caused by some of these products is well documented. We investigated and reported toxic hepatitis in 20 male athletes following self-prescribing of a number of dietary supplements which are lesser known. The patients' ages ranged from 24 to 32 with a mean of 28 years. They had taken three kinds of supplements for 1 year including testosterone optimizer agent T Bomb II, a creatine supplement Phosphagen and an amino acid based supplement Cell-Tech. Based on the history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings the cases were diagnosed as toxic hepatitis. After discontinuation of taking the supplements, clinical recovery and improvement of liver function tests were achieved within 30 days. Causality assessment with the CIOMS (Council for International Organization Medical Sciences) scale showed a "possible" grade of causality (+5 points) for these supplements. It can be concluded that these newer anabolic supplements may induce toxic hepatitis. Since the health risks of them may be severe, the use of these kinds of dietary supplements should be discouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Iron supplementation during pregnancy and its effects on epiphyseal growth plate of newborn rat: a histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbreen, F.; Qamar, K.; Rehman, S.

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on epiphyseal growth plate of Sprague dawley rat pups. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH) Islamabad, from Mar 2016 to Nov 2016. Material and Methods: Eight female and two male Sprague Dawley rats, 3-4 months old were selected and divided into two groups and kept for breeding. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups. Four pregnant rats in each group. Group A1was control group and group B1 was experimental group. Iron supplementation was given once daily throughout pregnancy till the time of delivery. Iron was given to the experimental group in syrup form (Sytron syrup containing iron as sodium feredetate). Each 5ml of sytron syrup contains 27.5mg of elemental iron content1. The dose was mixed in water given to the animal. Maternal body weight (wt.) was recorded at the start and the end of experiment. As the rat pups were born, they were weighed and euthanized. Right femur of each rat pup was removed for the epiphyseal plate analysis. It was processed, embedded and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Perl's stain for histological study. Hypertrophy and proliferative zone length were histologically and statistically analyzed. Results: Height of hypertrophy and proliferative zone was measured. Mean values of the heights of two zones were taken. Heights of hypertrophy and proliferative zones were considerably decreased in group B1 as compared to groups A1. Conclusion: Indiscriminate iron supplementation to the rats throughout pregnancy without checking serum iron levels can disturb the longitudinal growth of epiphyseal plate of femur. The height of the hypertrophy zone and proliferative zone was significantly reduced in iron supplementation group as compared to the control group. (author)

  20. Timing growth and development of Campanula by daily light integral and supplemental light level in a cost-efficient light control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    light control system (DynaLight desktop) automatically defines the most cost-efficient use of supplemental light based on predefined setpoints for daily photosynthesis integral (DPI), forecasted solar irradiance and the market price on electricity. It saves energy in high-cost periods of electricity......Two campanula species Campanula portenschlagiana (‘Blue Get Mee’) and Campanula cochlearifolia (‘Blue Wonder’) were grown in a cost-efficient light control system and the effect of supplemental light level and daily light integral (DLI) on growth and development was quantified. The alternative...... the number of flowers and buds and CLI in ‘Blue Get Mee’. The results demonstrate that DLI was the main limiting factor for prediction of growth and development when two campanula species were grown in a cost-efficient light control system where the number of daily light hours was often below the critical...

  1. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  2. Nutritional optimization for anaerobic growth of Bacillus steaothermophilus LLD-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a range of nutritional supplements including twenty amino acids, major vitamins and four nucleic acid bases were exploited as added-value supplements for the growth of a lactate-minus (ldh mutant Bacillus stearothermophilus LLD-16 under anaerobic environment. The chemostat studies revealed that five amino acids that includes aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, methionine, and serine were essential for persuaded growth of B. stearothermophilus LLD-16. The anaerobic batch studies showed that a number of nutritional supplements, such as, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, folic acid, pantothenic acid, adenine, glycine, leucine, tryptophan, proline, alanine and α-ketoglutarate, when added individually, improved the biomass levels. In contrast, the higher concentrations of cyanocobalamine or biotin, guanine, uracil and isoleucine were found inhibitory. Furthermore, the study explains why the highest biomass formation cannot necessarily be achieved on the richest mixture of amino acids, and the inadequacy of the biosynthetic machinery is very much dependent on the growth conditions of the microorganism.

  3. Improvement of growth, fermentative efficiency and ethanol tolerance of Kloeckera africana during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by addition of yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Córdova, Jesus

    2010-01-30

    The aim of this work was to improve the productivity and yield of tequila fermentation and to propose the use of a recently isolated non-Saccharomyces yeast in order to obtain a greater diversity of flavour and aroma of the beverage. For that, the effects of the addition of different nitrogen (N) sources to Agave tequilana juice on the growth, fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance of Kloeckera africana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied and compared. Kloeckera africana K1 and S. cerevisiae S1 were cultured in A. tequilana juice supplemented with ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate or yeast extract. Kloeckera africana did not assimilate inorganic N sources, while S. cerevisiae utilised any N source. Yeast extract stimulated the growth, fermentative capacity and alcohol tolerance of K. africana, giving kinetic parameter values similar to those calculated for S. cerevisiae. This study revealed the importance of supplementing A. tequilana juice with a convenient N source to achieve fast and complete conversion of sugars in ethanol, particularly in the case of K. africana. This yeast exhibited similar growth and fermentative capacity to S. cerevisiae. The utilisation of K. africana in the tequila industry is promising because of its variety of synthesised aromatic compounds, which would enrich the attributes of this beverage. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Differential responses of growth and photosynthesis in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba grown under ultraviolet-B and supplemental long-wavelength radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingakumar, K.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1998-01-01

    Cyamopsis tetragonoloba seedlings were subjected to continuous ultraviolet (UV)B radiation for 18 h and post-irradiated with 'white light' (WL) and UV-A enhanced fluorescent radiations. UV-B treatment alone reduced plant growth, pigment content, and photosynthetic activities. Supplementation of UV-A promoted the overall seedling growth and enhanced the synthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoids with a relatively high photosystem 1 activity. Post UV-B irradiation under WL failed to photoreactivate the LTV-B damage whereas a positive photoregulatory effect of UV-A was noticed in electron transport rates and low temperature fluorescence emission spectra

  5. Testing the effect of dietary carotenoids on larval survival, growth and development in the critically endangered southern corroboree frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Phillip G; Silla, Aimee J

    2017-03-01

    The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree). Larvae were fed either a carotenoid supplemented diet or an unsupplemented diet and the survival, growth and development of individuals was monitored and compared. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on larval survival, growth rate, time taken to reach metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. Our findings provide no evidence that carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage improves the growth and development of southern corroboree frogs. However, because the carotenoid dose used in our study did not have any detrimental effects on P. corroboree larvae, but has previously been shown to improve adult coloration, immunity, and exercise performance, carotenoid supplementation should be considered when evaluating the nutritional requirements of P. corroboree in captivity. Carotenoid supplementation studies are now required for a diversity of anuran species to determine the effects of carotenoids on amphibian survival, growth and development. Understanding the effects of dietary carotenoids on different life-history traits may assist with amphibian captive breeding and conservation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V supplementation on faecal bifidobacteria in growth restricted very preterm infants - analysis from a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patole, Sanjay K; Keil, Anthony D; Nathan, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Esvaran, Meera; Simmer, Karen N; Conway, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Gut development, function and colonisation are impaired in animal models of prematurity with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The effect of Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) supplementation on faecal bifidobacteria in small for gestational age (SGA: birth weight breve M-16V supplementation effect on faecal bifidobacteria in preterm (breve counts between SGA versus non-SGA infants [probiotic: 7 (33%) versus 22 (42%), p = 0.603; placebo: 1 (6%) versus 1 (2%), p = 0.429]. B. breve counts did not differ between SGA and non-SGA infants in response to treatment (p = 0.589), after adjusting for baseline count (p breve M-16V supplementation was not significantly different in preterm (<33 weeks) SGA versus non-SGA infants.

  7. A single phosphorus treatment doubles growth of cyanobacterial lichen transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Bruce; Caldwell, Bruce A

    2009-02-01

    Lichens are reputedly slow growing and become unhealthy or die in response to supplements of the usual limiting resources, such as water and nitrogen. We found, however, that the tripartite cyanobacterial lichen Lobaria pulmonaria doubled in annual biomass growth after a single 20-minute immersion in a phosphorus solution (K2HPO4), as compared to controls receiving no supplemental phosphorus. This stimulation of cyanolichens by phosphorus has direct relevance to community and population ecology of lichens, including improving models of lichen performance in relation to air quality, improving forest management practices affecting old-growth associated cyanolichens, and understanding the distribution and abundance of cyanolichens on the landscape. Phosphorus may be as important a stimulant to cyanobacterial-rich lichen communities as it is to cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Brood pheromone effects on colony protein supplement consumption and growth in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a subtropical winter climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya; Sagili, Ramesh R; Metz, Bradley N

    2008-12-01

    Fatty acid esters extractable from the surface of honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), larvae, called brood pheromone, significantly increase rate of colony growth in the spring and summer when flowering plant pollen is available in the foraging environment. Increased colony growth rate occurs as a consequence of increased pollen intake through mechanisms such as increasing number of pollen foragers and pollen load weights returned. Here, we tested the hypothesis that addition of brood pheromone during the winter pollen dearth period of a humid subtropical climate increases rate of colony growth in colonies provisioned with a protein supplement. Experiments were conducted in late winter (9 February-9 March 2004) and mid-winter (19 January-8 February 2005). In both years, increased brood area, number of bees, and amount of protein supplement consumption were significantly greater in colonies receiving daily treatments of brood pheromone versus control colonies. Amount of extractable protein from hypopharyngeal glands measured in 2005 was significantly greater in bees from pheromone-treated colonies. These results suggest that brood pheromone may be used as a tool to stimulate colony growth in the southern subtropical areas of the United States where the package bee industry is centered and a large proportion of migratory colonies are overwintered.

  9. Resveratrol supplementation did not improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia: results from a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARINE ZORTEA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is associated with psychotic experiences and cognitive deficits. Therefore, cognitive function is one of the most critical determinants of quality of life in this pathology. Resveratrol has been related with neuroprotective action but there are no studies evaluating resveratrol in schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on cognition in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: This is a 1-month randomized, double-blind controlled trial (NCT 02062190, in which 19 men with diagnosis of schizophrenia, aged 18 to 65 years, were assigned to a resveratrol supplement group (200mg or placebo group (200mg, with a 1-month follow-up. Applying a series of cognitive tests assessed neuropsychology performance (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale assessed psychopathology severity. Results: There were no significant improvement in neuropsychology performance (episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility and psychopathology severity after 1-month of resveratrol supplementation (p>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have shown that 1-month of a resveratrol supplementation (200 mg/day did not improve episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility as compared with placebo in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Resveratrol Supplementation Did Not Improve Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortea, Karine; Franco, Viviane C; Guimarães, Paula; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with psychotic experiences and cognitive deficits. Therefore, cognitive function is one of the most critical determinants of quality of life in this pathology. Resveratrol has been related to neuroprotective action, but there are no studies evaluating resveratrol in SZ. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on cognition in individuals with SZ. This is a 1-month randomized, double-blind, and controlled trial (NCT 02062190), in which 19 men with diagnosis of SZ, aged 18-65 years, were assigned to a resveratrol supplementation group (200 mg) or placebo group (200 mg), with a 1-month follow-up. Applying a series of cognitive tests assessed neuropsychology performance (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale assessed psychopathology severity. There were no significant improvement in neuropsychology performance (episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention, and mental flexibility) and psychopathology severity after 1 month of resveratrol supplementation ( P  > 0.05). In conclusion, we have shown that 1 month of a resveratrol supplementation (200 mg/day) did not improve episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention, and mental flexibility as compared with placebo in patients with SZ.

  11. The Effects of Natural Zeolit Supplemented into Litter on Growth Performance and Welfare of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Erol BİNTAŞ; Kamil Küçükyılmaz; Mehmet Bozkurt; Abdullah Uğur Çatlı; Mustafa Çınar; Sabri Topbaş; Bahattin Koçer; Gökhan Ege

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinoptiolite (a natural zeolite) in two addition level (3 kg or 6 kg) and two particle size (ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 mm or 0.5 to 1.0 mm) as litter supplement on the growth performance, litter dry matter, ammonium release and foot pad lesion score of broilers. One thousand and eight hundred, one-day-old chickens were divided into five treatment groups with six replicates of 60 chicks. Bird density was 15/ m2 in floor pens where pine sha...

  12. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors

  13. Performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of supplemented agricultural waste in mushroom cultivation can be one of the environmentally friendly strategies for poverty alleviation. The study evaluated the performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk supplemented with varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. A completely random design was used for the experiments. It was observed that Pleurotus pulmonarius was significantly affected by varying levels of supplementation, as 20% WB supplementation encountered higher contamination. The lower supplementation levels gave significantly shorter colonisation period with better mycelial growth rate (MGR. The 2% MF, 2% WB and 4% WB gave significantly higher MGR and faster colonisation. The shortest pinning time (TP was observed at the first flush with the minimum of 2 days. Higher supplementation levels gave maximum yield and biological efficiency (BE. With further increase of supplementation above a 12% WB and 14% MF, the BE and yield declined. Lower supplementation levels resulted in quicker colonisation period and improved growth rate, whereas high supplementation gave better production in terms of yield and BE. Therefore, for the purpose of maximum production, 12% WB and 14% MF may be recommended while for fast production time, 2% MF and 2% WB are recommended.

  14. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  15. Fucoidan Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Exhibits Anti-Fatigue Action in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan (FCD is a well-known bioactive constituent of seaweed extract that possess a wide spectrum of activities in biological systems, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and modulation of immune systems. However, evidence on the effects of FCD on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. Therefore, we investigated the potential beneficial effects of FCD on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from three groups (n = 8 per group were orally administered FCD for 21 days at 0, 310 and 620 mg/kg/day, which were, respectively, designated the vehicle, FCD-1X and FCD-2X groups. The results indicated that the FCD supplementations increased the grip strength (p = 0.0002 and endurance swimming time (p = 0.0195 in a dose-depend manner. FCD treatments also produced dose-dependent decreases in serum levels of lactate (p < 0.0001 and ammonia (p = 0.0025, and also an increase in glucose level (p < 0.0001 after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, FCD supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. Therefore, we suggest that long-term supplementation with FCD can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  16. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs: I. Feedlot growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R

    2017-08-01

    Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis). Treatment structure was a 4 × 2 factorial: 4 concentrations of ground juniper (JN: 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 concentrations of urea (UR: 1 or 3% of DM). Lamb growth traits were evaluated on d 0, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40; blood serum was evaluated on d 6 to 8, 20 to 22, and 34 (at h 3 and 6), and feces was evaluated on d 35. Compared to lambs fed all of the other treatments, lambs fed JN60UR1 or JN60UR3 had reduced supplement DMI (negative quadratic, = 0.007). Hay and total DMI were variable across day (JN × UR × day, 0.10). A JN × day interaction was detected ( 0.17) ADG and G:F. Lamb G:F fluctuated across day (JN × day, = 0.007), but the JN × day quadratic trend ( urea N quadratically increased ( urea N resulted from a greater decline from 3 to 6 h after feeding in lambs supplemented with UR1 vs. UR3. Increasing JN concentration tended to quadratically increase ( = 0.09) fecal DM and linearly decrease ( = 0.002) fecal N, but an effect due to dietary UR was not detected ( > 0.34). Results indicated that daily supplement DMI was restricted only by using JN60. However, a 60% JN-based supplement will not make an effective rangeland supplement for growing ewe lambs, and using 3% UR should not be considered, especially since daily UR intake was not restricted enough to be considered safe.

  17. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongran Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elk velvet antler (EVA has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age, and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  18. Effect of dietary trace mineral supplementation and a multi-element trace mineral injection on shipping response and growth performance of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genther, O N; Hansen, S L

    2014-06-01

    To examine the effect of trace mineral (TM) status and TM injection on growth performance and carcass characteristics in beef cattle, 40 steers were used in a growing and finishing study. Steers were stratified by weight (323 ± 14.8 kg) and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments for an 84-d depletion period: 1) a corn silage-based diet supplemented with Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn to meet or exceed NRC recommendations (CON), or 2) CON diet without supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, or Zn but supplemented with 300 mg Fe and 5 mg Mo/kg diet DM as dietary TM antagonists (DEF) to induce mild deficiencies. To mimic shipping stress, steers were shipped for 20 h on d 88 and were received back on d 89. On d 91 an equal number of steers from both dietary treatments were injected with sterilized saline (SAL) or Multimin 90 (MM; containing 15, 60, 10, and 5 mg/mL of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se, respectively) at a dose of 1 mL/68 kg BW. Steers were fed a common finishing diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu, 20 mg Mn, 0.1 mg Se, and 30 mg Zn/kg diet DM for the 90-d repletion period. Steers were harvested 91 d postinjection and carcass data were collected. During the depletion period, diet did not affect BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F (P > 0.20). During the shipping period (defined as the time between 2-d consecutive weights on d 83 and 84 and d 90 and 91), DEF steers tended to lose more weight per day than CON steers (P = 0.06) and had lesser DMI (P = 0.03), suggesting that response to shipping stress may be modulated by TM status. During the repletion period, ADG of DEF + MM steers was greater (P = 0.03) compared with DEF + SAL and was not different (P = 0.92) among CON + MM and CON + SAL steers. There was no effect of diet or injection on HCW or dressing percentage (P > 0.20). Within the CON group, TM injection decreased yield grade (P = 0.03) but did not affect yield grade of DEF steers (P > 0.20). Steers given TM injection had a larger rib eye area (P = 0.04) regardless of previous diet. Interestingly, both diet and

  19. Comparison of antibiotic supplementation versus a yeast-based prebiotic on the cecal microbiome of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Sun Ae; Christensen, Karen; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are defined as fermentable food ingredients that selectively stimulate beneficial bacteria in the lower gastrointestinal tract of the host. The purpose of this study was to assess growth performance of broilers and the cecal microbial populations of an antibiotic, BMD50, supplemented birds compared to broiler chickens fed the prebiotic, Biolex® MB40. Weight response data including feed conversion ratios (FCR), carcasses without giblets (WOG), wing, skin, white meat were collected during processing. Extracted DNA from cecal contents was utilized for microbiome analysis via an Illumina Miseq. In conclusion, white meat yield of Biolex® MB40 supplemented group exhibited significant improvement compared to both negative control (NC) and BMD50 supplemented groups. In addition, antibiotic significantly decreased level of Lactobacillus in 2 wk compared to other groups. A significantly higher percentage of Campylobacter was observed from the 4 wk old birds treated with antibiotic BMD50 compared to the NC and prebiotic group. Retention of broiler performance and improvement of white meat yield suggest that the prebiotic MB40 appears to be a potential alternative to replace the antibiotic growth promoter.

  20. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A 14-mo zinc-supplementation trial in apparently healthy Chilean preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, M; Castillo-Duran, C; Lara, X; Codoceo, J; Rebolledo, A; Atalah, E

    1997-12-01

    Apparently healthy preschool children (46 boys, 52 girls) aged 27-50 mo from low socioeconomic conditions who attended daycare centers in Santiago participated in a 14-mo long double-blind zinc supplementation trial. Unlike most previous studies, no additional inclusion criteria such as short stature or slow growth rate were considered. Subjects were pair matched according to sex and age and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the supplemented group, which received 10 mg Zn/d, and the placebo group. Selected anthropometric, clinical, dietary, biochemical, and functional indexes were determined at the beginning of the study and after 6 and 14 mo of intervention. Actual dietary zinc intake was 66% of the recommended dietary allowance. Height gain after 14 mo was on average 0.5 cm higher in the supplemented group (P = 0.10). The response, however, was different between sexes. Boys from the supplemented group gained 0.9 cm more than those in the placebo group (P = 0.045). No effect was seen in girls. Although no significant differences were observed in the rest of the variables studied, trends (0.05 < P < 0.10) in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group for increased midarm muscle area in boys, improved response to tuberculin, and reduced rates of parasite reinfestation were noted. We conclude that in preschool children of low socioeconomic status, zinc is a limiting factor in the expression of growth potential.

  2. Influences of an essential oil mixture supplementation to corn versus wheat-based practical diets on growth, organ size, intestinal morphology and immune response of male and female broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Coven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.

  3. Complementary feeding messages that target cultural barriers enhance both the use of lipid-based nutrient supplements and underlying feeding practices to improve infant diets in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keriann H; Muti, Monica; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Madzima, Rufaro C; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Supplementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LiNS) is promoted as an approach to prevent child undernutrition and growth faltering. Previous LiNS studies have not tested the effects of improving the underlying diet prior to providing LiNS. Formative research was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to develop feeding messages to improve complementary feeding with and without LiNS. Two rounds of Trials of Improved Practices were conducted with mothers of infants aged 6-12 months to assess the feasibility of improving infant diets using (1) only locally available resources and (2) locally available resources plus 20 g of LiNS as Nutributter®/day. Common feeding problems were poor dietary diversity and low energy density. Popular improved practices were to process locally available foods so that infants could swallow them and add processed local foods to enrich porridges. Consumption of beans, fruits, green leafy vegetables, and peanut/seed butters increased after counselling (P < 0.05). Intakes of energy, protein, vitamin A, folate, calcium, iron and zinc from complementary foods increased significantly after counselling with or without the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). Intakes of fat, folate, iron, and zinc increased only (fat) or more so (folate, iron, and zinc) with the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). While provision of LiNS was crucial to ensure adequate intakes of iron and zinc, educational messages that were barrier-specific and delivered directly to mothers were crucial to improving the underlying diet. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Role of dietary ginger Zingiber officinale in improving growth performances and immune functions of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding. Results showed that growth parameters such as final weight gain (93.47 ± 1.73 g) and specific growth rate (3.41 ± 0.14) were significantly higher in G8 than in the control. Among the skin mucosal immune parameters examined, lysozyme (46.5 ± 3.8 U mg(-1)), immunoglobulin level (8.9 ± 0.4 unit-mg mL(-1)), protein level (44.3 ± 2.2 mg mL(-1)) were significantly higher in G8. However, alkaline phosphatase activity (171.6 ± 10.2 IU L(-1)) was high (P ginger supplemented diet exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (65.52%) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplements of ginger (at 0.8%) can promote growth performance, skin mucus immune parameters, and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Therefore, ginger represents a promising food additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral Supplementation with Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate, Arginine, and Glutamine Improves Lean Body Mass in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy C; Hunter, Gary R; Goss, Amy M; Gower, Barbara A

    2018-04-19

    Oral intake of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine may ameliorate muscle loss by stimulating protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation while simultaneously decreasing inflammation. Previous studies provide evidence for improvement in body composition with dietary supplementation of these ingredients among patients with muscle-wasting diseases. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of this amino acid mixture on lean body mass, muscle volume, and physical function among healthy older adults. Thirty-one community-dwelling men and women, aged 65-89 years, were randomized to either two oral doses of the amino acid supplement (totaling 3 g HMB, 14 g arginine, 14 g glutamine) or placebo daily for six months. At baseline and month six, lean body mass was measured by air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and four-compartment model. Muscle volume of quadriceps was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and participants performed a battery of tests to assess physical function. As compared to the placebo group, the treatment group exhibited improvement in a timed stair climb (p =.016) as well as significant increases in lean body mass by all methods of assessment (p lean mass in the supplement group only (p =.035). However, no change was observed in MRI-derived quadriceps volume. Dietary supplementation with HMB, arginine, and glutamine improved total body lean mass among a small sample of healthy older adults. Further research is indicated to elucidate mechanisms of action and to determine whether supplementation may benefit frail elders. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no. NCT01057082.

  6. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  7. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  8. Apolipoprotein E4 influences growth and cognitive responses to micronutrient supplementation in shantytown children from northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet S Mitter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E4 may benefit children during early periods of life when the body is challenged by infection and nutritional decline. We examined whether apolipoprotein E4 affects intestinal barrier function, improving short-term growth and long-term cognitive outcomes in Brazilian shantytown children. METHODS: A total of 213 Brazilian shantytown children with below-median height-for-age z-scores (HAZ received 200,000 IU of retinol (every four months, zinc (40 mg twice weekly, or both for one year, with half of each group receiving glutamine supplementation for 10 days. Height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, weight-forheight z-scores, and lactulose:mannitol ratios were assessed during the initial four months of treatment. An average of four years (range 1.4-6.6 later, the children underwent cognitive testing to evaluate non-verbal intelligence, coding, verbal fluency, verbal learning, and delayed verbal learning. Apolipoprotein E4 carriage was determined by PCR analysis for 144 children. RESULTS: Thirty-seven children were apolipoprotein E4(+, with an allele frequency of 13.9%. Significant associations were found for vitamin A and glutamine with intestinal barrier function. Apolipoprotein E4(+ children receiving glutamine presented significant positive Pearson correlations between the change in height-for-age z-scores over four months and delayed verbal learning, along with correlated changes over the same period in weight-for-age z-scores and weight-for-height z-scores associated with non-verbal intelligence quotients. There was a significant correlation between vitamin A supplementation of apolipoprotein E4(+ children and improved delta lactulose/mannitol. Apolipoprotein E4(- children, regardless of intervention, exhibited negative Pearson correlations between the change in lactulose-to-mannitol ratio over four months and verbal learning and non-verbal intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: During development, apolipoprotein E4 may

  9. Efeitos da suplementação com zinco sobre o crescimento, sistema imunológico e diabetes Zinc supplementation and its effects on growth, immune system, and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Cavalcanti Maurício de Sena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O zinco apresenta funções catalíticas, estruturais e reguladoras, sendo componente de várias enzimas. Os sintomas observados na deficiência deste elemento incluem lesões de pele, anorexia, retardo do crescimento, hipogonadismo e alteração na função imune. O objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar as funções metabólicas e funcionais do zinco, enfatizando as conseqüências da deficiência e os aspectos que justificam os estudos envolvendo a suplementação com zinco e seus efeitos sobre o crescimento, sistema imunológico e diabetes. Considerando que algumas doenças predispõem o organismo à deficiência de zinco, a suplementação, isoladamente ou associada a outros elementos, demonstra benefícios, especialmente no aumento da velocidade de crescimento, funcionamento do sistema imunológico, diminuição das afecções respiratórias e controle das diarréias. A suplementação em pacientes com diabetes está relacionada com as variáveis do controle metabólico e as concentrações plasmáticas e eritrocitárias de zinco. As estratégias de suplementação com zinco, em populações de risco, devem ser implementadas, considerando-se as doses adequadas de ingestão.Zinc has catalytic, structural and regulatory functions and is a component of many enzymes. Skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, hypogonadism, immune suppression function are the symptoms caused by zinc deficiency. This review aims to present the structural and metabolic zinc functions, emphasising the consequences of zinc deficiency and the aspects that justify the studies on zinc supplementation, affecting growth, immune system and diabetes. Considering that some diseases predispose the organism to zinc deficiency, supplementation, either in isolation or in conjunction with other elements, demonstrates benefits, specifically in improved growth rate, immune system function, reduced respiratory infections and diarrhoea control. In diabetic patients, zinc

  10. Glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation enhances performance of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Olubodun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Day-old (day 1 commercial broiler chickens were fed i basal diet (control, ii basal diet +0.5% AminoGut (AG, or iii basal diet +1% AG from 1 to 42 d of age under the hot and humid tropical environment. AminoGut is a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of L-glutamine (Gln and L-glutamic (Glu acid. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the starter (1 to 21 d and overall (1 to 42 d periods improved linearly and quadratically with AG supplementation when compared to control. Supplementing birds with AG significantly reduced overall mortality rate. At 21 and 42 d of age, intestinal (duodenum and ileum villi height and crypt depth showed both linear and quadratic positive responses to AG supplementation. Intestinal amylase activity increased linearly and quadratically on d 21, and linearly only on d 42. In conclusion, Gln and Glu supplementation was beneficial in improving the growth performance and survivability of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical environment.

  11. Effects of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on the small intestinal mucosa barrier in weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study was to investigate the effects of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln and glutamine (Gln supplementation on the intestinal mucosa barrier in piglets. Methods A total of 180 barrows with initial weight 10.01±0.03 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, and each treatment consisted of three pens and twenty pigs per pen. The piglets of three groups were fed with control diet [0.62% alanine (Ala], Ala-Gln diet (0.5% Ala-Gln, Gln diet (0.34% Gln and 0.21% Ala, respectively. Results The results showed that in comparison with control diet, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased the height of villi in duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05, Gln supplementation increased the villi height of jejunum (p<0.05, Ala-Gln supplementation up-regulated the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05, raised the mRNA expressions of Claudin-1, Occludin, zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1 and the protein levels of Occludin, ZO-1 in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05, Ala-Gln supplementation enlarged the number of goblet cells in duodenal and ileal epithelium (p<0.05, Gln increased the number of goblet cells in duodenal epithelium (p<0.05 and Ala-Gln supplementation improved the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in the jejunal mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion These results demonstrated that dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could maintain the integrity of small intestine and promote the functions of intestinal mucosa barriers in piglets.

  12. Diets supplemented with seaweed affect metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses, but not individual growth rate in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria J.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days with th...

  13. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND SWIM PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Hopwood

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle

  15. Chitinolytic Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 isolated from Chilika lake, India enhances plant growth and biocontrol efficacy through chitin supplementation against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Shrivastava, Pooja; Sivakumar, G

    2015-08-01

    A chitinolytic actinomycete Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 was isolated from water sample of Chilika lake, India and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It showed in vitro antifungal activity against the sclerotia producing pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a dual culture assay and by chitinase enzyme production in a chitin supplemented minimal broth. Moreover, isolate S5MW2 was further characterized for biocontrol (BC) and plant growth promoting features in a greenhouse experiment with or without colloidal chitin (CC). Results of greenhouse experiment showed that CC supplementation with S5MW2 showed a significant growth of tomato plants and superior disease reduction as compared to untreated control and without CC treated plants. Moreover, higher accumulation of chitinase also recovered in the CC supplemented plants. Significant effect of CC also concurred with the Analysis of Variance of greenhouse parameters. These results show that the a marine antagonist S5MW2 has BC efficiency against R. solani and chitinase enzyme played important role in plant resistance.

  16. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation may improve recovery and muscle adaptations after resistance training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagner R; Belozo, Felipe L; Micheletti, Thayana O; Conrado, Marcelo; Stout, Jeffrey R; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Gonzalez, Adam M

    2017-09-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans. The search was conducted using Medline and Google Scholar databases for the terms beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, HMB free acid, exercise, resistance exercise, strength training, and HMB supplementation. Only research articles published from 1996 to 2016 in English language were considered for the analysis. Nine studies met the criteria for inclusion in the analyses. Most studies included resistance-trained men, and the primary intervention strategy involved administration of 3g of HMB-FA per day. In conjunction with resistance training, HMB-FA supplementation may attenuate markers of muscle damage, augment acute immune and endocrine responses, and enhance training-induced muscle mass and strength. HMB-FA supplementation may also improve markers of aerobic fitness when combined with high-intensity interval training. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to determine the overall efficacy of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary inclusion of chromium to improve growth performance and immune-competence of broilers under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa M. Norain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with chromium chloride, CrCl3.6H2O (2mg kg–1 basal diet on the performance and immune response of broiler chickens under heat stress condition (25-43°C. A total of 80 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308 were assigned to two treatment groups according to a completely randomized design. Each treatment consisted of four equal replicates, each contained ten chicks. Chicks were fed on basal diets supplemented with different concentrations of chromium (0 and 2 mg kg–1 CrCl3 from 1 to 35 days of age. Chromium supplementation as feed additives resulted in a slightly lower rectal temperature, and significantly (P<0.05 lower respiration rate for the broiler chickens received diet supplemented with chromium compared to the control (0 mg kg–1 CrCl3. Dietary chromium supplementation increased final body weight (BW at the end of the production period (5 weeks. Average weight gain was significantly (P<0.05 higher in chickens fed on chromium supplemented diet. Feed intake was not influenced by dietary chromium supplementation, however, the efficiency of feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 in chromium supplemented chickens. Furthermore, dressing percentage was significantly (P<0.05 higher in Cr-treated chickens compared to control chickens. Chromium supplementation significantly (P<0.05 improved the immune response to Newcastle Disease Virus vaccine (NDV. The present results suggest that dietary chromium supplementation provides a good nutritional management approach to ameliorate heat stress induced depression in production performance and immune response of broiler chickens. 

  18. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  19. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. © L. Gárate-Gallardo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  20. Effects of dietary dandelion extracts on growth performance, body composition, plasma biochemical parameters, immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhenzhu; Chen, Shu; Chen, Silin; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Zou, Cuiyun; Liu, Qingying; Ye, Huaqun; Lin, Heizhao; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dandelion extracts (DE) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, plasma biochemical indices, immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet supplemented with DE at 0, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 10.00 g kg -1 were fed to golden pompano for 8 weeks. The study indicated that dietary supplementation with DE could significantly improve final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency ratio (FER), feed intake (FI), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein deposit rate (PDR) (P Vibrio harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed DE supplement (P growth performance, feed utilization, body protein deposit, immune ability, hepatic and plasma antioxidative enzyme activities and improve its resistance to infection by Vibrio harveyi. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ≥ 0

  2. Lamb survival, glutathione redox state and immune function of neonates and lambs from periparturient Merino ewes supplemented with rumen-protected methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shimin; Lei, Jason; Hancock, Serina; Scanlan, Victoria; Broomfield, Steve; Currie, Andrew; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Wool growth in Merino sheep demands a high level of sulphur amino acids, competing with body growth and the immune system, which may play a role in increasing the risk of lamb mortality. The hypothesis that dietary supplementation of methionine (Met) to Merino ewes during the late stages of pregnancy will improve foetal growth and alter immune competency of ewes and lambs was tested in a total of 120 grazing, pregnant Merino ewes. Sixty ewes were group-supplemented with 6.3 g/d rumen-protected Met (Met-Plus) per sheep from day 111 of pregnancy until day 7 after lambing, and the other 60 animals were used as a non-supplemented Control. Lambs from Met-supplemented ewes tended to be 10% heavier than Control lambs (p = 0.10), which did not affected the survival rate at weaning significantly. The supplemented ewes had slightly higher concentrations of total glutathione (GSH) in plasma at lambing (p ewes was elevated at lambing (p ewes were undergoing increased oxidative stress. The Met supplementation elevated the total IgG concentration (p < 0.05) in lambs aged 4 and 6 weeks, but did not change the IgG concentrations in colostrum and in plasma of 1-week-old lambs, and white blood cell counts and leukocyte types. The trend towards higher lamb birth weights in the Met-supplemented group requires further investigation as this may influence survival at birth and weaning.

  3. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. This is an update of a previously published review. To establish whether in people with cystic fibrosis, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life. To assess adverse effects associated with using these supplements. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register comprising references from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted companies marketing oral calorie supplements.Last search: 18 October 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing use of oral calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with no specific intervention or additional nutritional advice in people with cystic fibrosis. We independently selected the included trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the authors of included trials and obtained additional information for two trials. We identified 21 trials and included three, reporting results from 131 participants lasting between three months and one year. Two trials compared supplements to additional nutritional advice and one to no intervention. Two of the included trials recruited only children. In one trial the risk of bias was low across all domains, in a second trial the risk of bias was largely unclear and in the third mainly low. Blinding of participants was unclear in two of the trials. Also, in one trial the clinical condition of groups appeared to be unevenly balanced at baseline and in another trial there were

  4. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  5. Dietary Chlorella supplementation effect on immune responses and growth performances of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, S; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Chlorella sp. supplementation on immune response and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time. Allotted in 36 pens, a total of 180 newly hatched chicks were assigned in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with d...

  6. Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Diet on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder (GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities. A total 100 one-day old Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in cages as 10 birds/m2 and 15 birds/m2. The chicks received feed as (i basal diet + 0 g/kg garlic powder and (ii basal diet + 5g/kg garlic powder supplementation from 1-42d. At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density (HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters. In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition.

  7. Thermogenic Blend Alone or in Combination with Whey Protein Supplement Stimulates Fat Metabolism and Improves Body Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M.; Vollmer, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii, dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J young adult male mice (n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Results: Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline (P blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone (P blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. SUMMARY 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel blend stimulated thermogenesis as shown by the increased thermal imaging and UCP1 protein

  8. Energy and tannin extract supplementation for dairy cows on annual winter pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pansard Alves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supplementation can increase the consumption of metabolizable energy and substrate for microbial growth, while condensed tannins aid in increasing the duodenal flow of foodborne metabolizable proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation and the inclusion of tannin extract (TE from Acacia mearnsii (Weibull Black, Tanac S. A., Montenegro, Brazil on the production performance of dairy cows grazing on winter pastures. Nine multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were distributed in a 3 × 3 Latin square experimental design over three periods of 28 days (21 adaptation and 7 sampling. The treatments were: without supplementation (WS, supplementation with 4 kg of corn grain (CG, and corn grain + 80 g of tannin extract (TE. The dry matter (DM intake from pastures was similar among treatments, but the consumption of DM of the supplement was higher in the CG treatment than that in the TE treatment. The total DM intake was higher for the supplemented animals (17.3 kg?day-1 than that for the unsupplemented animals (14.9 kg?day-1 and in the TE treatment (17.7 kg?day-1 than in the CG treatment (16.7 kg day-1. Milk production increased from the unsupplemented to the supplemented animals (20.9 to 23.5 kg, respectively, while the content of urea N in the milk decreased (12.6 to 10.5 mg?100 mL-1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production or content of milk urea N between the CG and TE treatments. Energy supplementation is a tool for improving the nutritional profile and the performance of dairy cows in mid lactation grazing on annual winter pastures, while tannin extract aids in improving the energy balance.

  9. Oral protein calorie supplementation for children with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Damian K; Smith, Joanne; Saljuqi, Tawab; Watling, Ruth M

    2015-05-27

    Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, reduced appetite, glucose intolerance, bloating and eating behaviour problems. Trials of oral protein calorie supplements in children with chronic diseases were identified through comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies marketing these products were also contacted.Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 24 February 2015. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing oral protein calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with existing conventional therapy (including advice on improving nutritional intake from food or no specific intervention) in children with chronic disease. We independently assessed the outcomes: indices of nutrition and growth; anthropometric measures of body composition; calorie and nutrient intake (total from oral protein calorie supplements and food); eating behaviour; compliance; quality of life; specific adverse effects; disease severity scores; and mortality; we also assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. Four studies (187 children) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were carried out in children with cystic fibrosis and one study included children with paediatric malignant disease. Overall there was a low risk of bias for blinding and incomplete outcome data.Two studies had a high

  10. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  11. Zinc supplementation to improve mucositis and dermatitis in patients after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers: A double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.-C.; Que, Jenny; Lin, L.-K.; Lin, F.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether zinc supplementation can accelerate the healing of mucositis and dermatitis after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In this double-blind study, patients were placed into two randomized groups (experimental and control) of 50 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The experimental group received a standard dose of a zinc supplement, and the control group was given a placebo. Results: Patients in the control group developed Grade 2 mucositis and dermatitis earlier and sooner than patients in the experimental group. There was also a significant difference in the development of Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis between the two groups. Patients in the experimental group were found to have milder mucositis and dermatitis. Zinc supplementation did not show much benefit in those patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy or make a substantial impact on weight changes. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation used in conjunction with radiotherapy could postpone the development of severe mucositis and dermatitis for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Zinc supplementation can also alleviate the degree of mucositis and dermatitis. The impact of zinc on tumor growth and patient survival is under further investigation

  12. Effect of supplementation on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2013-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of a feed supplement on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) heifers with an initial weight and age of 195 ± 43 kg and 190 ± 52 days. Treatments included were: Exp. 1: supplementation with beet pulp (BP): 2 kg/day per head v. ad libitum intake; Exp. 2: supplementation ad libitum with BP v. a mixture of BP and soybean meal (SBM; BP/SBM ratio of 80/20; FW (fresh weight) basis); Exp. 3: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/formaldehyde-treated SBM (BP/FSBM); Exp. 4: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture with a similar protein content (125 g DVE per kg dry matter (DM)), consisting of 80/20 BP/SBM v. 92/8 BP/FSBM; Exp. 5: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/DDGS (dried distillers grains and solubles; 70/30, FW basis); and Exp. 6: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of 80/20 BP/SBM v. maize silage (MS) and SBM, on the basis of a similar protein concentration in the DM as the 80/20 BP/SBM supplement, and fed at a similar amount of DM as in the BP/SBM group. Supplementing BP ad libitum did not affect daily gain (0.54 v. 0.48 kg) and partial feed conversion (3.62 kg on average) compared with 2 kg/day. Supplying SBM besides BP increased growth rate compared with BP (0.87 v. 0.62 kg/day; P 0.10), but blood urea levels were reduced by FSBM (P < 0.05). DDGS tended to increase growth rate (0.77 v. 0.59 kg/day; P < 0.10) compared with BP/SBM, without effect on partial feed conversion. Replacing BP by MS did not affect daily gain, but partial feed conversion tended to be higher (3.21 v. 3.60 kg/kg body weight (BW) gain; P = 0.062). Increasing the supplement (80/20 BP/SBM) level from 3 to 4 kg daily, corresponding to 1.02% and 1.18% of the mean BW, respectively, resulted in a tendency (P = 0.121) for an increased growth rate. Grazing BBDM heifers of <1 year of age necessitate extra

  13. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawadogo, G.J.; Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Yameogo, N.; Manirarora, J.N.; Toukour, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  14. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  15. Impact of enteral protein supplementation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrus DM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David M Barrus1, Joann Romano-Keeler2, Christopher Carr3, Kira Segebarth4, Betty Claxton2, William F Walsh2, Paul J Flakoll51Department of Neonatology, Saint Francis Hospital–Bartlett, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Surgery, Naval Hospital Bremerton, Bremerton, WA, 4Pediatric and Diabetes Specialists, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 5Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAObjective: The quantity of enteral protein supplementation required by premature infants to optimize growth has not been determined. This study compares the growth of premature infants fed the current standard intake of protein (3.5 g/kg/day with the growth of those fed a higher amount (4.0 g/kg/day.Study design: Fifty-two infants <1500 g and <33 weeks gestational age participated in a blinded, single-center, prospective randomized control trial to compare growth between two groups of different protein-intake levels. Primary outcomes were average daily weight gain (g/kg/day, head-circumference (cm/kg/week and linear growth velocity (cm/kg/week. Secondary outcomes were serum indices of protein tolerance and plasma amino acid concentrations.Results: Infants receiving higher amounts of protein had higher rates of growth for body weight (18.2 ± 0.7 versus 16.2 ± 1.0 g/kg/day; P < 0.05 and head circumference (0.87 ± 0.08 versus 0.62 ± 0.07 cm/kg/week; P < 0.05, with no differences in blood protein or plasma amino acid concentrations. Length of hospital stay was 14 days shorter for the higher-protein group (51.4 ± 4.0 versus 65.9 ± 6.3 days.Conclusion: Increasing premature infant enteral protein supplementation from a calculated intake of 3.5–4.0 g/kg/day improved growth in a safe manner.Keywords: human milk, human milk fortifier, growth, low birth weight

  16. Effect of Sea Tangle ( and Charcoal Supplementation as Alternatives to Antibiotics on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 growing ducks were assigned to five dietary treatments to study the effect of sea tangle and charcoal (STC supplementation on growth performance and meat characteristics in a completely randomized design. There were six replicates and five ducklings in each replication. The five dietary treatments were control, antibiotic, and 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% STC supplemented diets. No significant differences were found on ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed among treatments in different weeks. The overall (0 to 3 weeks ADFI decreased in antibiotic treatment (p<0.05 whereas the gain:feed increased significantly upon 1.0% STC supplementation compared to control (p<0.05. No significant variation was found in meat chemical composition except crude fat content which was high in 1.0% STC dietary group (p<0.05. Meat cholesterol was reduced in 0.1% STC group (p<0.05 compared to other dose levels while serum cholesterol was unaffected. High density lipoprotein (HDL content was high in 1.0% STC (p<0.05 and low density lipoprotein (LDL was low in 0.1% and 1.0% STC dietary groups (p = 0.06. No significant effect was found on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS of fresh meat, whereas the TBARS value of meat preserved for 1 week was reduced significantly in STC dietary groups (p<0.05. The 0.1% STC dietary group showed an increased myristic acid (p = 0.07 content whereas, the content of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids increased in STC supplementation than antibiotic group (p<0.05. An increased concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and a reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was found upon 1.0% STC supplementation compared to antibiotic dietary group (p<0.05. Therefore, 1.0% STC dietary supplementation can be used as alternatives to antibiotics in duck production.

  17. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( Padditive on formulations feed.

  18. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

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    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  19. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (Pgluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

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    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  1. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

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    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  2. Improvement in solvent tolerance by exogenous glycerol in Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Lim, B R; Park, Y J; Joo, W H

    2017-08-01

    Solvent hypertolerant Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 still has some underlying growth limitation in solvents. Therefore, efficient mass cultivation methods are needed to pursue its applications in biotechnology. Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 was cultured in a medium supplemented with 0·05 mol l -1 glycerol and cell survival was monitored during its cultivation in the presence of 1% (v/v) toluene. Exogenously supplemented glycerol provided more protection against damage caused by toluene stress and conferred higher solvent tolerance of Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 to toluene compared to control Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 without the supplementation of glycerol. This low-cost mass cultivation method can be used to efficiently apply solvent-tolerant bacteria in biotransformation and biodegradation. Protection against toluene and improvement in bacterial cell growth by supplementation of glycerol in the presence of toluene are demonstrated in this study. This result can be used to solve growth-related hindrances of solvent-tolerant bacteria and establish their low-cost mass cultivation, thereby broadening their industrial and environmental applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  4. 75 FR 56858 - Improvements to the Supplemental Security Income Program-Heroes Earnings Assistance and Relief...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2009-0017] RIN 0960-AH00 Improvements to the Supplemental Security Income Program--Heroes Earnings Assistance and Relief Tax Act of 2008...

  5. Evaluation of BSK-H Complete Medium Supplemented with Rabbit Serum and Sodium Bicarbonate for the Growth of Borrelia anserina

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    Bilal Aslam, Iftikhar Hussain*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood and Ahrar Khan1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the effect of 3 formulations Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK medium on the growth of Borrelia (B. anserina, the causative agent of avian borreliosis. Three different formulations of BSK medium (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete medium were prepared. For the isolation of B. anserina, Argas ticks were inoculated in all the three (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete formulations of BSK medium. All the samples were also observed for the impact of BSK medium on the growth (Generation time, Growth per hour, Specific growth rate of B. anserina. Phase contrast microscopy was performed for the observation of viable B. anserina cells, and additional confirmation of all the isolates was done by performing indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. BSK-H complete medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum and sodium bicarbonate was found best when compared to two other formulations of BSK medium with respect to the isolation, generation time and growth rate of Borrelia spirochetes.

  6. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

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    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  7. Performance and nutritional evaluation of beef cattle raised on pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilza Andréia da Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and nutritional traits of beef cattle raised on pastures, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-four crossbred young bulls with predominance of Zebu breed at initial average age of 120±30 days were used in the experiment. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with four ages of castration and two supplementation systems. The animals were distributed into four groups and placed on Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pastures, where they were fed concentrate supplementation or mineral salt ad libtum (control. Animals were castrated at 120, 240 and 360 days of age with average body weight of 115, 175 and 276 kg, castrated or not, in each supplementation group. Concentrate supplement composition and the amount supplied to the animals varied according to the time of the year and development phase of the animals. Trials were carried out to evaluate nutritional variables in each of the following phases: suckling, growth in the dry season and growth in the dry/rainy transition season. Concentrate supplementation improved the use of pasture, although it may have caused substitutive effect in all seasons evaluated. Castration of the animals before the dry season impaired animal development until the following dry/rainy transition season, especially when carried out during weaning. Concentrate supply may reduce some effects of this stress.

  8. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P  0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary probiotic supplementation improved gut amylase to trypsin ratio in European seabass reared at different temperatures and survival after handling stress

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    Luís Filipe Ferreira Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics and chemical treatments are often used as disease control strategy. A prophylactic and alternative method to this chemical approach are the probiotics [1]. Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host" (FAO, 2001. The benefits of probiotic treatments are improvements in host nutritional retention [2], antagonistic properties to bacterial pathogen proliferation [3], modulation of immune responses [4], among others. Temperature plays a major role in dietary nutrient utilization and immune responses in fish, and have a modulatory effect on probiotic activity in intestine. The current study evaluated the use of a dietary probiotic supplementation in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, one of the most important fish species in Southern Europe. Fish were fed on a multi-species probiotic (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. , reared under 3 different temperatures (17, 20 and 23 ºC for 70 days. Fish were pair-fed, fixed to the voluntary feed intake of fish reared at 17 º C, in order to have similar probiotic intake among the temperature groups. Final body weight tripled initial weight (12.7 to 30.7g. At the end of the growth trial, all fish were subjected to a handling stress, in which stocking density increased by 6 fold (from 4 kg/m3 to 25 kg/m3, followed by a 15 min chase with a pole. Growth performance was not affected by the dietary treatment. Post-stress cumulative mortality were significantly higher in the 17ºC control group (figure 1A. Digestive enzymes activity were significantly affected by temperature and diet interaction. The activity ratio of amylase to trypsin (figure 1B increased with temperature and dietary probiotic supplementation, an indication that probiotic treatment at 23oC have a positive influence on the metabolic flexibility of carbohydrate-protein utilization. Non-specific immune response (ACH50

  10. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

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    Ping Zhou

    rapamycin (mTOR, eIF-4E binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (P<0.001. There were no interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation for all traits. In conclusion, dietary protein levels and CS supplementation influenced growth and protein metabolism through independent mechanisms in pigs. In addition, LP diets supplemented with EAA did not affect growth performance and other traits except the concentrations of SS and PUN probably through maintenance of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Moreover, CS supplementation improved growth performance by increasing plasma IGF-1 concentrations possibly through alterations of mTOR and Akt/FOXO signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation: we must not fail our children!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Rosalyn; Rehm, Andreas; Johal, Simran; Nadler, Robert

    2015-05-01

    There is increasing concern that vitamin D deficiency poses a major health problem for children. Deficiency can cause hypocalcemic seizures, growth disturbances, and rickets and may influence diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Reduced vitamin D levels in children presenting to pediatric orthopedic services are common.In the United Kingdom, recommendations on vitamin D supplementation are set by the Department of Health (DoH) and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. These state that all children aged 6 months to 5 years ought to receive 7 to 8.5 μg of vitamin D daily.We carried out a survey of 203 parents attending our pediatric and pediatric orthopedic and fracture clinics to evaluate parental awareness of the DoH recommendations on vitamin D supplementation for children and to assess the extent to which children were receiving vitamin D supplements.About 85.71% of parents were not aware of the recommendations. Only 14.29% stated that they were aware of the benefits of vitamin D for their children and just 17.73% of children were receiving vitamin D supplementation; 17 via formula milk and 18 via multivitamin formulations.Parents are generally not aware about vitamin D supplementation because of a lack of information with the high rates of reported suboptimal vitamin D levels amongst children not being addressed resulting in increased health risks to our children. Major improvements are needed in the implementation of supplementation at all points of contact between parents and health-care professionals.

  12. Vitamin D Supplementation: We Must Not Fail Our Children!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Rosalyn; Rehm, Andreas; Johal, Simran; Nadler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is increasing concern that vitamin D deficiency poses a major health problem for children. Deficiency can cause hypocalcemic seizures, growth disturbances, and rickets and may influence diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Reduced vitamin D levels in children presenting to pediatric orthopedic services are common. In the United Kingdom, recommendations on vitamin D supplementation are set by the Department of Health (DoH) and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. These state that all children aged 6 months to 5 years ought to receive 7 to 8.5 μgof vitamin D daily. We carried out a survey of 203 parents attending our pediatric and pediatric orthopedic and fracture clinics to evaluate parental awareness of the DoH recommendations on vitamin D supplementation for children and to assess the extent to which children were receiving vitamin D supplements. About 85.71% of parents were not aware of the recommendations. Only 14.29% stated that they were aware of the benefits of vitamin D for their children and just 17.73% of children were receiving vitamin D supplementation; 17 via formula milk and 18 via multivitamin formulations. Parents are generally not aware about vitamin D supplementation because of a lack of information with the high rates of reported suboptimal vitamin D levels amongst children not being addressed resulting in increased health risks to our children. Major improvements are needed in the implementation of supplementation at all points of contact between parents and health-care professionals. PMID:25950689

  13. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

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    Ashley Claude

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ensure the suitability of an infant formula as the sole source of nutrition or provide benefits similar to outcomes in breastfed infants, advancements in formula composition are warranted as more research detailing the nutrient composition of human milk becomes available. This study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received one of two investigational cow’s milk-based formulas with adjustments in carbohydrate, fat, and calcium content and supplemented with a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX and galactooligosaccharides (GOS or GOS alone. Methods In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 419 infants were randomized and consumed either a marketed routine cow’s milk-based infant formula (Control; Enfamil® LIPIL®, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN (n = 142 or one of two investigational formulas from 14 to 120 days of age. Investigational formulas were supplemented with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio of a prebiotic blend of PDX and GOS (PDX/GOS; n = 139 or 4 g/L of GOS alone (GOS; n = 138. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Daily recall of formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics was collected during study weeks 1 and 2 and 24-h recall was collected at 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Medically-confirmed adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Results There were no group differences in growth rate from 14 to 120 days of age. Discontinuation rates were not significantly different among study groups. No differences in formula intake or infant fussiness or gassiness were observed. During study weeks 1 and 2 and at 60 days of age stool consistency ratings were higher (i.e. softer stools for infants in the PDX/GOS and GOS groups versus Control and remained higher at 120 days for the PDX/GOS group (all P  Conclusions Investigational routine infant formulas

  14. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Catherine; Remontet, Laurent; Noel-Baron, Florence; Nicolas, Alain; Feugier-Favier, Nathalie; Roy, Pascal; Claustrat, Bruno; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Kassaï, Behrouz

    2010-06-22

    To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii) night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) urine rates in a subsample of subjects. The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95). A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62%) and active (65%) group (p = 0.52). The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91). The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497.

  15. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

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    Mahmoodi Bardzardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  16. Nitrate supplementation improves physical performance specifically in non-athletes during prolonged open-ended tests: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Helton O; Drummond, Lucas R; Rodrigues, Quezia T; Machado, Frederico S M; Pires, Washington; Wanner, Samuel P; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v. graded-exercise tests) influence the effects of NO3 - supplementation on performance. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted and reported according to the guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. A systematic search of electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus and ProQuest, was performed in August 2017. On the basis of the search and inclusion criteria, fifty-four and fifty-three placebo-controlled studies evaluating the effects of NO3 - supplementation on performance in humans were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. NO3 - supplementation was ergogenic in non-athletes (mean effect size (ES) 0·25; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·38), particularly in evaluations of performance using long-duration open-ended tests (ES 0·47; 95 % CI 0·23, 0·71). In contrast, NO3 - supplementation did not enhance the performance of athletes (ES 0·04; 95 % CI -0·05, 0·15). After objectively classifying the participants into different performance levels, the frequency of trials showing ergogenic effects in individuals classified at lower levels was higher than that in individuals classified at higher levels. Thus, the present study indicates that dietary NO3 - supplementation improves physical performance in non-athletes, particularly during long-duration open-ended tests.

  17. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

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    Izabela Michalak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests. The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  18. Taurine supplementation of plant derived protein 1 and n-3 fatty acids are critical for optimal growth and development of cobia, rachycentron canadum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined growth performance and lipid content in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed a taurine supplemented (1.5%), plant protein based diet with two fish oil replacements. The first fish oil replacement was a thraustochytrid meal (TM+SOY) plus soybean oil (~9% CL) and the second was a cano...

  19. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants improves semen quality of IVF patients in terms of motility, sperm count, and nuclear vacuolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirleitner, Barbara; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Stecher, Astrid; Spitzer, Dietmar; Schuff, Maximilian; Schwerda, Delf; Bach, Magnus; Schechinger, Birgit; Herbert Zech, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of an oral antioxidative supplementation on sperm quality of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients, as analyzed by sperm motility according to the WHO criteria and motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME). Semen samples were collected from 147 patients before undergoing an IVF/intracytoplasmic morphologically-selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycle and 2 - 12 months after an antioxidative supplementation. Semen analysis was evaluated according to WHO and MSOME criteria. Spermatozoa were grouped according to the size of nuclear vacuoles within the sperm's heads. Patients were divided into oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) and non-OAT men. Between first and second semen analysis, patients were supplemented orally with an antioxidative preparation. After the antioxidative therapy we observed a significant reduction in the percentage of immotile sperm cells in the patients. Additionally, the percentage of class I spermatozoa according to MSOME criteria was significantly higher after antioxidative supplementation. In OAT patients the percentage of class I sperm was found to be increased, although not significantly. However, we observed a drastic improvement in sperm motility as well as in total sperm count in this group. The results demonstrated a considerable improvement in semen quality, notably in OAT patients. Considering the putative relationship between semen quality on the one hand and reactive oxygen species on the other, the observed changes in the sperm parameters indicate that a decline in semen quality, and even subtle morphological changes, might be associated with oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that an antioxidative and micronutrient supplementation has a remarkable benefit for IVF patients having restricted sperm parameters, in particular.

  20. Effect of improved vitamin A status on response to iron supplementation in Pakistani infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop-Clewes, C A; Paracha, P I; McLoone, U J; Thurnham, D I

    1996-11-01

    We report an apparently protective effect of vitamin A in infants who received iron supplements (15 mg/d) for 3 mo. Those receiving iron showed increases in hemoglobin (8 g/L), ferritin (3.7 micrograms/L), and the acute-phase protein alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT; 0.06 g/L). In both the placebo and iron-supplemented groups there were increases in plasma retinol, lutein, alpha-tocopherol, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin G. The improvement in vitamin A status could only have been from a seasonal increase in dietary sources of vitamin A, eg, breast milk and early weaning foods, and there were no obvious effects on iron utilization (hemoglobin concentrations). However, in the infants receiving iron, those whose retinol concentrations increased also showed reductions in ACT, ferritin, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M. Vitamin A is well known for its antiinfective properties and we suggest that these observations illustrate the importance of even small increases in dietary vitamin A or differences in vitamin A status in reducing the potentially toxic effects of iron supplements in persons in developing countries. These conclusions should now be confirmed with an intervention study to show that the benefits of vitamin A on iron status are due to reduced levels of infection.

  1. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  2. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  3. Calcium and potassium supplementation enhanced growth, osmolytes, secondary metabolite production, and enzymatic antioxidant machinery in cadmium-exposed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to examine the role of exogenously applied calcium (Ca; 50 mM and potassium (K; 10 mM (alone and in combination in alleviating the negative effects of cadmium (Cd; 200 μM on growth, biochemical attributes, secondary metabolites and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. Cd stress significantly decreased length and fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, and number of pods and seed yield (vs. control. Exhibition of decreases in chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b, and total Chl was also observed with Cd-exposure when compared to control. However, Cd-exposure led to an increase in the content of carotenoid. In contrast, the exogenous application of Ca and K individually as well as in combination minimized the extent of Cd-impact on previous traits. C. arietinum seedlings subjected to Cd treatment exhibited increased contents of organic solute (proline, Pro and total protein; whereas, Ca and K-supplementation further enhanced the Pro and total protein content. Additionally, compared to control, Cd-exposure also caused elevation in the contents of oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxidase, H2O2; malondialdehyde, MDA and in the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR. Ca, K and Ca + K supplementation caused further enhancements in the activity of these enzymes but significantly decreased contents of H2O2 and MDA, also that of Cd in shoot and root. The contents of total phenol, flavonoid and mineral elements (S, Mn, Mg, Ca and K that were also suppressed in Cd stressed plants in both shoot and root were restored to appreciable levels with Ca- and K-supplementation. However, the combination of Ca + K supplementation was more effective in bringing the positive response as compared to individual effect of Ca and K on Cd-exposed C. arietinum. Overall, this investigation suggests that application of Ca and/or K can efficiently minimize

  4. Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.; Yamazaki, R.K.; Coelho, I.; Pequito, D.C.T.; Schiessel, D.L.; Kryczyk, M.; Mamus, R.; Naliwaiko, K.; Fernandes, L.C. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-08-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×10{sup 7} cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2{sup -ΔΔCT} method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPARγ (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.

  5. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  6. Effects of dietary cadmium on growth, antioxidants and bioaccumulation of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and influence of dietary vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Wang, Fuqiang; Han, Yuzhe; Liao, Mingling; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiying

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary cadmium (Cd) supplementation on growth, antioxidant capacity and accumulation of Cd in tissues (body wall, digestive tracts, and respiratory tree) of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, and 500mg Cd/kg dry weight) of Cd were investigated. In addition, the potential protective effects of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AsA) against the effects of Cd on sea cucumbers were investigated. Sea cucumbers were exposed to dietary Cd for 30 days, after which another group of healthy sea cucumbers was supplied diet supplemented with mixed Cd and AsA for another 30 days. Cd exposure for 30 days resulted in increased Cd accumulation in tissues of sea cucumbers with exposure time and concentration. The order of Cd accumulation in organs was digestive tracts>respiratory tree>body wall. On day 30, the body weight gain (BWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly (Psea cucumbers decreased with increasing dietary Cd concentration, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the coelomic fluid increased. Providing diet supplemented with Cd and AsA indicated that although sea cucumbers exhibited signs of Cd toxicity, no death occurred in response to 50mg Cd/kg for 30 days. Based on these findings, five treatments were provided: 50mg Cd/kg+0mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 3000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 5000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+10,000mg AsA/kg, and 50mg Cd/kg+15,000mg AsA/kg. The BWG and SGR of sea cucumbers fed the AsA supplemented diet mixed with Cd increased. Additionally, MDA levels in coelomic fluid were negatively correlated with dietary AsA levels, while antioxidant capacities (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) were positively correlated with dietary AsA levels. Moreover, Cd accumulation in tissues decreased in response to dietary AsA supplementation of treatments. Overall, antioxidant capacity and bioaccumulation in sea cucumber was found to decrease and be induced in response to Cd, but vitamin C mitigated these

  7. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  8. Improvement of Sprint Performance in Wheelchair Sportsmen With Caffeine Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Paulson, Terri S; Perret, Claudio; Watson, Phil; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine can be beneficial during endurance and repeated-sprint exercise in able-bodied individuals performing leg or whole-body exercise. However, little evidence exists regarding its effects during upper-body exercise. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on sprint (SPR) and 4-min maximal-push (PUSH) performance in wheelchair sportsmen. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 male wheelchair rugby players (age 30.0 ± 7.7 y, body mass 69.6 ± 15.3 kg, training 11.1 ± 3.5 h/wk) completed 2 exercise trials, separated by 7-14 d, 70 min after ingestion of 4 mg/kg caffeine (CAF) or dextrose placebo (PLA). Each trial consisted of four 4-min PUSHes and 3 sets of 3 × 20-m SPRs, each separated by 4 min rest. Participants responded to the Felt Arousal (a measure of perceived arousal), Feeling (a measure of the affective dimension of pleasure/displeasure), and rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) scales. Salivary caffeine secretion rates were measured. Average SPR times were faster during CAF than PLA during SPR 1 and SPR 2 (P = .037 and .016). There was no influence of supplementation on PUSHes 2-4 (P > .099); however, participants pushed significantly farther during PUSH 1 after CAF than after PLA (mean ± SD 677 ± 107 and 653 ± 118 m, P = .047). There was no influence of CAF on arousal or RPE scores (P > .132). Feeling scores improved over the course of the CAF trial only (P = .017) but did not significantly differ between trials (P > .167). Pre-warm-up (45 min postingestion) salivary CAF secretion rates were 1.05 ± 0.94 and 0.08 ± 0.05 μg/min for CAF and PLA, respectively. Acute CAF supplementation can improve both 20-m-sprint performance and a 1-off bout of short-term endurance performance in wheelchair sportsmen.

  9. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a glucosamine-containing supplement to improve locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study was conducted for 16 weeks in 100 Japanese subjects (age, 51.8±0.8 years) with knee pain. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two supplements containing 1) 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, and 5 μg of vitamin D per day (GCQID group, n=50) or 2) a placebo (placebo group, n=50). Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure, visual analog scale score, normal walking speed, and knee-extensor strength were measured to evaluate the effects of the supplement on knee-joint functions and locomotor functions. In subjects eligible for efficacy assessment, there was no significant group × time interaction, and there were improvements in knee-joint functions and locomotor functions in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In subjects with mild-to-severe knee pain at baseline, knee-extensor strength at week 8 (104.6±5.0% body weight vs 92.3±5.5% body weight, P=0.030) and the change in normal walking speed at week 16 (0.11±0.03 m/s vs 0.05±0.02 m/s, P=0.038) were significantly greater in the GCQID group than in the placebo group. Further subgroup analysis based on Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade showed that normal walking speed at week 16 (1.36±0.05 m/s vs 1.21±0.02 m/s, Pknee pain, GCQID supplementation was effective for relieving knee pain and improving locomotor functions.

  10. The relationships among iron supplement use, Hb concentration and linear growth in young children: Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Growth faltering and anaemia remain unacceptably high among infants and young children in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated the relationships among Fe supplement use (ISU), Hb concentration and linear growth, hypothesising positive relationships between ISU and Hb, ISU and linear growth and Hb and linear growth. We used a nationally representative data of 2400 children aged 6-24 months from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, conducted following a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. We examined the links by Pearson's correlation, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses and reported adjusted estimates. We found that ISU was not significantly associated with either Hb (β=1·09; 95 % CI -2·73, 5·01, P=0·567) or linear growth (β=0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21, P=0·217). We found a positive, however, weak, correlation between Hb and linear growth (r 0·09; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·11, PHb predicted linear growth independent of a variety dietary and non-dietary factors (β=0·08; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·11, PHb; age, birth type, size at birth, sex, breast-feeding duration, dietary diversity and deworming were independently associated with linear growth, indicating that Hb and linear growth are multifactorial with both nutritional and non-nutritional factors implicated. Further studies, with better design and exposure assessment, are warranted on the relation of ISU with Hb or linear growth.

  11. Caffeine-supplemented diet modulates oxidative stress markers and improves locomotor behavior in the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cícera Simoni; de Cássia Gonçalves de Lima, Rita; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Ogunbolude, Yetunde; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Tsopmo, Appolinaire; Lukong, Kiven Erique; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2018-02-25

    The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however, in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, they have not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor behavior and biochemical endpoints in the head of the nymphs of N. cinerea following 60 days exposure to food supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg of caffeine/g of diet. The analysis of the locomotor behavior using the video-tracking software, Any-maze, for 12 min revealed that caffeine supplementation caused significant behavioral improvement. There was increase in distance travelled, velocity, frequency of rotation and turn angle (stereotypical behavior such as circling movements), and this was supported by the representative track plots of the path travelled by cockroaches in the open-field arena. In addition, caffeine supplementation markedly increased total thiol and non-protein thiol glutathione (GSH) levels in the heads of cockroaches, and this was in parallel with significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and free Fe(II) content. Taking together, our results indicate that long-term caffeine supplementation may exert preventive effects against oxidative stress and support the use of N. cinerea as an efficient alternative model to assess the efficacy of food molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Benjamin; Kavazis, Andreas N; Webb, Heather E; Brown, Stanley P

    2012-04-17

    Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. One-repetition maximum (1RM) on the standard barbell bench press and leg press were obtained. Upon determination of 1RM, subjects completed repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM on both the standard barbell bench press and leg press. Heart rate was measured pre and post exercise. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the identical resistance exercise protocol. Our data showed statistical significant differences (p0.05) between supplementation conditions for either resistance trained or untrained men in the bench press or leg press exercises. Heart rate was similar at the end of the upper and lower body bouts of resistance exercise with AAKG vs. placebo. The results from our study indicate that acute AAKG supplementation provides no ergogenic benefit on 1RM or TLV as measured by the standard barbell bench press and leg press, regardless of the subjects training status.

  13. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  14. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  15. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and

  16. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  17. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claustrat Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group or olive oil (placebo group for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95. A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62% and active (65% group (p = 0.52. The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91. Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497

  18. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can improve both symptoms and signs of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jae-Woo Kwon,1 Sang Beom Han2 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuncheon, South Korea We read with great interest the article by Gatell-Tortajada1 entitled “Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical formulation containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants in a large series of patients with dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study”. The prospective large-scale study was undoubtedly well designed and conducted, and the authors should be congratulated for successfully demonstrating that oral omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be an effective treatment for dry eye symptoms.1The authors showed that supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids improved dry eye signs, such as corneal erosion, tear film breakup time, and conjunctival hyperemia, suggesting that they can reduce ocular surface inflammation and also alleviate dry eye symptoms.1 Rashid et al2 also demonstrated that topical application of omega-3 fatty acids led to a decrease in dry eye signs and inflammatory changes at both cellular and molecular levels.  View original paper by Gatell-Tortajada

  20. Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Darren G; Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Roy, Brian D; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Ziegenfuss, Tim

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) content resulting from resistance-exercise training (RET) and creatine supplementation (CR). Male (n=24) and female (n=18) participants with minimal resistance-exercise-training experience (=1 year) who were participating in at least 30 min of structured physical activity (i.e., walking, jogging, cycling) 3-5 x/wk volunteered for the study. Participants were randomly assigned in blocks (gender) to supplement with creatine (CR: 0.25 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 7 days; 0.06 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 49 days; n=22, 12 males, 10 female) or isocaloric placebo (PL: n=20, 12 male, 8 female) and engage in a whole-body RET program for 8 wk. Eighteen participants were classified as vegetarian (lacto-ovo or vegan; CR: 5 male, 5 female; PL: 3 male, 5 female). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before and after the intervention and analyzed for IGF-I using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Stained muscle cross-sections were examined microscopically and IGF-I content quantified using image-analysis software. Results showed that RET increased intramuscular IGF-I content by 67%, with greater accumulation from CR (+78%) than PL (+54%; p=.06). There were no differences in IGF-I between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. These findings indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance-exercise training increases intramuscular IGF-I concentration in healthy men and women, independent of habitual dietary routine.

  1. Sodium Chloride Supplementation Is Not Routinely Performed in the Majority of German and Austrian Infants with Classic Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Has No Effect on Linear Growth and Hydrocortisone or Fludrocortisone Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfig, Walter; Roehl, Friedhelm; Riedl, Stefan; Brämswig, Jürgen; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Fricke-Otto, Susanne; Hübner, Angela; Bettendorf, Markus; Schönau, Eckhard; Dörr, Helmut; Holl, Reinhard W; Mohnike, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Sodium chloride supplementation in salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is generally recommended in infants, but its implementation in routine care is very heterogeneous. To evaluate oral sodium chloride supplementation, growth, and hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose in infants with salt-wasting CAH due to 21-hydroxylase in 311 infants from the AQUAPE CAH database. Of 358 patients with classic CAH born between 1999 and 2015, 311 patients had salt-wasting CAH (133 females, 178 males). Of these, 86 patients (27.7%) received oral sodium chloride supplementation in a mean dose of 0.9 ± 1.4 mmol/kg/day (excluding nutritional sodium content) during the first year of life. 225 patients (72.3%) were not treated with sodium chloride. The percentage of sodium chloride-supplemented patients rose from 15.2% in children born 1999-2004 to 37.5% in children born 2011-2015. Sodium chloride-supplemented and -unsupplemented infants did not significantly differ in hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose, target height-corrected height-SDS, and BMI-SDS during the first 2 years of life. In the AQUAPE CAH database, approximately one-third of infants with salt-wasting CAH receive sodium chloride supplementation. Sodium chloride supplementation is performed more frequently in recent years. However, salt supplementation had no influence on growth, daily fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone dose, and frequency of adrenal crisis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Folic Acid Supplements: Can They Slow Cognitive Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive decline? I've heard that folic acid supplements can improve cognitive function in older adults. Could ... D. There's no conclusive evidence that folic acid supplements improve cognitive function in older adults or in ...

  3. Effect of egg yolk on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 7H12 liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, Y.; Ta, K.D.; Heifets, L.

    1988-01-01

    Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fast bacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media

  4. Dietary zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy protects against fetal dysmorphology and improves postnatal survival after prenatal ethanol exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Brooke L; Rofe, Allan M; Coyle, Peter

    2009-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ethanol teratogenicity is associated with metallothionein-induced fetal zinc (Zn) deficiency, and that maternal subcutaneous Zn treatment given with ethanol in early pregnancy prevents fetal abnormalities and spatial memory impairments in mice. Here we investigated whether dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy can also prevent ethanol-related dysmorphology. Pregnant mice were injected with saline or 25% ethanol (0.015 ml/g intraperitoneally at 0 and 4 hours) on gestational day (GD) 8 and fed either a control (35 mg Zn/kg) or a Zn-supplemented diet (200 mg Zn/kg) from GD 0 to 18. Fetuses from the saline, saline + Zn, ethanol and ethanol + Zn groups were assessed for external birth abnormalities on GD 18. In a separate cohort of mice, postnatal growth and survival of offspring from these treatment groups were examined from birth until postnatal day 60. Fetuses from dams treated with ethanol alone in early pregnancy had a significantly greater incidence of physical abnormalities (26%) compared to those from the saline (10%), saline + Zn (9%), or ethanol + Zn (12%) groups. The incidence of abnormalities in ethanol + Zn-supplemented fetuses was not different from saline-treated fetuses. While ethanol exposure did not affect the number of fetal resorptions or pre- or postnatal weight, there were more stillbirths with ethanol alone, and cumulative postnatal mortality was significantly higher in offspring exposed to ethanol alone (35% deaths) compared to all other treatment groups (13.5 to 20.5% deaths). Mice supplemented with Zn throughout pregnancy had higher plasma Zn concentrations than those in un-supplemented groups. These findings demonstrate that dietary Zn supplementation throughout pregnancy ameliorates dysmorphology and postnatal mortality caused by ethanol exposure in early pregnancy.

  5. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    The present study explored the dietary administration effects of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) on growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (GMP-0.1), 0.2% (GMP-0.2), 0.4% (GMP-0.4) and 0.8% (GMP-0.8) purified GMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The obtained results clearly indicated that, growth performance of red sea bream enhanced by dietary GMP supplementation compared to control and significantly higher final weight was found in fish fed diet group GMP-0.4. Specific growth rate (SGR) and percent weight gain (%WG) also significantly higher in diet group GMP-0.4 in compared to control and it was not differed (P > 0.05) with diet group GMP-0.8. Feed intake significantly increased with the supplementation of GMP. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also improved (P  0.05) by GMP supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with GMP supplementation. In terms of oxidative stress GMP-0.2 showed best condition with low oxidative stress and high antioxidant level. Moreover, the fish fed GMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream, which is also in line with the most of the growth performance and health parameters of the fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improvement of ethanol tolerance and yield of self-flocculating yeast in continuous ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Xue, C; Ge, X M; Yuan, W J; Wang, J Y; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    The effects of zinc supplementation were investigated in the continuous ethanol fermentation using self-flocculating yeast. Zinc sulfate was added at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g l(-1), respectively. Reduced average floc sizes were observed in all the zinc-supplemented cultures. Both the ethanol tolerance and thermal tolerance were significantly improved by zinc supplements, which correlated well with the increased ergosterol and trehalose contents in the yeast flocs. The highest ethanol concentration by 0.05 g l(-1) zinc sulfate supplementation attained 114.5 g l(-1), in contrast to 104.1 g l(-1) in the control culture. Glycerol production was decreased by zinc supplementations, with the lowest level 3.21 g l(-1), about 58% of the control. Zinc content in yeast cells was about 1.4 microMol g(-1) dry cell weight, about sixfold higher than that of control in all the zinc-supplemented cultures, and close correlation of zinc content in yeast cells with the cell viability against ethanol and heat shock treatment was observed. These studies suggest that exogenous zinc addition led to a reprogramming of cellular metabolic network, resulting in enhanced ethanol tolerance and ethanol production.

  7. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60 Co or 177 Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

  8. Effect of diet supplementation with live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, caecal ecosystem and health of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Belhassen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance, caecal ecosystem and overall health of growing rabbits. A control diet was formulated (crude protein: 15.9%; neutral detergent fibre: 31.6% and another diet obtained by supplementing the control diet with 1 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6.5×109 colony-forming units per kg of diet. Ninety 35-d old rabbits were allotted into 3 groups: TT (rabbits offered the supplemented diet from 17 d of age onwards, CT (rabbits offered supplemented diet from 35 d and CC (rabbits fed non-supplemented diet. Body weight (BW and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was controlled daily. At 35, 42 and 77 d of age, 6 rabbits from each group were slaughtered and digestive physiological traits, serum clinical chemistry parameters, fermentation traits, and the composition of caecal microbiota examined. At 42 and 56 d of age, 10 rabbits from each group were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/animal of ovalbumin and blood samples were collected for examination of plasma immunological parameters. Throughout the experiment (5-11 wk, weight gain and feed intake (37.8 and 112.6 g/d, on av. were not affected by yeast, except for weight gain in the first week after weaning, which was the highest in TT animals among the 3 groups (48.1 vs. 43.9 and 44.2 g/d for TT, CC and CT, respectively; P=0.012. This may be due to the increased trend in feed intake (P=0.072 in the TT group (96.4 g/d compared to the others. Mortality (5/90 was low and did not differ among the 3 groups. Treatments had no effect on slaughter traits at the 3 sampling dates (35, 42 and 77 d. Only the weight of the empty caecum (% BW was higher (P=0.02 in CC (2.2% and CT (2.3% than in TT group (1.8% at 77 d of age. Treatments did not overtly affect the caecal microbiota, although the number of total anaerobic bacteria and Bacteroides were lower (108 and 107/g caecal digesta

  9. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  10. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, H; Qiao, S Y

    2015-12-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (pBCAA group improved ADG (pBCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (pBCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (pBCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (pBCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal immunoglobulin mentioned above. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation to protein restricted diet improved intestinal immune defense function by protecting villous morphology and by increasing levels of intestinal immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Our finding has the important implication that BCAA may be used to reduce the negative effects of a protein restricted diet on growth performance and intestinal immunity in weaned piglets.

  11. Effects of Bacillus coagulans supplementation on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Shao, Yujing; Song, Bochen; Zhen, Wenrui; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yuming; Shahid, Muhammad Suhaib; Nie, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens . This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus coagulans on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with C. perfringens -induced NE. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two dietary B. coagulans levels (0 or 4 × 10 9  CFU/kg of diet) and two disease challenge statuses (control or NE challenged). NE-induced reduction in body weight gain was relieved by the addition of B. coagulans into broiler diets compared with the NE-infected birds. NE infection damaged intestinal morphological structure, promoted intestinal C. perfringens growth and liver invasion, and enhanced anti- C. perfringens specific sIgA concentrations in the gut and specific IgG levels in serum compared with the uninfected birds. NE infection significantly ( P  coagulans showed a significant ( P  coagulans improved intestinal barrier structure, further increased specific sIgA levels and alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity in the jejunum, enhanced the expression of jejunum lysozyme mRNA, and inhibited the growth, colonization, and invasion of C. perfringens ; in contrast, it reduced serum-specific IgG concentrations and jejunum IFN-γ mRNA levels. These results indicated that dietary B. coagulans supplementation appeared to be effective in preventing the occurrence and reducing the severity of C. perfringens -induced NE in broiler chickens.

  12. The effect of dietary phosphorus level and phytase supplementation on growth performance, bone-breaking strength, and litter phosphorus concentration in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Johnston, S; Gaston, L; Southern, L L

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of feeding different P levels with and without phytase supplementation on broiler growth performance, bone-breaking strength (BBS), and litter P concentration. An experiment with 4 trials was conducted with 7,840 Ross x Ross straight-run broilers. For each trial, 1,960 broilers were allotted on d 0 to treatments, with 7 replications each and with 70 broilers per replication. The broilers were fed a 4-period feeding program consisting of starter (0 to 14 d), grower (14 to 32 d), finisher (32 to 41 d), and withdrawal (41 to 50 d) periods. For each trial, the same pen was used continuously for each treatment-replication combination, and the litter was not removed between trials. Broilers were fed a control diet [0.43, 0.40, 0.36, or 0.32% nonphytate P (nPP)] in the starter, grower, finisher, and withdrawal periods, respectively, a low Ca and P (LCaP) diet with a 0.05% reduction in nPP in each period, and these 2 diets supplemented with phytase at 600 phytase units/kg (nPP and Ca were reduced by 0.094% in diets with phytase). Diet did not affect (P > 0.10) broiler performance in the starter or withdrawal periods. Generally, both phytase addition and the LCaP diet decreased some aspects of growth performance during the grower and finisher periods. There was no main effect of phytase on BBS, but BBS was decreased in the broilers fed the LCaP diet with phytase addition (nPP x phytase, P broilers fed the LCaP diet. Total P, soluble P (SP), and reactive soluble P (RSP) were decreased (P litter of broilers fed the LCaP diets. Total P, SP, and RSP were decreased (P litter of broilers fed phytase. These data indicate that phytase supplementation at 600 phytase units/kg reduces growth in some periods, has no effect on BBS, and reduces total P, SP, and RSP in the litter.

  13. The effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation, as alternative to antibiotics, on growth performance, intestinal immune status and epithelial barrier protein expression in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were assigned five dietary treatments: basal...

  14. Effects of dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on growth performance, immunological parameters, digestive enzymes, and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy; Abdelhamid, Fatma; Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The dietary supplementation with APS (1500 mg/kg of diet) caused a significant increase in growth parameters (initial and final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI), when compared to non-supplemented control basal diet. In addition, APS upregulated the phagocytic activity, the respiratory burst activity, plasma lysozyme, the bactericidal activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and amylase activity. However, it had no effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) or Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. While APS had no effect of intestinal histology, a slight increase in the villi length was recorded. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary APS supplementation could improve the growth performance and the immune parameters of cultured tilapia fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna L. B. Pereira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16, in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16, in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415–539; T group: 273 (258–297 µm2; p = 0.004. Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039 in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  16. Effect of Supplementations of Comin+ and Zn-biocomplex on the performances of Ettawa Crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of ruminant feeds is greatly determined by ruminal fermentation which in turn is greatly affected by micro-ecology of the rumen. Manipulation of micro-ecology such as supplementing with various yeasts or micro elements could improve digestibility of the feed. The effect of Comin+ (R1 and Zn-biocomplex (R2 alone or their combination (R3 on performance of Ettawa Crossbred kids, fed concentrate containing Aspergillus oryzae (R0 was studied. Twenty four Ettawa Crossbred kids (6-8 month of age; initial liveweights =16.63±2.10 kg were divided into 4 groups. Feeds given were King grass (Pennicetum purpuroides ad libitum and concentrate. The observations were carried out for 16 weeks with 2 weeks adaptation period and the experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 6 replications. The results showed that supplementations significantly (P < 0.05 increased total DM intakes from 685 g/d (R0 became 748, 711 and 858 g/d; and grass DM intakes from 304 g/d (R0 became 373, 331 and 479 g/d for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. Digestibilities of DM, NDF and DE/GE were not affected by supplementation, but supplementations significantly (P < 0.05 affected digestibilities of ADF and CP. Supplementation also significantly improved (P < 0.05 ADG from 65.18 g/d (R0 became 94.64, 83.04 and 90.77 g/d; and FCR from 10.51 (R0 became 7.82, 8.36 and 9.46 for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. It was concluded that supplementation of Comin+ (R1 gave the best growth performance of Ettawa Croosbred goats, where ADG and FCR improved by 45.20% and 34.40%.

  17. Live growth performance, carcass grading characteristics, and harvest yields of beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride and offered ad libitum or maintenance energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy Walter, Lee-Anne; Schmitz, Angela Nicole; Nichols, Wade Taylor; Hutcheson, John Paul; Lawrence, Ty Ellis

    2018-05-04

    A trial was conducted to examine live growth efficiency, harvest yields, and carcass grading performance of steers fed at maintenance (M) or at ad libitum (A) level of intake during zilpaterol hydrochloride (Z) supplementation. Single-sired, beef steers (n = 56; start of trial BW 590 ± 36 kg) blocked (n = 2) by weight and terminal implant were sorted into pairs (n = 14 per block) by weight. Pairs of steers were initially assigned to 0, 28, or 56 d of feeding. Within 28 or 56 d, pairs were assigned to M or A intake. Steers within a pair assigned to 56 d of feeding were randomly assigned to either 20 d of Z supplementation (90 mg/d per steer) with a 4 d withdrawal period prior to slaughter or to no ZH supplementation (C). Steers were housed and fed in individual pens. Weights of all non-carcass and carcass components were recorded at slaughter; carcasses were graded 24-h postmortem. Data were analyzed via a mixed model; the fixed effect was treatment combination with random effects of block and pair. Live growth data used harvest day as the repeated measure and animal as the subject. Single df contrasts were constructed for day 0 vs. day 28, day 0 vs. day 56, day 28 vs. day 56, M vs. A, and C vs. Z. Treatment impacted (P ≤ 0.05) live ADG; contrasts indicated A (1.33) was greater than M (0.14 kg), and Z (1.12) was greater than C (0.82 kg). Similarly, carcass ADG differences (P carcass and internal cavity mass (P carcass yield was greater (P carcass growth, carcass transfer, kill yields, and carcass characteristics across time.

  18. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wax Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. One-repetition maximum (1RM on the standard barbell bench press and leg press were obtained. Upon determination of 1RM, subjects completed repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM on both the standard barbell bench press and leg press. Heart rate was measured pre and post exercise. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the identical resistance exercise protocol. Results Our data showed statistical significant differences (p0.05 between supplementation conditions for either resistance trained or untrained men in the bench press or leg press exercises. Heart rate was similar at the end of the upper and lower body bouts of resistance exercise with AAKG vs. placebo. Conclusion The results from our study indicate that acute AAKG supplementation provides no ergogenic benefit on 1RM or TLV as measured by the standard barbell bench press and leg press, regardless of the subjects training status.

  19. Dietary Supplements for Health, Adaptation, and Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Miles, Mary P; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2018-03-01

    Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Omega 3-fatty acid supplementation may also reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mTBI. Replenishment of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency will likely improve some aspects of immune, bone, and muscle health. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve training or competitive performance. Preliminary data show that gelatin and/or collagen may improve connective tissue health. Some anti-inflammatory supplements, such as curcumin or tart cherry juice, may reduce inflammation and possibly delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not consistently increase strength and/or lean mass or reduce markers of muscle damage, but more research on recovery from injury that includes periods of extreme inactivity is needed. Several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate, omega 3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and curcumin/tart cherry juice could help athletes train and/or compete more effectively.

  20. Quercetin supplemented diet improves follicular development, oocyte quality, and reduces ovarian apoptosis in rabbits during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Epikmen, Erkmen Tuğrul; Uçan, Uğur; Boyacioğlu, Murat; İpek, Emrah; Akosy, Melih

    2017-07-01

    The present study was designed to test the modulatory effect of dietary quercetin on follicle population, apoptosis, in vitro maturation rate and quality of oocytes in heat stressed female rabbits. A total of thirty-four New Zealand White heat stress (HS) exposed female rabbits were either fed with quercetin supplemented diet (QU-HS) or non-supplemented (HS) diet. Firstly, laparotomy was performed for oocyte retrieval and then, oocyte grading and COCs dimensional assessments were conducted. The A and B-grade oocytes were submitted for in vitro maturation. Thereafter, the ovaries were collected from rabbits and were processed for follicular population estimation and granulosa cells apoptosis. The results showed that follicle number, retrieved oocytes and A-grade oocytes were higher in QU-HS, comparatively. A significant difference was observed in A-grade oocytes dimensions between QU-HS and HS treatment groups. The oocyte maturation rate was same across the groups. The quercetin supplementation significantly improved primordial and antral stage follicles. A greater number of apoptotic cells were observed in primary and antral follicles in the HS group. In conclusion, the quercetin provision improves the follicular development, minimize granulosa cells apoptosis, and maintain the oocyte competence in HS rabbits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Pengimbuhan Ragi Roti dalam Pakan Meningkatkan Respons Imun Nonspesifik dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Nila (SUPPLEMENTATION OF BAKER’S YEAST IN FEED ENHANCE NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE AND GROWTH OF NILE TILAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae to enhancenonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were obtainedfrom Freshwater Hatchery Tateli (BP3I, Marine and Fisheries Office, North Sulawesi. After acclimatizationfor two weeks in 1000 L fiberglass tank, fish with an average weight of 9 g were put in five 45 L-aquaria ata density of 15 fish/aquarium. During the experiment, fish were fed with feed pellet supplemented withfive different doses of baker’s yeast (10, 20, 30, 40 g yeast/kg pellet for four consecutive weeks at 5% bw/day, twice a day. Fish in different aquarium received different dose of baker’s yeast. Immune parametersincluding total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity and growth of fish were measured at two weeksinterval. After four weeks of feeding, total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity of phagocyte cells offish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet increased significantly as compared to that ofcontrol fish (p<0.01. Growth of fish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet also increasesignificantly as compared to control group (p=0.01. Average weight gain of fish fed pellet supplementedwith 10 g yeast/kg pellet was 15.00±1.00 g while control fish was 8.33 g. As conclusion, supplementationof baker’s yeast in feed could enhance nonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish.

  2. Postnatal administration of 2-oxoglutaric acid improves articular and growth plate cartilages and bone tissue morphology in pigs prenatally treated with dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, E; Dobrowolski, P; Wydrych, J

    2012-10-01

    The potential effects of prenatal administration of dexamethasone (DEX) and postnatal treatment with 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-Ox) on postnatal development of connective tissue of farm animals were not examined experimentally. The aim of this study was to establish changes in morphological parameters of bone and articular and growth plate cartilages damaged by the prenatal action of DEX in piglets supplemented with 2-Ox. The 3 mg of DEX was administered by intramuscular route every second day from day 70 of pregnancy to parturition and then piglets were supplemented with 2-Ox during 35 days of postnatal life (0.4 g/kg body weight). The mechanical properties, BMD and BMC of bones, and histomorphometry of articular and growth plate cartilages were determined. Maternal treatment with DEX decreased the weight by 48%, BMD by 50% and BMC by 61% of the tibia in male piglets while such action of DEX in female piglets was not observed. DEX led to thinning of articular and growth plate cartilages and trabeculae thickness and reduced the serum GH concentration in male piglets. The administration of 2-Ox prevented the reduction of trabeculae thickness, the width of articular and growth plate cartilages in male piglets connected with higher growth hormone concentration compared with non-supplemented male piglets. The result showed that the presence of 2-Ox in the diet had a positive effect on the development of connective tissue in pigs during suckling and induced a complete recovery from bone and cartilage damage caused by prenatal DEX action.

  3. Alternative Growth Promoters Modulate Broiler Gut Microbiome and Enhance Body Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheen, Serajus; Kim, Seon-Woo; Haley, Bradd J.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Biswas, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE) from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial) in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline), or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia) of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only), the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production. PMID:29123512

  4. Alternative Growth Promoters Modulate Broiler Gut Microbiome and Enhance Body Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serajus Salaheen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only, the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production.

  5. Improved plasma amino acids pattern following 12 months of supplemented low-protein diet in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Lindholm, Bengt; Axelsson, Jonas; Yao, Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Decreased plasma essential amino acid (EAA) levels, increased nonessential amino acid (NEAA) levels, and low EAA to NEAA ratio (E/NEAA) are common in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and may impact uremic complications. In the present study, we investigate the impact of keto acids-supplemented low-protein (sLP) diet on plasma amino acids (AAs) patterns in stable PD patients. This is a supplemental analysis of a previously published prospective and randomized trial. Thirty-nine PD patients selected from the original population were divided to receive either low (LP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg ideal body weight [IBW]/d, n = 13), keto acids-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg IBW/d + 0.12 g/kg IBW/d of keto acids, n = 12), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg IBW/d, n = 14) protein diets and followed for 1 year. Plasma AA patterns were assessed at baseline and 12 months using high-performance liquid chromatography. Whereas there were no significant differences between the three groups at baseline, following 12 months, the E/NEAA had increased significantly in group sLP (0.58 +/- 0.16 to 0.83 +/- 0.20, p diet supplemented with keto acids significantly improved the pattern of plasma AA in prevalent PD patients.

  6. Oral protein calorie supplementation for children with chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Damian K; Smith, Joanne; Saljuqi, Tawab; Watling, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. Objectives To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, reduced appetite, glucose intolerance, bloating and eating behaviour problems. Search methods Trials of oral protein calorie supplements in children with chronic diseases were identified through comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies marketing these products were also contacted. Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 24 February 2015. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing oral protein calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with existing conventional therapy (including advice on improving nutritional intake from food or no specific intervention) in children with chronic disease. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed the outcomes: indices of nutrition and growth; anthropometric measures of body composition; calorie and nutrient intake (total from oral protein calorie supplements and food); eating behaviour; compliance; quality of life; specific adverse effects; disease severity scores; and mortality; we also assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. Main results Four studies (187 children) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were carried out in children with cystic fibrosis and one study included children with paediatric malignant disease

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfa Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  8. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, A L; Sohel, M; Brown, M; Jenden, D J; Ahn, C; Roch, M; Brawley, T L

    2001-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that choline deficiency, manifested in low plasma-free choline concentration and hepatic injury, may develop in patients who require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary studies have suggested lecithin or choline supplementation might lead to improved visual memory in the elderly and reverse abnormal neuropsychological development in children. We sought to determine if choline-supplemented TPN would lead to improvement in neuropsychological test scores in a group of adult, choline-deficient outpatients receiving TPN. Eleven subjects (8 males, 3 females) who received nightly TPN for more than 80% of their nutritional needs for at least 12 weeks before entry in the study were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included active drug abuse, mental retardation, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, (prothrombin time [PT] >2x control), or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients were randomly assigned to receive their usual TPN regimen (n = 6, aged 34.0 +/- 12.6 years) over a 12-hour nightly infusion or their usual TPN regimen plus choline chloride (2 g) (n = 5, aged 37.3 +/- 7.3 years). The following neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and after 24 weeks of choline supplementation (or placebo): Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R, intellectual functioning), Weschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, two subtests, verbal and visual memory), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (visuospatial functioning and perceptual organization), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), Grooved Pegboard (manual dexterity and motor speed), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, rote verbal learning ability), and Trail Making Parts A & B (visual scanning, psychomotor speed and set shifting). Scores were reported in terms of standard scores including z scores and percentile ranks. Mean absolute changes in raw scores were compared between groups

  10. L-arginine supplementation improves responses to injury and inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Coburn

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC, results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg, a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y(+ cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2 and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS(-/- mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity.

  11. Viability and growth promotion of starter and probiotic bacteria in yogurt supplemented with whey protein hydrolysate during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dąbrowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH addition on growth of standard yoghurt cultures and Bifidobacterium adolescentis during co-fermentation and its viability during storage at 4ºC in yoghurts has been evaluated. WPH was obtained with the use of serine protease from Y. lipolytica yeast. Stirred probiotic yoghurts were prepared by using whole milk standardized to 16% of dry matter with the addition of either whey protein concentrate, skim milk powder (SMP, WPH-SMP (ratio 1:1, WPH. The hydrolysate increased the yoghurt culture counts at the initial stage of fermentation and significantly inhibited the decrease in population viability throughout the storage at 4ºC in comparison to the control. The post-fermentation acidification was also retarded by the addition of WPH. The hydrolysate did not increase the Bifidobacterium adolescentis counts at the initial stage. However, the WPH significantly improved its viability. After 21 days of storage, in the yogurts supplemented with WPH, the population of these bacteria oscillated around 3.04 log10 CFU/g, while in samples where SMP or whey protein concentrate was used, the bacteria were no longer detected.

  12. Viability and growth promotion of starter and probiotic bacteria in yogurt supplemented with whey protein hydrolysate during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Babij, Konrad; Szołtysik, Marek; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2017-11-22

    The effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) addition on growth of standard yoghurt cultures and Bifidobacterium adolescentis during co-fermentation and its viability during storage at 4ºC in yoghurts has been evaluated. WPH was obtained with the use of serine protease from Y. lipolytica yeast. Stirred probiotic yoghurts were prepared by using whole milk standardized to 16% of dry matter with the addition of either whey protein concentrate, skim milk powder (SMP), WPH-SMP (ratio 1:1), WPH. The hydrolysate increased the yoghurt culture counts at the initial stage of fermentation and significantly inhibited the decrease in population viability throughout the storage at 4ºC in comparison to the control. The post-fermentation acidification was also retarded by the addition of WPH. The hydrolysate did not increase the Bifidobacterium adolescentis counts at the initial stage. However, the WPH significantly improved its viability. After 21 days of storage, in the yogurts supplemented with WPH, the population of these bacteria oscillated around 3.04 log10 CFU/g, while in samples where SMP or whey protein concentrate was used, the bacteria were no longer detected.

  13. Comparative study of mycelial growth and basidiomata formation in seven different species of the edible mushroom genus Hericium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han Gyu; Park, Hyuk Gu; Park, Sang Ho; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Won Mok

    2005-09-01

    The potential of using several agricultural by-products as supplements of sawdust substrate for the production of edible mushroom Hericium was evaluated using seven Hericium species. All the tested supplements (rice bran, wheat bran, barley bran, Chinese cabbage, egg shell, and soybean powder) were found to be suitable for the mycelial growth of all the tested species. In mycelial growth, soybean powder was the best supplement for Hericium americanum, Hericium coralloides, and Hericium erinaceum while barley bran was the best for Hericium alpestre, Hericium laciniatum, and Hericium erinaceus. For Hericium abietis, rice bran and Chinese cabbage was the best. The possibility of mushroom production on oak sawdust substrate with 20% rice bran supplement was demonstrated with H. coralloides, H. americanum, H. erinaceus, and H. erinaceum which showed 26-70% biological efficiency. Our results also showed that strain selection is important to improve biological efficiency and mushroom yield in Hericium cultivation.

  14. Promoting Healthy Growth or Feeding Obesity? The Need for Evidence-Based Oversight of Infant Nutritional Supplement Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lampl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD model recognizes growth in infancy and childhood as a fundamental determinant of lifespan health. Evidence of long-term health risks among small neonates who subsequently grow rapidly poses a challenge for interventions aiming to support healthy growth, not merely drive weight gain. Defining healthy growth beyond “getting bigger” is essential as infant and young child feeding industries expand. Liquid-based nutritional supplements, originally formulated for undernourished children, are increasingly marketed for and consumed by children generally. Clarifying the nature of the evidentiary base on which structure/function claims promoting “healthy growth” are constructed is important to curb invalid generalizations. Evidence points to changing social beliefs and cultural practices surrounding supplementary feeding, raising specific concerns about the long-term health consequences of an associated altered feeding culture, including reduced dietary variety and weight gain. Reassessing the evidence for and relevance of dietary supplements’ “promoting healthy growth” claims for otherwise healthy children is both needed in a time of global obesity and an opportunity to refine intervention approaches among small children for whom rapid subsequent growth in early life augments risk for chronic disease. Scientific and health care partnerships are needed to consider current governmental oversight shortfalls in protecting vulnerable populations from overconsumption. This is important because we may be doing more harm than good.

  15. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  16. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  17. Effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Bao, Pengyun; Zhang, Congyao; Ding, Jianfeng

    2014-07-01

    The effects of a diet containing Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on growth and digestive enzyme activity were estimated in juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Groups of sea cucumbers were fed diets containing H. opuntiae C21 at 0 (control), 104, 105, and 106 CFU (colony-forming units)/g feed. Results showed that after 45 d the specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumbers fed a C21-supplemented diet at 10 4 CFU/g feed was significantly higher than that of the control ( P sea cucumbers. In addition, after feeding the C21-supplemented diets for 15 d, the sea cucumbers were switched to an unsupplemented diet and C21 was confirmed to be capable of colonizing the intestine for at least 31 d after cessation of feeding. In conclusion, C21 was shown to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile A. japonicus via dietary supplementation, and improve growth and digestive enzyme activity.

  18. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  19. Memory improvements in elderly women following 16 weeks treatment with a combined multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Helen; Ellis, Kathryn A; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    There is potential for multivitamin supplementation to improve cognition in the elderly. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of 16 weeks multivitamin supplementation (Swisse Women's 50+ Ultivite ®) on cognition in elderly women. Participants in this study were 56 community dwelling, elderly women, with subjective complaints of memory loss. Cognition was assessed using a computerized battery of memory and attention tasks designed to be sensitive to age-related declines to fluid intelligence, and a measure of verbal recall. Biochemical measures of selected nutrients, homocysteine, markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood safety parameters were also collected. All cognitive and haematological parameters were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks post-treatment. The multivitamin improved speed of response on a measure of spatial working memory, however benefits to other cognitive processes were not observed. Multivitamin supplementation decreased levels of homocysteine and increased levels of vitamin B(6) and B(12), with a trend for vitamin E to increase. There were no hepatotoxic effects of the multivitamin formula indicating this supplement was safe for everyday usage in the elderly. Sixteen weeks ssupplementation with a combined multivitamin, mineral and herbal formula may benefit working memory in elderly women at risk of cognitive decline.

  20. Effect of betaine and arginine in lysine-deficient diets on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M S; Alfaia, C M; Costa, P; Lopes, P A; Martins, S V; Lemos, J P C; Moreira, O; Santos-Silva, J; Bessa, R J B; Prates, J A M

    2015-10-01

    Forty entire male pigs from a commercial crossbreed (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were used to investigate the individual or combined effects of betaine and Arg supplementation in Lys-deficient diets on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork quality. Pigs with 59.9 ± 1.65 kg BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments ( = 8). The 5 dietary treatments were normal Lys and CP diet (0.51% Lys and 16% CP; control), reduced Lys and CP diet (0.35% Lys and 13% CP), reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine supplementation (0.33%), reduced Lys and CP diet with Arg supplementation (1.5%), and reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine and Arg supplementation (0.33% betaine and 1.5% Arg). Pigs were slaughtered at 92.7 ± 2.54 kg BW. The Lys-deficient diets (-35% Lys) increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content by 25% ( = 0.041) and meat juiciness by 12% ( = 0.041) but had a negative effect on growth performance ( pork acceptability. Arginine supplementation also increased ( = 0.003) meat tenderness. Differences in fatty acid composition of pork were not detected among dietary treatment groups. However, oleic acid was positively correlated ( meat. Data confirm that dietary CP reduction enhances pork eating quality but negatively affects pigs' growth performance. Moreover, it is suggested that betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets does not further increase IMF content but improves some pork sensory traits, including overall acceptability.

  1. Effect of moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf supplementation on growth performance and feed utilization of Bocourti's catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Puycha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimal level of dietary moringa leaf was determined on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestibility and serum biochemistry of Bocourti's catfish with mean wet weights of 3.72 ± 0.06 g per fish. Fish were fed with diets containing isonitrogenouse (350 g/kg crude protein and isoenergetic (3000 kcal/kg supplemented with dietary moringa leaf at 0 g/kg fish, 100 g/kg fish, 150 g/kg fish and 200 g/kg fish for 60 d. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiation twice a day. At the end of the experiment, a significant (p  0.05. The study indicated that dietary moringa leaf could be included in the Bocourti's catfish diet at possibly not over 100 g/kg fish without a negative effect on the growth, feed utilization, digestibility and serum biochemistry.

  2. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

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    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  3. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

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    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  4. Non-Mulberry and Mulberry Silk Protein Sericins as Potential Media Supplement for Animal Cell Culture

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    Neety Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk protein sericins, in the recent years, find application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as biomaterials. We investigate the potential of sericin, extracted from both mulberry Bombyx mori and different non-mulberry sources, namely, tropical tasar, Antheraea mylitta; muga, Antheraea assama; and eri, Samia ricini, as growth supplement in serum-free culture medium. Sericin supplemented media containing different concentrations of sericins from the different species are examined for attachment, growth, proliferation, and morphology of fibrosarcoma cells. The optimum sericin supplementation seems to vary with the source of sericins. The results indicate that all the sericins promote the growth of L929 cells in serum-free culture media; however, S. ricini sericin seems to promote better growth of cells amongst other non-mulberry sericins.

  5. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  6. A thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jung-Soo; Park, Kyung-Chul; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Ja; Kwon, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-08-01

    Several attempts have been successful in liquid cultivation of Helicobaccter pylori. However, there is a need to improve the growth of H. pylori in liquid media in order to get affluent growth and a simple approach for examining bacterial properties. We introduce here a thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of H. pylori. A thin-layer liquid culture system was established by adding liquid media to a 90-mm diameter Petri dish. Optimal conditions for bacterial growth were investigated and then viability, growth curve, and released proteins were examined. Maximal growth of H. pylori was obtained by adding 3 mL of brucella broth supplemented with 10% horse to a Petri dish. H. pylori grew in both DMEM and RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.5% yeast extract. Serum-free RPMI-1640 supported the growth of H. pylori when supplemented with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (200 microg/mL) and 1% yeast extract. Under optimal growth, H. pylori grew exponentially for 28 hours, reaching a density of 3.4 OD(600) with a generation time of 3.3 hours. After 24 hours, cultures at a cell density of 1.0 OD(600) contained 1.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(9 )CFU/mL. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, nuclease, superoxide dismutase, and urease were not detected in culture supernatants at 24 hours in thin-layer liquid culture, but were present at 48 hours, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase, alkylhydroperoxide reductase, catalase, and vacuolating cytotoxin were detected at 24 hours. Thin-layer liquid culture technique is feasible, and can serve as a versatile liquid culture technique for investigating bacterial properties of H. pylori.

  7. Effect of mineral mixture and antioxidant supplementation on growth, reproductive performance and adaptive capability of Malpura ewes subjected to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, V; Singh, A K; Sahoo, A; Naqvi, S M K

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral and antioxidant supplementation on growth, reproductive performance and physiological adaptability of heat-stressed Malpura ewes. The study was conducted for a period of 21 days in 21 adult Malpura ewes. The ewes were randomly divided into three groups with seven animals each viz. GI (control; n = 7), GII (heat stress; n = 7) and GIII (heat stress + mineral and antioxidant supplementation; n = 7). The animals were stall fed ad libitum with the diet consisting of 70% roughage and 30% concentrate. GI ewes were maintained under normal controlled condition in the shed, while GII and GIII ewes were subjected to heat stress by exposing them to 42 °C in the climatic chamber. The parameters studied were feed intake (FI), water intake (WI), body weight, body condition score (BCS), physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses. Heat stress significantly altered FI, water intake, BCS, respiration rate and rectal temperature in the afternoon, oestrus duration, estradiol, progesterone, Hb, PCV, plasma glucose, total protein, cortisol, T3 and T4 levels while mineral and antioxidant supplementation ameliorated this heat stress effect on the parameters studied. Further, the adverse effect of heat stress on the productive and reproductive efficiency of Malpura ewes was reduced considerably by mineral mixture and antioxidant supplementation. This is evident from the non-significant difference in BCS, oestrus duration and plasma estradiol between GI and GIII in this study. Hence, it is very pertinent to conclude from this study that mineral mixture and antioxidant supplementation were able to protect Malpura ewes against heat stress. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  9. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  10. The effect of direct-fed microbial supplementation, as an alternative to antibiotics, on growth performance, intestinal immune status and epithelial barrier protein expression in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were randomly assigne...

  11. Adjusting the Stems Regional Forest Growth Model to Improve Local Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    A simple procedure using double sampling is described for adjusting growth in the STEMS regional forest growth model to compensate for subregional variations. Predictive accuracy of the STEMS model (a distance-independent, individual tree growth model for Lake States forests) was improved by using this procedure

  12. Comparative evaluation of fermented and non-fermented de-oiled rice bran with or without exogenous enzymes supplementation in the diet of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahu, Narottam Prasad; Deo, Ashutosh Dharmendra; Kumar, H Sanath; Kumar, Sarvendra; Jain, Kamal Kant

    2018-03-29

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of exogenous enzymes (xylanase and phytase) supplementation in the non-fermented and fermented de-oiled rice bran (DORB)-based diet of Labeo rohita. Four test diets (T1-DORB-based diet, T2-fermented DORB-based diet, T3-phytase and xylanase supplemented DORB-based diet, and T4-phytase and xylanase supplemented fermented DORB-based diet) were formulated and fed to the respective groups. Test diets T3 and T4 were supplemented with 0.01% xylanase (16,000 U kg -1 ) and 0.01% phytase (500 U kg -1 ) enzymes. One hundred twenty juveniles of L. rohita, with an average weight 5.01 ± 0.02 g, were stocked in 12 uniform size plastic rectangular tanks in triplicate with 10 fishes per tank following a completely randomized design (CRD). Exogenous enzyme supplementation to the T3 group significantly improved the growth performance of L. rohita (p exogenous enzymes. The carcass composition (except CP %), enzyme activities (except amylase activity), globulin, and A/G ratio did not vary significantly (p > 0.05). Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that exogenous enzyme supplementation significantly increases the growth of fish fed with DORB-based diet.

  13. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  14. Lactobacillus fermentum HP3-Mediated Fermented Hericium erinaceus Juice as a Health Promoting Food Supplement to Manage Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Woraharn, Sasimar; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Lailerd, Narissara; Kesika, Periyanaina; Peerajan, Sartjin

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the antidiabetic property of Lactobacillus fermentum HP3-mediated fermented Hericium erinaceus juice (FHJ) using male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). FHJ was prepared using boiled mushroom juice and L. fermentum HP3. Amino acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of FHJ was analyzed. Streptozotocin-induced DM rats were supplemented with FHJ in a pre- and posttreatment method. The changes in plasma insulin, plasma glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), representative cytokines, and the antioxidant system were assessed in experimental rats using spectrophotometric methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The supplementation of FHJ improved the body mass, insulin level, and recovery progress of hyperglycemia. HbA1c level was altered by the FHJ intervention. The inflammatory cytokines level was suppressed in FHJ supplemented group compared with control. Intervention of FHJ and insulin improved the production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor--β1 in DM rat. The study suggested that fermented H erinaceus juice may be used as one of the food-based health-promoting supplement to manage DM along with medication.

  15. Supplement consumption in body builder athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

  16. L-Citrulline Supplementation-Increased Skeletal Muscle PGC-1α Expression is Associated With Exercise Performance and Increased Skeletal Muscle Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Matsukawa, Toshiya; Isoda, Hiroko

    2018-05-24

    L-citrulline has recently been reported as a more effective supplement for promoting intracellular NO production compared to L-arginine. Here, the effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle and its influence on exercise performance were investigated. The underlying mechanism of its effect, specifically on the expression of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), was also elucidated. Six-week-old ICR mice were orally supplemented with L-citrulline (250 mg kg -1 ) daily, and their performance in weight-loaded swimming exercise every other day for 15 days, was evaluated. In addition, mice muscles were weighed and evaluated for the expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1α-regulated genes. Mice orally supplemented with L-citrulline had significantly higher gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscle mass. Although not statistically significant, L-citrulline prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion. PGC-1α upregulation was associated with vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGFα) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) upregulation. VEGFα and IGF1 are important for angiogenesis and muscle growth, respectively, and are regulated by PGC-1α. Treatment with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, suppressed the L-citrulline-induced PGC-1α upregulation in-vitro. Supplementation with L-citrulline upregulates skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels resulting to higher skeletal muscle weight that improves time to exhaustion during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  18. [Effects of egg and milk supplementation on growth and development among children in poor rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuang; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Fan; Ruan, Qing; Tang, Wen; Tao, Longxiang; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Qian

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of egg and milk supplementation on growth and development and body composition among children in poor rural area in Tianyang County of Guangxi province. Total four schools were randomly selected from four towns in Tianyang County of Guangxi province as intervention group in April, 2013. The intervention measures included that these students were given salty egg (net weight: 50 g) and ultra-high-temperature-sterilization school milk (net weight: 200 g) every school day and these schools were equipped with standard kitchens. Another four schools of familiar socio-economic level, teaching quality and size from the same town were randomly chosen as control group and none of the intervention measures were implemented. About 25 students were randomly selected and stratified by grades from grade one to grade five. The height, weight, and body composition of all students were measured in April, 2013 and one year after the intervention. A total of 978 students were measured at baseline from age 6 to 13, 552 students as intervention group and 426 as control group. t-test was used to compare the differences between groups and multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the factors of malnutrition. After one year intervention, 892 students were measured randomly, with 515 students in intervention group and 377 in control one. The average weight of boys in intervention group increased (3.6 ± 1.7) kg compared with baseline. It was significantly higher than that of control group ((2.9 ± 1.5) kg) (t = 4.40, P < 0.001). The boy's lean body mass of intervention group increased (2.6 ± 1.4) kg, higher than the control group ((2.0 ± 1.2) kg) (t = 3.95, P < 0.001). The decrease of malnutrition rate of intervention schools (11.8%) was significantly higher than that of the control schools (4.7%, χ² = 16.90, P < 0.001), and the odds ratio was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.23-0.59). The risk difference of overweight and obesity was not statistically

  19. Proliferative endocrine effects of adipose tissue from obese animals on MCF7 cells are ameliorated by resveratrol supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Theriau

    Full Text Available Obesity is clearly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The purpose was to determine if obesity alters the adipocyte adipokine secretion profile, thereby altering the adipose-dependent paracrine/endocrine growth microenvironment surrounding breast cancer cells (MCF7. Additionally, we determined whether resveratrol (RSV supplementation can counteract any obesity-dependent effects on breast cancer tumor growth microenvironment. Obese ZDF rats received standard chow diet or diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg body weight RSV. Chow-fed Zucker rats served as lean controls. After 6 weeks, conditioned media (CM prepared from inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT was added to MCF7 cells for 24 hrs. Experiments were also conducted using purified isolated adipocytes to determine whether any endocrine effects could be attributed specifically to the adipocyte component of adipose tissue. scAT from ZDF rats promoted cell cycle entry in MCF7 cells which was counteracted by RSV supplementation. RSV-CM had a higher ratio of ADIPO:LEP compared to ZDF-CM. This altered composition of the CM led to increased levels of pAMPKT172, p27, p27T198 and AdipoR1 while decreasing pAktT308 in MCF7 cells grown in RSV-CM compared to ZDF-CM. RSV-CM increased number of cells in G0/G1 and decreased cells in S-phase compared to ZDF-CM. Co-culture experiments revealed that these obesity-dependent effects were driven by the adipocyte component of the adipose tissue. Obesity decreased the ratio of adiponectin:leptin secreted by adipocytes, altering the adipose-dependent growth microenvironment resulting in increased breast cancer cell proliferation. Supplementation with RSV reversed these adipose-dependent effects suggesting a potential for RSV as a nutritional supplementation to improve breast cancer treatment in obese patients.

  20. Proliferative endocrine effects of adipose tissue from obese animals on MCF7 cells are ameliorated by resveratrol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriau, Christopher F; Sauvé, O'Llenecia S; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wright, David C; Connor, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is clearly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The purpose was to determine if obesity alters the adipocyte adipokine secretion profile, thereby altering the adipose-dependent paracrine/endocrine growth microenvironment surrounding breast cancer cells (MCF7). Additionally, we determined whether resveratrol (RSV) supplementation can counteract any obesity-dependent effects on breast cancer tumor growth microenvironment. Obese ZDF rats received standard chow diet or diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg body weight RSV. Chow-fed Zucker rats served as lean controls. After 6 weeks, conditioned media (CM) prepared from inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) was added to MCF7 cells for 24 hrs. Experiments were also conducted using purified isolated adipocytes to determine whether any endocrine effects could be attributed specifically to the adipocyte component of adipose tissue. scAT from ZDF rats promoted cell cycle entry in MCF7 cells which was counteracted by RSV supplementation. RSV-CM had a higher ratio of ADIPO:LEP compared to ZDF-CM. This altered composition of the CM led to increased levels of pAMPKT172, p27, p27T198 and AdipoR1 while decreasing pAktT308 in MCF7 cells grown in RSV-CM compared to ZDF-CM. RSV-CM increased number of cells in G0/G1 and decreased cells in S-phase compared to ZDF-CM. Co-culture experiments revealed that these obesity-dependent effects were driven by the adipocyte component of the adipose tissue. Obesity decreased the ratio of adiponectin:leptin secreted by adipocytes, altering the adipose-dependent growth microenvironment resulting in increased breast cancer cell proliferation. Supplementation with RSV reversed these adipose-dependent effects suggesting a potential for RSV as a nutritional supplementation to improve breast cancer treatment in obese patients.

  1. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Strahler, Talia R.; Bassett, Candace J.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida?; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107?13...

  3. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  4. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  5. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report

  6. Removal process of prion and parvovirus from human platelet lysates used as clinical-grade supplement for ex vivo cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Bailey, Andy; Samminger, Bernhard; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Pooled human platelet lysate (HPL) is becoming the new gold standard as supplement for ex vivo cell culture for clinical protocols. However, the risk of pathogen contamination of HPL increases with the platelet pool size. We hypothesized that hollow fiber anion exchange membrane chromatography using QyuSpeed D (QSD) could remove resistant and untested bloodborne pathogens, such as parvoviruses and prions, from HPL-supplemented growth media without substantially affecting their capacity to support ex vivo cell expansion. Frozen or thawed platelet concentrates were serum-converted and centrifuged for obtaining HPL that was added to various growth media (ca. 100 mL), filtered through a 0.6-mL QSD membrane and characterized for proteins, growth factors and chemical composition. Capacity to expand Chinese hamster ovary, periodontal ligament, gingival fibroblast cells and Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells was studied. Removal of porcine parvovirus (PPV) and of the 263K prion strain of hamster-adapted scrapie was studied by spiking experiments following international guidelines. QSD had minimal impact on HPL-supplemented medium composition in proteins, growth factors and chemical content, nor capacity to expand and differentiate cells. In addition, QSD could remove ≥5.58 log10 [TCID50/mL] and ≥3.72 log10 of PPV and the 263K prion, respectively. QSD hollow fiber chromatography can be used to improve the virus and prion safety of HPL-supplemented media to safely expand cells for clinical protocols. These data bring new perspectives for increasingly safer use of pooled HPL in cell therapy and regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Oral nutritional supplementation in hematologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalva, A; San Martín, A; Rosselló, J; Pérez-Portabella, C; Palacios, A; Julià, A; Planas, M

    2009-01-01

    Hematological patients often present anorexia which along with other secondary effects from the chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments compromise their nutritional status. Oral supplementation can aid to fulfill the energy and protein requirements of these patients. Nevertheless, the use of commercial nutritional supplements normally available, is limited by its poor intake. To evaluate the degree of fulfillment of the prescribed supplements and fulfillment of energy requirements, as well as the development of nutritional status in hematological patients hospitalized for treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Prospective, randomized and open study of inpatients at the hematological ward. Patients were randomized sequentially and they were assigned into 3 different nutritional interventions providing: Group 1 (G1), a flavored supplement; Group 2 (G2): a non flavored (neutral) supplement and Group 3 (G3): "kitchen" foods as supplements. Need and amount of nutritional supplements were provided according to the oral intake previously analyzed. Nutritional assessment (at admission and discharge) was based in the Subjective Global Assessment test (SGA), Risk Nutritional Index (RNI) and percentage of lost weight. Both fulfillment of supplement intake and achievement of energetic requirements were analyzed. 125 patients of 51.3 +/- 16.8 years; 45% men and 55% women. 54% lymphoma, 33% leukemia, 8% myeloma and others 4%. Length of stay (LOS): 7.0 +/- 3.6 d. The nutritional assessment done by SGA showed significant negative changes in G2 and G3 (G1: 30% developed malnutrition and 28% improved their nutritional status, p = NS; G2: 50% developed malnutrition against 7% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.002; y G3: 37% developed malnutrition against 21% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.02). According to RNI, patients evolved negatively from their nutritional state but no significant differences were found within groups (G1, from 81% of

  8. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Muscle Dysmorphia and Social Physique Anxiety on the Use of Supplements and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Khorramabady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of dietary supplements and drugs to improve performance and physical appearance has recently increased among professional and recreational ‎athletes. Literature shows that bodybuilders, more than other athletes use supplements and drugs. Objectives This study aims to predict the use of supplements and drugs by muscle dysmorphia and social physique anxiety variables among Hamedan bodybuilders. Methods This cross-sectional investigation was conducted with 438 bodybuilders in Hamedan province. For collecting data, we used a demographic questionnaire, muscle dysmorphia scale, and social ‎physique anxiety scale. Results The results showed that 79.2% of the subjects used supplements, and vitamins (22.1% and protein powders (21.9% had the highest rates of use among supplements. Moreover, 145 subjects (33.1% used drugs, and steroid derivatives (16.2% and peptide hormones and growth factors (12.6% had the highest rates of use among drugs. The results of t-test showed that muscle dysmorphia and social physique anxiety were significantly higher in the subjects who used supplements and drugs than those who did not. Additionally, the results of logistic regression indicated that muscle dysmorphia and social physique anxiety can predict the likelihood of drug abuse. Conclusions The present study provides novel findings of the effect of social physique anxiety and muscle ‎dysmorphia on nutritional supplement and drugs use among bodybuilders. ‎

  10. Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal.

  11. Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

    2009-05-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group.

  12. The Infatuation With Biotin Supplementation: Is There Truth Behind Its Rising Popularity? A Comparative Analysis of Clinical Efficacy versus Social Popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Teo; Lo Sicco, Kristen; Shapiro, Jerry

    2017-05-01

    Biotin, also known as Vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B vitamin that acts as an essential cofactor for several carboxylases involved in the cellular metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and gluconeogenesis. Although there exists an incredible amount of social media hype and market advertising touting its efficacy for the improvement of hair quantity and quality, biotin's efficacy for hair remains largely unsubstantiated in scientific literature. We reviewed all pertinent scientific literature regarding the efficacy of biotin supplementation for hair growth and quality improvement, and we also investigated its popularity in society defined as a function of market analytics. To date, there have been no clinical trials conducted to investigate the efficacy of biotin supplementation for the treatment of alopecia of any kind, nor has there been any randomized controlled trial to study its effect on hair quality and quantity in human subjects. Because of the lack of clinical evidence, its use to improve hair quantity or quality is not routinely recommended. However, societal infatuation with biotin supplementation is not only propagated by its glamorization in popular media, its popularity is vastly disproportionate to the insufficient clinical evidence supporting it's efficacy in hair improvement. In other words, biotin supplements are quite "in vogue", without there being any real reason to be so. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(5):496-500..

  13. Growing evidence of the beneficial effects of a marine protein-based dietary supplement for treating hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2018-04-01

    Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth. Each study was approved by one or more institutional review boards. Together, these studies demonstrated the ability of oral marine supplements to increase the growth of terminal and vellus hairs, increase the diameter of terminal and vellus hairs, and decrease hair loss. This product is beneficial for men as well as women. A dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other natural ingredients can safely and effectively promote hair growth and decrease hair shedding in women and men with thinning hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Chronic dietary supplementation with soy protein improves muscle function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi J Khairallah

    Full Text Available Athletes as well as elderly or hospitalized patients use dietary protein supplementation to maintain or grow skeletal muscle. It is recognized that high quality protein is needed for muscle accretion, and can be obtained from both animal and plant-based sources. There is interest to understand whether these sources differ in their ability to maintain or stimulate muscle growth and function. In this study, baseline muscle performance was assessed in 50 adult Sprague-Dawley rats after which they were assigned to one of five semi-purified "Western" diets (n = 10/group differing only in protein source, namely 19 kcal% protein from either milk protein isolate (MPI, whey protein isolate (WPI, soy protein isolate (SPI, soy protein concentrate (SPC or enzyme-treated soy protein (SPE. The diets were fed for 8 weeks at which point muscle performance testing was repeated and tissues were collected for analysis. There was no significant difference in food consumption or body weights over time between the diet groups nor were there differences in terminal organ and muscle weights or in serum lipids, creatinine or myostatin. Compared with MPI-fed rats, rats fed WPI and SPC displayed a greater maximum rate of contraction using the in vivo measure of muscle performance (p<0.05 with increases ranging from 13.3-27.5% and 22.8-29.5%, respectively at 60, 80, 100 and 150 Hz. When the maximum force was normalized to body weight, SPC-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05, whereas when normalized to gastrocnemius weight, WPI-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05. There was no difference between groups using in situ muscle performance. In conclusion, soy protein consumption, in high-fat diet, resulted in muscle function comparable to whey protein and improved compared to milk protein. The benefits seen with soy or whey protein were independent of changes in muscle mass or fiber cross-sectional area.

  15. The effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Halas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies suggest that dietary phytase enhance the growth rate of pigs fed P-adequate diets. This may be due to an increased N digestibility and/or improved protein gain. The aim was to study the effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs upon protein limiting condition. A total of 24 hybrid individually kept barrows (25kg BW were assigned into 4 treatments. Diet in AP0 (AP: adequate protein contained 190g/kg crude protein and no phytase supplementation, diets in RP0, RP500 and RP1000 (RP: reduced protein contained 160g/kg crude protein and 0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg phytase supplementation, respectively. The balance trial consisted of 7 days adaptation and 5 days collection, during which the feces and urine were collected quantitatively. Additional phytase to low protein diets increased the N-retention of the pigs (P0.05. Dietary treatments did not affect the digestibility of protein, however, 500 FTU/kg phytase supplementation increased the efficiency of N-retention. Our results show that the protein content of the feed for pigs of 20-30kg can be reduced from 190 to 160 g/kg if the diet is supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase without weakening the N-balance of pigs.

  16. Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, PerfLoad®, Improves Physical Performance during High-Intensity Exercise: A Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Cases

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad®, was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation. The Wingate test, an inducer of an unbalanced metabolism associated to oxidative stress, was used to assess maximum anaerobic power during a high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Supplementation with PerfLoad® correlated with a significant increase in total power output (5%, maximal peak power output (3.7%, and average power developed (5%, without inducing more fatigue or greater heart rate. Instead, oxidative homeostasis was stabilized in supplemented subjects. Such results demonstrated that PerfLoad® is a natural and efficient solution capable of, similarly to training benefits, helping athletes to improve their physical performance, while balancing their metabolism and reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  17. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p < 0.001), while physical health scores remained unchanged. The use of a virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  18. Efficacy of supplementation in filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayao, Charisse Marie S

    2015-01-01

    At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25) of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12) of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13). Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC) count, with the level progression statistically significant. Overall, the results

  19. Efficacy of supplementation in Filipino children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Marie S Tayao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. Objective: The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb, hematocrit (Hct, reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Methodology: Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Study Design: Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. Results: A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25 of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12 of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13. Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC count

  20. Comparative Efficacy of an Organic Acid Blend and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate as Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens: Effects on Performance, Gut Histology, and Small Intestinal Milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Samanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of organic acids as a growth promoter for broiler chickens relative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs. Broiler chickens were supplemented with graded doses of an organic acid blend (OAB, 1 g and 2 g/kg diet and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 0.5 g and 1 g/kg diet for 35 days. Supplementation of OAB improved (<.001 feed conversion ratio (FCR and increased protein accretion (<.001. Dietary acidification caused pH of the gizzard to decline linearly (<.01 with the dose of supplemental OAB. In the lower intestine, pH remained unaffected by dietary treatments. Unlike BMD, supplemental OAB selectively promoted growth of lactobacilli in the small intestine. Moreover, compared to BMD, OAB tended to maintain the villi in the small intestine at a greater height. Although benefits of exceeding the dose of supplemental organic acids more than 1 g/kg diet are not always conspicuous, based on the live weight and feed conversion data, supplementation of 2 g organic acid per kg diet may be recommended for total replacement of AGPs in broiler diet.

  1. Lactobacillus fermentum HP3–Mediated Fermented Hericium erinaceus Juice as a Health Promoting Food Supplement to Manage Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Woraharn, Sasimar; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Lailerd, Narissara; Kesika, Periyanaina; Peerajan, Sartjin

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the antidiabetic property of Lactobacillus fermentum HP3–mediated fermented Hericium erinaceus juice (FHJ) using male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). FHJ was prepared using boiled mushroom juice and L. fermentum HP3. Amino acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of FHJ was analyzed. Streptozotocin-induced DM rats were supplemented with FHJ in a pre- and posttreatment method. The changes in plasma insulin, plasma glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), representative cytokines, and the antioxidant system were assessed in experimental rats using spectrophotometric methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The supplementation of FHJ improved the body mass, insulin level, and recovery progress of hyperglycemia. HbA1c level was altered by the FHJ intervention. The inflammatory cytokines level was suppressed in FHJ supplemented group compared with control. Intervention of FHJ and insulin improved the production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-–β1 in DM rat. The study suggested that fermented H erinaceus juice may be used as one of the food-based health-promoting supplement to manage DM along with medication. PMID:29619846

  2. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  3. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation and infants' growth and health: a multisite surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Cutts, Diana B; Frank, Deborah A; Geppert, Joni; Skalicky, Anne; Levenson, Suzette; Casey, Patrick H; Berkowitz, Carol; Zaldivar, Nieves; Cook, John T; Meyers, Alan F; Herren, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the largest food supplement program in the United States, serving almost 7 500 000 participants in 2002. Because the program is a grant program, rather than an entitlement program, Congress is not mandated to allocate funds to serve all eligible participants. Little is known about the effects of WIC on infant growth, health, and food security. To examine associations between WIC participation and indicators of underweight, overweight, length, caregiver-perceived health, and household food security among infants 95th percentile, varied from 7% to 9% and did not differ among the 3 groups but were higher than the 5% expected from national growth charts. Rates of food insecurity were consistent with national data for minority households with children. Families that did not receive WIC assistance because of access problems had higher rates of food insecurity (28%) than did WIC participants (23%), although differences were not significant after covariate control. Caregivers who did not perceive a need for WIC services had more economic and personal resources than did WIC participants and were less likely to be food-insecure, but there were no differences in infants' weight-for-age, perceived health, or overweight between families that did not perceive a need for WIC services and those that received WIC assistance. Infants participation. Health care providers should promote WIC utilization for eligible families and advocate that WIC receive support to reduce waiting lists and eliminate barriers that interfere with access.

  4. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation during pregnancy on lung function in preschoolers: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Delgado, R I; Barraza-Villarreal, A; Escamilla-Núñez, C; Hernández-Cadena, L; Garcia-Feregrino, R; Shackleton, C; Ramakrishnan, U; Sly, P D; Romieu, I

    2018-04-04

    Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids improve alveolarization, diminish inflammation, and improve pulmonary growth, but it is unclear whether these outcomes translate into improved postnatal lung function. We assessed the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on offspring lung function through 60 months of age. We included a cohort of 772 Mexican preschoolers whose mothers participated in a clinical trial (NCT00646360) of supplementation with DHA or a placebo from week 18-22 of gestation through delivery. The children were followed after birth and anthropometric measurements and forced oscillation tests were performed at 36, 48, and 60 months of age. The effect of DHA was tested using a longitudinal mixed effect models. Overall, mean (Standard Deviation) of the measurements of respiratory system resistance and respiratory system reactance at 6, 8, and 10 Hz during follow up period were 11.3 (2.4), 11.1 (2.4), 10.3 (2.2) and -5.2 (1.6), -4.8 (1.7), -4.6 (1.6), respectively. There were no significant differences in pulmonary function by treatment group. DHA did not affect the average lung function or the trajectories through 60 months. Prenatal DHA supplementation did not influence pulmonary function in this cohort of Mexican preschoolers.

  5. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Yoon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4 as an alternative phosphorus (P source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP, dicalcium phosphate (DCP and tricalcium phosphate [TCP] as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE significantly higher (p0.05 among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05 than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish.

  6. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  7. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation

  8. Effect of water electrolyte supplementation on performance, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under heat stress, 0.5% KCl and 0.5%NaCl supplementation in water reduced rectal temperature, increased body weight, improved FCR, and reduced blood pH. Electrolyte supplementation also influenced red blood cell count as well as serum levels of sodium, potassium and bicarbonate. Supplementing KCl and NaCl in ...

  9. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Jawadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8% were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%. Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardio