WorldWideScience

Sample records for supplemental nutrition care

  1. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  2. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  3. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  4. Glutamine Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkay Aydoğmuş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a form of nosocomial pneumonia that increases patient morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay, and healthcare costs. Glutamine preserves the intestinal mucosal structure, increases immune function, and reduces harmful changes in gut permeability in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN. We hypothesized that TPN supplemented by glutamine might prevent the development of VAP in patients on mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit (ICU. Material and Methods: With the approval of the ethics committee and informed consent from relatives, 60 patients who were followed in the ICU with mechanical ventilator support were included in our study. Patients were divided into three groups. The first group received enteral nutrition (n=20, and the second was prescribed TPN (n=20 while the third group was given glutamine-supplemented TPN (n=20. C-reactive protein (CRP, sedimentation rate, body temperature, development of purulent secretions, increase in the amount of secretions, changes in the characteristics of secretions and an increase in requirement of deep tracheal aspiration were monitored for seven days by daily examination and radiographs. Results: No statistically significant difference was found among groups in terms of development of VAP (p=0.622. Conclusion: Although VAP developed at a lower rate in the glutamine-supplemented TPN group, no statistically significant difference was found among any of the groups. Glutamine-supplemented TPN may have no superiority over unsupplemented enteral and TPN in preventing VAP.

  5. Glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğmuş, Meltem Türkay; Tomak, Yakup; Tekin, Murat; Katı, Ismail; Hüseyinoğlu, Urfettin

    2012-12-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a form of nosocomial pneumonia that increases patient morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay, and healthcare costs. Glutamine preserves the intestinal mucosal structure, increases immune function, and reduces harmful changes in gut permeability in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We hypothesized that TPN supplemented by glutamine might prevent the development of VAP in patients on mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit (ICU). With the approval of the ethics committee and informed consent from relatives, 60 patients who were followed in the ICU with mechanical ventilator support were included in our study. Patients were divided into three groups. The first group received enteral nutrition (n=20), and the second was prescribed TPN (n=20) while the third group was given glutamine-supplemented TPN (n=20). C-reactive protein (CRP), sedimentation rate, body temperature, development of purulent secretions, increase in the amount of secretions, changes in the characteristics of secretions and an increase in requirement of deep tracheal aspiration were monitored for seven days by daily examination and radiographs. No statistically significant difference was found among groups in terms of development of VAP (p=0.622). Although VAP developed at a lower rate in the glutamine-supplemented TPN group, no statistically significant difference was found among any of the groups. Glutamine-supplemented TPN may have no superiority over unsupplemented enteral and TPN in preventing VAP.

  6. Stress, nutrition and parental care in a teleost fish: exploring mechanisms with supplemental feeding and cortisol manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolderdo, A J; Algera, D A; Lawrence, M J; Gilmour, K M; Fast, M D; Thuswaldner, J; Willmore, W G; Cooke, S J

    2016-04-15

    Parental care is an essential life-history component of reproduction for many animal species, and it entails a suite of behavioural and physiological investments to enhance offspring survival. These investments can incur costs to the parent, reducing their energetic and physiological condition, future reproductive capabilities and survival. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on how these physiological costs are mediated. Male smallmouth bass provide parental care for developing offspring until the brood reaches independence. During this energetically demanding life stage, males cease active foraging as they vigorously defend their offspring. Experimental manipulation of cortisol levels (via implantation) and food (via supplemental feeding) in parental males was used to investigate the fitness consequences of parental care. Improving the nutritional condition of nest-guarding males increased their reproductive success by reducing premature nest abandonment. However, supplemental feeding and cortisol treatment had no effect on parental care behaviours. Cortisol treatment reduced plasma lymphocyte numbers, but increased neutrophil and monocyte concentrations, indicating a shift in immune function. Supplemental feeding improved the physiological condition of parental fish by reducing the accumulation of oxidative injury. Specifically, supplemental feeding reduced the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) on DNA nucleotides. Increasing the nutritional condition of parental fish can reduce the physiological cost associated with intensive parental activity and improve overall reproductive success, illustrating the importance of nutritional condition as a key modulator of parental fitness. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  8. Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition). PMID:29910389

  9. Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica

    2017-05-12

    Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition).

  10. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  11. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  12. Attitudes towards nutritional supplement use amongst adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutritional supplements refer to a product ingested to increase the nutritional content of a normal diet, to fill a dietary need and/or presumed deficiency. The usage and popularity of nutritional supplements, however, raises concerns from a health benefit and risk perspective. In South Africa, there is currently no ...

  13. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-17

    Jan 17, 2018 ... review assessing the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people with active tuberculosis who are receiving antituberculosis drug therapy. The review ... 2 Cochrane Nutrition, hosted jointly by the Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch. University ...

  14. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  15. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  16. Providing quality nutrition care in acute care hospitals: perspectives of nutrition care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H H; Vesnaver, E; Davidson, B; Allard, J; Laporte, M; Bernier, P; Payette, H; Jeejeebhoy, K; Duerksen, D; Gramlich, L

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in acute care hospitals worldwide and nutritional status can deteriorate during hospitalisation. The aim of the present qualitative study was to identify enablers and challenges and, specifically, the activities, processes and resources, from the perspective of nutrition care personnel, required to provide quality nutrition care. Eight hospitals participating in the Nutrition Care in Canadian Hospitals study provided focus group data (n = 8 focus groups; 91 participants; dietitians, dietetic interns, diet technicians and menu clerks), which were analysed thematically. Five themes emerged from the data: (i) developing a nutrition culture, where nutrition practice is considered important to recovery of patients and teams work together to achieve nutrition goals; (ii) using effective tools, such as screening, evidence-based protocols, quality, timely and accurate patient information, and appropriate and quality food; (iii) creating effective systems to support delivery of care, such as communications, food production and delivery; (iv) being responsive to care needs, via flexible food systems, appropriate menus and meal supplements, up to date clinical care and including patient and family in the care processes; and (v) uniting the right person with the right task, by delineating roles, training staff, providing sufficient time to undertake these important tasks and holding staff accountable for their care. The findings of the present study are consistent with other work and provide guidance towards improving the nutrition culture in hospitals. Further empirical work on how to support successful implementation of nutrition care processes is needed. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Nutritional supplements in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis

    2017-09-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.

  18. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  19. [Oral nutritional supplementation in hematologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalva, A; San Martín, A; Rosselló, J; Pérez-Portabella, C; Palacios, A; Julià, A; Planas, M

    2009-01-01

    Hematological patients often present anorexia which along with other secondary effects from the chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments compromise their nutritional status. Oral supplementation can aid to fulfill the energy and protein requirements of these patients. Nevertheless, the use of commercial nutritional supplements normally available, is limited by its poor intake. To evaluate the degree of fulfillment of the prescribed supplements and fulfillment of energy requirements, as well as the development of nutritional status in hematological patients hospitalized for treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Prospective, randomized and open study of inpatients at the hematological ward. Patients were randomized sequentially and they were assigned into 3 different nutritional interventions providing: Group 1 (G1), a flavored supplement; Group 2 (G2): a non flavored (neutral) supplement and Group 3 (G3): "kitchen" foods as supplements. Need and amount of nutritional supplements were provided according to the oral intake previously analyzed. Nutritional assessment (at admission and discharge) was based in the Subjective Global Assessment test (SGA), Risk Nutritional Index (RNI) and percentage of lost weight. Both fulfillment of supplement intake and achievement of energetic requirements were analyzed. 125 patients of 51.3 +/- 16.8 years; 45% men and 55% women. 54% lymphoma, 33% leukemia, 8% myeloma and others 4%. Length of stay (LOS): 7.0 +/- 3.6 d. The nutritional assessment done by SGA showed significant negative changes in G2 and G3 (G1: 30% developed malnutrition and 28% improved their nutritional status, p = NS; G2: 50% developed malnutrition against 7% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.002; y G3: 37% developed malnutrition against 21% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.02). According to RNI, patients evolved negatively from their nutritional state but no significant differences were found within groups (G1, from 81% of

  20. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  1. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the

  2. Inadvertent doping through nutritional supplements is a reality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    In 1994 legislation was passed by the United States Food and Drug Administration ... resulting in contamination of nutritional supplements, which may be a possible ... Nutritional supplement manufacturing is not subject to the same stringent ...

  3. Key issues in nutrition. Supplementation through adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, P J; Boltri, J M; Monk, J S

    1987-05-01

    A varied and balanced diet is usually adequate to meet the energy, protein, vitamin, and mineral requirements of adults and the elderly. However, some high-risk groups may require supplementation or special dietary recommendations. Some examples are persons on a weight-loss diet, alcoholics, premenopausal women, women taking oral contraceptives, postmenopausal women not taking estrogen, and patients with diminished immunity or cancer. An understanding of the nutritional needs of adult and elderly patients is vital if the primary care physician is to answer their questions and help them maintain good health through dietary adjustment or supplementation.

  4. [Sensory evaluation of enteral nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell Vidal, Lina; Sánchez Juan, Carlos; Alfonso García, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is indicated in patients who, although they may not eat enough food, maintain a sufficient function to receive, digest and absorb nutrients digestive system. Oral Nutritional Supplements (SON) are nutritionally complete or incomplete formulas (depending on whether or not provide all the nutrients needed to serve as the sole source of nutrients), which supplement inadequate oral diet. This study aims to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of hyperproteic, normoproteic and fiber-enriched oral SON. SON test, carried out at the Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Consortium Hospital General Universitario de Valencia from October 2012 to February 2013. 137 SON were evaluated in total, of which 47 were hyperproteic, 46 normoproteic and 44 enriched in fiber. Of the SON evaluated in the group of hyperproteic the following 3 SON obtained the best scores: Fresenius Prot Energy Drink® (21,27, vanilla flavor), Avant Standard Nut® (20.3 , strawberry flavor) and Resource® Protein (20.01, chocolate flavor) In the group of normoproteic SON the 3 best rated were: Ensure Plus® (22.3, banana flavor), Ensure Plus® (21.9, peach flavor) and Fresubin Energy Drink® (21, strawberry flavor) In the group of fiber-enriched the 3 SON most appreciated were: 2 Kcal Fresubin Fibre Drink® (23.78, vanilla flavor), Ensure Plus® TwoCal (22.9, banana flavor) and Fortimel Compact® (21.5, strawberry flavor) The study aims to guide clinicians on what SON may be more acceptable to the patient, so that the SON serve their purpose and restore or improve nutritional status, as the SON intervention is safe and cost - effective, since they improve both the functionality and quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional supplement for control of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vsevolodovich Sadovoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of diabetic patients’ dietary habits indicate that there is an imbalance of selected vitamins and minerals. A nutrient supplement composition; intended for prophylactic administration, was developed to correct this imbalance. It was composed of dried eggs and yeast component (60%, vitamin В1 (0.02% and nicotinamide (0.04%, chromium chelate (0.02%, “selen-active” (0.02% and lecithin (39.9%. The dried eggs and yeast component was prepared by homogenization of lysozyme rich chicken eggs and yeast followed by storage and drying at a pre-defined temperature and to a set water content respectively. The nutritional supplement was incorporated at 5% concentration into a cooked sausage recipe. An assessment of the safety and efficacy of the prophylactic nutritional supplement was performed in an alloxan induced diabetic rat model. The developed composition, as a part of feedstuff, improved metabolic processes, increased antioxidant activity, reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased blood cholesterol, and improved the carbohydrate metabolism.

  6. Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk production and fertility of lactating dairy ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The objective of this study was to determine effects of nutrition on milk production and ...

  7. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient’s health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products.

  8. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition in cancer care can be affected by the tumor or by treatment and result in weight loss, malnutrition, anorexia, cachexia, and sarcopenia. Get information about strategies to screen, assess, and treat nutritional problems, including through diet and supplements, in this clinician summary.

  9. Randomised trial of glutamine and selenium supplemented parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients. Protocol Version 9, 19 February 2007 known as SIGNET (Scottish Intensive care Glutamine or seleNium Evaluative Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Luke D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates in the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent hospital mortality rates in the UK remain high. Infections in Intensive Care are associated with a 2–3 times increased risk of death. It is thought that under conditions of severe metabolic stress glutamine becomes "conditionally essential". Selenium is an essential trace element that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Approximately 23% of patients in Intensive Care require parenteral nutrition and glutamine and selenium are either absent or present in low amounts. Both glutamine and selenium have the potential to influence the immune system through independent biochemical pathways. Systematic reviews suggest that supplementing parenteral nutrition in critical illness with glutamine or selenium may reduce infections and mortality. Pilot data has shown that more than 50% of participants developed infections, typically resistant organisms. We are powered to show definitively whether supplementation of PN with either glutamine or selenium is effective at reducing new infections in critically ill patients. Methods/design 2 × 2 factorial, pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The trial has an enrolment target of 500 patients. Inclusion criteria include: expected to be in critical care for at least 48 hours, aged 16 years or over, patients who require parenteral nutrition and are expected to have at least half their daily nutritional requirements given by that route. Allocation is to one of four iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous groups: glutamine, selenium, both glutamine & selenium or no additional glutamine or selenium. Trial supplementation is given for up to seven days on the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent wards if practicable. The primary outcomes are episodes of infection in the 14 days after starting trial nutrition and mortality. Secondary outcomes include antibiotic usage, length of hospital stay, quality of life and

  10. Randomised trial of glutamine and selenium supplemented parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients. Protocol Version 9, 19 February 2007 known as SIGNET (Scottish Intensive care Glutamine or seleNium Evaluative Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter J D; Avenell, Alison; Noble, David W; Campbell, Marion K; Battison, Claire G; Croal, Bernard L; Simpson, William G; Norrie, John; Vale, Luke D; Cook, Jonathon; de Verteuil, Robyn; Milne, Anne C

    2007-09-20

    Mortality rates in the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent hospital mortality rates in the UK remain high. Infections in Intensive Care are associated with a 2-3 times increased risk of death. It is thought that under conditions of severe metabolic stress glutamine becomes "conditionally essential". Selenium is an essential trace element that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Approximately 23% of patients in Intensive Care require parenteral nutrition and glutamine and selenium are either absent or present in low amounts. Both glutamine and selenium have the potential to influence the immune system through independent biochemical pathways. Systematic reviews suggest that supplementing parenteral nutrition in critical illness with glutamine or selenium may reduce infections and mortality. Pilot data has shown that more than 50% of participants developed infections, typically resistant organisms. We are powered to show definitively whether supplementation of PN with either glutamine or selenium is effective at reducing new infections in critically ill patients. 2 x 2 factorial, pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The trial has an enrollment target of 500 patients. Inclusion criteria include: expected to be in critical care for at least 48 hours, aged 16 years or over, patients who require parenteral nutrition and are expected to have at least half their daily nutritional requirements given by that route. Allocation is to one of four iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous groups: glutamine, selenium, both glutamine & selenium or no additional glutamine or selenium. Trial supplementation is given for up to seven days on the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent wards if practicable. The primary outcomes are episodes of infection in the 14 days after starting trial nutrition and mortality. Secondary outcomes include antibiotic usage, length of hospital stay, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. To date more than 285 patients have been

  11. Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    A statewide survey was carried out to determine food and nutrition practices and education needs of Florida's adult family care homes (AFCHs). The 30-item survey included questions on food and nutrition education, supplement use, and menu planning. Infrequent use of menus and nutrition supplements was reported. A strong need was indicated for…

  12. Optimizing the electronic health record to standardize administration and documentation of nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citty, Sandra W; Kamel, Amir; Garvan, Cynthia; Marlowe, Lee; Westhoff, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a major cause for hospital re-admission, pressure ulcers and increased hospital costs. Methods to improve the administration and documentation of nutritional supplements for hospitalized patients are needed to improve patient care, outcomes and resource utilization. Staff at a medium-sized academic health science center hospital in the southeastern United States noted that nutritional supplements ordered for patients at high risk for malnutrition were not offered or administered to patients in a standardized manner and/or not documented clearly in the electronic health record as per prescription. This paper reports on a process improvement project that redesigned the ordering, administration and documentation process of oral nutritional supplements in the electronic health record. By adding nutritional products to the medication order sets and adding an electronic nutrition administration record (ENAR) tab, the multidisciplinary team sought to standardize nutritional supplement ordering, documentation and administration at prescribed intervals. This process improvement project used a triangulated approach to evaluating pre- and post-process change including: medical record reviews, patient interviews, and nutrition formula room log reports. Staff education and training was carried out prior to initiation of the system changes. This process change resulted in an average decrease in the return of unused nutritional formula from 76% returned at baseline to 54% post-process change. The process change resulted in 100% of nutritional supplement orders having documentation about nutritional medication administration and/or reason for non-administration. Documentation in the ENAR showed that 41% of ONS orders were given and 59% were not given. Significantly more patients reported being offered the ONS product (p=0.0001) after process redesign and more patients (5% before ENAR and 86% after ENAR reported being offered the correct

  13. The Palatability of Cereal Based Nutritional Supplements in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420

  14. Nutritional Care in Iranian Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) provides intensive treatment medicine to avoid complications such as malnutrition, infection and even death. As very little is currently known about the nutritional practices in Iranian ICUs, this study attempted to assess the various aspects of current nutrition support practices in Iranian ICUs. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 150 critically ill patients at 18 ICUs in 12 hospitals located in 2 provinces of Iran from February 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected through interview with supervisors of ICUs, medical record reviews and direct observation of patients during feeding. Our study showed that hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas are the main formulas used in Iranian hospitals. None of the dietitians worked exclusively an ICU and only 30% of patients received diet counselling. Regular monitoring of nutritional status, daily energy and protein intake were not recorded in any of the participating ICUs. Patients were not monitored for anthropometric measurements such as mid-arm circumference (MAC) and electrolyte status. The nasogastric tube was not switched to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/PEGJ) in approximately 85% of patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition (EN) support. Our findings demonstrated that the quality of nutritional care was inappropriate in Iranian ICUs and improvement of nutritional care services within Iranian ICUs is necessary. PMID:29713622

  15. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months....../µL (−2 to 53 cells/µL) were CD4. Effects of the soy containing supplement on immune recovery were not significant. The effects of the two supplements, however, were not significantly different in direct comparison. Exploratory analysis showed that relatively more lean body mass was gained by patients...... with undetectable viral load at three months. Patients receiving delayed supplementation had higher weight gain but lower gains in functional outcomes. Conclusions: Lipid based nutritional supplements improved gain of weight, lean body mass, and grip strength in patients with HIV starting ART. Supplements...

  16. The advertising of nutritional supplements in South African women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advertising of nutritional supplements in South African women's magazines: a descriptive ... These types of products are increasingly advertised and the advertisements frequently contain health claims. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  18. Evaluation of supplemental nutrition in elderly orthopaedic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, Lynn.

    1994-01-01

    A degree of malnutrition is evident in many elderly patients on admission to hospital. The increased metabolic demands of surgery, and low food intake during the post operative period, can cause a further deterioration in nutritional status, with adverse effects on clinical outcome. Sip feed supplements offer a simple and inexpensive method of providing nutrition support. 'The present study has evaluated the efficacy of, and compliance to, sip feed supplements in elderly patients undergoing e...

  19. Key Resources for Creating Online Nutrition Education for Those Participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosich, Marie C.; LeBlanc, Heidi; Kudin, Janette S.; Christofferson, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Internet-based nutrition education is becoming an important tool in serving the rural, low-income community, yet the task of creating such programming can be daunting. The authors describe the key resources used in developing an Internet-based nutrition education program for those participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program…

  20. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  1. Use of nutritional supplements contaminated with banned doping substances by recreational adolescent athletes in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Kioukia-Fougia, Nassia; Papalexis, Petros; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Bacopoulou, Flora; Tsitsimpikou, Christina

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of nutritional supplements by adult athletes has been extensively studied, information on supplements consumption by adolescent athletes is still limited. The present study reports on the use of nutritional supplements contaminated with banned doping substances among 170 recreational adolescent athletes from eleven, randomly selected, gym centres, in Athens, Greece. Nutritional supplements consumption was reported by almost 60% of the study population, with proteins/amino acids and vitamins being the most popular. Nine per cent of the users were found to consume nutritional supplements contaminated with anabolic steroids, prohormones, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and aromatase inhibitors, all pharmacological substances with endocrine modulating properties not stated on the label. None of these individuals had previously consulted a physician or a nutritionist. A representative sample (ca 15%) of the protein/aminoacids and creatine preparations used by the study population were also tested and found free from doping substances. The majority (63%) of adolescents purchased products from the internet. In conclusion, exercising adolescents can have easy access to contaminated nutritional supplements and "black market" products, which could constitute a risk for public health. Low level of awareness and low involvement of medical care professionals among recreational adolescent athletes is also observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Future Trends: Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Marie; Antonio, Jose

    The field of sports nutrition is defined not only by dietary recommendations for various athletes, research and new supplements that are on store shelves but also by the direction of the industry itself. Consumer spending, media coverage, professional athlete endorsement of various supplements, lawsuits, regulations in governing bodies and clinical research all have an impact on the direction and growth of the sports nutrition industry. To date, no supplement has affected sports nutrition as much as creatine and the company that both funded most of the research supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine and capitalized on such research. There is no current leader in the sports nutrition market. Instead, companies are vying among steady competition for space on store shelves and overall product sales.

  3. Use of Nutrition Supplements for the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Tenglerová, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of my thesis was to describe the use of food supplements by seniors. Most seniors use medications prescribed by physicians and some of them also use over-the-counter food supplements that are more easily accessible. Seniors, in particular, are susceptible to considering food supplements to be as efficient as medications under the incessant influence of massive advertising on TV and other media, and many of them are willing to spend considerable amounts from their income on su...

  4. Association between oral nutritional supplementation and clinical outcomes among patients with ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheu, Christine; Pearson, Jeffrey; Dahlerus, Claudia; Lantz, Brett; Chowdhury, Tania; Sauer, Peter F; Farrell, Robert E; Port, Friedrich K; Ramirez, Sylvia P B

    2013-01-01

    Oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) was provided to ESRD patients with hypoalbuminemia as part of Fresenius Medical Care Health Plan's (FMCHP) disease management. This study evaluated the association between FMCHP's ONS program and clinical outcomes. Analyses included FMCHP patients with ONS indication (n=470) defined as 2-month mean albumin management setting.

  5. Attitudes towards nutritional supplement use amongst adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    artificially enhance performance.[3] Linked to this ... general public health and wellness as a right, needs to be improved. .... Coopoo which identified pharmacists to be the main source of ... requirements with respect to intelligent nutritional.

  6. Early goal-directed nutrition versus standard of care in adult intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Wiis, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the effects of early goal-directed nutrition (EGDN) vs. standard nutritional care in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: We randomised acutely admitted, mechanically ventilated ICU patients expected to stay longer than 3 days in the ICU. In the EGDN group we...... estimated nutritional requirements by indirect calorimetry and 24-h urinary urea aiming at covering 100% of requirements from the first full trial day using enteral and parenteral nutrition. In the standard of care group we aimed at providing 25 kcal/kg/day by enteral nutrition. If this was not met by day 7......, patients were supplemented with parenteral nutrition. The primary outcome was physical component summary (PCS) score of SF-36 at 6 months. We performed multiple imputation for data of the non-responders. Results: We randomised 203 patients and included 199 in the intention-to-treat analyses; baseline...

  7. OUTCOME OF ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRITIONAL INTAKE OF CKD PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sahni

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Zn supplementation alone failed to improve dietary intake as it seemed patients were scared to eat more/wrong/kidney unfriendly food in absence of clear dietary guidelines, but favorable results were observed when Zn supplementation was coupled with parametric, individualized dietary counseling which shows that role of diet counseling in removing food misconceptions & lack of knowledge is important to make any therapy effective. So there is a critical need for implementation of effective nutritional management strategies.

  8. Use of hormones and nutritional supplements among gyms' attendees in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; AlShowair, Mishal A.; AlRuhaim, Abdulmalik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, studies have shown a high prevalence of hormones and nutritional supplement use by athletes and gym members. Many athletes consume unproven, potentially harmful or even banned supplements. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of the use of hormones and nutritional supplements by people who exercise in gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the types of supplements they most commonly use and to obtain a general view of the main reasons for using these enhancements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at gyms in Riyadh that were selected randomly from different sectors of the city. The sample size was estimated at 289, but the actual number of randomly selected participants in the study was 457. RESULTS: The number of gym members who participated in this study was 457. Approximately 47.9% of the sample reported an intake of nutritional supplements and 7.9% reported that they took hormones. Protein powder was consumed by 83.1% of the participants. Approximately 16.8% of supplement users had noticed some side effects, and 25.7% of those who took hormones had stopped taking them because of adverse effects. Only half of the hormone users (54.2%) reported that they had had medical checkups. The major source of information on supplement and hormone use was non-health professionals; friends being major source (40%) of information on the use of hormones. The use of nutritional supplements was significantly associated with BMI (OR = 1.89, CI = 1.06–3.39), duration of daily exercise (OR = 4.23, CI = 2.06–8.68), and following a special diet (OR = 8.42, CI = 5.37–13.2). There was a very strong association between nutritional supplement consumption and hormone use (P gyms took nutritional supplements, and most had received their information from nonhealth professionals. There was an association between the duration of exercise and the use of hormones and supplements. Fewer than half of

  9. Review of nutritional supplements for the treatment of bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2014-05-01

    Many patients view psychotropics with skepticism and fear and view nutritional supplements as more consistent with their values and beliefs. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the evidence base for nutritional supplements in the treatment of bipolar depression (BD). A literature search for all randomized, controlled clinical trials using nutritional supplements in the treatment of BD was conducted via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE computerized database. The studies were organized into essential nutrients/minerals, nonessential nutrients, and combinations of nutritional products. Among essential nutrients/minerals, omega-3-fatty acids (O3FAs) have the strongest evidence of efficacy for bipolar depression, although some studies failed to find positive effects from O3FAs. Weak evidence supports efficacy of vitamin C whereas no data support the usefulness of folic acid and choline. Among nonessential nutrients, cytidine is the least supported treatment. Studies of N-acetylcysteine have not resolved its efficacy in treating acute depressive episodes relative to placebo. However, one study demonstrates its potential to improve depressive symptoms over time and the other, though nonsignificant, suggests it has a prophylactic effect. Studies of inositol have been mostly negative, except for 1 study. Those that were negative were underpowered but demonstrated numerically positive effects for inositol. There is no evidence that citicholine is efficacious for uncomplicated BD depression, though it may have value for comorbid substance abuse among BD patients. Finally, combination O3FA-cytidine lacks evidence of efficacy. The findings of this review do not support the routine use of nutritional supplements in the treatment or prophylaxis of BD depression. Studies with more rigorous designs are required before definitive conclusions can be made. Despite the inadequacy of the existing data, clinicians should remain open to the value of nutritional supplements: after

  10. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  11. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the nutritive value of malted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of malted sorghum sprout (MSP) and its nutritive value when supplemented with an exogenous enzyme was investigated using weanling albino rats. A nitrogen free basal diet was formulated along with a soya bean meal (SBM) reference diet (10% CP) and two test diets each containing 10% CP supplied ...

  12. Information on nutritional supplement labels: time for legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assist this process, it is important to have specific knowledge and understanding of the claims made on labels of nutritional supplement products used for general, and more specifically, for sports consumers. The industry is not regulated, and therefore the claims that are made may not always be accurate. Method: The ...

  13. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.J.M.J.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. Methods. The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  14. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  15. Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Plemenitaš

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to management of medical conditions are based on a holistic view, taking into account bidirectional connections between physical and mental health. The current pharmacologically focused model has so far provided modest benefits in addressing the burden of poor mental health. Convincing data suggest that diet quality and select nutrient-based supplements might influence a range of neurochemical modulatory activities, improving the management of mental disorders. Examples of these nutrient-based supplements include omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, zinc, B vitamins (including folic acid, and vitamin D. The traditional Mediterranean diet is considered to be the most beneficial diet in our region. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we are increasingly aware of the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of mental disorders. Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gut microbiome involving vagal neurocrine and endocrine signalling mechanisms influences mental and physical wellbeing. These findings suggest that using prebiotics, probiotics or in the strict sense psychobiotics, as well as incorporating fermented foods in the diet, could have a potential role in the management of mental disorders. As of now, we lack sufficient evidence to implement recommendations for dietary supplements in treatment guidelines, however, this might change in light of emerging data from contemporary research studies, at least for certain indications.

  16. Encouraging appropriate, evidence-based use of oral nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Rebecca J; Elia, Marinos

    2010-11-01

    With the considerable cost of disease-related malnutrition to individuals and to society (estimated to be >£13×109 for the UK, 2007 prices), there is a need for effective and evidence-based ways of preventing and treating this condition. The wide range of oral nutritional supplements that may be prescribed for the dietary management of malnutrition and other conditions account for only about 1% (about £99×106, 2007 data) of the prescribing budget in England. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses consistently suggest that ready-made, multi-nutrient liquids which may be prescribed can improve energy and nutritional intake, body weight and have a variety of clinical and functional benefits in a number of patient groups. Meta-analyses have repeatedly shown that oral nutritional supplements produce significant reductions in complications (e.g. infections) and mortality, and a recent meta-analysis shows a reduction in hospital admissions (OR 0·56 (95% CI 0·41, 0·77), six randomised controlled trials). Such benefits suggest that the appropriate use of oral nutritional supplements should form an integral part of the management of malnutrition, particularly as there is currently a lack of evidence for alternative oral nutrition strategies (e.g. food fortification and counselling). As with all therapies, compliance to oral nutritional supplements needs to be maximised and the use monitored. To make sure that those at risk of malnutrition are identified and treated appropriately, there is a need to embed national and local policies into routine clinical practice. In doing so, the economic burden of this costly condition can be curtailed. As recently suggested by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, substantial cost savings could be made if screening and treatment of malnourished patients was undertaken.

  17. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, Liesl; Nagpal, Sukrti; Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Sinclair, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis. Objectives To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2016), MEDLINE (from 1946 to 4 February 2016), EMBASE (from 1980 to 4 February 2016), LILACS (from 1982 to 4 February 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis up to 4 February 2016, and checked the reference lists of all included studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared any oral nutritional supplement given for at least four weeks with no nutritional intervention, placebo, or dietary advice only for people being treated for active tuberculosis. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death, and cure at six and 12 months. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We presented the results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, and mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Main results Thirty-five trials

  18. Chemical Properties And Toxicity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-19

    The status of Cr(III) as an essential micronutrient for humans is currently under question. No functional Cr(III)-containing biomolecules have been definitively described as yet, and accumulated experience in the use of Cr(III) nutritional supplements (such as [Cr(pic){sub 3}], where pic = 2-pyridinecarboxylato) has shown no measurable benefits for nondiabetic people. Although the use of large doses of Cr(III) supplements may lead to improvements in glucose metabolism for type 2 diabetics, there is a growing concern over the possible genotoxicity of these compounds, particularly of [Cr(pic){sub 3}]. The current perspective discusses chemical transformations of Cr(III) nutritional supplements in biological media, with implications for both beneficial and toxic actions of Cr(III) complexes, which are likely to arise from the same biochemical mechanisms, dependent on concentrations of the reactive species. These species include: (1) partial hydrolysis products of Cr(III) nutritional supplements, which are capable of binding to biological macromolecules and altering their functions; and (2) highly reactive Cr(VI/V/IV) species and organic radicals, formed in reactions of Cr(III) with biological oxidants. Low concentrations of these species are likely to cause alterations in cell signaling (including enhancement of insulin signaling) through interactions with the active centers of regulatory enzymes in the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm, while higher concentrations are likely to produce genotoxic DNA lesions in the cell nucleus. These data suggest that the potential for genotoxic side-effects of Cr(III) complexes may outweigh their possible benefits as insulin enhancers, and that recommendations for their use as either nutritional supplements or antidiabetic drugs need to be reconsidered in light of these recent findings.

  19. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children.

  20. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriyani, Dwi Meilia; Yuliati, Lilik Noor; Simanjuntak, Megawati

    2017-01-01

    The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements) for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor) influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to ...

  1. The use of nutritional supplements in dressage and eventing horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, C.; Gemmill, R.; Hollands, T.; Freeman, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which types of nutritional supplements were used in dressage and eventing horses, and the reasons that owners used supplements. An online questionnaire was distributed through British Eventing and Dressage websites, to collect data on demographics of owners and their horses, supplements used and their opinion on health and performance problems. Data were evaluated using descriptive analysis, Sign and Fisher's exact tests for quantitative data, and categorisation of qualitative data. In total, 599 responses met the inclusion criteria (441 dressage and 158 eventing horse owners). Participants had 26.4 (3–60) (mean (range)) years of riding experience, owned 1.2 (0–10) horses and used 2 (0–12) supplements in their highest performing horse. The main health and performance issues identified for dressage were ‘energy/behaviour’, ‘lameness’ and ‘back and muscle problems’. The main issues for eventing were ‘stamina and fitness levels’,’ lameness’ and ‘energy/behaviour’. The main reasons for using supplements in their highest performing horse were ‘joints and mobility’, and ‘behaviour’ for dressage, and ‘electrolytes’, and ‘joints and mobility’ for eventing. Lameness and behavioural problems were significant concerns within both disciplines. There was incongruence between owners’ opinions of problems within their discipline and their reasons for using supplements. PMID:26925239

  2. Nutrition and Supplements for Elite Open-Weight Rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegman, Susan; Dziedzic, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower. This review will provide an overview of key nutritional strategies to optimize training and enhance adaptation, and briefly discuss supplement strategies that may support health and enhance performance in elite rowing.

  3. [When enteral nutrition is not possible in intensive care patients: whether to wait or use parenteral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, Q L M; Pickkers, P

    2016-01-01

    - Overfeeding of critically ill patients is associated with a higher incidence of infections and an increased length of ventilation. However, trophic nutrition or permissive underfeeding appears to have no negative effect on the patient and may even provide a survival benefit.- Initiation of enteral nutrition within 24-48 hours after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission may reduce the number of complications and increase the chance of survival.- Total parenteral nutrition is associated with a higher risk of infections than enteral nutrition. This seems to be related to the higher calorie intake with parenteral nutrition rather than the route of administration.- In previously well-nourished patients, in whom enteral nutrition is only partially successful, it is safe to wait for up to 8 days before initiating supplemental parenteral nutrition.- In critically ill children, it is also safe to start supplemental parenteral nutrition at a late (on the 8th day after admission) rather than an early stage (within 24 hours of admission). Late supplemental parenteral nutrition may even result in fewer infectious complications and shorter hospitalisation.

  4. Nutritional care of cancer patients: a survey on patients' needs and medical care in reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschke, J; Kruk, U; Kastrati, K; Kleeberg, J; Buchholz, D; Erickson, N; Huebner, J

    2017-02-01

    Cancer patients represent a patient group with a wide-range of nutrition related problems which are often under-recognized and undertreated. In order to assess the status quo of nutritional care in Germany, we conducted a survey among patients with different types of cancer. A standardized questionnaire was distributed online by two national umbrella organizations for self-help groups. 1335 participants completed the questionnaire. 69 % of the participants reported having received information on nutrition and/or specific nutrition-related symptoms. Most often this information was derived from print media (68.5 %) or from within self-help groups (58.7 %). 57.0 % of participants reported having had questions concerning nutrition and/or problems with food intake. most frequently named topics of interest were "healthy diet" (35.0 %) weakness/fatigue (24.3 %), dietary supplements (21.3 %) and taste changes (19.8 %). Nutrition information was most often provided by dietitians (38.7 %) followed by physicians (9.8 %). Women reported receiving nutrition counseling in the hospital nearly twice as often as men (12.5 % versus 5.7 %; p nutrition information more often reported using supplements (p Nutrition is an essential element in cancer care and patients report a high interest and need: Yet, many patients do not have access to high quality nutrition therapy during and after cancer therapy. With respect to survival and quality of life, increasing the availability and resources for provision of evidence based nutrition information seems mandatory.

  5. Clinical Evaluation of a Polyherbal Nutritional Supplement in Dyslipidemic Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Subramanian; Natarajan, Subapriya; Chamundeeswari, Duraipandian; Anbarasu, Anand; Balasubramanian, Kunissery A; Schneider, Lynn C; Nandagopal, Balaji

    2017-11-02

    Ten important plant parts routinely used in South Indian ethnic food preparation as spices and condiments were investigated for their potential antidyslipidemic properties. The aim of the study was to characterize the biochemical properties of the polyherbal formulation (nutritional supplement) and evaluate its use to control dyslipidemia in patients. Phytochemical evaluation, in vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay, and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting were carried out with alcoholic extracts of all 10 individual plants and with the nutritional supplement. Investigation in human volunteers was conducted to evaluate the effect on dyslipidemia as measured by serum lipid biomarkers. Sixty-five volunteers were recruited for this study. Biomarker values at baseline and at 6th visit (end of review, 8/9 months) were compared to assess the usefulness of the nutritional supplement in the normalization of lipid biomarkers. In the qualitative analysis of metabolites, the results revealed the presence of various bioactive primary and secondary metabolites that might be responsible for their medicinal attributes. In human volunteers, after supplement intake along with standard therapy, we observed significant decrease in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) level did not change in test patient volunteers. Reductions in hemoglobin A1C (HBA1C) and postprandial blood sugar levels were observed; the difference was not statistically significant. We believe that the polyherbal formulation of 10 medicinal plants has potent antidyslipidemic activity. Our results contribute for the first time toward documentation of augmented dyslipidemia control by use of the formulation.

  6. Supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Emma J; Davies, Andrew R; Parke, Rachael; Bailey, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Gillanders, Lyn; Cooper, David J; McGuinness, Shay

    2015-12-24

    Nutrition is one of the fundamentals of care provided to critically ill adults. The volume of enteral nutrition received, however, is often much less than prescribed due to multiple functional and process issues. To deliver the prescribed volume and correct the energy deficit associated with enteral nutrition alone, parenteral nutrition can be used in combination (termed "supplemental parenteral nutrition"), but benefits of this method have not been firmly established. A multi-centre, randomised, clinical trial is currently underway to determine if prescribed energy requirements can be provided to critically ill patients by using a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy in the critically ill. This prospective, multi-centre, randomised, stratified, parallel-group, controlled, phase II trial aims to determine whether a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy will reliably and safely increase energy intake when compared to usual care. The study will be conducted for 100 critically ill adults with at least one organ system failure and evidence of insufficient enteral intake from six intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Enrolled patients will be allocated to either a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy for 7 days post randomisation or to usual care with enteral nutrition. The primary outcome will be the average energy amount delivered from nutrition therapy over the first 7 days of the study period. Secondary outcomes include protein delivery for 7 days post randomisation; total energy and protein delivery, antibiotic use and organ failure rates (up to 28 days); duration of ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. At both intensive care unit and hospital discharge strength and health-related quality of life assessments will be undertaken. Study participants will be followed up for health-related quality of life, resource utilisation and survival at 90 and 180 days post randomisation (unless death occurs first). This trial

  7. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively.

  8. Study of nutritional supplements using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Rogerio Alves de Sousa; Saiki, Mitiko

    2005-01-01

    The increasing consumption of nutritional supplements among the people mainly aiming at the replacement of nutrients and minerals in the organism has led the commercialization of a great number of brands of these products. Consequently the quality control of these products is of great interest to verify if their element contents agree the values presented in labels or in the instructions for their uses. In this study the elements Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn were analyzed in multimineral supplements and vitamins samples using neutron activation analysis method. The results obtained compared with the values of the labels of nutritional supplements presented good agreement. For quality control of the analytical data, certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology were analysed. Accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated and Z score values obtained were lower than 2 indicating that the data found are within the certified values at 95% of significance level. (author)

  9. [Nutritional care in the cardiac rehabilitation program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa; Fattirolli, Francesco

    2007-06-01

    There is some evidence of the efficacy of nutritional care in modifying eating habits and behavior in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation: nutritional care has a relevant role in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The dietitian is the qualified sanitary professional for nutritional care. The aim of this study was to define the role of dietitians within a health care team in programs of cardiac rehabilitation. In this setting, nutritional care starts with a dietary assessment, which includes a measurement of the anthropometric parameters, and a survey of the patient knowledge and eating habits. If there is no need for change in the patient lifestyle, the patient is addressed to the normal cardiac rehabilitation program with no further nutritional intervention except one session of counseling. When lifestyle changes are needed, the dietitian defines, together with the patient, therapeutic aims and expected results. The following phase is represented by group session with patients and their relatives during which nutritional topics are discussed and nutritional education is provided Afterwards, self-monitoring sheets of eating habits are individually discussed in one visit; a last individual visit is used for a final assessment of nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and anthropometric parameters. In case of unsatisfactory results, patients are invited to participate to three group session to be held biweekly, during which they interact with the dietitian and take part to exercises and group discussions. When the established targets are reached, the nutritional program includes individual follow up visits at six and twelve months for further assessment of medium term results.

  10. Stable isotope aided evaluation of Community Nutrition Program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou

    2002-01-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fot- free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p= .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  11. [Esthetic nutrition: body and beauty enhancement through nutritional care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juliana da Silveira Gonçalves Zanini; Schnider, Aline Petter

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing quest for beauty and the models proposed by fashion goods and service segments, to achieve the perfect body. The standard of beauty corresponds to a thin body, without considering health aspects. The number of women who go on diets to control weight is increasing; and taking this into consideration the objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical review and extract data on esthetics and body image to support the practice of nutritional care. Socio-cultural aspects, which motivate the quest for the perfect body, as well as body, beauty, esthetics, nutritional counseling and cognitive behavior therapy were examined in this survey. On the basis of this work, it is possible to conclude that the continuing obsession with the body may lead the person to go on diets and other drastic methods to control weight, such as surgical procedures. In this respect, nutritional care is far more than merely recommending a standard diet or giving information, as it represents providing an effective model for nutritional reeducation, prioritizing improvement in the style and quality of life. This article provides data about enhancing esthetics and beauty by means of appropriate nutrition.

  12. Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Linares, Amanda; Induni, Marta; Sugerman, Sharon; Long, Michael W.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides a vital buffer against hunger and poverty for 47.6 million Americans. Using 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey data, we assessed support for policies to strengthen the nutritional influence of SNAP. Among SNAP participants, support ranged from 74% to 93% for providing monetary incentives for fruits and vegetables, restricting purchases of sugary beverages, and providing more total benefits. Nonparticipants expressed similar levels of support. These approaches may alleviate the burden of diet-related disease in low-income populations. PMID:26066922

  13. Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Linares, Amanda; Induni, Marta; Sugerman, Sharon; Long, Michael W; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2015-08-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides a vital buffer against hunger and poverty for 47.6 million Americans. Using 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey data, we assessed support for policies to strengthen the nutritional influence of SNAP. Among SNAP participants, support ranged from 74% to 93% for providing monetary incentives for fruits and vegetables, restricting purchases of sugary beverages, and providing more total benefits. Nonparticipants expressed similar levels of support. These approaches may alleviate the burden of diet-related disease in low-income populations.

  14. Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS)

  15. Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatello, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

  16. [Purple urine bag syndrome in elderly woman with nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alegría, A R; Vélez Díaz-Pallares, M; Moreno Cobo, Ma A; Arrieta Blanco, F; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity which typically affects elderly women with prolonged urinary catheterization and weakening chronic diseases. Other predisposing factors are previous urologic pathology, immobility syndrome and chronic constipation. The purple color is due to the presence of high loads of bacteria with sulphatase--phosphatase activity which develop in an alkaline environment as well as the presence of other factors. In the case we present the administration of nutritional supplements containing tryptophan conditioned the generation of this syndrome.

  17. Nutrition Knowledge and Supplement Use among Elite U.S. Army Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R

    2003-01-01

    A U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) unit was studied to determine the characteristics of those who were dietary supplement users, assess their nutrition knowledge, and identify the nutrition information sources they use. SF-qualified (n=119...

  18. Effects of peridialytic oral supplements on nutritional status and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Meri Kay; Shah, Niyati A; Vilay, A Mary; Thomas, Joseph; Kraus, Michael A; Mueller, Bruce A

    2009-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of peridialytic oral supplements on nutritional markers and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. This trial was open, prospective, nonrandomized, and comparative. This study was performed at an outpatient hemodialysis unit in a teaching hospital. This study included 88 adults with chronic kidney disease at stage 5. This study involved directly observed nutrition therapy with >or=1 can of enteral nutrition (Nepro) with each hemodialysis session thrice weekly for 3 months, or standard care. Changes in biochemical markers of nutritional status and QOL, as measured by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form, were determined. Peridialytic oral nutrition resulted in a significant difference between the nutrition and comparison groups in serum albumin change over time (P = .03; repeated-measures analysis of variance with covariates). Mean (+/-SD) serum albumin concentration did not differ between baseline and month 3 in the nutrition group (3.68 +/- 0.33 g/dL vs. 3.75 +/- 0.40 g/dL; P = .12), but in the comparison group, serum albumin levels declined significantly (3.93 +/- 0.34 g/dL at baseline versus 3.81 +/- 0.37 g/dL at month 3; P = .04). The "role-physical" domain score of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form significantly changed over time in the nutrition group versus the comparison group (P = .02; repeated-measures analysis of variance with covariates). Nepro was well-tolerated, and greater than 80% of the prescribed therapy was consumed. Oral nutrition, as part of structured, directly observed peridialytic therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients, was well-accepted, and resulted in the maintenance of serum albumin levels and QOL with respect to impact of physical health on daily activities. These findings need to be confirmed in a randomized, controlled trial.

  19. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  20. High school athletes and nutritional supplements: a study of knowledge and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, S J; Shier, N W; Koceja, D M; Ellis, N T

    1995-09-01

    Factors influencing nutritional supplement use by high school students were assessed. Comparisons were made between various groups of sports participants and non-sports participants. The Nutritional Supplement Use and Knowledge Scale was administered to 509 students. Mean supplement use score was 10.87 (SEM = 0.50, range 0-57). Mean knowledge score was 13.56 (SEM = 0.16, range 1-21). Significant relationships (p knowledge with use, and supplement use with gender. ANOVA found significant differences between supplement use by gender (p knowledge scores by sports category (p knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, and carbohydrates were best discriminators of sport group membership. Greater knowledge about supplements was associated with less use; hence, education about supplements can be a deterrent to use. This study may help coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, teachers, physicians, and parents identify nutritional misconceptions held by adolescents.

  1. Progress in the study of multivitamins and minerals nutritional supplements for troops stationed in high altitude regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-qiang ZHONG; Ying LU

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are products intended to supplement and improve the diet, and they contain one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, protein and other substances) or their constituents. Supplement of vitamins and trace elements play an important role in the nutritional supplements. Supplements play a direct role in health by filling the nutritional gap and preventing diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies, especially for...

  2. Androgen Bioassay for the Detection of Nonlabeled Androgenic Compounds in Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elliot R; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, XiaoHong; Heather, Alison K

    2018-01-01

    Both athletes and the general population use nutritional supplements. Athletes often turn to supplements hoping that consuming the supplement will help them be more competitive and healthy, while the general population hopes to improve body image or vitality. While many supplements contain ingredients that may have useful properties, there are supplements that are contaminated with compounds that are banned for use in sport or have been deliberately adulterated to fortify a supplement with an ingredient that will produce the advertised effect. In the present study, we have used yeast cell and mammalian cell androgen bioassays to characterize the androgenic bioactivity of 112 sports supplements available from the Australian market, either over the counter or via the Internet. All 112 products did not declare an androgen on the label as an included ingredient. Our findings show that six out of 112 supplements had strong androgenic bioactivity in the yeast cell bioassay, indicating products spiked or contaminated with androgens. The mammalian cell bioassay confirmed the strong androgenic bioactivity of five out of six positive supplements. Supplement 6 was metabolized to weaker androgenic bioactivity in the mammalian cells. Further to this, Supplement 6 was positive in a yeast cell progestin bioassay. Together, these findings highlight that nutritional supplements, taken without medical supervision, could expose or predispose users to the adverse consequences of androgen abuse. The findings reinforce the need to increase awareness of the dangers of nutritional supplements and highlight the challenges that clinicians face in the fast-growing market of nutritional supplements.

  3. Nutritional care in peptic ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VOMERO, Nathália Dalcin; COLPO, Elisângela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer is a lesion of the mucosal lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract characterized by an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors of the mucosa, having H. pylori as the main etiologic factor. Dietotherapy is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Aim To update nutritional therapy in adults' peptic ulcer. Methods Exploratory review without restrictions with primary sources indexed in Scielo, PubMed, Medline, ISI, and Scopus databases. Results Dietotherapy, as well as caloric distribution, should be adjusted to the patient's needs aiming to normalize the nutritional status and promote healing. Recommended nutrients can be different in the acute phase and in the recovery phase, and there is a greater need of protein and some micronutrients, such as vitamin A, zinc, selenium, and vitamin C in the recovery phase. In addition, some studies have shown that vitamin C has a beneficial effect in eradication of H. pylori. Fibers and probiotics also play a important role in the treatment of peptic ulcer, because they reduce the side effects of antibiotics and help reduce treatment time. Conclusion A balanced diet is vital in the treatment of peptic ulcer, once food can prevent, treat or even alleviate the symptoms involving this pathology. However, there are few papers that innovate dietotherapy; so additional studies addressing more specifically the dietotherapy for treatment of peptic ulcer are necessary. PMID:25626944

  4. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Meilia Fitriyani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to show their agreements about 40 items of 5 constructs. A partial least square - structural equation modeling by Smart-PLS software used to test the model. The results of this research also comes to conclusion that motivation and stimulus factor had significant affects on consumer involvement, consumer involvement had significant influence to product knowledge as well as ONS purchasing behavior, however product knowledge did not have significant affects on purchasing behavior. The results also showed that the product involvement has an important influence on consumers behavior.

  5. [Potential influence of nutrition with supplements on healthy and arthritic joints. II. Nutritional quantity, supplements, contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, G

    1993-01-01

    A short period of fasting leads, in the mouse, to usually reversible damage to chondrocytes and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis often to a temporary improvement. Slight hypo-alimentation and a low-caloric diet reduce the spontaneous development of osteo-arthritis in the mouse, whereas a high-caloric diet promotes the disease. In man, mice, and, in particular, fattened animals, obesity is often associated with forms of osteo-arthritis. In such cases, it may be assumed that metabolic damage to cartilage is involved as well as damage due to weight-bearing forces. Elderly people, i.e., persons with a predisposition to osteo-arthritis, often suffer from a generalized vitamin deficiency. Vitamins E, B2, and C have been shown to exert an inhibitory effect on osteo-arthritis in animals, and it has been found that supplementation therapy, particularly with vitamin E and the combination of vitamins B1, B6, and B12, can exert a beneficial effect on the symptomatology of human degenerative joint disease. Mineral deficits in calcium, zinc and selenium (Kashin-Beck disease; endemic osteo-arthritis deformans) can provoke skeletal damage in humans and animals. On the other hand, calcium, iron, and copper have been reported to give rise to storage diseases, in some cases with involvement of articular cartilage. There have been indications that chondrotoxic damage may result from food contaminants. So far very little is known about the influence of phytopharmacodynamic substances (other than derivatives of rutin and rhein) on osteo-arthritis. The large gaps in our knowledge of the chondrotropic properties of the constituents of food and common stimulants underline the need for further investigations.

  6. Nutrition in the neurocritical care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of intensive care is to support the physiology of the body till the treatment or the reparative process of the body kicks in to the rescue. Maintaining an adequate nutrition during this period is of vital importance to counteract the catabolic effect of the critical disease process. The guidelines for nutritional care in the neuro intensive care unit (ICU are sparse. This article collates the current evidence and best practice recommendations as applicable to the critically ill patient in the neuro ICU. The use of screening tests to identify patients at a risk of malnutrition and related complications is presently recommended for all patients with an emphasis on early initiation of caloric support. Over-aggressive feeding in an attempt to revert the catabolic effects of critical illness have not proven beneficial, just as the attempts to improve patient outcomes by altering the routes of nutrition administration. Special patient population such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage or spinal cord injury may have varying nutritional requirements; individualised approach in the neurocritical ICU with the help of the intensivist, nutritionist and pharmacology team may be of benefit.

  7. Nutrition and dementia care: developing an evidence-based model for nutritional care in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jane L; Holmes, Joanne; Brooks, Cindy

    2017-02-14

    There is a growing volume of research to offer improvements in nutritional care for people with dementia living in nursing homes. Whilst a number of interventions have been identified to support food and drink intake, there has been no systematic research to understand the factors for improving nutritional care from the perspectives of all those delivering care in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to develop a research informed model for understanding the complex nutritional problems associated with eating and drinking for people with dementia. We conducted nine focus groups and five semi-structured interviews with those involved or who have a level of responsibility for providing food and drink and nutritional care in nursing homes (nurses, care workers, catering assistants, dietitians, speech and language therapists) and family carers. The resulting conceptual model was developed by eliciting care-related processes, thus supporting credibility from the perspective of the end-users. The seven identified domain areas were person-centred nutritional care (the overarching theme); availability of food and drink; tools, resources and environment; relationship to others when eating and drinking; participation in activities; consistency of care and provision of information. This collaboratively developed, person-centred model can support the design of new education and training tools and be readily translated into existing programmes. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these evidence-informed approaches have been implemented successfully and adopted into practice and policy contexts and can demonstrate effectiveness for people living with dementia.

  8. Impacto da multimistura no estado nutricional de pré-escolares matriculados em creches Impact of a dietary supplement on the nutritional status of preschool children enrolled in day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Mary Souto de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da suplementação da dieta com multimistura sobre o estado nutricional de crianças em fase pré-escolar em risco nutricional. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo tipo duplo cego com duração de dois meses e acompanhamento longitudinal de 135 crianças na faixa etária de um a seis anos. As crianças foram divididas em três grupos: intervenção 1 (GI1 n=48, intervenção 2 (GI2 n=45 e controle (GC n=42, recebendo 5g e 10g de multimistura e placebo, respectivamente. O estado nutricional das crianças em estudo foi avaliado antes e após a suplementação. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa nos indicadores peso/idade, altura/idade e peso/altura entre os grupos estudados na linha base (p=0,251 p=0,248 e p=0,399, respectivamente. Após a intervenção a diferença na prevalência de déficit antropométrico entre os grupos também não foi significante (p=0,100 p=0,435 e p=0,210, respectivamente. A comparação das médias antes e depois da intervenção, igualmente, não demonstrou diferenças (p>0,05 utilizando os métodos estatísticos de Kruskall - Wallis e Análise de Variância. CONCLUSÃO: Frente ao impacto das pequenas quantidades consumidas de suplemento, no caso a mistura de farelo de cereais, não se justifica esperar alterações significativas sobre a recuperação de crianças em risco nutricional, já que esses suplementos contêm somente pequenas quantidades de calorias e de macro e micronutrientes.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a diet supplemented with a bran-based cereal mixture on the nutritional status of preschool children presenting nutritional risk. METHODS: This was a two-month double-blinded study with a longitudinal follow up using 135 children with ages ranging from one to six years old and divided into three groups: intervention 1 (GI1=48, intervention 2 (GI2 n=45 and control (CG n=42, receiving 5g and 10g of the multi-mixture and placebo

  9. Effectiveness of nutrition education, iron supplementation or both on iron status in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, D; Sharma, S; Agarwal, K N

    2003-12-01

    A community-based, randomized trial was designed to compare the effect of nutrition education and/or iron supplementation (weekly) on iron status of children in an urban slum in Delhi. Four hundred and fifty one children, 9-36 months of age and their caretakers (mothers), assigned to one of the following groups were included in the cohort. Group 1, nutrition education. Group 2, supplementation (with 20 mg elemental iron). Group 3, nutrition education with supplementation (with 20 mg elemental iron) and Group 4, control given placebo. The intervention program was of four months duration, with a treatment phase of 8 wk followed by 8 wk of no treatment. Post intervention, at 8 wk and at 16 wk, the hemoglobin change in the nutrition education, supplementation, nutrition education with supplementation and control groups was 2.9, 1.9, 3.8 and -5.9%, respectively and 2.1, -1.9, 0 and -9.3%, respectively (as compared to initial values). There was no significant effect of any of the intervention at 8 weeks. At 16 wk, there was significant positive effect of nutrition education group (p less than 0.05). The percent change in serum ferritin value at 16 wk in the nutrition education, supplementation, nutrition education with supplementation and control groups was 5.7, -2.3, -3.4 and -40%, respectively. Serum ferritin values were significantly higher for the nutrition education group (p nutrition education group mothers showed significantly higher nutrition knowledge and the dietary iron intake of children was significantly higher than their control group counterparts (p nutrition education did have a positive effect on the iron status possibly by improving the dietary iron intake.

  10. Intake of Nutritional Supplements among People Exercising in Gyms in Beirut City

    OpenAIRE

    El Khoury, D.; Antoine-Jonville, S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5) o...

  11. Protein-energy wasting and nutritional supplementation in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, A; Regolisti, G; Karupaiah, T; Sahathevan, S; Sadu Singh, B K; Khor, B H; Salhab, N; Karavetian, M; Cupisti, A; Fiaccadori, E

    2017-06-01

    Protein-Energy Wasting (PEW) is the depletion of protein/energy stores observed in the most advanced stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). PEW is highly prevalent among patients on chronic dialysis, and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, high morbidity/mortality rates and increased healthcare costs. This narrative review was aimed at exploring the pathophysiology of PEW in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. The main aspects of nutritional status evaluation, intervention and monitoring in this clinical setting were described, as well as the current approaches for the prevention and treatment of ESRD-related PEW. An exhaustive literature search was performed, in order to identify the relevant studies describing the epidemiology, pathogenesis, nutritional intervention and outcome of PEW in ESRD on hemodialysis. The pathogenesis of PEW is multifactorial. Loss of appetite, reduced intake of nutrients and altered lean body mass anabolism/catabolism play a key role. Nutritional approach to PEW should be based on a careful and periodic assessment of nutritional status and on timely dietary counseling. When protein and energy intakes are reduced, nutritional supplementation by means of specific oral formulations administered during the hemodialysis session may be the first-step intervention, and represents a valid nutritional approach to PEW prevention and treatment since it is easy, effective and safe. Omega-3 fatty acids and fibers, now included in commercially available preparations for renal patients, could lend relevant added value to macronutrient supplementation. When oral supplementation fails, intradialytic parenteral nutrition can be implemented in selected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.

  13. Association between consumption of Herbalife nutritional supplements and acute hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinav, Eran; Pinsker, Galia; Safadi, Rifaat; Pappo, Orit; Bromberg, Michal; Anis, Emilia; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Broide, Efrat; Ackerman, Zvi; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan; Lev, Boaz; Shouval, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently considered to be harmless but indiscriminate use of unlabelled ingredients may lead to significant adverse reactions. In 2004, identification of four index cases of acute hepatitis associated with Herbalife intake led to a ministry of health investigation in all Israeli hospitals. Twelve patients with acute idiopathic liver injury in association with consumption of Herbalife products were investigated. Eleven of the patients were females, aged 49.5+/-13.4 y. One patient had stage I primary biliary cirrhosis and another had hepatitis B. Acute liver injury was diagnosed after 11.9+/-11.1 months of initiation of Herbalife consumption. Liver biopsies demonstrated active hepatitis, portal inflammation rich with eosinophils, ductular reaction and parenchymal inflammation with peri-central accentuation. One patient developed sub-fulminant and two fulminant episodes of hepatic failure. Hepatitis resolved in eleven patients, while one patient succumbed to complications following liver transplantation. Three patients resumed consumption of Herbalife products following normalization of liver enzymes, resulting in a second bout of hepatitis. An association between intake of Herbalife products and acute hepatitis was identified in Israel. We call for prospective evaluation of Herbalife products for possible hepatotoxicity. Until then, caution should be exercised by consumers, especially among individuals suffering from underlying liver disease.

  14. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum proteinnutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  15. Effects of nutritional supplementation on periodontal parameters, carotenoid antioxidant levels, and serum C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpenau, Lisa A; Cheema, Abida T; Zingale, Joseph A; Chambers, David W; Lundergan, William P

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have focused on the role of nutrition in periodontal disease. The purpose of this trial was to determine the effect of a nutritional supplement on gingival inflammation, bleeding, probing depth, clinical attachment level, carotenoid antioxidant level, and C-reactive protein. The test supplement, consisting of a standard multivitamin formula, as well as several phytonutrients associated with antiinflammatory/antioxidant effects, provided modest benefits in reducing inflammation; however, further studies with larger populations and longer intervention are warranted.

  16. Health care costs matter: a review of nutrition economics – is there a role for nutritional support to reduce the cost of medical health care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naberhuis JK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jane K Naberhuis,1 Vivienne N Hunt,2 Jvawnna D Bell,3 Jamie S Partridge,3 Scott Goates,3 Mark JC Nuijten4 1Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 2Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Singapore; 3Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Columbus, OH, USA; 4A2M (Ars Accessus Medica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background and aims: As policy-makers assess the value of money spent on health care, research in the field of health economics is expanding rapidly. This review covers a period of 10 years and seeks to characterize the publication of papers at the intersection of health economics and nutrition. Methods: Relevant publications on nutrition care were identified in the medical literature databases using predetermined search criteria. These included nutritional interventions linked to health economic terms with inclusion criteria requiring original research that included clinical outcomes and cost analyses, subjects’ ages ≥18 years, and publications in English between January 2004 and October 2014. Results: Of the 5,646 publications identified in first-round searches, 274 met the specified inclusion criteria. The number of publications linking nutrition to economic outcomes has increased markedly over the 10-year period, with a growing number of studies in both developed and developing countries. Most studies were undertaken in Europe (39% and the USA and Canada (28%. The most common study setting was hospital (62% followed by community/noninstitutional care (30%. Of all the studies, 12% involved the use of oral nutritional supplements, and 13% involved parenteral nutrition. The economic outcomes consistently measured were medical care costs (53% of the studies, hospital length of stay (48%, hospital readmission rates (9%, and mortality (25%. Conclusion: The number of publications focused on the economics of nutrition interventions has increased dramatically in recent years

  17. Current state of knowledge about nutritional care of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.

  18. Developing supplemental activities for primary health care maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, E

    1990-12-01

    Supplemental health care activities are described in the context of the augmented product. The potential benefits of supplemental services to recipients and provider are discussed. The author describes a study that was the basis for (re)developing a supplemental maternity service. The implementation of the results in terms of changes in the marketing mix of this supplemental program is discussed. The effects of the marketing mix changes on program participation are presented.

  19. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  20. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Les G; Dalvi Tapashi B; Norkus Edward P; Jensen Christopher D; Block Gladys; McManus Jamie F; Hudes Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design...

  1. Medication and nutritional supplement use before and after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Fernanda Backes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery has been an effective alternative treatment for morbid obesity and has resulted in decreased mortality, better control over comorbidities and reduced use of drugs. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of bariatric surgery on medication drug and nutritional supplement use. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study of before-and-after type, on 69 morbidly obese patients in a public hospital in Porto Alegre. METHODS: Through interviews, the presence of comorbidities and use of drugs with and without prescription were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 69 patients interviewed, 85.5% had comorbidities in the preoperative period, with an average of 2.3 (± 1.5 per patient. The main comorbidities reported were hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. 84.1% of the patients were using prescribed drugs in the preoperative period. The mean drug use per patient was 4.8, which decreased to 4.4 after the procedure. The surgery enabled significant reduction in use of most antidiabetic (84%, antilipemic (77% and antihypertensive drugs (49.5%. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in use of multivitamins and drugs for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The dosages of most of the drugs that continued to be prescribed after surgery were decreased, but not significantly. CONCLUSION: After bariatric surgery, there were increases in the use of vitamins, gastric antisecretory drugs and antianemic drugs. Nevertheless, there was an overall reduction in drug use during this period, caused by suspension of drugs or dose reduction.

  2. The palatability of oral nutritional supplements : before, during, and after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, Irene; Renken, Remco J.; ter Horst, Gert J.; Reyners, Anna K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are commonly prescribed to malnourished patients to improve their nutritional status. Taste and smell changes in patients with cancer can affect the palatability of ONS. The present study investigated: (1) the palatability of six ONS in testicular cancer patients

  3. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Supplemental Online Tutorial to Traditional Instruction with Nutritional Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubas, Patrice; Heiss, Cindy; Pedersen, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if an online computer tutorial on diabetes mellitus, supplemented to traditional classroom lecture, is an effective tool in the education of nutrition students. Students completing a web-based tutorial as a supplement to classroom lecture displayed greater improvement in pre- vs. post-test scores compared…

  4. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

  5. Effects of Nutritional Status and Supplementation on Resumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Breastfeeding patterns, ethnic variation and nutrition have been shown to influence the return of menstruation after childbirth, but the role played by nutritional status requires further elucidation, particularly in a place like Nigeria where undernutrition is common. Objectives: To determine the effects of nutrition and ...

  6. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis: A technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, L; Durao, S; Van der Merwe, S M; Wessels, J; Naude, C E

    2017-12-13

    Tuberculosis and nutrition are intrinsically linked in a complex relationship. Altered metabolism and loss of appetite associated with tuberculosis may result in undernutrition, which in turn may worsen the disease or delay recovery. We highlight an updated Cochrane review assessing the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people with active tuberculosis who are receiving antituberculosis drug therapy. The review authors conducted a comprehensive search (February 2016) for all randomised controlled trials comparing any oral nutritional supplement, given for at least 4 weeks, with no nutritional intervention, placebo or dietary advice only in people receiving antituberculosis treatment. Of the 35 trials (N=8 283 participants) included, seven assessed the provision of free food or high-energy supplements, six assessed multi-micronutrient supplementation, and 21 assessed single- or dual-micronutrient supplementation. There is currently insufficient evidence to indicate whether routinely providing free food or high-energy supplements improves antituberculosis treatment outcomes (i.e. reduced death and increased cure rates at 6 and 12 months), but it probably improves weight gain in some settings. Plasma levels of zinc, vitamin D, vitamin E and selenium probably improve with supplementation, but currently no reliable evidence demonstrates that routine supplementation with multi-, single or dual micronutrients above the recommended daily intake has clinical benefits (i.e. reduced death, increased cure rate at 6 and 12 months, improved nutritional status) in patients receiving antituberculosis treatment. In South Africa, most provinces implement a supplementation protocol based on nutritional assessment and classification of individuals rather than on disease diagnosis or treatment status.

  7. Nutritional care of medical inpatients: a health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Filip

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inspiration for the present assessment of the nutritional care of medical patients is puzzlement about the divide that exists between the theoretical knowledge about the importance of the diet for ill persons, and the common failure to incorporate nutritional aspects in the treatment and care of the patients. The purpose is to clarify existing problems in the nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients, to elucidate how the nutritional care for these inpatients can be improved, and to analyse the costs of this improvement. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods are deployed to outline how nutritional care of medical inpatients is performed at three Danish hospitals. The practices observed are compared with official recommendations for nutritional care of inpatients. Factors extraneous and counterproductive to optimal nutritional care are identified from the perspectives of patients and professional staff. A review of the literature illustrates the potential for optimal nutritional care. A health economic analysis is performed to elucidate the savings potential of improved nutritional care. Results The prospects for improvements in nutritional care are ameliorated if hospital management clearly identifies nutritional care as a priority area, and enjoys access to management tools for quality assurance. The prospects are also improved if a committed professional at the ward has the necessary time resources to perform nutritional care in practice, and if the care staff can requisition patient meals rich in nutrients 24 hours a day. At the kitchen production level prospects benefit from a facilitator contact between care and kitchen staff, and if the kitchen staff controls the whole food path from the kitchen to the patient. At the patient level, prospects are improved if patients receive information about the choice of food and drink, and have a better nutrition dialogue with the care staff. Better nutritional care of

  8. Nutritional supplement practices of professional Ugandan athletes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Haruna; Zavuga, Robert; Kabenge, Peninnah Aligawesa; Makubuya, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements (NS) places athletes at great risk for inadvertent doping. Due to the paucity of data on supplement use, this study aimed to determine the proportion of Ugandan athletes using nutritional supplements and to investigate the athletes' motivation to use these supplements. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 359 professional athletes participating in individual (boxing, cycling, athletics) and team (basketball, rugby, football, netball, and volleyball) sports. The data were categorized, and a Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Of the 359 athletes, 48 (13.4%) used nutritional supplements. Carbohydrate supplements, energy drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, fish oils, and protein supplements were the most common supplements used by athletes. NS use was significantly more common among athletes who played rugby and basketball ( X 2 = 61.101, p sport for 5-10 years ( X 2 = 7.460, p = 0.024), and athletes who had attained a tertiary education ( X 2 = 33.377, p performance and health. Compared to NS use by athletes elsewhere, NS use among Ugandan athletes was low. However, determinants of athlete NS use in the current study (category of sport and duration of time spent playing the sport) are similar to those reported elsewhere.

  9. Stuck in tradition-A qualitative study on barriers for implementation of evidence-based nutritional care perceived by nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Connell, Malene Barfod; Jensen, Pia Søe; Andersen, Signe Lindgård; Fernbrant, Cecilia; Nørholm, Vibeke; Petersen, Helle Vendel

    2018-02-01

    To explore the barriers for nutritional care as perceived by nursing staff at an acute orthopaedic ward, aiming to implement evidence-based nutritional care. Previous studies indicate that nurses recognise nutritional care as important, but interventions are often lacking. These studies show that a range of barriers influence the attempt to optimise nutritional care. Before the implementation of evidence-based nutritional care, we examined barriers for nutritional care among the nursing staff. Qualitative study. Four focus groups with thirteen members of the nursing staff were interviewed between October 2013-June 2014. The interview guide was designed according to the Theoretical Domains Framework. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three main categories emerged: lacking common practice, failing to initiate treatment and struggling with existing resources. The nursing staff was lacking both knowledge and common practice regarding nutritional care. They felt they protected patient autonomy by accepting patient's reluctance to eat or getting a feeding tube. The lack of nutritional focus from doctors decreased the nursing staffs focus leading to nonoptimal nutritional treatment. Competing priorities, physical setting and limited nutritional supplements were believed to hinder nutritional care. The results suggest that nutritional care is in a transitional state from experience- to evidence-based practice. Barriers for nutritional care are grounded in lack of knowledge among nursing staff and insufficient collaboration between nursing staff and the doctors. There is a need for nutritional education for the nursing staff and better support from the organisation to help nursing staff provide evidence-based nutritional care. This study contributes with valuable knowledge before the implementation of evidence-based nutritional care. The study provides an understanding of barriers for nutritional care and presents explanations to why

  10. Randomized clinical trial of arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Zhao, Hongying; Wang, Yu; Jing, Huang; Ding, Qian; Xue, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Significant malnutrition exists in a high percentage of patients with gastric cancer. It is, therefore, crucial to establish an effective means to provide nutrition for these patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial aims to assess the long-term survival of arginine-supplementation enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in malnourished patients with gastric cancer. The control group (36 cases) received postoperative standard enteral nutrition. Meanwhile, the arginine-supplementation group (37 cases) adopted the same nutrition product but enriched with arginine (9.0 g/L). The primary study objective was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS); serum parameters including total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin obtained on preoperative day 1, postoperative day 2, and day 12; CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained on preoperative day 1 and postoperative day 7. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed between groups. The group receiving arginine-enriched nutrition had a significantly better OS (P = 0.03, 41 vs. 30.5 months) and better PFS (P = 0.02, 18 vs. 11.5 months). On postoperative day 7, CD4(+) T cells, NK cells, IgM and IgG levels of the arginine-supplemented group increased prominently and were significantly higher than those of the control group and those on preoperative day 1. There is no significant difference in the serum total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin levels between the two arms. Arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition significantly improves long-term survival and restores immunity in malnourished gastric cancer.

  11. A study of impact of cost-effective nutritional supplement in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rangarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis is always of concern as malnutrition predisposes to excess morbidity and mortality. Most of the nutritional supplements available in the market are expensive. We explored the possibility of improving nutrition of the patients on maintenance hemodialysis by supplementation of calories and proteins that can be given in the form of a palatable and economical gruel in this prospectively designed, open labeled study. Patients who were on maintenance hemodialysis (twice a week for a period of at least 6 months were divided into two groups. The study group was given the gruel supplement and the control group was not given the gruel supplement. Nutritional status was assessed in the study group and controls at 0 and 3 months by the following parameters: percentage body fat, mid arm muscle circumference and serum albumin. Analysis of results revealed that there was a significant decline in the protein intake at the end of the 3 rd month in the control group (P = 0.01. Other parameters did not show significant change at the end of the study period in both groups. The nutritional supplement can be assumed to have helped at least in the maintenance of protein intake over this short period and could possibly in the long run contribute to improvement of nutritional parameters.

  12. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudville, Neil; Rangan, Anna; Moody, Harry

    2003-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Attempts to improve nutritional status with enteral supplements have yielded poor results. We performed a crossover-design trial on 13 PD patients to investigate whether these patients reduce their food intake after drinking oral nutritional supplements. Patients attended three visits in which they were administered a standard oral nutritional supplement either 2 hours or 30 minutes before lunch or a placebo drink 30 minutes before lunch. Lunch was provided as a self-select buffet-style meal, and food intake was measured. Total intake was calculated by adding the nutritional content of the oral supplement. Patients showed poor food intake, with mean values equaling only 18% of the recommended daily intake for calories and 34% for protein. Drinking the supplement 2 hours before lunch resulted in a significant increase compared with the placebo visit in total caloric (430 to 843 kcal; P lunch. These results indicate that oral nutritional supplements administered before a meal may significantly increase caloric and protein intakes of PD patients. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  13. Meat quality in pigs fed diets with gradual ractopamine supplementation and nutritional adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects that gradual ractopamine supplementation in diets with nutritional adjustments on pig meat. Were used 80 finishing crossbred barrows in a randomized block design with a 2×5 factorial arrangement (two diets: with and without nutritional adjustment; five levels of ractopamine supplementation: 5-5, 10-10, 20-20, 5-10 and 10-20 ppm in the 14 initial and 14 final study days, four replicates with two animals by experimental unit. Higher shear force values (P<0.05 were obtained using the 5-5 and 10-20 ppm ractopamine supplementation plans in the diets without nutritional adjustment. With nutritionally adjusted diets, the 5-10 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan yielded higher shear force values (P<0.05. Water retention capacity was higher (P<0.05 for animals fed adjusted diets and 5-5 and 10-20 ppm of actopamine plans. In the 10-20 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan, meat pH was higher (P<0.05 for diets without nutritional adjustment, whereas in the 20-20 ppm of supplementation plan, pH was higher for adjusted diets.

  14. Intake of Nutritional Supplements among People Exercising in Gyms in Beirut City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, D; Antoine-Jonville, S

    2012-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2-40.5) of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  15. Intake of Nutritional Supplements among People Exercising in Gyms in Beirut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, D.; Antoine-Jonville, S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5) of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city. PMID:22506105

  16. Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders.

  17. Nutritional supplement products: Does the label information influence purchasing decisions for the physically active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike

    2013-10-02

    The increase in sales of nutritional supplement globally can be attributed, in part, to aggressive marketing by manufacturers, rather than because the nutritional supplements have become more effective. Furthermore, the accuracy of the labelling often goes unchallenged. Therefore, any effects of the supplement, may be due to contaminants or adulterants in these products not reflected on the label. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine how consumers of nutritional supplements acquired information to assist their decision-making processes, when purchasing a product. The study was approved by the University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences Human Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of seven, closed and open-ended questions. The participants were asked to respond to the questions according to a defined list of statements. A total of 259 participants completed and returned questionnaires. The data and processing of the returned questionnaires was captured using Windows-based Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 SP 1 (Excel © 1985-2003 Microsoft Corporation). Statistica Version 10 (copyright © Stat Soft, Inc. 1984-2011) was used to calculate the descriptive statistics. The main finding of the study was that nearly 70% of the respondents who purchased supplements were strongly influenced by container label information that stipulated that the nutritional supplement product is free of banned substances. The second finding was that just over 50% of the respondents attached importance to the quality of the nutritional supplement product information on the container label. The third finding was that about 40% of the respondents were strongly influenced by the ingredients on the labels when they purchased nutritional supplements. This study, (i) identifies short-comings in current labelling information practices, (ii) provides opportunities to improve label and non-label information and communication, and, (iii) presents the case for

  18. Determinants of nutrition guidance practices of primary-care physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.J.

    1996-01-01


    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to analyze nutrition guidance practices of primary-care physicians (PCPs), their nutritional attitudes and knowledge and their interest in the role of nutrition in health and disease. A second objective was to identify the determinants

  19. The effect of Integrated nutrition care intervention on the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to adequate nutrition in children is essential for the attainment of high standards of health. The health and nutritional status of orphans and vulnerable children is important as it affects their growth, health and mental development. However, these children suffer from malnutrition as they have limited access to ...

  20. Is there a place for nutritional supplements in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Arcaniolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infertility affects 15% of couples in fertile age. Male factor is a cause of infertility in almost half of cases, mainly due to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The purpose of this study is to review the effects of nutritional supplements as medical treatment for idiopathic male infertility. Material and methods: A Pub Med and Medline review of the published studies utilizing nutritional supplements for the treatment of male infertility has been performed. Results: Clinical trials on Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin C. Arginine, Carnitine, N-Acetyl-Carnitine, Glutathione, Coenzyme Q10, Selenium and Zinc were reviewed. Although there is a wide variability in selected population, dose regimen and final outcomes, nutritional supplements both alone and in combination seems to be able to improve semen parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and morphology and pregnancy rate in infertile men. Conclusions: There are rising evidences from published randomized trials and systematic review suggesting that nutritional supplementation may improve semen parameters and the likelihood of pregnancy in men affected by OAT. This improvement, however, is not consistent and there is a wide variation in the treatment regimens used. Well designed and adequately powered RCTs are needed to better clarify the role of nutritional supplements as treatment for male infertility.

  1. Nutritional supplementation increases Rifampin exposure among tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Denti, Paolo; Chigutsa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation to tuberculosis (TB) patients has been associated with increased weight and reduced mortality, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is unknown. A cohort of 100 TB patients (58 men; median age, 35 [interquartile range {IQR}, 29 to 40] years......, and median body mass index [BMI], 18.8 [17.3 to 19.9] kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive nutritional supplementation during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Rifampin plasma concentrations were determined after 1 week and 2 months of treatment. The effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, time...... on nutritional supplementation achieved higher Cmax and AUC0-24 values of 6.4 μg/ml and 31.6 μg · h/ml, respectively, and only 13.3% bioavailability reduction. No effect of the SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype was observed. In conclusion, nutritional supplementation during the first 2 months of TB treatment reduces...

  2. Compliance with preoperative oral nutritional supplements in patients at nutritional risk--only a question of will?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, F; Bertrand, P C; Schäfer, M; Ballabeni, P; Cerantola, Y; Demartines, N; Hübner, M

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative nutrition has been shown to reduce morbidity after major gastrointestinal (GI) surgery in selected patients at risk. In a randomized trial performed recently (NCT00512213), almost half of the patients, however, did not consume the recommended dose of nutritional intervention. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for noncompliance. Demographic (n = 5) and nutritional (n = 21) parameters for this retrospective analysis were obtained from a prospectively maintained database. The outcome of interest was compliance with the allocated intervention (ingestion of ⩾ 11/15 preoperative oral nutritional supplement units). Uni- and multivariate analyses of potential risk factors for noncompliance were performed. The final analysis included 141 patients with complete data sets for the purpose of the study. Fifty-nine patients (42%) were considered noncompliant. Univariate analysis identified low C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.015), decreased recent food intake (P = 0.032) and, as a trend, low hemoglobin (P = 0.065) and low pre-albumin (P = 0.056) levels as risk factors for decreased compliance. However, none of them was retained as an independent risk factor after multivariate analysis. Interestingly, 17 potential explanatory parameters, such as upper GI cancer, weight loss, reduced appetite or co-morbidities, did not show any significant correlation with reduced intake of nutritional supplements. Reduced compliance with preoperative nutritional interventions remains a major issue because the expected benefit depends on the actual intake. Seemingly, obvious reasons could not be retained as valid explanations. Compliance seems thus to be primarily a question of will and information; the importance of nutritional supplementation needs to be emphasized by specific patients' education.

  3. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS AND THE USE OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS BY WOMEN WHO UNDERWENT GASTRIC BYPASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Elisangela Mara; Gebara, Telma Souza E Silva; Cambi, Maria Paula Carlini; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is deemed one of the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and it aims at the reduction and maintenance of weight loss in long term, as the control of the related comorbidities. Quantify the occurrence of alterations of the gastrointestinal tract, suggestive signs of nutritional deficiencies and the use of supplements in a group of women undergoing bariatric surgery. The sample consisted of women aged 20-65 years submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with monitoring equal to or higher than 24 months. For the qualitative analysis, the Feeding Frequency Questionnaire was used. In the postoperative period, alopecia was the most reported (79.3%), followed by changes in the texture of the nails, both considered predictive of nutritional deficiencies. Changes in the gastrointestinal tract were described in 86.2%, and episodes of dumping were reported in 65.5%. Qualitative analysis has shown reduced daily consumption of sources of animal and plant proteins. After bariatric surgery can occur flatulence, vomiting and dumping syndrome as the most frequent representative symptoms of digestive functional disorders. Alopecia and nail changes are the most important signs of nutritional deficiency. The use of dietary supplements in the postoperative period is scarce and sporadic. A cirurgia bariátrica é considerada um dos procedimentos mais eficazes para tratamento da obesidade e objetiva a redução e manutenção da perda de peso em longo prazo, assim como, o controle das comorbidades associadas. Quantificar a ocorrência de alterações funcionais do trato gastrointestinal, sinais sugestivos de carências nutricionais e o uso de suplementos em um grupo de mulheres submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica. A amostra foi constituída por mulheres com idades entre 20-65 anos submetidas ao bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux com seguimento igual ou superior a 24 meses. Para análise qualitativa foi utilizado o Questionário de Frequência Alimentar. No per

  4. [State of food and nutritional care in public hospitals of Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2014-10-03

    The ELAN Ecuadorian Study of Hospital Malnutrition returned a malnutrition rate of 37.1% in public hospitals of Ecuador [Gallegos Espinosa S, Nicolalde Cifuentes M, Santana Porbén S; para el Grupo Ecuatoriano de Estudio de la Desnutrición Hospitalaria. State of malnutrition in hospitals of Ecuador. Nutr Hosp (España) 2014;30:425-35]. Hospital malnutrition could be the result of institutional cultural practices affecting the patient's nutritional status. To present the current state of food and nutritional care provided to patients assisted in public hospitals of Ecuador. The state of food and nutritional care provided to 5,355 patients assisted in 36 hospitals of 23 provinces of the country was documented by means of the Hospital Nutrition Survey (HNS), conducted as part of the ELAN Study. HNS recorded the completion of nutritional assessment exercises, the use of food-bymouth, fasting, use of oral nutritional supplements, and implementation and conduction of Artificial nutritional schemes (Enteral/Parenteral); respectively. Less than 0.1% of clinical charts had a diagnosis of malnutrition included in the list of the patient's health problems. Less than half of the patients had been measured and weighted on admission. Serum Albumin values and Total Lymphocytes Counts were annotated on admission in only 13.5% and 59.2% of the instances, respectively. Current weight value was registered in only 59.4% of the patients with length of stay ³ 15 days. An oral nutritional supplement was prescribed in just 3.5% of non-malnourished patients in which significant metabolic stress and/or reduced food intakes concurred. Although up to 10 different indications for use of Artificial nutrition were identified in the sample study, any of these techniques was administered to just 2.5% (median of observed percentages; range: 1.3 - 11.9%) of surveyed patients. Currently, nutritional status of hospitalized patient is not included within therapeutic goals, nutritional assessment

  5. Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloodworth Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects. Methods Participants were elite UK male and female athletes, within the age range between 12 and 21 (n = 403, mean age 17.66 ± 1.99. Associations between type of supplements and reasons for using supplements were tested by calculating Pearson's χ2 and the strength of these symmetric associations shown by phi (ϕ association coefficients. Results Single supplement use was reported by 48.1%, with energy drinks being the most popular, consumed by 41.7% of all athletes and 86.6% of the supplement users in the sample. No agreement was observed between athletes' rationale and behaviour in relation to nutritional supplements except for creatine. Among health professionals, nutritionists and physiotherapists, followed by coaches, were most frequently consulted. Answers regarding reasons and supplements used showed incongruence and suggest widespread misinformation regarding supplements and their effects is an issue for the young athlete. Conclusion Widespread supplement taking behaviour was evidenced in the young elite athlete population with the most notable congruence between rationale and practice among young athletes being performance-related. Young athletes in the present sample appear to be less 'health conscious' and more 'performance focused' than their adult counterparts. Further research, using a full list of supplements, is warranted to test the hypothesis that health consciousness is less dominant in supplement choice by young athletes.

  6. Initial investigation of nutrition and supplement use, knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategies than pre-game meals. Seventy .... and match-day strategies were found to be ..... marketing and production of supplements, aggressive marketing and ... in South African rugby players participating in the under 13 Coca-Cola Craven.

  7. Multimineral nutritional supplements in a nano-CaO matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Knijnenburg, Jesper T.N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2017-01-01

    The fast dissolution of certain calcium-containing compounds makes them attractive carriers for trace minerals in nutritional applications, e.g., iron and zinc to alleviate mineral deficiencies in affected people. Here, CaO-based nanostructured mixed oxides containing nutritionally relevant amounts of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were produced by one-step flame spray pyrolysis. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, x-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, and t...

  8. Problems of actuality in meal and nutrition care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Line Hesselvig; Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2018-01-01

    This study is based on an issue in nurses´ meal and nutrition care, relating to nurses´ perception of transfer of knowledge between different care settings. Through the notion ‘problems of actuality’, the aim is to identify how and why different methods in care, may complicate preventive effort...... related to undernutrition among older adults. It is a qualitative study that lends itself to ethnography and ethnomethodology, with data collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and insights into patients´ medical charts. Through explications of nurses’ methods in meal and nutrition care...... between social-bodily care work and text-based care work, there is a lack of transfer of knowledge, from which important parts of meal and nutrition care work become invisible. The study finds a need for noticing the disjuncture between social-bodily care and text-based care and for both methods of care...

  9. Gauging food and nutritional care quality in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez-Garcia Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food and nutritional care quality must be assessed and scored, so as to improve health institution efficacy. This study aimed to detect and compare actions related to food and nutritional care quality in public and private hospitals. Methods Investigation of the Hospital Food and Nutrition Service (HFNS of 37 hospitals by means of structured interviews assessing two quality control corpora, namely nutritional care quality (NCQ and hospital food service quality (FSQ. HFNS was also evaluated with respect to human resources per hospital bed and per produced meal. Results Comparison between public and private institutions revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the number of hospital beds per HFNS staff member (p = 0.02 and per dietitian (p  Conclusions Food and nutritional care in hospital is still incipient, and actions concerning both nutritional care and food service take place on an irregular basis. It is clear that the design of food and nutritional care in hospital indicators is mandatory, and that guidelines for the development of actions as well as qualification and assessment of nutritional care are urgent.

  10. The impact of nutritional supplement intake on diet behavior and obesity outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Anders

    Full Text Available After decades-old efforts to nudge consumers towards healthier lifestyles through dietary guidelines, diet-related diseases are on the rise. In addition, a growing share of U.S. consumers proactively chooses nutritional supplements as an alternative preventative way of maintaining good health, a $25.5 billion industry in the United States. This paper investigates possible linkages between the economics of consumer supplement choices and the relationship to important dietary and health outcomes. We use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data to estimate the impact of nutritional supplements intake on respondent's body weight outcomes, controlling for diet quality.: The focus of this article is to determine whether nutritional supplements takers differ from non-takers with regard to their health outcomes when controlling for differences in diet quality, based on individual Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 score. The analysis applies treatment effects estimators that account for the selection bias and endogeneity of self-reported behavior and diet-health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates a negative association between supplement intake and BMI but no significant effect on an individual's diet quality. Our findings suggest that individuals proactively invest into their health by taking nutritional supplements instead of improving diet quality through more nutritious food choices. Our results provide important contributions to the literature on a key food policy issue. Knowledge of the determinants of supplement demand in the context of strong diet-health trends should also be helpful to stakeholders in the U.S. produce sector in their competition over consumer market share.

  11. The nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Jane B

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome. Its defining feature is involuntary weight loss, which arises, in part, because of muscle atrophy and is accompanied by functional decline. International expert consensus recommends that nutritional support and counselling is a component of multimodal therapy for cancer cachexia, as poor nutritional intake can contribute to progression of the syndrome. The present paper focuses on what is presently known about the nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia. There is potential for nurses to play an important role. However, obstacles to this include lack of a robust evidence base to support their nutritional care practices and unmet need for education about nutrition in cancer. The nursing role's boundaries and the outcomes of nurse-delivered nutritional care in cancer cachexia are both uncertain and should be investigated.

  12. Nutritional supportive care in children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, P.; Smisek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate nutritional support is an important part of comprehensive oncology treatment. The aim is to decrease the incidence of malnutrition. Malnourished patients are in higher risk of infectious and toxic complications, experience worse quality of life. Systematic survey of nutritional status and early nutritional intervention can eventually lead to better results of oncology treatment. We review the definitions, etiology and epidemiology of malnutrition, practical approaches to nutritional support of children with cancer. (author)

  13. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon

    2011-07-25

    BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.

  14. The Evidence for Dietary Interventions and Nutritional Supplements as Treatment Options in Multiple Sclerosis: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische, Leah J; Mowry, Ellen M

    2018-03-17

    This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive. With regard to nutritional supplements, pilot data show a possible benefit of biotin with respect to disability worsening in people with progressive MS (PMS). The best designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PUFA supplementation have not shown significant impact, but several weaker RCTs have. Many other nutritional supplements have been tested, including several anti-oxidants. While some early studies show positive results, no result has been definitive. Unfortunately, there is no strong evidence for a direct benefit of any given dietary intervention on MS risk or prognosis. However, due to its relationship with vascular co-morbidities, the Mediterranean diet has the strongest rationale for employment in PwMS. Higher-quality clinical trials are needed to ascertain the possible benefits of nutritional supplements.

  15. Measuring the Effect of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Participation on Food Security.

    OpenAIRE

    James Mabli; Jim Ohls; Lisa Dragoset; Laura Castner; Betsy Santos

    2013-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides food assistance to more than 47 million low-income Americans every month. It aims to reduce hunger by facilitating beneficiaries’ access to enough food for a healthy, active lifestyle, otherwise known as "food security." Our study conducted for the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture shows that SNAP participation is associated with improved food security. The study is the largest and most rigorous one...

  16. Dynamics and Determinants of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation from 2008 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    James Mabli; Thomas Godfrey; Nancy Wemmerus; Joshua Leftin; Stephen Tordella

    2014-01-01

    Mathematica nutrition experts recently conducted research on the dynamics and determinants of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation. A study examines SNAP participation dynamics between October 2008 and December 2012. In particular, it describes patterns of SNAP entry, length of time on the program, and re-entry for policy-relevant subgroups, and discusses how these patterns have changed over time. This work was conducted in conjunction with an analysis presented on t...

  17. Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Caroline; Cheniti, Ahsène; Connétable, Sophie; Piccardi, Nathalie; Vincenzi, Colombina; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a frequent and distressing condition. To evaluate vs. control, the effects on hair loss of a 6-month supplementation with specific omega 3&6 and antioxidants. One hundred and twenty healthy female subjects participated in this 6-month, randomized, comparative study. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density evaluated on standardized photographs. Secondary endpoints included changes in telogen hair percentage and diameter distribution of anagen hair (>40 µm vs. ≤40 µm) measured by trichogram. Overall changes in hair density and diameter were also measured by trichometer and by subjects' self-assessment. After 6 months of treatment, photograph assessment demonstrated a superior improvement in the supplemented group (P hair percentage was significantly (P hair (>40 µm) increased compared to the control group. The trichometer index increased in the supplemented group, while it decreased in the control group. A large majority of supplemented subjects reported a reduction in hair loss (89.9% of subjects at 6 months), as well as an improvement in hair diameter (86.1%) and hair density (87.3%). A 6-month supplementation with omega 3&6 and antioxidants acts efficiently against hair loss in improving hair density and reducing the telogen percentage and the proportion of miniaturized anagen hair. Objectively measured improvements were confirmed by the subjects' perception of efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Is multi-level marketing of nutrition supplements a legal and an ethical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Diana; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa

    2018-06-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM) of nutrition products has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades. 'Wellness' is the second most popular niche in the MLM industry and represents 35% of sales among all the products in 2016. This category includes dietary supplements, weight management and sports nutrition products. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether this practice is legal and ethical. An analysis of available documentary information about the legal aspects of Multi-level marketing business was performed. Ethical reflexion was based on the "principlism" approach. We argue that, while being a controversial business model, MLM is not fraudulent from a legal point of view. However, it is an unethical strategy obviating all the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and autonomy. What is at stake is the possible economic scam and the potential harm those products could cause due to unproven efficacy, exceeding daily nutrient requirements and potential toxicity. The sale of dietary and nutrition supplements products by physicians and dieticians presents a conflict of interests that can undermine the primary obligation of physicians to serve the interests of their patients before their own. While considering that MLM of dietary supplements and other nutrition products are a legal business strategy, we affirm that it is an unethical practice. MLM products that have nutritional value or promoted as remedies may be unnecessary and intended for conditions that are unsuitable for self-prescription as well. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional supplements in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the Western World. While with new therapies that are directed towards vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potentially efficient treatment option for the wet form of the disease has been introduced, a therapeutic regimen for dry AMD is still lacking. There is evidence from several studies that oral intake of supplements is beneficial in preventing progression of the disease. Several formulations of micronutrients are currently available. The present review focuses on the role of supplements in the treatment and prevention of AMD and sums up the current knowledge about the most frequently used micronutrients. In addition, regulatory issues are discussed, and future directions for the role of supplementation in AMD are highlighted. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)

  1. Behavioral Economics and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program:: Making the Healthy Choice the Easy Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Alice S; Hartman, Terry; DeMarco, Molly M

    2017-02-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) serves as an important nutritional safety net program for many Americans. Given its aim to use traditional economic levers to provide access to food, the SNAP program includes minimal nutritional requirements and restrictions. As food choices are influenced by more than just economic constraints, behavioral economics may offer insights and tools for altering food purchases for SNAP users. This manuscript outlines behavioral economics strategies that have potential to encourage healthier food choices within the SNAP program. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

  3. Use of Nutritional Supplements by High School Football and Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Melanie A; Giza, Matthew; Clayton, Lori; Lonning, Jim; Wilkerson, Rick D

    2001-01-01

    The known use of performance enhancing agents by athletes has occurred throughout history. In the 1960s and 1970s steroids and amphetamines were the supplements most often used. Now athletes are turning to supplements that are either natural or stimulate the release of natural hormones. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of use of nutritional supplements among high school football and volleyball players. This study surveyed 495 male football players and 407 female volleyball players from 20 high schools in Northwest Iowa. These athletes completed anonymous surveys and returned them to their coaches. Results showed that 8% of the male athletes and 2% of the female athletes were using supplementation. Supplements used included creatine, androstiendione, HMB, amino acids, DHEA, phosphogen, weight gainer 1850, Tribulus, muscle plus, multivitamins, calcium, GABA, and Shaklee Vita Lea and Physique. PMID:11813950

  4. The use of oral nutritional supplements in an Irish community setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S

    2009-12-01

    The frequency of oral nutritional supplement (ONS) prescribing has been increasing steadily in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Available evidence indicates that health professionals in the community setting in the ROI have a poor level of knowledge about ONS. The objectives of the present study were to investigate ONS prescribing practices and to identify the types of patient who were prescribed these products.

  5. Sustained benefits of a community dietetics intervention designed to improve oral nutritional supplement prescribing practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community do not always prescribe oral nutritional supplements (ONS) according to best practice guidelines for the management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a community dietetics intervention on ONS prescribing practices and expenditure 1 year later.

  6. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza pellets on internal parasite infection and nutritional status of grazing goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding supplemental Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) leaf meal pellets has been shown to reduce the effects of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and coccidia (Eimeria spp.) in sheep and goats, but effects on nutritional status of parasitized small ruminants are unclear. A 14...

  7. Preoperative oral nutritional interventions in surgery, including arginine- and glutamine-enhanced supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, S.J.H.; Buijs, N.; Luttikhold, J.; Mahdavian Delavary, B.; Niessen, F.B.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The patients' condition prior to surgery is of major importance for clinical outcome. It is believed nowadays that artificial nutrition in the form of a preoperative drink may improve postoperative outcome. Until now, a clear overview concerning the effects of preoperative supplementation on

  8. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; Pee, de Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design: Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an

  9. Checklist and Decision Support in Nutritional Care for Burned Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    able to construct a checklist of a clinical and physiologic model and then a computerised decision support system that will perform two functions: the...the provision of nutritional therapy, and assessment of use by nursing and physician staff KEYWORDS Nutrition, severe burn, decision support... clinical testing. Checklist and Decision Support in Nutritional Care for Burned Patients Proposal Number: 12340011 W81XWH-12-2-0074 PI: Steven E

  10. Nutritional support of children in the intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Seashore, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral and essential part of the management of 5-10 percent of hospitalized children. Children in the intensive care unit are particularly likely to develop malnutrition because of the nature and duration of their illness, and their inability to eat by mouth. This article reviews the physiology of starvation and the development of malnutrition in children. A method of estimating the nutritional requirements of children is presented. The techniques of nutritional su...

  11. Nutrition Care after Discharge from Hospital: An Exploratory Analysis from the More-2-Eat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Laur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients leave hospital in poor nutritional states, yet little is known about the post-discharge nutrition care in which patients are engaged. This study describes the nutrition-care activities 30-days post-discharge reported by patients and what covariates are associated with these activities. Quasi-randomly selected patients recruited from 5 medical units across Canada (n = 513 consented to 30-days post-discharge data collection with 48.5% (n = 249 completing the telephone interview. Use of nutrition care post-discharge was reported and bivariate analysis completed with relevant covariates for the two most frequently reported activities, following recommendations post-discharge or use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS. A total of 42% (n = 110 received nutrition recommendations at hospital discharge, with 65% (n = 71/110 of these participants following those recommendations; 26.5% (n = 66 were taking ONS after hospitalization. Participants who followed recommendations were more likely to report following a special diet (p = 0.002, different from before their hospitalization (p = 0.008, compared to those who received recommendations, but reported not following them. Patients taking ONS were more likely to be at nutrition risk (p < 0.0001, malnourished (p = 0.0006, taking ONS in hospital (p = 0.01, had a lower HGS (p = 0.0013; males only, and less likely to believe they were eating enough to meet their body’s needs (p = 0.005. This analysis provides new insights on nutrition-care post-discharge.

  12. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  13. [Assessment of nutritional education and iron supplement impact on prevention of pregnancy anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Beatriz Elena; Manjarrés, Luz Mariela; Gómez, Alba Lucía; Alzate, Dora María; Jaramillo, María Clemencia

    2005-06-01

    Iron and folic acid deficiencies are the major causes of health problems among pregnant women and children, with a significant negative impact on economic and social development. From April 2002 to April 2003 at the Gilberto Mejía Mejía Hospital (Rionegro, Antioquia), the prenatal program was assessed for its impact on a cohort of pregnant women concerning knowledge of the following nutritional parameters: iron and folic acid functions, their source foods and bioavailability, supplement intake and tolerance, and globular indexes. A sample of 42 pregnant women was subjected to a nutritional education program along with the administration of a supplement consisting of 60 mg elemental iron, 400 microg folic acid, and 70 mg vitamin C. This formulation was prepared specifically for the study by Laboratorio Profesional Farmacéutico, LAPROFF. The effect of the educational program was measured by knowledge changes about how patient behaviours affect nutrient bioavailability via source foods intake, as well as recognition of the tolerance limits of supplements and potential effect of non-adherance. The physiological status of each patient was measured by three hematologic variables--hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ferritin. A positive understanding of how to improve nutritional practices was observed. With the supplements, 94.4% of women did not show anaemia at the end of pregnancy. These results agree with those in other, similar populations and indicate that implementation of prenatal control programs by educational and supplement administration is worthwhile.

  14. The Important Role of Carbohydrates in the Flavor, Function, and Formulation of Oral Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaro Kokkinidou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients who are malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition often benefit from the consumption of oral nutritional supplements (ONS. ONS supply a range of micro- and macro-nutrients, and they can be used to supplement a diet or provide total nutrition. Since ONS are specially formulated products, all ONS ingredients—including carbohydrates—are added ingredients. This may seem to be at odds with the growing public health discourse on the need to reduce “added sugars” in the diet. However, carbohydrate is an essential nutrient for human health and is a critical ingredient in ONS. Helping to educate patients on the value of “added sugars” in ONS may be useful to improve compliance with nutritional recommendations when ONS are indicated. This perspective paper reviews the important roles of “added sugars” in ONS, in terms of flavor, function, and product formulation.

  15. Perception of need for nutritional support in advanced cancer patients with cachexia: a survey in palliative care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koji; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyamoto, Jiro; Uno, Teruaki; Katayama, Hirofumi; Tatara, Ryohei

    2018-03-05

    Few studies have investigated the need for nutritional support in advanced cancer patients in palliative care settings. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire to examine the relationship between the perception of need for nutritional support and cancer cachexia and the prevalence of specific needs, perceptions, and beliefs in nutritional support. We conducted a questionnaire in palliative care settings. Patients were classified into two groups: (1) non-cachexia/pre-cachexia and (2) cachexia/refractory cachexia. A total of 117 out of 121 patients responded (96.7%). A significant difference was observed in the need for nutritional support between the groups: non-cachexia/pre-cachexia (32.7%) and cachexia/refractory cachexia (53.6%) (p = 0.031). The specific needs of patients requiring nutritional support were nutritional counseling (93.8%), ideas to improve food intake (87.5%), oral nutritional supplements (83.0%), parenteral nutrition and hydration (77.1%), and tube feeding (22.9%). The top perceptions regarding the best time to receive nutritional support and the best medical staff to provide nutritional support were "when anorexia, weight loss, and muscle weakness become apparent" (48.6%) and "nutritional support team" (67.3%), respectively. The top three beliefs of nutritional treatments were "I do not wish to receive tube feeding" (78.6%), "parenteral nutrition and hydration are essential" (60.7%), and "parenteral hydration is essential" (59.6%). Patients with cancer cachexia expressed a greater need for nutritional support. They wished to receive nutritional support from medical staff when they become unable to take sufficient nourishment orally and the negative impact of cachexia becomes apparent. Most patients wished to receive parenteral nutrition and hydration.

  16. Association between Oral Nutritional Supplementation and Clinical Outcomes among Patients with ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheu, Christine; Pearson, Jeffrey; Dahlerus, Claudia; Lantz, Brett; Chowdhury, Tania; Sauer, Peter F.; Farrell, Robert E.; Port, Friedrich K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) was provided to ESRD patients with hypoalbuminemia as part of Fresenius Medical Care Health Plan’s (FMCHP) disease management. This study evaluated the association between FMCHP’s ONS program and clinical outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Analyses included FMCHP patients with ONS indication (n=470) defined as 2-month mean albumin <3.8 g/dl until reaching a 3-month mean ≥3.8 g/dl from February 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. Patients did not receive ONS if deemed inappropriate or refused. Patients on ONS were compared with patients who were not, despite meeting ONS indication. Patients with ONS indication regardless of use were compared with Medicare patients with similar serum albumin levels from the 2007 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Clinical Performance Measures Project (CPM). Cox models calculated adjusted hospitalization and mortality risks at 1 year. Results Among patients with indication for ONS, 276 received supplements and 194 did not. ONS use was associated with 0.058 g/dl higher serum albumin overall (P=0.02); this difference decreased by 0.001 g/dl each month (P=0.05) such that the difference was 0.052 g/dl (P=0.04) in month 6 and the difference was no longer significant in month 12 . In analyses based on ONS use, ONS patients had lower hospitalization at 1 year (68.4%; P<0.01) versus patients without ONS (88.7%), but there was no significant reduction in mortality risk (P=0.29). In analyses based on ONS indication, patients with indication had lower mortality at 1 year (16.2%) compared with CPM patients (23.4%; P<0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that ONS use was associated with significantly lower hospitalization rates but had no significant effect on mortality in a disease management setting. PMID:23085729

  17. Combining pain therapy with lifestyle: the role of personalized nutrition and nutritional supplements according to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Manuela De Gregori,1–3 Carolina Muscoli,2,4,5 Michael E Schatman,2,6 Tiziana Stallone,2,7 Fabio Intelligente,2,8 Mariangela Rondanelli,2,9 Francesco Franceschi,2,10 Laura Isabel Arranz,2,11 Silvia Lorente-Cebrián,2,12 Maurizio Salamone,2,13,14 Sara Ilari,2,5 Inna Belfer,2,15 Massimo Allegri2,16,17 1Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Study in Multidisciplinary Pain Research Group, 3Young Against Pain Group, Parma, Italy; 4Department of Health Sciences, Institute of Research for Food Safety and Health, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, Parma, Italy; 5IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Roccelletta di Borgia, Catanzaro, Italy; 6US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USA; 7ENPAB, Rome, 8Chronic Pain Service Anestesia Day-Surgery, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, 9Department of Public Health, Section of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, University of Pavia, Pavia, 10Institute of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 11Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 12Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 13Metagenics Italia srl, Milano, 14Italian Lifestyle Medicine Association, Bari, Italy; 15Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 16Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, 17Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Service, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria of Parma, Parma, Italy Abstract: Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in

  18. Moderation of the Relation of County-Level Cost of Living to Nutrition by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012-2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Living in a higher-cost county-particularly one with high rent costs-was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living.

  19. Intake of nutritional supplements among people exercising in gyms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goston, Janaina Lavalli; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2010-06-01

    To assess supplement intake in people who exercise regularly in gyms in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and discuss the influencing factors on its ingestion. A total of 1102 enrolled subjects who exercised in 50 gyms throughout the city were part of this cross-sectional study. Men and women were recruited and all subjects were at least 18 y old. Participants were asked to complete written questionnaires about their use of supplements. Data were collected over a period of 4 mo. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported by 36.8% of participants. The highest intake was in men (44.6%). Five products were consumed almost daily: those rich in proteins and amino acids (58%), isotonic drinks (32%), those rich in carbohydrates (23%), natural/phytotherapeutic (20%), and multivitamin/mineral supplements (19%). Most people (55%) reported using nutritional supplements without any specialized professional guidance and based primarily on self-prescription. Individuals younger than 30 y, mainly men (odds ratio 3.28, 95% confidence interval 2.06-5.20, P gyms is high and is usually self-prescribed. We emphasize that the use of dietary supplements must be always done under the supervision of a specialist (physician or nutritionist). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional Supplementation Increases Rifampin Exposure among Tuberculosis Patients Coinfected with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denti, Paolo; Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Changalucha, John; McIlleron, Helen; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Aase Bengaard

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation to tuberculosis (TB) patients has been associated with increased weight and reduced mortality, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is unknown. A cohort of 100 TB patients (58 men; median age, 35 [interquartile range {IQR}, 29 to 40] years, and median body mass index [BMI], 18.8 [17.3 to 19.9] kg/m2) were randomized to receive nutritional supplementation during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Rifampin plasma concentrations were determined after 1 week and 2 months of treatment. The effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, time on treatment, body weight, and SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype were examined using a population pharmacokinetic model. The model adjusted for body size via allometric scaling, accounted for clearance autoinduction, and detected an increase in bioavailability (+14%) for the patients in the continuation phase. HIV coinfection in patients not receiving the supplementation was found to decrease bioavailability by 21.8%, with a median maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) of 5.6 μg/ml and 28.6 μg · h/ml, respectively. HIV-coinfected patients on nutritional supplementation achieved higher Cmax and AUC0–24 values of 6.4 μg/ml and 31.6 μg · h/ml, respectively, and only 13.3% bioavailability reduction. No effect of the SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype was observed. In conclusion, nutritional supplementation during the first 2 months of TB treatment reduces the decrease in rifampin exposure observed in HIV-coinfected patients but does not affect exposure in HIV-uninfected patients. If confirmed in other studies, the use of defined nutritional supplementation in HIV-coinfected TB patients should be considered in TB control programs. (This study has the controlled trial registration number ISRCTN 16552219.) PMID:24709267

  1. Selenium supplementation in pediatric patients using parenteral nutrition: Is it time to do something?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata Germano Borges de Oliveira Nascimento; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Hessel, Gabriel

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the nutritional status of selenium and verify the effect of its supplementation in pediatric patients during 14 days of parenteral nutrition (PN). This is a series of cases with patients followed for two weeks while using PN. Data collection was performed at the beginning (T0), in the 7th (T1) and 14th days of PN (T2). The supplemented group received 2 µg/kg/day of selenous acid. Weight and height were measured for nutritional status assessment. Tests requested: plasma selenium, albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Fourteen (14) patients with inflammatory process and with low or very low weight for their ages were evaluated. In both groups (with and without supplementation), all patients had low selenium levels. Median plasma selenium concentrations were 17.4 µg/L (T0), 23.0 µg/L (T1) and 20.7 µg/L (T2). Increase and reduction of selenium occurred both in patients with high CRP and in those presenting normalization of this parameter. Lower plasma selenium levels have been detected since the start of the research and supplementation (2 µg/kg/day of selenous acid) was not to enough to approach the reference values.

  2. Review of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneij A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Sneij, Adriana Campa, Marianna K Baum Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Modesto Maidique Campus, Miami, FL, USA Background: Nutritional deficiencies are widespread in people living with HIV (PLWH, prior to the antiretroviral treatment (ART. Nutrient deficiencies and other nutrition-related conditions, however, have been identified in patients receiving ART. Trials of nutritional supplementation have been conducted to alleviate these nutritional conditions and improve or reverse nutrition-related outcomes. This review aims to evaluate the benefits of supplementation, its unintended adverse effects, and the difference in approach and focus, research design, formulations, and outcomes between those randomized clinical trials (RCTs conducted before and after the initiation of ART. Methods: An evidence-based systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases and the resources of the Florida International University Research Library. Forty-two RCTs were selected for review, and their design and outcomes were compared and contrasted conceptually and in the form of tables. Results: Most of the RCTs (n=31 were conducted before the advent of ART, and their aims were delaying disease progression, reversing malnutrition, and improving pregnancy outcomes in women and infants infected with HIV. The RCTs conducted with coadministration of ART were fewer (n=11, with relative smaller sample size, of shorter duration, and mainly focused on preventing or ameliorating the nutrition-related conditions generated by the chronic infection, its treatment, and the aging of PLWH. Conclusion: As ART is becoming more accessible worldwide, and people are living longer with the disease, more longitudinal trials of nutritional interventions with larger sample sizes are needed to study the nutritional consequences and potential treatments for PLWH. Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy

  3. Improvement of Nutritive Value and Ruminal Fermentation of Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Phesatcha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM and the second was urea (U supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1% silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also

  4. FINDING POTENTIALLY UNSAFE NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FROM USER REVIEWS WITH TOPIC MODELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ryan; Sarker, Abeed; O'Connor, Karen; Goodin, Amanda; Karlsrud, Mark; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplements are widely used and generally are considered safe, some supplements have been identified as causative agents for adverse reactions, some of which may even be fatal. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for monitoring supplements and ensuring that supplements are safe. However, current surveillance protocols are not always effective. Leveraging user-generated textual data, in the form of Amazon.com reviews for nutritional supplements, we use natural language processing techniques to develop a system for the monitoring of dietary supplements. We use topic modeling techniques, specifically a variation of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), and background knowledge in the form of an adverse reaction dictionary to score products based on their potential danger to the public. Our approach generates topics that semantically capture adverse reactions from a document set consisting of reviews posted by users of specific products, and based on these topics, we propose a scoring mechanism to categorize products as "high potential danger", "average potential danger" and "low potential danger." We evaluate our system by comparing the system categorization with human annotators, and we find that the our system agrees with the annotators 69.4% of the time. With these results, we demonstrate that our methods show promise and that our system represents a proof of concept as a viable low-cost, active approach for dietary supplement monitoring.

  5. Nutritive value of browses as protein supplement(s) to poor quality roughages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions, pasture grasses and cereal residues are frequently low in nutrients especially protein and therefore cannot support high levels of ruminant production. Many browse species are endowed with high levels of protein and hence suitable as supplements. The

  6. Cost-effectiveness of food, supplement and environmental interventions to address malnutrition in residential aged care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Cherie; Isenring, Elisabeth; Miller, Michelle; Marshall, Skye

    2018-05-01

    observational studies have shown that nutritional strategies to manage malnutrition may be cost-effective in aged care; but more robust economic data is needed to support and encourage translation to practice. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to compare the cost-effectiveness of implementing nutrition interventions targeting malnutrition in aged care homes versus usual care. residential aged care homes. systematic literature review of studies published between January 2000 and August 2017 across 10 electronic databases. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and GRADE were used to evaluate the quality of the studies. eight included studies (3,098 studies initially screened) reported on 11 intervention groups, evaluating the effect of modifications to dining environment (n = 1), supplements (n = 5) and food-based interventions (n = 5). Interventions had a low cost of implementation (<£2.30/resident/day) and provided clinical improvement for a range of outcomes including weight, nutritional status and dietary intake. Supplements and food-based interventions further demonstrated a low cost per quality adjusted life year or unit of physical function improvement. GRADE assessment revealed the quality of the body of evidence that introducing malnutrition interventions, whether they be environmental, supplements or food-based, are cost-effective in aged care homes was low. this review suggests supplements and food-based nutrition interventions in the aged care setting are clinically effective, have a low cost of implementation and may be cost-effective at improving clinical outcomes associated with malnutrition. More studies using well-defined frameworks for economic analysis, stronger study designs with improved quality, along with validated malnutrition measures are needed to confirm and increase confidence with these findings.

  7. Nutritional care in a nursing home in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maria Donini

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition is a clinical condition due to the imbalance among needs, intake and use of nutrients, leading to the increase of morbidity and mortality, and to the impairment of quality of life. Even in industrialized countries undernutrition is becoming an alarming phenomenon, especially involving elderly institutionalized subjects. A multicentric study called PIMAI (Project Iatrogenic MAlnutrition in Italy, was carried out in Italy over 2005. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitals and in nursing care homes (NH, to assess the level of nutritional attention and to measure the perceived quality in food and nutritional care. This paper represents a preliminary analysis of data collected in a NH included in the PIMAI project. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 subjects (29 males and 71 females, aged 80.2±10 years, were recruited from January to June 2005 at the Clinical Rehabilitation Institute "Villa delle Querce" in Nemi (Rome, among patients in the NH facility. All the participants underwent a multidimensional geriatric evaluation (considering nutritional, clinical, functional and cognitive parameters, and a survey on "perceived quality" of nutritional care. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: According to nutritional status defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment®, data analysis showed a high prevalence of malnutrition (36% especially related to advanced age, chewing, cognitive and functional impairments. Patients seemed to consider nutrition to be important for their health; on the other hand, they were not thoroughly satisfied with the quality of food. Particularly, it was observed scarce attention to nutritional status from medical and nursing staff. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the need to pay greater attention to nutritional status in elderly institutionalized subjects. Medical and nursing teams need to be aware of the importance to perform an evaluation of nutritional status in

  8. [USE, EFFECTS, AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR THE SPORT IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colls Garrido, Christian; Gómez-Urquiza, José Luis; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo Arturo; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    consumption and marketing of supplements that help improve athletic performance has increased in semi-professional sport. Moreover, in the market are increasingly a wide variety of such products pressure and high performance requirements push many young athletes to have recourse to the use of supplements to improve your fitness. However, this type of treatment should be advised and guided by an expert since improper use of such supplements favors the appearance of adverse effects and can be harmful to the health of the individual. to know the use of supplements to improve athletic performance by college athletes methods: was a systematic review in the Pubmed database, care, BIREME CUIDEN, BIREME (IBECS y Scielo) and CINHAL limited to articles published in the last ten years. 25 articles were analyzed. The main themes were found in the literature reviewed have been three: the "levels of supplements to increase athletic performance in college students", "effect of sports supplements" and "knowledge, behaviors and motivations for sports supplements". taking into account that the around 55% of University athletes using supplements but show a lack significant knowledge is necessary to provide a health education on such supplements. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Pathogenesis, Genetic Background, and the Role of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M. Moschos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is the leading cause of severe vision loss and blindness worldwide, mainly affecting people over 65 years old. Dry and wet ARDM are the main types of the disease, which seem to have a multifactorial background. The aim of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ARMD pathogenesis and exhibit the role of diet and nutritional supplements in the onset and progression of the disease. Environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol, and, diet appear to interact with mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, contributing to the pathogenesis of ARMD. Inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress, induced by the daily exposure of retina to high pressure of oxygen and light radiation, have been also associated with ARMD lesions. Other than medical and surgical therapies, nutritional supplements hold a significant role in the prevention and treatment of ARMD, eliminating the progression of macular degeneration.

  10. Diet and Nutrition in Cancer Survivorship and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Bazzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of palliative cancer care is typically to relieve suffering and improve quality of life. Most approaches to diet in this setting have focused only on eating as many calories as possible to avoid cachexia. However, as the concept of palliative care has evolved to include all aspects of cancer survivorship and not just end of life care, there is an increasing need to thoughtfully consider diet and nutrition approaches that can impact not only quality of life but overall health outcomes and perhaps even positively affect cancer recurrence and progression. In this regard, there has been a recent emphasis in the literature on nutrition and cancer as an important factor in both quality of life and in the pathophysiology of cancer. Hence, the primary purpose of this paper is to review the current data on diet and nutrition as it pertains to a wide range of cancer patients in the palliative care setting.

  11. [Vitamin-mineral supplements in nutrition of adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Pogozheva, A V; Gromova, O A; Shikh, E V

    2015-01-01

    The diet of population consisting of natural products is quite adequate and even excessive of energy consumption, but is not able to meet fully the need of organism in a number of micronutrients. Due to lack of sun exposure and long presence indoors endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by ultraviolet radiation does not provide the body’s need for this vitamin. Intake of vitaminmineral supplements (VMS) is appropriate because combined deficiency of vitamins and minerals takes place in population. Prophylactic doses (equal to physiological needs) provide a diet completeness and reduce the risk of vitamin deficiency and its consequences. The high incidence of combined deficiency of vitamins among population and the existence of vitamin interactions are the basis for the application of the multivitamins. The simultaneous intake of vitamins is more physiological, their combination is more effective than a separate or isolated destination of each of them. Efficacy of the VMS has been shown in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. The main requirements for the VMS are full list of vitamins and minerals, the lack of which is detected most frequently, in doses covering the needs of organism. For the health of the pregnant woman and her unborn child preference should be given for complexes, containing DHA and/or probiotics along with vitamins. The principles of the selection of the composition and vitamin doses in the VMS for using patients suffering from various pathologies should be based on data on the patient’s sufficiency with vitamins, the understanding of the role of vitamin deficiency in the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as on the composition of the diet and its modifications.

  12. [Does nutrition matter? Why nutritional care is neglected in Italian hospitals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchin, Lucio

    2015-02-01

    It is surprising how little attention nutrition has received from healthcare providers, in particular in the hospital environment. The discipline of nutrition is also no longer included in regular graduate courses in medicine. The underlying causes of this phenomenon are hard to determine, but they are part of the current paradigmatic shift underway in medicine. Nutrition is a complex and challenging science for most care givers, as it also pertains to their behaviours that should be consistent with health and nutrition messages they deliver to patients. The clinical and economic impact is of great relevance, raising serious ethical issues if not adequately addressed. It is time to re-establish at least a basic level of appropriate nutrition prescription beyond general counseling, with the aim to restore the integrity of the doctor-patient relationship.

  13. Characterization of inorganic compounds in nutritional supplements by the instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, Daniela T.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Maria B.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied in the analyses of samples of nutritional supplements in order to evaluate the composition of their essential inorganic components. Results obtained in these analyses presented, in general, a good agreement with the label values. Precision and accuracy of the results were also evaluated by analyzing NIST 2704 Buffalo River Sediment and NIST 1400 Bone Ash reference materials. (author)

  14. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Eric R; Aragon, Alan A; Fitschen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming ...

  15. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; Pee, de, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design: Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an iterative approach to data collection. Setting: The study was conducted in a health clinic of rural Chilomoni, a southern town of Blantyre district, Malawi. Subjects: Male and female participants, age...

  16. Increased Plasmodium chabaudi malaria mortality in mice with nutritional iron deficiency can be reduced by short-term adjunctive iron supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Filip C; Maretty, Lasse; Staalsoe, Trine

    2018-01-01

    infected mice had extramedullary splenic haematopoiesis, and iron-supplemented mice had visually detectable intracellular iron stores. CONCLUSIONS: Blood transfusions are the only currently available means to correct severe anaemia in children with malaria. The potential of carefully timed, short...... parts of the world. This has rendered interventions against iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas controversial. METHODS: The effect of nutritional iron deficiency on the clinical outcome of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice and the impact of intravenous iron supplementation with ferric...... deficiency was associated with increased mortality from P. chabaudi malaria. This increased mortality could be partially offset by carefully timed, short-duration adjunctive iron supplementation. Moribund animals were characterized by low levels of hepcidin and high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23. All...

  17. Nutrition and Supplementation Considerations to Limit Endotoxemia When Exercising in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Joshua H; Vincent, Grace E

    2018-02-06

    Exercise-induced heat production is further elevated by exercise performed in hot conditions and this can subsequently impact inflammation, and gastrointestinal (GI) health. Implementing nutrition and supplementation strategies under these conditions may support the hyperthermic response, the systemic inflammatory response, GI permeability and integrity, and exercise performance. Therefore, the aim of this brief review is to explore athletes' inflammatory response of two key biomarkers, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and provide nutrition and supplementation recommendations when exercising in hot conditions. There is emerging evidence that probiotics, glutamine, and vitamin C can preserve GI integrity, which may improve performance during exercise in the heat. Glucose rich food when consumed with water, before and during exercise in the heat, also appear to limit endotoxemia, preserve GI integrity, and reduce the incidence of GI disturbances compared with water alone. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may compromise GI integrity and this may result in greater leakage of endotoxins during long duration exercise in the heat. Further work is required to elucidate the impact of nutrition and supplementation strategies, in particular the use of NSAIDs, when exercising in the heat.

  18. Nutrition and Supplementation Considerations to Limit Endotoxemia When Exercising in the Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H. Guy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced heat production is further elevated by exercise performed in hot conditions and this can subsequently impact inflammation, and gastrointestinal (GI health. Implementing nutrition and supplementation strategies under these conditions may support the hyperthermic response, the systemic inflammatory response, GI permeability and integrity, and exercise performance. Therefore, the aim of this brief review is to explore athletes’ inflammatory response of two key biomarkers, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and interleukin-6 (IL-6, and provide nutrition and supplementation recommendations when exercising in hot conditions. There is emerging evidence that probiotics, glutamine, and vitamin C can preserve GI integrity, which may improve performance during exercise in the heat. Glucose rich food when consumed with water, before and during exercise in the heat, also appear to limit endotoxemia, preserve GI integrity, and reduce the incidence of GI disturbances compared with water alone. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may compromise GI integrity and this may result in greater leakage of endotoxins during long duration exercise in the heat. Further work is required to elucidate the impact of nutrition and supplementation strategies, in particular the use of NSAIDs, when exercising in the heat.

  19. Nutritional issues and self-care measures adopted by cancer patients attending a university hospital in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgisun Kapucu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of cancer patients and the self-care measures they adopted as a response to nutritional problems. Methods: This descriptive study included seventy cancer patients staying in the oncology and internal disease clinics of a university hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using a questionnaire with 29 questions. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.2 ΁ 1.82 years. Approximately, 62.9% of the patients ate only half of the meals offered to them, 65.7% experienced weight loss, and 45.7% had difficulty eating their meals on their own. Moreover, 47.1% of the patients received nutritional support and nutritional problems were observed in 71.4% of the patients; 80% were unable to eat hospital food, 54.3% had an eating disorder related to a special diet, 30% suffered from loss of appetite, 27% had nausea, and 14.3% had difficulty swallowing. Furthermore, 48.5% of patients responded that they ate home-cooked food or ordered food from outside when questioned about the self-care measures taken to avoid the aforementioned nutritional problems. Conclusions: Most of the cancer patients had serious nutritional problems and ate home-cooked food and used nutritional supplements to overcome these problems. Oncology nurses are responsible for evaluating the nutritional status of cancer patients and eliminating nutritional problems.

  20. Prevalence, Adverse Events, and Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement and Nutritional Supplement Use by US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    DMDC included the service member’s name, branch of service, pay grade (rank), postal address, e-mail address, sex, age, marital status, education...resistance training but few relationships with aerobic training. The discrepancies in the literature can possibly be explained by different definitions of...dietary supplements. JAMA Int Med. 2013;173(3):355-361. 32. Owens GM. Gender differences in health care expenditures, resource utilization, and quality of

  1. Rehabilitation nutrition for sarcopenia with disability: a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition and sarcopenia often occur in rehabilitation settings. The prevalence of malnutrition and sarcopenia in older patients undergoing rehabilitation is 49–67 % and 40–46.5 %, respectively. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with poorer rehabilitation outcome and physical function. Therefore, a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management may improve outcome in disabled elderly with malnutrition and sarcopenia. The concept of rehabilitation nutrition as a c...

  2. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein...... and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....

  3. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Analysis of Program Administration and Food Law Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2015-09-01

    Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public's support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators' formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA's public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diet and Nutrition in Cancer Survivorship and Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J. Bazzan; Andrew B. Newberg; William C. Cho; Daniel A. Monti

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of palliative cancer care is typically to relieve suffering and improve quality of life. Most approaches to diet in this setting have focused only on eating as many calories as possible to avoid cachexia. However, as the concept of palliative care has evolved to include all aspects of cancer survivorship and not just end of life care, there is an increasing need to thoughtfully consider diet and nutrition approaches that can impact not only quality of life but overall health ...

  5. Combined intensive nutrition education and micronutrient powder supplementation improved nutritional status of mildly wasted children on Nias Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Dyah A; Scherbaum, Veronika; Purwestri, Ratna C; Wirawan, Nia N; Suryantan, Julia; Hartono, Susan; Bloem, Maurice A; Pangaribuan, Rosnani V; Biesalski, Hans K; Hoffmann, Volker; Bellows, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of intensive nutrition education (INE) with or without the provision of micronutrient powder (MNP) on the nutritional status of mildly wasted children in Nias, Indonesia, two groups of mildly wasted (>=-1.5 to children aged >=6 to children who were living at a clear distance from INE and INE+MNP villages were selected to receive a monthly non-intensive nutrition education program (NNE) with or without MNP (n=50 both respectively). WHZ, weight, height, haemoglobin (Hb) level, and morbidity data were assessed at admission, during the study, and at individual discharge. Children's weight gain (g/kg body weight/day) was highest in INE+MNP group (2.2±2.1), followed by INE (1.1±0.9), NNE+MNP (0.3±0.5) and NNE (0.3±0.4) group. In both MNP intervention groups (INE+MNP, NNE+MNP), supplements significantly increased Hb value (g/L) of respective children (10.0±10.0; pchildren who reached discharge criterion was highest among the INE+MNP (70.6%; n=36), followed by INE (64.1%; n=41), NNE+MNP (26.0%; n=13), and NNE (20.0%; n=10) groups (pchildren in the INE+MNP group (29.9 days), followed by INE (40.0 days), NNE+MNP (80.6 days), and NNE (86.2 days) respectively (pnutrition education supported by MNP supplementation produced the best results regarding weight gain and haemoglobin status of mildly wasted children.

  6. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7% in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.

  7. The self-reported clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists as related to smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional), therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas. A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242). Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake) and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior. A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%). Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p smoking status, diet and nutritional supplement behaviors, being key modifiable lifestyle risk factors with long-term implications for eye health.

  8. The symbolic dimension of prenatal nutrition care in diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Corrêa Monteiro MACHADO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Aimed at analysing the symbolic dimension of prenatal nutritional care in diabetes. Methods Participants were 17 puerperal adults diagnosed with previous or gestational diabetes. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data. The data were interpreted according to an adaptation of Bardin’s Thematic Content Analysis. Results The main meaning of diabetes was the need for changing eating habits. Nutritional care based on the Traditional Method or the Carbohydrate Counting Method was understood as an opportunity for dietary re-education. Weight loss was considered desirable by some participants, albeit against the advice of nutritionists. Pregnant women adopted the standard meal plan, rarely used the food substitution list, and reported occasional dietary transgressions, self-allowed in small portions. Foods containing sucrose were perceived as less harmful to health than added sugars. Conclusion Each pregnant woman experienced prenatal nutritional care in diabetes not as a dietary method, but as part of her lifestyle.

  9. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  10. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobadi H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Ghobadi,1 Somaieh Matin,2 Ali Nemati,3 Abbas Naghizadeh-baghi4 1Pulmonary Division, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, 4Basic Sciences Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran Background: COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β, is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.Patients and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study.Results: The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001, average caloric intake (P=0.01, and macronutrient intake (P<0.05, while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL1β among the patients of the supplementation group (P=0.008. Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control

  11. The age-gender-status profile of high performing athletes in the UK taking nutritional supplements: Lessons for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naughton Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6% and vitamin C (70.7% were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%, whey protein (31.7%, echinacea (30.9%, iron (29.9% and caffeine (23.7%. Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously

  12. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    continual monitoring of the diet and nutritional status of children with ASD is required. It is also essential to start adequate dietary management in autistic patients with overweight, obesity or wasting, caused by improper nutrition. Frequently only a dietary therapy is insufficient to effectively treat autism. Many studies demonstrate the need to supplement the nutritional deficiencies of autistic patients with fatty acids omega-3, probiotics, vitamins and minerals in combination with medical and psychological interventions. A properly designed elimination diet adapted to the patient's individual may also lead to relief of the autism symptoms and the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders. Parents and caregivers should therefore be aware of the benefits of nutritional therapy and need for proper monitoring the treatment of patients with ASD. A review of nutritional factors, dietary treatments and diet supplementation in patients with ASD is presented.

  13. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kreider, Richard B.; Kalman, Douglas S.; Antonio, Jose; Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Wildman, Robert; Collins, Rick; Candow, Darren G.; Kleiner, Susan M.; Almada, Anthony L.; Lopez, Hector L.

    2017-01-01

    Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilit...

  14. The Effect of BCAA and ISO-WHEY Oral Nutritional Supplements on Dialysis Adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaghi, Effat; Tayebi, Ali; Ebadi, Abbas; Sobhani, Vahid; Einollahi, Behzad; Tayebi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a common problem in hemodialysis patients and has different outcomes such as reduced quality of life, longer hospitalization time, lower dialysis adequacy, and higher mortality rate. Investigation of dialysis adequacy is an important method for assessing hemodialysis patients, and improving the dialysis adequacy is an important healthcare team goal. The present study aims to investigate and compare the effects of BCAA and ISO-WHEY oral nutritional supplements on dialysis adequacy. In a clinical trial study, 66 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (n = 22), Group B (n = 22), and Group C or the control group (n = 22). In Groups A and B, as prescribed and controlled by nutritionists and nephrologists, respectively, ISO-WHEY and BCAA protein powder were used for 2 months on a daily basis. For all groups, before intervention and 1 and 2 months after intervention, the dialysis adequacy was measured using URR and Kt/V. Finally, the data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Base 21.0 software. Out of 66 patients, 61 (19 in Group A, 20 in Group B, and 22 in Group C) completed the study period, and before intervention, all groups were equal in terms of quality and quantity variables (P > 0.05). After intervention, there was a significant difference between the three groups with regard to the variables of dialysis adequacy based on Kt/V and URR to independent-t test and repeated measures ANOVA (P < 0.05). Results show that the intake of oral nutritional supplements leads to an improvement in the dialysis adequacy of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the use of nutritional supplements along with patients' training and regular consultation will be helpful in improving the nutritional status, dialysis adequacy, and eventually the quality of life.

  15. Dietary aspects in fibromyalgia patients: results of a survey on food awareness, allergies, and nutritional supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Laura-Isabel; Canela, Miguel-Ángel; Rafecas, Magda

    2012-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common disease that results in poor quality of life, causing widespread musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, fatigue, sleep disorders, and cognitive impairment among other symptoms. The lack of an effective treatment makes necessary a multidimensional management. FM patients usually seek, from different sources, information about possible benefits from foods, nutrients, or diets. Our objective was to investigate the dietary awareness, food allergies and/or intolerances (FAIs), and nutritional supplement (NS) consumption of FM patients. A questionnaire was prepared with six questions regarding dietary habits, FAIs, and NS use. The questionnaire was filled out by patients recruited in local fibromyalgia associations. One hundred and one women were suffering from FM, diagnosed for more than 6 months, mean age of 53.88 ± 7.78 years; 30% of them changed their diet because of their disease, trying to improve it, and most of them were also using some NS; 7% of women in this group had FAIs, a figure slightly higher than the FAI prevalence in the general population (2-5%) and positively associated with consumption of supplements. Among NS users, some differences were observed; past NS users currently consume a wider range of products, more than new NS users. Magnesium was one of the supplements most recommended specifically for FM. Seventy-four percentage of these patients used NS following advice from health professionals. Once patients are diagnosed, they change their dietary habits and nutritional supplement intake, seeking nutritional strategies to improve their symptoms. Health professionals' advice plays a relevant role.

  16. Characterization of inorganic components in nutritional supplements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Rogerio Alves de Sousa

    2006-01-01

    The control of element composition in nutritional supplements is of great interest due to increasingly high consumption and a large diversity and brands of these products offered in market. Therefore, there is the necessity to evaluate the element contents in the supplements and to compare with those values declared on the labels. In this study neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to evaluate the element composition of 11 commercial nutritional supplement brands bought in natural product drugstores and pharmacies. These samples acquired in capsule or tablet forms were ground to a homogeneous powder. The samples were irradiated together with the elemental standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Irradiations of 8 h under a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 were carried out for Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Se and Zn determinations. For Cu, K and Na determinations thermal neutron flux of 1 x 10 12 n cm -s-1 was used and, the exposure time was 1h. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyper pure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The obtained results compared with the values of the labels of nutritional supplements presented good agreement for most of the elements. Toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg and Sb were not detected in the samples. For quality control of the analytical data, certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology were also analysed. Accuracy and precision of these results were evaluated. The obtained Z score values were lower than 2 indicating that the data are within the ranges of certified values at 95% confidence level (author)

  17. Iodine Supplementation for Pediatric Patients Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Nespor, Colleen; Poole, Robert L; Kerner, John A

    2016-04-01

    Patients dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) are among a group at risk of developing iodine deficiency. Supplementation with iodine in this population has been debated in a number of studies, resulting in variable clinical practices. The Committee on Clinical Practice Issues of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition recommends a dose of 1 mcg/kg/d of parenteral iodine for patients receiving PN. At our institution, PN trace elements do not include iodine, although this is not the case internationally. Our study sought to assess iodine levels and thyroid function in a cohort of PN-dependent pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis studied 32 pediatric patients with a variety of medical diagnoses who received PN as a primary means of nutrition for 6 months or longer. Patients received variable proportions of their total caloric intake as PN, which ranged from 14%-100%. Iodine and thyroid function levels were obtained by serum sampling. No patient in our cohort of 32 demonstrated thyroid dysfunction or developed iodine deficiency. The length of time on PN and the percentage of total nutrition intake as PN were not associated with iodine levels (P Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Improvement the Yoghurt Nutritional Value, Organoleptic Properties and Preferences by Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, M.; Hadiyanto; Sutanto, H.; Widiastuti, Y.; Judiono

    2018-04-01

    Spirulina sp has been identified as potential source food functional such as protein, amino acids and other high added value compounds from microalgae. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. This research was aimed to increase the nutritional value and organoleptic properties and preferences yoghurt by Spirulina platensis supplementation. Completely randomized controlled group design conducted by 31 respondents. Spirulina Research accomplished in Food Technology, Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory at Bandung Health Polytechnic in Bandung. Samples divided randomly into three groups: (1) yoghurt standard supplemented 50 ml, (2) yoghurt and spirulina 1% supplemented 50 ml, (3) yoghurt and spirulina 1,2% supplemented 50 ml. Spirulina was added concentration by 0, 1, 1,2 % calculated by dx trial. Proximate analysis revealed the highest protein in enriched by spirulina 1%. However fat was lower 3.48 – 3.56 compare to control. All products found growing Lactobacillus acidophilus with a pH of 4.0 range. There was no microbial contamination such as E coli, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas sp. Supplementation of spirulina to yoghurt products can be accepted by organoleptic, chemical and microbiological tests of concentrations of 1 and 1.2%. The material makes the blue colours more attractive and can be accepted by the expert panellist.

  19. Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: implications for clinicians and policymakers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-06-01

    This prospective Irish observational study examined maternal and infant nutritional supplement use. From an initial sample of 539 mothers recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin (during 2004-2006), 450 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only 200 women (44.4%) complied with peri-conceptional folic acid at the recommended time with strong social patterning associated with its uptake. Almost 10% of the sample (n = 44) consumed a combined multivitamin and mineral supplement during pregnancy. A vitamin D-containing supplement was provided to only 5 (1.1%) and 15 (3.3%) infants at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A national guideline that advises on adequate and safe use of both vitamin and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy with particular reference to vitamin A and D is warranted. Given the re-emergence of rickets in Ireland, and the reported morbidities associated with vitamin D insufficiency, promoting and monitoring compliance with 200 IU [5 microg] daily vitamin D supplements to all infants particularly those from higher risk groups from birth to 1 year, should be a public health priority.

  20. 32 CFR 199.16 - Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty... (CHAMPUS) § 199.16 Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members. (a) Purpose and applicability... the supplemental health care program for active duty members of the uniformed services, the provision...

  1. Nutritional Issues and Nutrition Support in Older Home Care Patients in the City of Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Kovačević, Marta; Hanževački, Miro; Vrabec, Božena; Benković, Vanesa; Domislović, Viktor; Krznarić, Željko

    2017-12-01

    Population aging is a global demographic trend showing continuous growth and among its consequences is a rise in malnutrition that is characteristic for the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional status of elderly home care patients immediately after hospital discharge and to determine factors that affect nutritional status using questionnaires based on validated tools (NRS-2002, DETERMINE checklist) and basic medical history data. The study involved 76 elderly individuals (51.3% of them older than 70) living in the City of Zagreb. The nutritional status assessment using the NRS-2002 tool showed that 57.6% of the subjects were at nutritional risk. The findings of the assessment by use of the DETERMINE tool were also unfavorable, indicating that 82.1% of persons older than 70 were categorized as being at a high nutritional risk, while 17.9% were at moderate risk. The DETERMINE checklist elements (illness; reduced intake of fruits, vegetables or dairy products; alcohol consumption; oral health problems; and weight loss) were linked to a higher NRS score. The mean number of hospital days in subjects at nutritional risk was 14.27 (the mean number in the Republic of Croatia is 8.56 days). Although the study involved a small number of subjects, the results showed a substantial presence of malnutrition among the elderly. A timely -intervention by the healthcare system and training of healthcare personnel can be a step towards achieving a better nutritional status.

  2. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  4. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  5. Performance, nutritional behavior, and metabolic responses of calves supplemented with forage depend on starch fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M; Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F

    2018-05-16

    This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH). All calves received the same amount of pasteurized whole milk and weaned on d 56 of the experiment; the study was terminated on d 70. Steam-flaked corn contained higher amounts of gelatinized starch in comparison with cracked corn (44.1 vs. 12.5% of total starch, respectively). Starter intake was not affected by corn processing methods or AH provision during the pre- or postweaning periods. However, we noted an interaction between corn processing methods and forage supplementation for starter intake during d 31 to 50 of the experiment, where calves fed on SF-AH starter had greater starter intake than those fed SF-NO starter, but the starter intake was not different between CR-NO and CR-AH fed calves. Furthermore, AH increased average daily gain (ADG) of calves fed an SF-based diet but not in calves fed a CR-based diet during the preweaning and overall periods. Interaction between forage provision and time was significant for ADG and feed efficiency, as calves supplemented with forage had higher ADG (0.982 vs. 0.592, respectively) and feed efficiency compared with forage unsupplemented calves at the weaning week. Forage supplementation resulted in more stable ruminal condition compared with nonforage-fed calves, as evidenced by higher ruminal pH (5.71 vs. 5.29, respectively) at postweaning and lower non-nutritive oral behavior around weaning time (55 vs. 70.5 min

  6. Role of Diet and Nutritional Supplements in Parkinson’s Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie K. Mischley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The goal of this study is to describe modifiable lifestyle variables associated with reduced rate of Parkinson’s disease (PD progression. Methods. The patient-reported outcomes in PD (PRO-PD were used as the primary outcome measure, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. In this cross-sectional analysis, regression analysis was performed on baseline data to identify the nutritional and pharmacological interventions associated with the rate of PD progression. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and years since diagnosis. Results. 1053 individuals with self-reported idiopathic PD were available for analysis. Foods associated with the reduced rate of PD progression included fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, nuts and seeds, nonfried fish, olive oil, wine, coconut oil, fresh herbs, and spices (P<0.05. Foods associated with more rapid PD progression include canned fruits and vegetables, diet and nondiet soda, fried foods, beef, ice cream, yogurt, and cheese (P<0.05. Nutritional supplements coenzyme Q10 and fish oil were associated with reduced PD progression (P=0.026 and P=0.019, resp., and iron supplementation was associated with faster progression (P=0.022. Discussion. These are the first data to provide evidence that targeted nutrition is associated with the rate of PD progression.

  7. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  8. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Matin, Somaieh; Nemati, Ali; Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL 1β ), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL 1β assessment, the patients' anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score ( P =0.001), average caloric intake ( P =0.01), and macronutrient intake ( P nutritional status of patients suffering from COPD through adjusting the serum level of IL 1β .

  9. Enhancement of the nutritional value of whey drink by supplementing with leaves of moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Hussain, I.; Abdullah, M.; Rehman, F.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of supplementing Moringa oleilera leaf powder (MOLP) on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of whey drink was investigated. Whey drink was supplemented with MOLP at four different concentrations i.e., 1% MOLP (TO, 2% MOLP (T.,), 3% MOLP (T,), 4% MOLP (1.4) and compared with a control (To). The addition of MOLP at any level did not have a negative effect on p11 and acidity of whey drink. Iron content of T, increased from 0.17 to 115 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content of MOLP was 7.4 g/100 g on dry weight basis (gallic acid). Vitamin C increased from 1.46 to 2.20 mg/100 g in -1.4. The overall acceptability score of T, was 6.9 out 9 (total score) which was more than 76%. These results suggest that nutritional value of whey can be increased by supplementing with 4% dry leaves of M. oleifera in the form of a whey based drink with acceptable sensory characteristics. (author)

  10. Supplementation with Eskimo Skin Care improves skin elasticity in women. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segger, Dörte; Matthies, Andreas; Saldeen, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the question of whether supplementation with an oral oil formulation rich in natural stable fish oil can alter skin elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin roughness in healthy women. Twenty-four healthy women aged 40-60 years participated in a single-blind randomized trial for testing the effect of a proprietary oral supplement for skin nutrition (Eskimo Skin Care) on skin elasticity, TEWL, and skin roughness. Skin elasticity was measured by an optical cutometer, TEWL by a water-loss module based upon the vapour gradient principle, and skin roughness with a three-dimensional microtopography imaging system. Skin elasticity increased by 10% after 3 months of treatment with the supplement, a statistically significant increase in comparison with the control group (p=0.0298). There was a trend, though not statistically significant, towards a positive influence on the skin's barrier function. No effect on the skin roughness was observed. Eskimo Skin Care, an oral preparation rich in natural stable fish oil, can improve skin elasticity.

  11. Modeling of Food and Nutrition Surveillance in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santuzza Arreguy Silva VITORINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the modeling stages of food and nutrition surveillance in the Primary Health Care of the Unified Health Care System, considering its activities, objectives, and goals Methods: Document analysis and semi-structured interviews were used for identifying the components, describe the intervention, and identify potential assessment users. Results: The results include identification of the objectives and goals of the intervention, the required inputs, activities, and expected effects. The intervention was then modeled based on these data. The use of the theoretical logic model optimizes times, resources, definition of the indicators that require monitoring, and the aspects that require assessment, identifying more clearly the contribution of the intervention to the results Conclusion: Modeling enabled the description of food and nutrition surveillance based on its components and may guide the development of viable plans to monitor food and nutrition surveillance actions so that modeling can be established as a local intersectoral planning instrument.

  12. Nutrition services in managed care: new paradigms for dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramee, S H

    1996-04-01

    Managed care systems are transforming the health care system in the United States. Dietitians will need to review practice opportunities in new and different settings, and develop additional skills to make a successful transition to the transformed health care environment. The shift in health care financing from a fee-for-service model to a capitated system will have the most dramatic impact on the profession. Not all the answers are available, but the focus for the future is clear--customer satisfaction, outcomes research, and cost-effective nutrition services.

  13. Effect of Free Fatty Acids Supplementation on Digestibility, Nutritive Value and Rumen Fermentation in Local Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Foly, H.A.; Mohamed, A.K.; Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Twelve mature local sheep, with a mean body weight of 49.2±3 kg were randomly distributed into three digestibility trail groups to evaluate the effects of inclusion some oils industry by-products, soft fatty acid (SFA) and hard fatty acid (HFA) on dry matter intake, digestibility coefficients, nutritive values, nitrogen and energy utilization and some rumen and blood parameters. The experimental diets were basal diet un-supplemented (control) or supplemented 3% SFA (T1) and 3% HFA (T2). The results showed that non-significant differences in total dry matter intake and water consumption among the tested diets were observed.The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of SFA while digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of HFA as compared with control. However, digestibility of crude fiber (CF) was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in T2 as compared with control and T1. Fatty acids supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05) the nutritive values such as TDN, SV and DCP as compared with control.The nitrogen utilization was significantly improved (P<0.05) by the addition of both additives. The values of total volatile fatty acid concentrations (TVFA) and pH values after feeding were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA supplementation as compared with the values of other groups. However, the rumina l ammonia-N concentrations after feeding significantly decreased (P<0.05) with fatty acids supplementation as compared with control. The results of digestible and metabolizable energy showed non-significant differences between the tested groups. Blood serum urea, albumen, cholesterol, triglycerides and phosphorus values were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA as compared with the values of other groups.The mean values of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST

  14. Ecological Nutrition: Redefining Healthy Food in Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Kendra C.

    2013-01-01

    Within what can be called the healthy food in health care (HFHC) movement, a growing coalition of actors are leveraging scientific data on the environmental health impacts of the conventional, industrial food system to inspire and legitimize a range of health care initiatives aligned with alternative agrifood ideals. They are shifting the definition of food-related health from a nutritionism model, eating the right balance of nutrients and food groups, to what I call an ecological nutrition ...

  15. [The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares Segura, Susana; Arena Ansótegui, José; Díaz-Gómez, N Marta

    2016-06-01

    Breastmilk is the best food for newborns and infants. The nutritional stores of a lactating woman may be more or less depleted as a result of the pregnancy and the loss of blood during childbirth. Lactation raises nutrient needs, mainly because of the loss of nutrients, first through colostrum and then through breastmilk. Breastmilk volume varies widely. The nutrients present in this milk come from the diet of the mother or from her nutrient reserves. The conversion of nutrients in food to nutrients in breastmilk is not complete. To have good nutritional status the breastfeeding woman has to increase nutrient intake. Human breastmilk has a fairly constant composition, and is only selectively affected by the diet of the mother. The fat content of breastmilk varies somewhat. The carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium and iron contents do not change much, even if the mother is short of these in her diet. A mother whose diet is deficient in thiamine and vitamins A and D, however, produces less of these in her milk. The mother should be given advice on consuming a mixed diet. At each postnatal visit, both the mother and the baby should be examined, and advice on the diets of both mother and infant should be provided. A satisfactory gain in the infant's weight is the best way to judge the adequacy of the diet of the infant. Mothers should not receive less than 1800 calories per day. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Pressure ulcer care: nutritional therapy need not add to costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, J.M.G.A.; Kleijer, C.N.; Lourens, C.

    2003-01-01

    Fewer patients with pressure ulcers in Dutch nursing homes receive nutritional therapy via sip feeds, possibly because of cost concerns. But this therapy would not cost more if it reduced the duration of nursing care by even one day, this paper argues.

  17. Problems of actuality in meal and nutrition care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Line Hesselvig; Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2018-01-01

    related to undernutrition among older adults. It is a qualitative study that lends itself to ethnography and ethnomethodology, with data collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and insights into patients´ medical charts. Through explications of nurses’ methods in meal and nutrition care...

  18. The intensive care medicine research agenda in nutrition and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Casaer, Michael P; Chapman, Marianne; Heyland, Daren K; Ichai, Carole; Marik, Paul E; Martindale, Robert G; McClave, Stephen A; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Reignier, Jean; Rice, Todd W; Van den Berghe, Greet; van Zanten, Arthur R H; Weijs, Peter J M

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this review are to summarize the current practices and major recent advances in critical care nutrition and metabolism, review common beliefs that have been contradicted by recent trials, highlight key remaining areas of uncertainty, and suggest recommendations for the top

  19. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  20. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  1. Placebo in sports nutrition: a proof-of-principle study involving caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, B; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; de Salles Painelli, V; Gonçalves, L S; Yamaguchi, G; Mutti, T; Maciel, E; Roschel, H; Artioli, G G; Gualano, B

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise. Subsequently, participants were allocated to subgroups for analysis according to their identifications. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed using mixed-model and magnitude-based inference analyses. Caffeine improved performance vs PLA and CON (P ≤ 0.001). Correct pre- and post-exercise identification of caffeine in CAF improved exercise performance (+4.8 and +6.5%) vs CON, with slightly greater relative increases than the overall effect of caffeine (+4.1%). Performance was not different between PLA and CON within subgroups (all P > 0.05), although there was a tendency toward improved performance when participants believed they had ingested caffeine post-exercise (P = 0.06; 87% likely beneficial). Participants who correctly identified placebo in PLA showed possible harmful effects on performance compared to CON. Supplement identification appeared to influence exercise outcome and may be a source of bias in sports nutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Supplementation of adjuvants for increasing the nutritive value and cell viability of probiotic fermented milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobharani, P; Agrawal, Renu

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic are microorganisms that, upon ingestion in adequate amounts, exert a beneficial effect on the host. In the present work, the potent probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides was used as a starter culture in the preparation of fermented milk beverage. The product was analyzed for protein, titrable acidity, fat, total sugar, fatty acids and minerals. The viability of culture and nutrition in the product was further enhanced with supplementation of adjuvants like tryptone, casein hydrolysate, cysteine hydrochloride and ascorbic acid. After 5 days, maximum viability was observed on supplementation of tryptone (100 mg/l). The protein content was enhanced by 1.1-fold in the presence of tryptone (100 mg/l) as compared with control after 5 days of storage. Fermented milk supplemented with tryptone (100 mg/l) showed maximum bioavailability of the minerals like iron (92.05%), zinc (95.02%) and magnesium (92.04%) as compared with control. The increase in the composition of beneficial fatty acids on supplementation of adjuvants supports the therapeutic value of the product.

  3. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics: a systematic review and comment by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braegger, Christian; Chmielewska, Anna; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis; Pieścik, Małgorzata; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Infant formulae are increasingly supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics despite uncertainties regarding their efficacy. The present article, developed by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, systematically

  5. Exercise and Nutritional Supplementation on Community-Dwelling Elderly Japanese Women With Sarcopenic Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunkyung; Kim, Miji; Kojima, Narumi; Fujino, Ken; Hosoi, Erika; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Somekawa, Shinji; Niki, Yoshifumi; Yamashiro, Yukari; Yoshida, Hideyo

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effects of exercise and/or nutritional supplementation on body composition, blood components, and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with sarcopenic obesity. Randomized controlled trial. Urban community in Tokyo, Japan. Among 1213 community-dwelling elderly women over 70 years of age, 307 were defined with sarcopenic obesity, and 139 women participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four intervention groups. The exercise and nutrition (Ex + N) and exercise only (Ex) groups attended 60-minute exercise classes twice a week for 3 months. The Ex + N and nutrition only (N) groups were provided with essential amino acid supplementation and tea fortified with catechins to be taken daily for 3 months. Health education classes were provided to the control (HE) group every 2 weeks. Bioelectric impedance analysis was used to measure body composition. Skeletal muscle mass index was calculated using measures of muscle mass and height. Physical function measures included grip strength, knee extension strength, usual walking speed, and walking parameters (stride, step length, width, walking angles). Blood samples were obtained to analyze levels of albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, leptin, cystatin C, vitamin D, interleukin-6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Significant between-group × time interactions were observed in usual walking speed (P = .012), stride (P = .004), right step length (P = .003), average number of steps (P = .029), and vitamin D (P exercise and nutrition have beneficial effects on individual variables of body composition, blood components, and physical function, improvements in muscle mass and variable combinations such as percent fat + skeletal muscle mass index or percent fat + physical functions were not observed in this population. Further large-scale and long-term investigation is necessary. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society

  6. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation and infants' growth and health: a multisite surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Cutts, Diana B; Frank, Deborah A; Geppert, Joni; Skalicky, Anne; Levenson, Suzette; Casey, Patrick H; Berkowitz, Carol; Zaldivar, Nieves; Cook, John T; Meyers, Alan F; Herren, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the largest food supplement program in the United States, serving almost 7 500 000 participants in 2002. Because the program is a grant program, rather than an entitlement program, Congress is not mandated to allocate funds to serve all eligible participants. Little is known about the effects of WIC on infant growth, health, and food security. To examine associations between WIC participation and indicators of underweight, overweight, length, caregiver-perceived health, and household food security among infants 95th percentile, varied from 7% to 9% and did not differ among the 3 groups but were higher than the 5% expected from national growth charts. Rates of food insecurity were consistent with national data for minority households with children. Families that did not receive WIC assistance because of access problems had higher rates of food insecurity (28%) than did WIC participants (23%), although differences were not significant after covariate control. Caregivers who did not perceive a need for WIC services had more economic and personal resources than did WIC participants and were less likely to be food-insecure, but there were no differences in infants' weight-for-age, perceived health, or overweight between families that did not perceive a need for WIC services and those that received WIC assistance. Infants participation. Health care providers should promote WIC utilization for eligible families and advocate that WIC receive support to reduce waiting lists and eliminate barriers that interfere with access.

  7. Descriptive characteristics and health outcomes of the food by prescription nutrition supplementation program for adults living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Cohen, Craig R; Young, Sera L; Wamuyu, Catherine; Armes, Mary N; Otieno, Benard O; Leslie, Hannah H; Dandu, Madhavi; Stewart, Christopher C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2014-01-01

    The clinical effects and potential benefits of nutrition supplementation interventions for persons living with HIV remain largely unreported, despite awareness of the multifaceted relationship between HIV infection and nutrition. We therefore examined descriptive characteristics and nutritional outcomes of the Food by Prescription (FBP) nutrition supplementation program in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were gathered from a retrospective cohort of 1,017 non-pregnant adult patients who enrolled into the FBP program at a Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) site in Nyanza Province between July 2009 and July 2011. Our primary outcome was FBP treatment success defined as attainment of BMI>20, and we used Cox proportional hazards to assess socio-demographic and clinical correlates of FBP treatment success. Mean body mass index was 16.4 upon enrollment into the FBP program. On average, FBP clients gained 2.01 kg in weight and 0.73 kg/m2 in BMI over follow-up (mean 100 days), with the greatest gains among the most severely undernourished (BMI 20, though 44.5% achieved a BMI increase ≥0.5. Greater BMI at baseline, younger age, male gender, and not requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were associated with a higher rate of attainment of BMI>20. This study reports significant gains in weight and BMI among patients enrolled in the FBP program, though only a minority of patients achieved stated programmatic goals of BMI>20. Future research should include well-designed prospective studies that examine retention, exit reasons, mortality outcomes, and long-term sustainability of nutrition supplementation programs for persons living with HIV.

  8. Nutrition in care homes and home care: How to implement adequate strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitakis, M.; Beck, Anne Marie; Coppens, P.

    2008-01-01

    are various: medical, social, environmental, organizational and financial. Lack of alertness of individuals, their relatives and health-care professionals play an important role. Undernutrition enhances the risk of infection, hospitalization, mortality and alter the quality of life. Moreover, undernutrition...... related-disease is an economic burden in most countries. Nutritional assessment should be part of routine global management. Nutritional support combined with physical training and an improved ambiance during meats is mandatory. Awareness, information and collaboration with all the stakeholders should...... facilitate implementation of nutritional strategies. Conclusions: Undernutrition in home care and care home settings is a considerable problem and measures should be taken to prevent and treat it. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved....

  9. Assessment of nutrition, supplementation and body composition parameters on the example of professional volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.

  10. Nutrition Care for Patients with Weight Regain after Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene Johnson Stoklossa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving optimal weight outcomes for patients with obesity is important to the management of their chronic disease. All interventions present risks for weight regain. Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment, producing greater weight losses that are sustained over more time compared to lifestyle interventions. However, approximately 20–30% of patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes, and patients may experience a regain of 20–25% of their lost weight. This paper reviews several factors that influence weight regain after bariatric surgery, including type of surgery, food tolerance, energy requirements, drivers to eat, errors in estimating intake, adherence, food and beverage choices, and patient knowledge. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach can provide the best care for patients with weight regain. Nutrition care by a registered dietitian is recommended for all bariatric surgery patients. Nutrition diagnoses and interventions are discussed. Regular monitoring of weight status and early intervention may help prevent significant weight regain.

  11. Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy by Socioeconomic Subgroups in Adults of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 2009–2012, assessments were made of socioeconomic differences, based on the Poverty Income Ratio (PIR, in terms of the association of dietary supplement use on nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacies. Compared to food alone, the use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01 higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all socioeconomic groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17 nutrients in the subgroup PIR > 1.85 (not poor, but only 4–5/17 nutrients (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, E for the poor and nearly poor subgroups (PIR < 1.35 and PIR 1.35 to ≤1.85, respectively. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was seen for 3–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% in the PIR subgroups. In conclusion, dietary supplement use was associated with an increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and a slight increase in the prevalence of intakes above the UL, with greater benefits seen in the PIR > 1.85 subgroup.

  12. Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Importance of vitamin and mineral supplementation in HIV/AIDS patients to improve their nutritional and immunological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Schalkwyk, F.V; Heever, WMJ. V.den.; Veldman, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition intervention aimed at preventing or reversing weight loss and wasting in HIV infection may help to improve quality of life and prolong survival. Micronutrient supplementation may help to strengthen the immune system and reduce the severity and impact of opportunistic infections in people living with HIV / AIDS. HIV contributes to malnutrition for physiological reasons related to the infection itself. HIV /AIDS, being a disease of the immune system, new strategies, including specific dietary nutrients (nutrient supplementation) to improve immune functions, quality of life and prolong survival in infected individuals, could provide additional/alternative approaches for therapeutic treatment in HIV infected subjects. Several vitamins and minerals are important in fighting HIV infection and its resultant effects, hence nutritional supplementation has been advocated. This review focuses on the importance of vitamin/mineral supplementation in HIV / AIDS subjects. (author)

  14. An innovative brioche enriched in protein and energy improves the nutritional status of malnourished nursing home residents compared to oral nutritional supplement and usual breakfast: FARINE+ project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wymelbeke, Virginie; Brondel, Laurent; Bon, Francis; Martin-Pfitzenmeyer, Isabelle; Manckoundia, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    To compare the effects of a 12-week nutritional intervention, in which an innovative protein-and-energy-enriched brioche, an oral nutritional supplement or a usual breakfast were eaten, on food intake and nutritional status in nursing home residents. Three-armed, multicentre, controlled trial. Eight nursing homes in Burgundy, France. Sixty-eight malnourished participants aged between 70 and 99 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to the breakfast provided: brioche group, one portion of 65 g brioche enriched in protein and energy (12.8 g and 180 kcal) added to usual breakfast; supplement group, 200-ml of a ready-to-use, energy-dense liquid (14 g protein and 200 kcal) added to usual breakfast or control group, a usual breakfast only. Total energy intakes were assessed for three days at different periods of the study (day 0, day 30 and day 90); blood parameters, nutritional status (mini nutritional assessment, weight) and functional capacities (grip strength and activity level) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the nutritional intervention study (day 0 and day 90). The participants of the brioche group had higher total energy intakes at day 30 (p value 0.004) and at day 90 (p value 0.018) compared with the supplement group and the control group. At the end of the interventional study, 72% of the participants in the brioche group had reached the recommended minimum level of protein of 0.8 g/kg/day, compared with 53% in the supplement group and 36% in the control group (p value 0.036). In addition, between day 0 and day 90 in the brioche group, blood levels of vitamins B 9 , B 2 , D (all p value <0.001), B 6 (p value 0.026) and B 12 (p value 0.036) had increased and plasma homocysteine had decreased (p value 0.024). The protein-and-energy-enriched brioche effectively increased energy and protein intakes and improved the nutritional status of elderly people living in nursing homes. It could be a good

  15. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of nutritional supplementation and promotion of responsive parenting in Madagascar: the MAHAY study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Galasso, Emanuela; Qamruddin, Jumana; Ranaivoson, Christian; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy; Stewart, Christine P; Weber, Ann M

    2016-06-03

    Over half of the world's children suffer from poor nutrition, and as a consequence they experience delays in physical and mental health, and cognitive development. There is little data evaluating the effects of delivery of lipid-based, nutrition supplementation on growth and development during pregnancy and early childhood within the context of a scaled-up program. Furthermore, there is limited evidence on effects of scaled-up, home-visiting programs that focus on the promotion of child development within the context of an existing, national nutrition program. The MAHAY ("smart" in Malagasy) study uses a multi-arm randomized-controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects and cost-effectiveness of combined interventions to address chronic malnutrition and poor child development. The arms of the trial are: (T0) existing program with monthly growth monitoring and nutritional/hygiene education; (T1) is T0 + home visits for intensive nutrition counseling within a behavior change framework; (T2) is T1 + lipid-based supplementation (LNS) for children 6-18 months old; (T3) is T2 + LNS supplementation of pregnant/lactating women; and (T4) is T1 + intensive home visiting program to support child development. There are anticipated to be n = 25 communities in each arm (n = 1250 pregnant women, n = 1250 children 0-6 months old, and n = 1250 children 6-18 months old). Primary outcomes include growth (length/height-for-age z-scores) and child development (mental, motor and social development). Secondary outcomes include care-giver reported child morbidity, household food security and diet diversity, micro-nutrient status, maternal knowledge of child care and feeding practices, and home stimulation practices. We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects. Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the Malagasy Ethics Committee at the Ministry of Health in Madagascar and by the institutional review board at the University of

  16. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of nutritional supplementation and promotion of responsive parenting in Madagascar: the MAHAY study design and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia C. H. Fernald

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over half of the world’s children suffer from poor nutrition, and as a consequence they experience delays in physical and mental health, and cognitive development. There is little data evaluating the effects of delivery of lipid-based, nutrition supplementation on growth and development during pregnancy and early childhood within the context of a scaled-up program. Furthermore, there is limited evidence on effects of scaled-up, home-visiting programs that focus on the promotion of child development within the context of an existing, national nutrition program. Methods/Design The MAHAY ("smart" in Malagasy study uses a multi-arm randomized-controlled trial (RCT to test the effects and cost-effectiveness of combined interventions to address chronic malnutrition and poor child development. The arms of the trial are: (T0 existing program with monthly growth monitoring and nutritional/hygiene education; (T1 is T0 + home visits for intensive nutrition counseling within a behavior change framework; (T2 is T1 + lipid-based supplementation (LNS for children 6–18 months old; (T3 is T2 + LNS supplementation of pregnant/lactating women; and (T4 is T1 + intensive home visiting program to support child development. There are anticipated to be n = 25 communities in each arm (n = 1250 pregnant women, n = 1250 children 0–6 months old, and n = 1250 children 6–18 months old. Primary outcomes include growth (length/height-for-age z-scores and child development (mental, motor and social development. Secondary outcomes include care-giver reported child morbidity, household food security and diet diversity, micro-nutrient status, maternal knowledge of child care and feeding practices, and home stimulation practices. We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects. Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the Malagasy Ethics Committee at the Ministry of Health in Madagascar and by

  17. [Audit of artificial nutrition in an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa Malpica, A L; Salaverría Garzón, I; Prado López, L M; Simón García, M J; Reta Pérez, O; Ramos Polo, J

    2001-01-01

    To study compliance with an artificial nutrition protocol at an Intensive Care Unit. During a second stage and after introducing the modifications considered appropriate in the protocol, to verify its implementation and compare both series. REFERENCE POPULATION: All patients with artificial nutrition support were included. Artificial nutrition (AN) was deemed to be the dispensation of commercial preparations for enteral nutrition, formulas with amino acids and glucose and the parenteral provision of fat, including propofol in this case, even where it was the only source of energy. The provision of crystalloid solutions was not considered to be AN. The period of observation was two months in both cases. The provision of AN to all such patients was systematically recorded on a daily basis. After analysis of the first series, the members at the unit agreed to increase the nitrogen provision. A second series was recorded, with the data being collected for patients with AN during a similar period. The study of the first series revealed the provisions of energy and nitrogen were below theoretical levels (both in the corrected Harris-Benedict test and at the fixed prescription of 25 kcal/kg). In the second series, there was greater agreement between the theoretical values and the amounts actually received. The deviation in energy and nitrogen was significantly less in the second series. And although the total nitrogen load per patient did not reveal any differences, there were discrepancies in the daily provision per patient. On most days, the diet provided covered over 75% of the energy requirements. With parenteral nutrition on its own or in combination with enteral nutrition, the requirements of energy and nitrogen were exceeded. There were no differences between the two series. The type of provision was enteral on 55% of the days and parenteral on 18%. There was no difference in the type of provision between the two series, although there was a difference in the type

  18. Impact of internet vs traditional Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children nutrition education on fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Robert J; Anderson, Judith V; Brusk, John J; Mercer, Nelda; Rivas, Jason

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare the impact of Internet nutrition education to traditional nutrition education on Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant fruit and vegetable consumption. Interventions were delivered at 15 WIC clinics after normal WIC clinic operations or delivered online. A total of 692 and 872 participants from eight WIC agencies self-enrolled into two phases. A quasi-experimental design using an interrupted time series to determine the impact of two methods of nutrition education and follow-up nutrition counseling was used. Data were collected online and at Michigan WIC clinics during 2005-2007 at 3-month intervals during a 9-month period (per phase). Two Internet nutrition education modules were compared to WIC traditional nutrition education, which included either group classes or a self-guided nutrition education information mall. All interventions were based on the same program learning objectives. Optional motivational negotiation counseling followed 3 months post-intervention. Stage of change progression, belief in ability to change, and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Significance (PInternet group experienced substantial positive differences in stage of change progression, perception that the intervention was helpful and easy to use, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Traditional nutrition education required follow-up counseling to achieve fruit and vegetable consumption levels similar to the Internet nutrition education group. Based on these findings, this study supports Internet nutrition education as a viable alternative to traditional nutrition education for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in some WIC clients. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, Zali; O’Dea, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Methods Participants were 1148 male adolescen...

  20. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  1. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Tawfik

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13-18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%, home meals (lunch, 70.7%, and healthy snacks (55.8% were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175, predominantly sport drinks (66.9% and creatine (54.3%. Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175 reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials.

  2. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Safaa; El Koofy, Nehal; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13–18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%), home meals (lunch, 70.7%), and healthy snacks (55.8%) were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175), predominantly sport drinks (66.9%) and creatine (54.3%). Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175) reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials. PMID:27529492

  3. [Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional status of iron in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P < 0.05) and serum ferrtin and transferrtin receptor concentration decreased significantly (both were P < 0.05) after VA supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P < 0.05). It seems that the intervention of VA supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.

  4. Effect of structured physical activity and nutritional supplementation on physical function in mobility-limited older adults: results from the VIVE2 randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The interactions between nutritional supplementation and physical activity on changes in physical function among older adults remain unclear. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of nutritional supplementation plus structured physical activity on 400M walk capaci...

  5. The self-reported clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists as related to smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Downie

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional, therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas.A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242. Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior.A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%. Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p < 0.05 less likely to enquire about patients' smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p < 0.05. Practitioners who recommended nutritional supplements most commonly did so for age-related macular degeneration (91.2% and dry eye disease (63.9%. The primary source of evidence used to guide practitioners' nutrition-related patient management was reported to be peer-reviewed publications.These findings

  6. The Effect of Educational Package on Nutritional Knowledge and Behavior toward the Coping with Complication and Supplement Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad Alizadeh chrnabi

    2013-07-01

    Background & aim: Proper nutrition is essential in the prevention and improvement of maternal problems and fetal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nutrition education package on knowledge and nutritional behavior of pregnant women coping with problems and taking supplements during pregnancy. Methods: In the present clinical trial, a number of 88 pregnant women referred to health centers in Karaj, Iran, were selected and randomly divided into two groups (Intervention and control group. Two sessions of approximately 60 minutes including classes on nutrition during pregnancy was held for the intervention group using presentation, booklets, and educational film sex education with similar method was held for the control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyzes. Results: In the intervention group, in the field of knowledge dealing with problems during pregnancy and after the intervention supplements in two stages were significantly higher than the control group (p˂001. Scores in the intervention group in the field of nutritional problems during pregnancy included constipation, heartburn, swollen hands and feet, anemia and urinary tract infections during both stages of the intervention were better than the control group (p˂005. Iron and multivitamin supplementation in the intervention group during two phases after the intervention phase was better than the control group (p˂005. Conclusion: The content of educational package was evaluated as an appropriate policy in promoting nutritional knowledge and behavior among pregnant women. Key words: Education, knowledge behavior, nutritional supplements, pregnancy

  7. Barriers for nutritional care in the transition from hospital to the community among older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Yulia; Shmilovitz, Inbar; Monastyrsky, Nechama; Endevelt, Ronit; Shahar, Danit R

    2018-06-01

    Data on the continuity of nutritional care in the transition from the hospital to the community is scarce although its impact on medical complications is highly significant. The aim of the current study is to determine level of adherence to dietary recommendations after hospitalization and identify barriers for adherence. A prospective study among patients age ≥65 who were treated with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) during their hospitalization and discharged with dietary recommendations. Data was obtained in the hospital and at a 3-month home-visit. Adherence was assessed monthly and barriers for non-adherence were determined. Adherence levels were summed for 3 months and then divided into: 1. Full adherence: complete consumption as prescribed; 2. Partial adherence: partial consumption of the prescription [at least half]; or 3. No adherence: not consumed or less than half. Health-status was obtained from medical records; nutritional-status using anthropometric measurements, depressive symptoms using GDS [Geriatric Depression Scale], and functional abilities using FIM [Functional Independence Measure] were determined. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h recall. Eighty-six patients were recruited (56 women) and followed for 3-months after discharge; 47.7% were advised in their discharge letter to consume at least one liquid ONS daily, 29% daily powder ONS, and 23.3% were advised to consume both. Adherence with liquid ONS was significantly higher among both groups, p nutritional supplements. In a regression model patients who were edentulous (OR = 9.13), with more depression symptoms (OR = 5.12), or lower BMI (OR = 1.13) were significantly more likely to adhere to ONS than patients with full dentition, fewer depression symptoms, and higher BMI. Providing a prescription for ONS by a primary care physician was a significant predictor [OR = 4.7] for adherence. Our results show low adherence to nutritional treatment in the community. Improving hospital

  8. Supplementation of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein with cereal proteins - supplementation of soup with a protein blend of appropriate nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of the cowpea bean protein was improved through supplementations with flours from beans exposed to microwave oven treated with cereal proteins such as wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum. Biological assays results with these blends showed that the casein exceeded the other diets concerning digestibility only; however, in parameters such as biological value, net protein utilization (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutritional efficiency ratio (NER), no significant differences occurred. Among all elaborated blends, the one with irradiated beans submitted to microwave oven for 30 minutes (65%) + rice (35%) presented the best results. The soup elaborated with the best supplemented blend was satisfactory concerning color, odor, flavor and texture

  9. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, Sara Amalie; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained...... an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances....... in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men...

  10. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  11. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  12. Assessment of parenteral nutrition prescription in Canadian acute care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjemian, Daniela; Arendt, Bianca M; Allard, Johane P

    2018-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) prescription can be challenging in patients with complex conditions and has potential complications. To assess PN prescription, monitoring, and PN-related complications in a Canadian acute care setting. This was a prospective cohort study in which patients receiving PN were assessed by an auditor for nutritional status, PN-related prescription, monitoring, and complications. In addition, length of stay and mortality were recorded. 147 patients (mean ± SD 56.1 ± 16.4 y) with complex diseases (Charlson comorbidity index, median [p25-p75] 2 [1-4]) were enrolled. Before starting PN, 18.6%, 63.9%, and 17.5% of patients were classified as subjective global assessment A, B, and C, respectively. Body mass index remained unchanged during the period on PN. On average, 89% and 73% of patients received <90% of their energy and protein requirements, respectively, but 65% received oral or enteral nutrition at some point during PN. The average daily energy provided by PN increased and stabilized on day 10, reaching 87.2 ± 20.1% of the requirements. Line sepsis (6.8% of patients) and hyperglycemia (6.9%) were the most common complications. The overall mortality was 15.6%. For those alive, length of stay was 30 (range: 4-268) d. PN was discontinued because of transitioning to an oral diet (56.6%), enteral nutrition (17.6%), home PN (14.7%), palliative care (5.1%), death (4.4%), or other (1.5%). Most patients were malnourished at the start of PN. Energy and protein provided from PN were less than requirements, and the goals were reached with delay. Mortality was high, possibly as a result of complex diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein turnover in malnourished patients with cystic fibrosis: Effects of elemental and nonelemental nutritional supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelekanos, J.T.; Holt, T.L.; Ward, L.C.; Cleghorn, G.J.; Shepherd, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the relative efficacy of nonelemental versus semielemental enteral supplements for nutritional rehabilitation of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, whole-body protein turnover using the [ 15 N]glycine method was studied in nine malnourished CF patients during enteral feedings, in a block design study comparing a semielemental formula (Criticare), a higher protein density but nonelemental formula (Traumacal) (T), and a nonelemental formula that had been modified to become isocaloric and isonitrogenous to the semielemental formula (modified Traumacal, MT). No significant differences in rates of protein synthesis or catabolism were observed comparing the three formulas. However, the higher protein density nonelemental formula resulted in higher net protein deposition compared to the other two formulas (T + 0.42 g kg-1 10 h-1 versus 0.33 g kg-1 10 h-1 for Criticare and -0.59 g kg-1 10 h-1 for MT), although this was significant (p less than 0.05) for the MT versus T comparison only. This study lends support to the use of less expensive nonelemental formulas for the nutritional management of malnourished patients with CF

  14. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food Insecurity, Dietary Quality, and Obesity Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Shuval, Kerem; Bertmann, Farryl; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-07-01

    We examined whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation changes associations between food insecurity, dietary quality, and weight among US adults. We analyzed adult dietary intake data (n = 8333) from the 2003 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bivariate and multivariable methods assessed associations of SNAP participation and 4 levels of food security with diet and weight. Measures of dietary quality were the Healthy Eating Index 2010, total caloric intake, empty calories, and solid fat; weight measures were body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. SNAP participants with marginal food security had lower BMI (1.83 kg/m2; P < .01) and lower probability of obesity (9 percentage points; P < .05). SNAP participants with marginal (3.46 points; P < .01), low (1.98 points; P < .05), and very low (3.84 points; P < .01) food security had better diets, as illustrated by the Healthy Eating Index. Associations between SNAP participation and improved diet and weight were stronger among Whites than Blacks and Hispanics. Our research highlights the role of SNAP in helping individuals who are at risk for food insecurity to obtain a healthier diet and better weight status.

  15. Modified egg as a nutritional supplement during peak brain development: a new target for fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2009-01-01

    Though eggs have the unique capacity, like breastmilk, to concentrate essential nutrients required for early growth and brain development of offspring - i.e. n-3 PUFA, increasingly deficient and sources contaminated - cholesterol and allergy concerns often exclude them from perinatal recommendations. Egg's potential contribution of key nutrients required for peak brain development are re-evaluated vis-à-vis fortification, accessibility, and risks. Contributions of standard (USDA) and fortified (selected market-available) egg compositions to perinatal requirements for critical brain-supporting nutrients were compared to human and cow milks, and risks and recommendations evaluated. Standard egg has already higher concentrations/kcal of iron, selenium, zinc, choline, vitamins B12 and E, and essential amino acids (plus taurine) than human milk. Fortified egg could further yield significant n-3 PUFA % recommendations for pregnancy-lactation (total n-3 69.6-75.0% [DRI=1400-1300 mg/day]), including DHA (120.1-129.3%, mostly approximately 80% [calculated DRI=140-130 mg/day]), plus antioxidant vitamins A (9.0-15.2%) and E (51.6-65.3%), and minerals iodine (33.6-44.5%) and selenium (33.7-39.3%); % recommendations for children (1-3 y) even more. Cholesterol, important for nerve membranes and learning, may not be generally contraindicated in childbearing-aged women (approximately 10.5% hypercholesterolemia), and early-life egg exposure may increase tolerance. Egg-inclusive perinatal nutrition programs have shown significant contributions. Eggs, especially target-fortified, may provide a unique nutritional supplement for peak brain development continously during pregnancy, nursing, and infancy (from 6 months), especially vs. insufficiencies. Missing nutritional opportunities by egg exclusion vs. concerns of hypercholesterolemia or allergy could be addressed individually, rather than as general recommendations, warranting further research and targeted egg design.

  16. Role of young child formulae and supplements to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M C; Maillot, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who...... consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child....../day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children....

  17. Vitamin D nutritional status in preterm infants and response to supplementation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Roberta A

    2013-07-14

    Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol\\/l (20 ng\\/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol\\/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P< 0·001). At follow-up, after a median of 104 (IQR 78-127) d, 87 % achieved levels ≥ 50 nmol\\/l and 8 % had levels >125 nmol\\/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol\\/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection.

  18. Effect of incorporation of soy flour on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of mushroom-moringa-supplemented healthy soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajan, Suman; Orchy, Tania N; Farzana, Tasnim

    2018-05-01

    The research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soy flour on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of mushroom-moringa-supplemented soup which could be used as a protein-supplemented ready-to-eat food. In this study, corn flour was supplemented with soy flour at different levels such as 20% (T4), 15% (T3), 10% (T2), and 5% (T1), and without soy flour was kept as control (T0). Fixed amount of mushroom and moringa leaf powder was added in all soup powders. Soup powders were analyzed for functional, nutritional, and sensory parameters. Bulk density (0.82-0.74 g/ml), dispersibility (82.1%-75.9%), pH (6.17-6.13), swelling capacity (3.98-3.65 ml/g), and viscosity were decreased, while water absorption capacity (70%-94%) was increased with increasing of soy flour percentages. Protein content of all the treatment groups increased from 10.66% to 19.97% along with a significant increased in fat (1.43%-6.97%), fiber (1.10%-2.30%), ash (15.77%-16.40%), and energy value (328.38-353.21 kcal/100 g) while decreased in moisture and carbohydrate content. On sensory evaluation, soup powders with 10% (T2) level of soy flour incorporation had highest scores for all the sensory attributes evaluated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that soy flour has effect on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of soup powders and 10% supplementation of soy flour is suitable for ready-to-eat soup formulation. Besides these, use of mushroom and moringa leaf may also increase its nutritional value. Soup developed in this way may be sufficient to meet day-to-day nutritional requirements as a supplement.

  19. The effect of testosterone and a nutritional supplement on hospital admissions in under-nourished, older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Ian D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss and under-nutrition are relatively common in older people, and are associated with poor outcomes including increased rates of hospital admissions and death. In a pilot study of 49 undernourished older, community dwelling people we found that daily treatment for one year with a combination of testosterone tablets and a nutritional supplement produced a significant reduction in hospitalizations. We propose a larger, multicentre study to explore and hopefully confirm this exciting, potentially important finding (NHMRC project grant number 627178. Methods/Design One year randomized control trial where subjects are allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. 200 older community-dwelling, undernourished people [Mini Nutritional Assessment score 2: 7.5% over 3 months]. Hospital admissions, quality-adjusted life years, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, body composition and other variables will be assessed. Discussion The pilot study showed that combined treatment with an oral testosterone and a supplement drink was well tolerated and safe, and reduced the number of people hospitalised and duration of hospital admissions in undernourished, community dwelling older people. This is an exciting finding, as it identifies a treatment which may be of substantial benefit to many older people in our community. We now propose to conduct a multi-centre study to test these findings in a substantially larger subject group, and to determine the cost effectiveness of this treatment. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12610000356066

  20. Performance and nutritional evaluation of beef cattle raised on pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilza Andréia da Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and nutritional traits of beef cattle raised on pastures, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-four crossbred young bulls with predominance of Zebu breed at initial average age of 120±30 days were used in the experiment. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with four ages of castration and two supplementation systems. The animals were distributed into four groups and placed on Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pastures, where they were fed concentrate supplementation or mineral salt ad libtum (control. Animals were castrated at 120, 240 and 360 days of age with average body weight of 115, 175 and 276 kg, castrated or not, in each supplementation group. Concentrate supplement composition and the amount supplied to the animals varied according to the time of the year and development phase of the animals. Trials were carried out to evaluate nutritional variables in each of the following phases: suckling, growth in the dry season and growth in the dry/rainy transition season. Concentrate supplementation improved the use of pasture, although it may have caused substitutive effect in all seasons evaluated. Castration of the animals before the dry season impaired animal development until the following dry/rainy transition season, especially when carried out during weaning. Concentrate supply may reduce some effects of this stress.

  1. Promoting Healthy Growth or Feeding Obesity? The Need for Evidence-Based Oversight of Infant Nutritional Supplement Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lampl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD model recognizes growth in infancy and childhood as a fundamental determinant of lifespan health. Evidence of long-term health risks among small neonates who subsequently grow rapidly poses a challenge for interventions aiming to support healthy growth, not merely drive weight gain. Defining healthy growth beyond “getting bigger” is essential as infant and young child feeding industries expand. Liquid-based nutritional supplements, originally formulated for undernourished children, are increasingly marketed for and consumed by children generally. Clarifying the nature of the evidentiary base on which structure/function claims promoting “healthy growth” are constructed is important to curb invalid generalizations. Evidence points to changing social beliefs and cultural practices surrounding supplementary feeding, raising specific concerns about the long-term health consequences of an associated altered feeding culture, including reduced dietary variety and weight gain. Reassessing the evidence for and relevance of dietary supplements’ “promoting healthy growth” claims for otherwise healthy children is both needed in a time of global obesity and an opportunity to refine intervention approaches among small children for whom rapid subsequent growth in early life augments risk for chronic disease. Scientific and health care partnerships are needed to consider current governmental oversight shortfalls in protecting vulnerable populations from overconsumption. This is important because we may be doing more harm than good.

  2. Direct observation of the nutrition care practices of Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball LE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nutrition care refers to nutrition-related advice or counselling provided by health professionals in an attempt to improve the nutrition behaviour of patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the practices of a sample of Australian general practitioners (GPs when providing nutrition care to adult patients. METHODS: Eighteen GPs (13 male, 5 female were observed by fourth-year medical students during their general practice rotation. Each GP was observed for five consultations that included nutrition care, totalling 90 observed consultations. In each consultation, students completed a 31-item nutrition care checklist of nutrition care practices that could feasibly occur in a standard consultation. Each practice was marked with either a ‘yes’ (completed, ‘no’ (did not complete or ‘completed by practice nurse prior to or after the consultation’. RESULTS: Twenty-eight nutrition care practices were observed at least once. The most frequently observed practices were measuring and discussing blood pressure (76.7%; n=69, followed by general questions about current diet (74.4%; n=67. Approximately half of the consultations included a statement of a nutrition-related problem (52.2%; n=47, and the provision of nutrition advice that focused on a nutrient (45.6%; n=41 or food group (52.2%; n=47. Consultations with male GPs, as well as GPs with more than 25 years of experience, were associated with an increased number of nutrition care practices per consultation. DISCUSSION: The GPs performed nutrition care practices in varying frequencies. Further research is required to identify the most effective GP nutrition care practices to improve the nutrition behaviour of patients.

  3. Combining pain therapy with lifestyle: the role of personalized nutrition and nutritional supplements according to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Muscoli, Carolina; Schatman, Michael E; Stallone, Tiziana; Intelligente, Fabio; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Franceschi, Francesco; Arranz, Laura Isabel; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Salamone, Maurizio; Ilari, Sara; Belfer, Inna; Allegri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: "FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain", held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on "Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology". The take-home message of this workshop was the recognition that patients with chronic pain should undergo nutritional assessment and counseling, which should be initiated at the onset of treatment. Some foods and supplements used in personalized treatment will likely improve clinical outcomes of analgesic therapy and result in considerable improvement of patient compliance and quality of life. From our current perspective, the potential benefit of including nutrition in personalizing pain medicine is formidable and highly promising.

  4. Combining pain therapy with lifestyle: the role of personalized nutrition and nutritional supplements according to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Muscoli, Carolina; Schatman, Michael E; Stallone, Tiziana; Intelligente, Fabio; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Franceschi, Francesco; Arranz, Laura Isabel; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Salamone, Maurizio; Ilari, Sara; Belfer, Inna; Allegri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: “FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain”, held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on “Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology”. The take-home message of this workshop was the recognition that patients with chronic pain should undergo nutritional assessment and counseling, which should be initiated at the onset of treatment. Some foods and supplements used in personalized treatment will likely improve clinical outcomes of analgesic therapy and result in considerable improvement of patient compliance and quality of life. From our current perspective, the potential benefit of including nutrition in personalizing pain medicine is formidable and highly promising. PMID:27994480

  5. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Matsuura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD, patients with dry AMD (dAMD, and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group, and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD.

  6. Predictors of the relationships between nutritional supplement use and weight-modification goals of U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; Carvey, Christina E; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-08-01

    U.S. Army Soldiers must meet body weight and composition standards and consequently may use nutritional supplements (NS) purported to assist in weight modification (WM). Nutritional supplements are dietary supplements (DS) and foods intended to supplement the diet. This study assessed relationships between NS use, demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and WM goals among U.S. Army personnel. Participants (N = 990) self-reported NS use, categorized as energy drinks, sport nutrition products, or DS, and WM goal (lose, gain, or maintain) was ascertained by survey. DS were subcategorized as health, weight-loss, weight-gain, or other DS. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between predictors, NS use, and WM goal. Most respondents (70.3% ± 1.7%) consumed some NS; however, overall NS use was not related to WM goal. Significant relationships were observed between predictors (tobacco use, age, body-mass index, fitness score, general health, and eating habits) and both WM goal and NS use. Respondents attempting to lose or maintain weight were less likely to consume energy drinks and weight-gain DS. WM goal is related to multiple health behaviors including tobacco use, physical fitness score, and self-perception of health and eating behavior. NS are consumed in this population regardless of WM goal.

  7. Comprehensive care improves physical recovery of hip-fractured elderly Taiwanese patients with poor nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Yun; Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Li, Hsiao-Juan; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Yang, Ching-Tzu; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yen; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2014-06-01

    The effects of nutritional management among other intervention components have not been examined for hip-fractured elderly persons with poor nutritional status. Accordingly, this study explored the intervention effects of an in-home program using a comprehensive care model that included a nutrition-management component on recovery of hip-fractured older persons with poor nutritional status at hospital discharge. A secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up. A 3000-bed medical center in northern Taiwan. Subjects were included only if they had "poor nutritional status" at hospital discharge, including those at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The subsample included 80 subjects with poor nutritional status in the comprehensive care group, 87 in the interdisciplinary care group, and 85 in the usual care group. The 3 care models were usual care, interdisciplinary care, and comprehensive care. Usual care provided no in-home care, interdisciplinary care provided 4 months of in-home rehabilitation, and comprehensive care included management of depressive symptoms, falls, and nutrition as well as 1 year of in-home rehabilitation. Data were collected on nutritional status and physical functions, including range of motion, muscle power, proprioception, balance and functional independence, and analyzed using a generalized estimating equation approach. We also compared patients' baseline characteristics: demographic characteristics, type of surgery, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, cognitive function, and depression. Patients with poor nutritional status who received comprehensive care were 1.67 times (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.61) more likely to recover their nutritional status than those who received interdisciplinary and usual care. Furthermore, the comprehensive care model improved the functional independence and balance of patients who recovered their nutritional status over the first year following discharge

  8. Glutamine granule-supplemented enteral nutrition maintains immunological function in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Yan, Hong; You, Zhongyi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shiliang

    2006-08-01

    Glutamine is an important energy source for immune cells. It is a necessary nutrient for cell proliferation, and serves as specific fuel for lymphocytes, macrophages, and enterocytes when it is present in appropriate concentrations. The purpose of this clinical study was to observe the effects of enteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine granules on immunologic function in severely burned patients. Forty-eight severely burned patients (total burn surface area 30-75%, full thickness burn area 20-58%) who met the requirements of the protocol joined this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trail. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: burn control group (B group, 23 patients) and glutamine treated group (Gln group, 25 patients). There was isonitrogenous and isocaloric intake in both groups, Gln and B group patents were given glutamine granules or placebo (glycine) at 0.5 g/kgd for 14 days with oral feeding or tube feeding, respectively. The plasma level of glutamine and several indices of immunologic function including lymphocyte transformation ratio, neutrophil phagocytosis index (NPI), CD4/CD8 ratio, the content of immunoglobulin, complement C3, C4 and IL-2 levels were determined. Moreover, wound healing rate of burn area was observed and then hospital stay was recorded. The results showed significantly reduced plasma glutamine and damaged immunological function after severe burn Indices of cellular immunity function were remarkably decreased from normal controls. After taking glutamine granules for 14 days, plasma glutamine concentration was significantly higher in Gln group than that in B group (607.86+/-147.25 micromol/L versus 447.63+/-132.38 micromol/L, P0.05). In addition, wound healing was better and hospital stay days were reduced in Gln group (46.59+/-12.98 days versus 55.68+/-17.36 days, Pburn; supplemented glutamine granules with oral feeding or tube feeding abate the degree of immunosuppression, improve immunological function

  9. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Eric R; Aragon, Alan A; Fitschen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate. Eating three to six meals per day with a meal containing 0.4-0.5 g/kg bodyweight of protein prior and subsequent to resistance training likely maximizes any theoretical benefits of nutrient timing and frequency. However, alterations in nutrient timing and frequency appear to have little effect on fat loss or lean mass retention. Among popular supplements, creatine monohydrate, caffeine and beta-alanine appear to have beneficial effects relevant to contest preparation, however others do not or warrant further study. The practice of dehydration and electrolyte manipulation in the final days and hours prior to competition can be dangerous, and may not improve appearance. Increasing carbohydrate intake at the end of preparation has a theoretical rationale to improve appearance, however it is understudied. Thus, if carbohydrate loading is pursued it should be practiced prior to competition and its benefit assessed individually. Finally, competitors should be aware of the increased risk of developing eating and body image disorders in aesthetic sport and therefore should have access to the appropriate mental health professionals.

  10. The influence of nutritional supplement drinks on providing adequate calorie and protein intake in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V; Methven, L; Gosney, M

    2013-09-01

    Investigate the impact of the provision of ONS on protein and energy intake from food and ability to meet protein and calorie requirements in people with dementia. After consent by proxy was obtained, participants took part in a cross over study comparing oral intake on an intervention day to an adjacent control day. The study occurred in Nursing homes and hospitalised settings. Older adults with dementia over the age of 65 were recruited. 26 participants (aged 83.9+/-8.4years, MMSE 13.08+/-8.13) took part. Intervention (if any): On the intervention day nutritional supplement drinks were provided three times. Each drink provided 283.3+/-41.8 Kcal of energy and 13.8+/-4.7g of protein. Supplements were removed approximately 1 hour before meals were served and weighed waste (g) was obtained. Intake of food consumed was determined on intervention and control days using the quartile method (none, quarter, half, three quarters, all) for each meal component. More people achieved their energy and protein requirements with the supplement drink intervention with no sufficient impact on habitual food consumption. Findings from these 26 participants with dementia indicate that supplement drinks may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition within the group as more people meet their nutritional requirements. As the provision of supplement drinks is also demonstrated to have an additive effect to consumption of habitual foods these can be used alongside other measures to also improve oral intake.

  11. What Does Change with Nutrition Team in Intensive Care Unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Fatih Yılmaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrroduction: Clinical nutrition is the nutrition support therapy provided to patients under medical supervision at the hospital or home setting. It is a multidisciplinary task performed under the control of the physician, dietician, pharmacist and nurse. In this study, the changes in the patient admission statistics to the general intensive care unit (GICU, the exitus ratios, decubitus ulcer formation rates, albumin use rates, duration of the hospital stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores, rate of usege of parenteral and enteral products, and the change in expenses per patient within the first year of activity of the nutrition team in comparison to the previous year was presented. Material and Method: In this study a 6-bed GICU was used. The patients who was admitted through retrospective file scanning between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012 and between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 were compared. Results: The number of the patients admitted to the GICU was 341 in 2012 and 369 in 2013. The number of the patients who died in 2012 was 86 (25.2%, while it was 106 in 2013 (28.7%. In 2012, 122 patients (35.7% had decubitus ulcers, while this number was 92 (24.7% in 2013. Human albumin usage was reduced by 23% for the 100 mL (225 in 2012, 175 in 2013 and by 33% for the 50 mL doses (122 in 2012, 82 in 2013. Duration of stay in the hospital was 6.3±0.9 vs. 5.8±0.9 (days (p=0.06. The mean APACHE II scores were observed to be 24.7±6.9 vs. 30.5±11.4 (p=0.03. When the distribution of product types were analyzed, it was observed that the ratio of parenteral products: enteral products was 2:1 in 2012, however the ratio of enteral products to parenteral products was 2:1 in 2013. The daily expense of a patient decreased from 100 TL to 55 TL. Conclusion: The nutrition team directly influences the clinical process outcomes of patients under treatment in the ICU. It was thought that using appropriate nutritional

  12. Modulation of leptin, insulin, and growth hormone in obese pony mares under chronic nutritional restriction and supplementation with ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, Preston R; Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Messer Iv, Nat T; Keisler, Duane H

    2006-01-01

    Horses fed beyond their nutritional requirement and that are physically inactive will develop obesity, which is often accompanied by insulin resistance and heightened risk of laminitis. The use of pharmacologic agents in combination with nutritional restriction may promote weight loss in obese horses unable to exercise because of laminitic pain. This study shows that reducing feed intake of brome grass hay to 75% of ad libitum intake in obese pony mares reduces body weight without induced exercise. Additional supplementation of ractopamine hydrochloride for 6 weeks resulted in a tendency for increased weight loss. Subsequent modulation of obesity-associated hormones, leptin and insulin, as a result of caloric restriction was observed.

  13. Multidisciplinary, multi-modal nutritional care in acute hip fracture inpatients - results of a pragmatic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jack J; Bauer, Judith D; Capra, Sandra; Pulle, Ranjeev Chrys

    2014-12-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent and resistant to intervention following hip fracture. This study investigated the impact of individualised versus multidisciplinary nutritional care on nutrition intake and outcomes in patients admitted to a metropolitan hospital acute hip fracture unit. A prospective, controlled before and after comparative interventional study aligning to the CONSORT guidelines for pragmatic clinical trials. Randomly selected patients receiving individualised nutritional care (baseline) were compared with post-interventional patients receiving a new model of nutritional care promoting nutrition as a medicine, multidisciplinary nutritional care, foodservice enhancements, and improved nutrition knowledge and awareness. Malnutrition was diagnosed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics criteria. Fifty-eight weighed food records were available for each group across a total of 82 patients (n = 44, n = 38). Group demographics were not significantly different with predominantly community dwelling (72%), elderly (82.2 years), female (70%), malnourished (51.0%) patients prone to co-morbidities (median 5) receiving early surgical intervention (median D1). Multidisciplinary nutritional care reduced intake barriers and increased total 24-h energy (6224 vs. 2957 kJ; p hip fracture inpatients. Similar pragmatic study designs should be considered in other elderly inpatient populations perceived resistant to nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of nutrition services in primary health care facilities: Implications for integrating nutrition into the health system in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Masum Billah

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Bangladesh Government introduced the National Nutrition Services (NNS by leveraging the existing health infrastructure to deliver nutrition services to pregnant woman and children. This study examined the quality of nutrition services provided during antenatal care (ANC and management of sick children younger than five years.Service delivery quality was assessed across three dimensions; structural readiness, process and outcome. Structural readiness was assessed by observing the presence of equipment, guidelines and register/reporting forms in ANC rooms and consulting areas for sick children at 37 primary healthcare facilities in 12 sub-districts. In addition, the training and knowledge relevant to nutrition service delivery of 95 healthcare providers was determined. The process of nutrition service delivery was assessed by observing 381 ANC visits and 826 sick children consultations. Satisfaction with the service was the outcome and was determined by interviewing 541 mothers/caregivers of sick children.Structural readiness to provide nutrition services was higher for ANC compared to management of sick children; 73% of ANC rooms had >5 of the 13 essential items while only 13% of the designated areas for management of sick children had >5 of the 13 essential items. One in five (19% healthcare providers had received nutrition training through the NNS. Delivery of the nutrition services was poor: <30% of women received all four key antenatal nutrition services, 25% of sick children had their weight checked against a growth-chart and <1% had their height measured. Nevertheless, most mothers/caregivers rated their satisfaction of the service above average.Strengthening the provision of equipment and increasing the coverage of training are imperative to improve nutrition services. Inherent barriers to implementing nutrition services in primary health care, especially high caseloads during the management of sick under-five children, should

  15. Severe hepatotoxicity following ingestion of Herbalife nutritional supplements contaminated with Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Droz, Sara; Patsenker, Eleonora; Bögli-Stuber, Katja; Aebi, Beat; Leib, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used. Recently, liver injury after consumption of Herbalife preparations was reported but the underlying pathogenesis remained cryptic. Two patients presented with cholestatic hepatitis and pruritus, and cirrhosis, respectively. Viral, alcoholic, metabolic, autoimmune, neoplastic, vascular liver diseases and synthetic drugs as the precipitating causes of liver injury were excluded. However, both patients reported long-term consumption of Herbalife products. All Herbalife products were tested for contamination with drugs, pesticides, heavy metals, and softeners, and examined for microbial contamination according to standard laboratory procedures. Bacteria isolated from the samples were identified as Bacillus subtilis by sequencing the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. Causality between consumption of Herbalife products and disease according to CIOMS was scored "probable" in both cases. Histology showed cholestatic and lobular/portal hepatitis with cirrhosis in one patient, and biliary fibrosis with ductopenia in the other. No contamination with chemicals or heavy metals was detected, and immunological testing showed no drug hypersensitivity. However, samples of Herbalife products ingested by both patients showed growth of Bacillus subtilis of which culture supernatants showed dose- and time-dependent hepatotoxicity. Two novel incidents of severe hepatic injury following intake of Herbalife products contaminated with Bacillus subtilis emphasize its potential hepatotoxicity.

  16. Ethical imperatives against item restriction in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W

    2017-07-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps) is the federal government's largest form of food assistance, and a frequent focus of political and scholarly debate. Previous discourse in the public health community and recent proposals in state legislatures have suggested limiting the use of SNAP benefits on unhealthy food items, such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This paper identifies two possible underlying motivations for item restriction, health and morals, and analyzes the level of empirical support for claims about the current state of the program, as well as expectations about how item restriction would change participant outcomes. It also assesses how item restriction would reduce individual agency of low-income individuals, and identifies mechanisms by which this may adversely affect program participants. Finally, this paper offers alternative policies to promote healthier purchasing and eating among SNAP participants that can be pursued without reducing individual agency. Health advocates and officials must more fully weigh the attendant risks of implementing SNAP item restrictions, including the reduction of individual agency of a vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, S A; Nordsborg, N B; Ritz, C; Berget, J; Kristensen, A H; Mørkeberg, J

    2017-08-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men and in younger (15-34 years) compared with older (35-49 years) subjects, but it was less prevalent in intermittent compared with endurance and power/strength sports. Additionally, fitness customers who tested positive for doping also reported using more NS than subjects testing negative, indicating an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Farmers' Market Use Patterns Among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Recipients With High Access to Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Flocke, Susan; Shon, En-Jung; Matlack, Kristen; Trapl, Erika; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Osborne, Amanda; Borawski, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Evaluate farmers' market (FM) use patterns among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients. Cross-sectional survey administered June to August, 2015. Cleveland and East Cleveland, OH. A total of 304 SNAP recipients with children. Participants lived within 1 mile of 1 of 17 FMs. Most were African American (82.6%) and female (88.1%), and had received SNAP for ≥5 years (65.8%). Patterns of FM shopping, awareness of FM near home and of healthy food incentive program, use of SNAP to buy fruits and vegetables and to buy other foods at FMs, receipt of healthy food incentive program. Two-stage cluster analysis to identify segments with similar FM use patterns. Bivariate statistics including chi-square and ANOVA to evaluate main outcomes, with significance at P ≤ .05. A total of 42% reported FM use in the past year. Current FM shoppers (n = 129) were segmented into 4 clusters: single market, public market, multiple market, and high frequency. Clusters differed significantly in awareness of FM near home and the incentive program, use of SNAP to buy fruit and vegetables at FMs, and receipt of incentive. Findings highlight distinct types of FM use and had implications for tailoring outreach to maximize first time and repeat use of FMs among SNAP recipients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Farmers' Market Utilization among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Recipients in New Orleans, Louisiana: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Henry; Skizim, Meg; Afaneh, Hasheemah; Miele, Lucio; Sothern, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    Farmers' markets are increasingly being promoted as a means to provide fresh produce to poor and underserved communities. However, farmers' market (FM) use remains low among low-income patrons. The purpose of our study was to examine FM awareness and use, grocery shopping behaviors, and internet use among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients. A descriptive analysis of preliminary data was performed to evaluate quantitative baseline data among SNAP recipients between June and August 2016 in New Orleans, Louisiana (N=51). Data were collected via a 42-item online survey that included demographics, internet use, FM awareness and use, health information seeking behaviors and fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors. Less than half of the survey respondents (n=24) had ever been to a FM. Local grocery stores and Wal-Mart were most used for purchasing fruits and vegetables (88% and 84%, respectively). The most common sources of healthy eating information were Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the internet, frequently accessed via smartphones. More than 80% of participants were not aware that local FMs accepted electronic benefit transfer payments as a form of payment. These results support the incorporation of promotional methodology that combines internet-based mobile technology and existing services (eg, WIC) as a viable strategy to improve farmers' market use among low-income populations. As most participants were not aware that participating FMs accept electronic benefit transfer payments, this fact should be emphasized in promotional material.

  20. Transactions at a Northeastern Supermarket Chain: Differences by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Moran, Alyssa; Hou, Tao; Blue, Dan; Greene, Julie; Thorndike, Anne N; Polacsek, Michele; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-10-01

    Although one in seven Americans receives Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, little is known about how these benefits for food are spent because individual-level sales data are not publicly available. The purpose of this study is to compare transactions made with and without SNAP benefits at a large regional supermarket chain. Sales data were obtained from a large supermarket chain in the Northeastern U.S. for a period of 2 years (April 2012-April 2014). Multivariate multiple regression models were used to quantify relative differences in dollars spent on 31 predefined SNAP-eligible food categories. Analyses were completed in 2016. Transactions with SNAP benefit use included higher spending on less healthful food categories, including sugar-sweetened beverages ($1.08), red meat ($1.55), and convenience foods ($1.34), and lower spending on more healthful food categories, such as fruits (-$1.51), vegetables (-$1.35), and poultry (-$1.25) compared to transactions without SNAP benefit use. These findings provide objective data to compare purchases made with and without SNAP benefits. Next steps should be to test proposed SNAP modifications to determine whether they would have the intended effect of promoting healthier purchasing patterns among SNAP beneficiaries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Online and In-Person Nutrition Education Related to Salt Knowledge and Behaviors among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Whaley, Shannon E; Gurzo, Klara; Meza, Martha; Rosen, Nila J; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2017-09-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) differs from other federal nutrition programs in that nutrition education is a required component. WIC programs traditionally provide in-person education, but recently some WIC sites have started offering online education. Education focused on reducing salt intake is an important topic for WIC participants because a high-sodium diet has been associated with high blood pressure, and low-income populations are at increased risk. Our aim was to examine the impacts of traditional in-person and online nutrition education on changes in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to reducing salt intake in low-income women enrolled in WIC. Although a comparison of groups was not the primary focus, a randomized trial examining the impact of online and in-person nutrition education on participant knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors related to salt intake was conducted. Five hundred fourteen WIC participants from three Los Angeles, CA, WIC clinics received either in-person (n=257) or online (n=257) education. Questionnaires assessing salt-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors were administered at baseline and 2 to 4 months and 9 months later from November 2014 through October 2015. Positive changes in knowledge and self-efficacy were retained 2 to 4 months and 9 months later for both groups (Peducation resulted in improvements during a 9-month period in knowledge, self-efficacy, and reported behaviors associated with reducing salt intake in a low-income population. Offering an online education option for WIC participants could broaden the reach of nutrition education and lead to long-term positive dietary changes. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical benefits of oral nutritional supplementation for elderly hip fracture patients: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Ma Wai Wai; Wu, Jenny; Wong, Euann; Chan, Suk Ping; To, Tze Shing Jess; Chau, Mei Wa Rosanna; Ting, Kwai Hing; Fung, Pui Man; Au, Kit Sing Derrick

    2013-01-01

    malnutrition is an important risk factor for poor outcome in patients recovering after hip fracture surgery. This study aimed to investigate the clinical, nutritional and rehabilitation effects of an oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. this was an observer-blinded randomised controlled trial of elderly post-surgical proximal femoral fracture patients. A ready-to-use oral liquid nutritional supplementation (18-24 g protein and 500 kcal per day) in addition to hospital diet was compared with hospital diet only. Both groups received usual rehabilitation therapy and oral calcium and vitamin D supplements. Outcomes were compared at discharge from rehabilitation and after 4 weeks of discharge. The primary outcome parameters were the serum albumin level, the body mass index (BMI), the functional independence measure (FIM) and the elderly mobility scale (EMS). Secondary outcome parameters were frequency of complications, inpatient length of stay, mortality and acute hospital use within 6 months after discharge. a total of 126 patients were recruited, 65 in the supplementation arm and 61 in the control arm. There was a significant difference in change in BMI with a decrease of 0.25 and 0.03 kg/m(2) in the ONS group and 0.72 and 0.49 kg/m(2) in the control group at hospital discharge and follow-up, respectively (P = 0.012). The length of stay in rehabilitation ward was shortened by 3.80 (SE = 1.81, P = 0.04) days favouring the ONS group. The total number of infection episodes was also reduced significantly. No difference was observed in the rate of change of the serum albumin level, the FIM and the EMS. clinical and nutritional benefits were seen in this trial but rehabilitation benefits could not be demonstrated.

  4. Benefits, Potential Harms, and Optimal Use of Nutritional Supplementation for Preventing Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H; Tyber, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    To briefly review age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main findings from the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) report number 8 on the use of nutritional supplements for AMD, and to focus on data suggesting that supplement use should be guided using genetic testing of AMD risk genes. A literature search (January 2001 through October 26, 2016) was conducted using MEDLINE and the following MeSH terms: Antioxidants/therapeutic use, Genotype, Macular Degeneration/drug therapy, Macular degeneration/genetics, Dietary Supplements, Proteins/genetics, and Zinc Compounds/therapeutic use. Bibliographies of publications identified were also reviewed. English-language studies assessing AREDS supplement response in patients with AMD in relation to complement factor H gene ( CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene ( ARMS2) risk alleles were evaluated. Three of the 4 studies demonstrated a treatment interaction between ARMS2 and CFH genotypes and a differential response to supplements. The fourth study documented an interaction for the CFH genotype only. Reported response interactions included attenuated response, no response, and good response, whereas a subset showed increased progression of AMD. Conversely, one study reported no interactions between CFH and ARMS2 risk alleles and response to supplements. The weight of the evidence supports using genetic testing to guide selection of ocular vitamin use. This approach will avoid using supplements that could speed the progression of AMD in vulnerable patients, avoid using supplements that will have little to no effect in others, and result in appropriately using supplements in those that are likely to derive meaningful benefits.

  5. Confiscated black market products and nutritional supplements with non-approved ingredients analyzed in the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Petrou, Michael; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Doping control laboratories are frequently confronted with new substances that may be misused by athletes. Besides new pharmaceuticals, where method development for their detection is dependent on the availability of the substance and corresponding administration studies, some professional and amateur athletes are using illicit 'black market' products, which either differ from known pharmaceuticals but cause similar effects or still are undergoing clinical trials and are therefore rarely available to doping control laboratories. In the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory, different confiscated products and legally obtained nutritional supplements were analyzed in 2009, and various findings were reported including GH-labelled injection vials without any pharmacologically active content; combinations of products indicating the attempt to mask growth hormone abuse; unpurified long-R(3) -IGF-1; nutritional supplements containing the growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2); and ampoules containing the selective androgen receptor modulator Andarine (S-4). This review provides an overview on the substances that were analyzed in 2009. Ingredients relevant for doping control were identified by means of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. The awareness of new products on the black market and in nutritional supplements is of utmost importance for laboratories to develop detection methods accordingly and screen for new substances as early as possible. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Qualifying instrument for evaluation of food and nutritional care in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez García, R W; Souza, A A; Proença, R P C

    2012-01-01

    Establishing criteria for hospital nutrition care ensures that quality care is delivered to patients. The responsibility of the Hospital Food and Nutrition Service (HFNS) is not always well defined, despite efforts to establish guidelines for patient clinical nutrition practice. This study describes the elaboration of an Instrument for Evaluation of Food and Nutritional Care (IEFNC) aimed at directing the actions of the Hospital Food and Nutrition Service. This instrument was qualified by means of a comparative analysis of the categories related to hospital food and nutritional care, published in the literature. Elaboration of the IEFNC comprised the following stages: (a) a survey of databases and documents for selection of the categories to be used in nutrition care evaluation, (b) a study of the institutional procedures for nutrition practice at two Brazilian hospitals, in order to provide a description of the sequence of actions that should be taken by the HFNS as well as other services participating in nutrition care, (c) design of the IEFNC based on the categories published in the literature, adapted to the sequence of actions observed in the routines of the hospitals under study, (d) application of the questionnaire at two different hospitals that was mentioned in the item (b), in order to assess the time spent on its application, the difficulties in phrasing the questions, and the coverage of the instrument, and (e) finalization of the instrument. The IEFNC consists of 50 open and closed questions on two areas of food and nutritional care in hospital: inpatient nutritional care and food service quality. It deals with the characterization and structure of hospitals and their HFNS, the actions concerning the patients' nutritional evaluation and monitoring, the meal production system, and the hospital diets. "This questionnaire is a tool that can be seen as a portrait of the structure and characteristics of the HFNS and its performance in clinical and meal

  7. Cost and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Chinese ICU patients receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu GH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo Hao Wu,1 Jian Gao,2 Chun Yan Ji,2 Lorenzo Pradelli,3 Qiu Lei Xi,1 Qiu Lin Zhuang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nutrition, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background and objectives: Clinical evidence supports the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions in place of standard lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN for intensive care unit (ICU patients, but uptake may be limited by higher costs. We compared clinical and economic outcomes for these two types of lipid emulsion in the Chinese ICU setting. Methods: We developed a pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model, based on efficacy data from an international meta-analysis and patient characteristics, resource consumption, and unit costs from a Chinese institutional setting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Model predictive validity was assessed by comparing results with data observed in a patient subset not used in the modeling. Results: The model predicted that omega-3 PUFA-enriched emulsion (Omegaven® 10% fish oil emulsion would dominate standard lipid emulsions, with better clinical outcomes and lower overall health care costs (mean savings ~10,000 RMB, mainly as a result of faster recovery and shorter hospital stay (by ~6.5 days. The external validation process confirmed the reliability of the model predictions. Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions improved clinical outcome and decreased overall costs in Chinese ICU patients requiring PN. Keywords: omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipids, ICU patients, total costs, microsimulation, external validation, length of hospital stay

  8. Nutrition care-related practices and factors affecting nutritional intakes in hospital patients at risk of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S; Chaboyer, W; Desbrow, B

    2015-08-01

    Malnutrition is common in hospitals and is a risk factor for pressure ulcers. Nutrition care practices relating to the identification and treatment of malnutrition have not been assessed in patients at risk of pressure ulcers. The present study describes nutrition care practices and factors affecting nutritional intakes in this patient group. The study was conducted in four wards at two hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Adult patients at risk of pressure ulcers as a result of restricted mobility were observed for 24 h to determine their daily oral intake and practices such as nutrition screening, documentation and intervention. Independent samples t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to analyse dietary intake and nutrition care-related data. Predictors of receiving a dietitian referral were identified using logistic regression analyses. Two hundred and forty-one patients participated in the present study. The observed nutritional screening rate was 59% (142 patients). Weight and height were documented in 71% and 34% of cases. Sixty-nine patients (29%) received a dietitian referral. Predictors of receiving a dietitian referral included lower body mass index and longer length of stay. On average, patients consumed 73% and 72% of the energy and protein provided, respectively. Between 22% and 38% of patients consumed meals. Nutrition care practices including malnutrition risk screening and documentation of nutritional parameters appear to be inadequate in patients at risk of pressure ulcers. A significant proportion of these patients eat inadequately at main meals, further increasing their risk of malnutrition and pressure ulcers. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  10. Biological evaluation of a nutritional supplement prepared with QPM Maize cultivar BR 473 and other traditional food items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Heberth de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality Protein Maize (QPM cultivar BR 473 was employed, together with soybean flour, brown sugar, banana meal and oat meal, for the preparation of a nutritional supplement.. 21-day old male Fisher rats were fed diets containing the supplement as a protein source, both with and without soybean flour; casein diets with 10 or 7% protein served as respective controls. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Net Protein Retention (NPR and Digestibility were determined. Blood biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, urea, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein were also measured in the animals and showed that all were in good health condition at the end of the experiment. The obtained results for PER, NPU and NPR indicated that the supplement prepared with QPM maize cultivar BR 473 was a good protein source, especially when soybean flour was added.

  11. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF A 3-MONTH INTERVENTION WITH ORAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS IN DISEASE RELATED MALNUTRITION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Norman , Kristina; Pirlich , Matthias; Smoliner , Christine; Kilbert , Anne; Schulzke , Jörg-Dieter; Ockenga , Johann; Lochs , Herbert; Reinhold , Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nutritional intervention with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) has been shown to increase quality of life in malnourished patients. We investigated whether post-hospital supplementation with ONS is cost-effective according to international benchmarks in malnourished patients. Methods: 114 malnourished patients (50.6?16.1 years, 63 female) with benign gastrointestinal disease were included and randomised to receive either ONS for three months and dietary co...

  12. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Richard B; Kalman, Douglas S; Antonio, Jose; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Wildman, Robert; Collins, Rick; Candow, Darren G; Kleiner, Susan M; Almada, Anthony L; Lopez, Hector L

    2017-01-01

    Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection. Additionally, a number of clinical applications of creatine supplementation have been studied involving neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease), diabetes, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, aging, brain and heart ischemia, adolescent depression, and pregnancy. These studies provide a large body of evidence that creatine can not only improve exercise performance, but can play a role in preventing and/or reducing the severity of injury, enhancing rehabilitation from injuries, and helping athletes tolerate heavy training loads. Additionally, researchers have identified a number of potentially beneficial clinical uses of creatine supplementation. These studies show that short and long-term supplementation (up to 30 g/day for 5 years) is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals and in a number of patient populations ranging from infants to the elderly. Moreover, significant health benefits may be provided by ensuring habitual low dietary creatine ingestion (e.g., 3 g/day) throughout the lifespan. The purpose of this review is to provide an update to the current literature regarding the role and safety of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine and to update the position stand of International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).

  13. Comparing the nutrition environment and practices of home- and centre-based child-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Olivia J M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Burke, Shauna M; Tucker, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    To assess and compare the nutrition environment and practices (as they relate to pre-schoolers) of centre- and home-based child-care facilities. Using a cross-sectional study design, nineteen child-care facilities (ten centre-based, nine home-based) were assessed for one full day using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool (consisting of a day-long observation/review of the nutrition environment, practices and related documents). Specifically, eight nutrition-related subscales were considered. Child-care facilities in London, Ontario, Canada. Child-care facilities were recruited through directors at centre-based programmes and the providers of home-based programmes. The mean total nutrition environment EPAO scores for centre- and home-based facilities were 12·3 (sd 1·94) and 10·8 (sd 0·78) out of 20 (where a higher score indicates a more supportive environment with regard to nutrition), respectively. The difference between the total nutrition environment EPAO score for centre- and home-based facilities was approaching significance (P=0·055). For both types of facilities, the highest nutrition subscale score (out of 20) was achieved in the staff behaviours domain (centre mean=17·4; home mean=17·0) and the lowest was in the nutrition training and education domain (centre mean=3·6; home mean=2·0). Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. In order to better support child-care staff and enhance the overall nutrition environment in child care, modifications to food practices could be adopted. Specifically, the nutritional quality of foods/beverages provided to pre-schoolers could be improved, nutrition-related training for child-care staff could be provided, and a nutrition curriculum could be created to educate pre-schoolers about healthy food choices.

  14. Low-Income Urban Mothers' Experiences with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Sarah; Ettinger, Anna K; Keefe, Carolyn; Riley, Anne; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    Food insecurity remains a public health concern in the United States, particularly among low-income urban ethnically diverse families, even with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Limited phenomenologic data exist to capture how programmatic changes to SNAP address the needs of users and why a gap in SNAP use may exist. The primary aim of this study was to examine the experiences of low-income, Baltimore, MD, mothers in applying for and maintaining access to SNAP. Secondary aims included understanding participants' perspectives on the influence of changes in SNAP over a 3-year period and how SNAP fits into the overall system of social services for families. In this qualitative, phenomenologic study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 mothers and three focus groups with 20 mothers, for a total sample of 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits. Ten mothers participated in the first round of data collection (January to May 2010), and 23 in the second round (February to May 2013). Participants were 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore SNAP users' experiences with applying for and maintaining access to SNAP, as well as with program changes to the SNAP program. Data were analyzed using an iterative emergent design and phenomenologic approach. A constructivist perspective was implemented throughout the coding process. SNAP functioned as a valuable support system within the broader social safety net for mothers living in poverty, yet participants expressed frustration about the processes of applying for and maintaining benefits due to communication problems and poor integration of services. In applying for and accessing SNAP, positive interactions with caseworkers and previous knowledge of the SNAP program were important for maintaining benefits. Interviews and focus group discussions revealed the need for additional outreach and education about the implemented program changes to build trust and improve access to SNAP

  15. Malnutrition and nutritional care practices in hospital wards for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwee, Katrien; Clays, Els; Bocquaert, Ilse; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Lardennois, Miguel; Gobert, Micheline; Defloor, Tom

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to gain a better insight into the current nutritional care practices in Belgian hospital wards for older people, and to study the association between these practices and the prevalence of malnutrition. In 1999, the Council of Europe assessed nutritional care practices and support in 12 European countries and showed them to be sparse and inconsistent. At the time of research, no studies had described the association between nutritional care practices and malnutrition prevalence in Belgium. In 2007, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in a representative sample of Belgian hospital wards for older people. In total, 2094 patients from 140 wards for older people were included. The overall prevalence rate of malnutrition in wards for older people was 31.9%. Nutritional care practices such as nutritional screening and assessment, use of a standardized screening instrument and a nutritional protocol were suboptimal. Multilevel analysis revealed that ward characteristics explained for 9.1% whether a patient was malnourished or not. None of the registered nutritional care practices could explain a patient's individual risk. Malnutrition is a frequently occurring problem on hospital wards for older people. Increased consciousness among healthcare professionals and hospital policy makers of the importance of nutritional care will contribute to further improvement in care quality. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Changes in Nutrition Policies and Dietary Intake in Child Care Homes Participating in Healthy Eating and Active Living Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kuo, Elena S; James, Paula; Lenhart, Kitty; Becker, Christina; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Rauzon, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. Pre- and post-intervention without control group. Measures taken at baseline and follow-up included structured observations and questionnaires regarding nutrition policies, practices, and environments; documentation of lunch foods served on 5 days; and lunch plate waste observations on 2 days. Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of change over time. Seventeen family child care homes in a low-income diverse community in Northern California; children aged 2-5 years who attended the family child care homes. Change in nutrition-related policies and practices, lunch foods served and consumed. Data was collected at 17 sites for an average of 5.2 children aged 2-5 years per site per day at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up for a total of 333 plate waste observations. There were significant increases in staff training, parental involvement, and several of the targeted nutrition-related practices; prevalence of most other practices either improved or was maintained over time. There were significant increases in the number of sites meeting Child and Adult Care Food Program meal guidelines, variety of fruit and frequency of vegetables offered, and reductions in frequency of juice and high-fat processed meats offered. Adequate portions of all food groups were consumed at both time points with no significant change over time. A simple, policy-focused intervention by a child care resource and referral agency was successful at reinforcing and improving upon nutrition-related practices at family child care homes. Children

  17. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... grants to seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers. CFDA Number: 93.676. Statutory Authority...) announces the award of single-source expansion supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care...

  18. Nurse Practitioners' attitude to nutritional challenges dealing with the patients' nutritional needs and ability to care for themselves in a fast track program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graarup, Jytte; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition plays an important role to the success of fast track programs, but under nutrition are still reported. Nutritional care seems to be a low priority among nurses even though it is well-known that insufficient nutrition has severe consequences for the patients. The aim is to re......Background: Nutrition plays an important role to the success of fast track programs, but under nutrition are still reported. Nutritional care seems to be a low priority among nurses even though it is well-known that insufficient nutrition has severe consequences for the patients. The aim...... is to report to what extent a training program has made Nutritional Nurse Practitioners aware of the nutritional care for short-term hospitalized patients, and how they deal with patients’ nutritional needs and ability to provide self-care in the context of a fast track program. Methods: Deductive content...... analysis was used to analyse data from four focus group interviews. Sixteen Nutritional Nurse Practitioners from either medical or surgery wards participated. The Nutritional Nurse Practitioners were interviewed twice. The interviews were recorded and verbally transcribed. Results: In the Nutritional Nurse...

  19. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefanía M.; Martinez, Luis D.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synergy of ultrasound energy and TILDLME technique for improved metal extraction. ► Highly selective determination of inorganic Co species at trace levels. ► Speciation analysis of Co in several nutritional supplements with highly complex matrices. ► Development of an environmentally friendly microextraction technique with minimal waste production and sample consumption. - Abstract: In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C 6 mim][PF 6 ] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L −1 , while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 μg L −1 Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements.

  20. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefania M. [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy of ultrasound energy and TILDLME technique for improved metal extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly selective determination of inorganic Co species at trace levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation analysis of Co in several nutritional supplements with highly complex matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of an environmentally friendly microextraction technique with minimal waste production and sample consumption. - Abstract: In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C{sub 6}mim][PF{sub 6}] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L{sup -1}, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements.

  1. Effects of a Preconditioning Oral Nutritional Supplement on Pig Livers after Warm Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickkholgh, Arash; Li, Zhanqing; Yi, Xue; Mohr, Elvira; Liang, Rui; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Gross, Marie-Luise; Zorn, Markus; Benzing, Steffen; Schneider, Heinz; Büchler, Markus W.; Schemmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Several approaches have been proposed to pharmacologically ameliorate hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a preconditioning oral nutritional supplement (pONS) containing glutamine, antioxidants, and green tea extract on hepatic warm IRI in pigs. Methods. pONS (70 g per serving, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) was dissolved in 250 mL tap water and given to pigs 24, 12, and 2 hrs before warm ischemia of the liver. A fourth dose was given 3 hrs after reperfusion. Controls were given the same amount of cellulose with the same volume of water. Two hours after the third dose of pONS, both the portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped for 40 min. 0.5, 3, 6, and 8 hrs after reperfusion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic arterial flow (HAF), bile flow, and transaminases were measured. Liver tissue was taken 8 hrs after reperfusion for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results. HR, MAP, CVP, HAF, and PVF were comparable between the two groups. pONS significantly increased bile flow 8 hrs after reperfusion. ALT and AST were significantly lower after pONS. Histology showed significantly more severe necrosis and neutrophil infiltration in controls. pONS significantly decreased the index of immunohistochemical expression for TNF-α, MPO, and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Administration of pONS before and after tissue damage protects the liver from warm IRI via mechanisms including decreasing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and necrosis. PMID:22791934

  2. Farmers' market shopping and dietary behaviours among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Demarest, Chelsea L; Dixon, Crystal E; Dortche, Ciarra Jm; Bullock, Sally L; McGuirt, Jared; Ward, Rachel; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-09-01

    Because farmers' markets include a variety of fruits and vegetables, shopping at farmers' markets would likely improve diet quality among low-income consumers, as well as promote sustainable direct farm-to-consumer business models. However, not much is known about how to promote farmers' market shopping among low-income consumers. Therefore, the purpose of the present paper was to examine barriers to and facilitators of shopping at farmers' markets and associations between shopping at farmers' markets and self-reported dietary behaviours (fruit and vegetable, sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption) and BMI. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between farmers' market shopping frequency, awareness of markets, access to markets, dietary behaviours and BMI. Department of Social Services, Pitt County, eastern North Carolina, USA. Between April and July 2013, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (n 205) completed a quantitative survey. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets included does not accept SNAP/electronic benefit transfer, out of the way and lack of transportation. Farmers' market shopping was associated with awareness of farmers' markets (estimate =0·18 (se 0·04), Pmarket shopping (estimate =1·06 (se 0·32), P=0·001). Our study is one of the first to examine SNAP participants' farmers' market shopping, distance to farmers' markets and dietary behaviours. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets and increasing awareness of existing markets should be addressed in future interventions to increase SNAP participants' use of farmers' markets, ultimately improving diet quality in this high-risk group.

  3. Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and maternal depressive symptoms: Moderation by program perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Berger, Lawrence M; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have observed an association between participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and depression, which is contrary to SNAP's potential to alleviate food insecurity and financial strain. This study investigated the impact of change in SNAP participation status on maternal depression, and whether perceptions of government assistance moderate this association. Data were from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Logistic regression models with individual-specific fixed-effects, were fit to SNAP-eligible mothers who changed SNAP participation and depression status (N = 256) during waves 2 to 4. Perceptions of government assistance were defined as feelings of humiliation or loss of freedom and tested for interactions with SNAP participation. Perceptions of government assistance moderated the association between SNAP participation and depression (p-interaction = 0.0208). Those with positive perceptions of welfare had 0.27 (95% CI = 0.08 to 0.89) times lower odds of depression when enrolled vs. not enrolled in SNAP. Among those with negative perceptions of welfare, SNAP enrollment was not associated with depression (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.51). Evidence suggests that SNAP mental health benefits may be context specific. SNAP's capacity to improve mental health may depend on individual perceptions of government assistance. More research is needed to determine whether interventions aimed at mitigating negative perceptions of programs like SNAP could ameliorate poor mental health among program participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increases in Sugary Drink Marketing During Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Benefit Issuance in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J; Musicus, Aviva; Gorski Findling, Mary T; Brissette, Ian F; Lowenfels, Ann A; Subramanian, S V; Roberto, Christina A

    2018-05-15

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program, providing $67 billion in benefits to 44 million Americans. Some states distribute SNAP benefits over one or a few days each month, which may create an incentive for retailers to heavily promote top-selling products, like sugar-sweetened beverages, when benefits are disbursed. A beverage environment scan assessing presence of displays, advertisements, and price promotions for sugar-sweetened, low-calorie, and unsweetened beverages was administered in a census of SNAP-authorized beverage retailers (n=630) in three cities in New York from November to September 2011. Multilevel regression models controlling for store type; county; and percentage SNAP enrollment, poverty, and non-Hispanic white population in the store's census tract were used to estimate the odds of in-store beverage marketing during the SNAP benefit issuance period compared to other days of the month. Data were analyzed in 2016. There were higher odds of in-store sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during SNAP benefit issuance days (first to ninth days of the month) compared with other days of the month, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverage advertisements (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.01, 2.72) and displays (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.16, 3.03). In census tracts with high SNAP enrollment (>28%), the odds of a retailer having sugar-sweetened beverage displays were 4.35 times higher (95% CI=1.93, 9.98) during issuance compared with non-issuance days. There were no differences in marketing for low-calorie or unsweetened beverages. Increases in sugar-sweetened beverage marketing during issuance may exacerbate disparities in diet quality of households participating in SNAP. Policy changes, like extending SNAP benefit issuance, may mitigate these effects. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks for nutrition in child care 2011: are child-care providers across contexts meeting recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) recommends feeding practices for child-care providers to establish nutrition habits in early childhood to prevent obesity. With >12 million US children in child care, little is known about child-care providers' feeding practices. The purpose of this study was to examine child-care providers' feeding practices to assess whether providers met the Academy's benchmarks and whether attainment of benchmarks varied across child-care contexts (Head Start, Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP], and non-CACFP). Cross-sectional data was collected in 2011 and 2012 from 118 child-care providers who completed self-administered surveys regarding their feeding practices for 2- to 5-year-old children. χ(2) tests and analysis of variance were used to determine variation across contexts. Head Start providers sat more frequently with children during meals (P=0.01), ate the same foods as children (P=0.001), and served meals family style (Pchildren (P=0.01) received more nutrition-education opportunities compared with CACFP and non-CACFP. Head Start providers encouraged more balance and variety of foods (Pchildren about nutrition (PAcademy's benchmarks compared with CACFP and non-CACFP providers. Possible reasons for this compliance might be attributed to Head Start nutrition performance standards and increased nutrition-training opportunities for Head Start staff. Head Start programs can serve as a model in implementing the Academy's benchmarks. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional care in old age: the effect of supplementation on nutritional status and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequently observed in elderly people living in nursing homes and homes for the elderly. Anorexia resulting in inadequate dietary intake is often a cause of malnutrition. Malnutrition in old age affects several aspects of functioning. Earlier research has shown that a complete

  7. Pilot Study: Mother's Attitude and Practices toward Antenatal Care, Micronutrient Supplementation and Breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Good nutrition in the first 1000 days provides a stable long term foundation for society, as it ensures a child's growth to his/her potential (1). Pregnant women who suffer from multiple micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including Low Birth weight-LBW (4). Iron deficiency anemia is linked to an increased risk of infections (4), and is still a health problem in the kingdom of Bahrain with the prevalence of 22.7% to 54% (5). The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nation Children's fund (UNICEF) and American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations are to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour of life and to and sustain exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (6). Several studies have shown a downward trend of breastfeeding in developing countries such as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (7,8). Studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kingdom of Bahrain have shown partial breastfeeding at early months<6month age (8,9) Aim: To provide a preliminary evaluation of the mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC), Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A sample of 62 Bahraini mothers - inpatients and outpatients- within the age group of 20 years to 35 years old at SMC were asked by dietitians and diet technicians to answer 7 closed ended questions about importance of antenatal care, compliance to nutritional recommendations during pregnancy and breastfeeding practices. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used in analyzing data collected. Fisher Exact test and Chi-Square test were used to correlate the determinants (age and education level) with mother's attitude/practices. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05 Results: Scores showed no significant correlation between education level mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding. As for age, we found more mothers above 25

  8. Combined effects of functionally-oriented exercise regimens and nutritional supplementation on both the institutionalised and free-living frail elderly (double-blind, randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodzicki Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consistently swelling proportion of the frail elderly within a modern society challenges the overstrained public health sector to provide both adequate medical care and comprehensive assistance in their multiple functional deficits of daily living. Easy-to-apply and task-specific ways of addressing this issue are being sought out, with a view to proposing systemic solutions for nationwide application. Methods The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 7-week clinical trial aimed to determine whether specifically structured, intensive exercise regimens, combined with nutritional supplementation, might improve and help sustain individual muscle strength and mobility, and possibly enhance individual functional capabilities in an on-going quest for active prevention of care-dependency. Ninety-one frail elderly (F 71 M 20; mean age 79 years were recruited from both nursing home residents and community dwellers and randomly split into four groups: Group I – progressive resistance exercises (PRE + functionally-oriented exercises (FOE + nutritional supplementation (NS, Group II – PRE + FOE + placebo, Group III – standard exercises (SE + FOE + NS, Group IV – SE + FOE + placebo. Each group pursued a 45 min. exercise session 5 times weekly. The subjects' strength with regard to four muscle groups, i.e. hip and knee extensors and flexons, was assessed at 80% (1 RM weekly, whereas their balance and mobility at baseline and at the end of the study. Results The study was completed by 80 subjects. Despite its relatively short duration significant differences in muscle strength were noted both in Group I and Group II (p = 0.01; p = 0.04; respectively, although this did not translate directly into perceptible improvement in individual mobility. Notable improvements in individual mobility were reported in Group III and Group IV (p = 0.002, although without positive impact on individual muscle strength. Conclusion

  9. [Severe vitamin D deficiency in children from Punta Arenas, Chile: Influence of nutritional status on the response to supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karin; Le Roy, Catalina; Iñiguez, Germán; Borzutzky, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    There is a high risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in the population of southern Chile that can be treated with VD supplements. Weight excess (WE) can influence the response to supplements. To study the prevalence of VD deficiency and the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) supplements in healthy children from Punta Arenas, Chile, and evaluate a possible association with nutritional status. Demographic and anthropometric data, as well as laboratory assessment of serum 25-hidroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and other bone metabolism parameters were evaluated. After baseline evaluation, children were supplemented with VD3 1600 IU/day for one month, after which 25OHD was retested. Of the 108 children studied, 50% were boys, and had a mean age of 9.6±0.5 years. Nutritional assessment showed that 39% had normal weight, 46% were overweight, and 15% were obese. Median 25OHD was 10.9ng/ml: 96.3% had deficiency (30ng/ml). Children with WE had a significantly lower increase in 25OHD than children with normal weight (5±5.5 vs. 7.7±4.9, p=03). Children with WE may require 32% higher VD dose than normal weight children to attain the same 25OHD concentration. Chilean schoolchildren from Punta Arenas have high prevalence of WE and VD deficiency, with a majority in the range of severe VD deficiency. WE interferes in the response to VD supplementation, leading to a lower increase in 25OHD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Stuck in tradition - A qualitative study on barriers for implementation of evidence-based nutritional care perceived by nursing staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connell, Malene Barfod; Jensen, Pia Søe; Andersen, Signe Lindgård

    2018-01-01

    -based practice. Barriers for nutritional care are grounded in lack of knowledge among nursing staff and insufficient collaboration between nursing staff and the doctors. There is a need for nutritional education for the nursing staff and better support from the organisation to help nursing staff provide evidence......AIM: To explore the barriers for nutritional care as perceived by nursing staff at an acute orthopedic ward, aiming to implement evidence-based nutritional care. BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that nurses recognize nutritional care as important, but interventions are often lacking....... These studies show that a range of barriers influence the attempt to optimize nutritional care. Before the implementation of evidence-based nutritional care, we examined barriers for nutritional care among the nursing staff. DESIGN: Qualitative study. METHODS: Four focus groups with thirteen members...

  11. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care Contract...

  12. Formulation and nutritional evaluation of a healthy vegetable soup powder supplemented with soy flour, mushroom, and moringa leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Tasnim; Mohajan, Suman; Saha, Trissa; Hossain, Md Nur; Haque, Md Zahurul

    2017-07-01

    The research study was conducted to develop a healthy vegetables soup powder supplemented with soy flour, mushroom, moringa leaf and compare its nutritional facts with locally available soup powders. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluation were done by standard method. In this study, moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, and energy content were ranged from 2.83% to 5.46%, 9.39% to 16.48%, 6.92% to 16.05%, 4.22% to 6.39%, 0.22% to 1.61%, 58.81% to 75.41%, and 337.42 to 386.72 kcal/100 g, respectively. Highest content of vitamin D, minerals, protein, and fiber and lowest content of moisture, fat, and carbohydrate were found in the presently developed soy-mushroom-moringa soup powder compare to locally available soup powders. Vitamin C was also found significantly higher than locally available soup powders S1, S2, and S3. Heavy metals were not found in any of the soup powders. On the sensory and microbiological point of view, the presently developed soup powder was found highly acceptable up to 6 months. So, the developed soy-mushroom-moringa soup powder is nutritionally superior to locally available soup powders and sufficient to meet day-to-day nutritional requirements as a supplement.

  13. Nutritional supplement during the treatment with ionizing radiations in patients with head and neck tumors in advanced stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon Rivas, Ivonne; Roca Muchuli, Carlos; Vilau Prieto, Luis; Rubio Hernandez, Maria C.; Rodriguez Diaz, Ronald; Leon, Roberto; Rodriguez Abascal, Alicia; Mederos, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Malnutrition in the patient with advanced cancer favors immunosuppression and implies a low Karnofsky index, poor tolerance and response to the onco specific curative or palliative treatments, high susceptibility to infections and, as a result, a decline of the quality of life. Patients with head and neck tumors in advanced stages (III-IV) are one of the groups of high risk for malnutrition due to the reduction of the intake of nutrients, anorexia, alterations of the deglutition mechanism, and mechanical obstruction of the upper digestive tract, among other causes.Numerous studies show the convenience of the nutritional supplement in these patients during the onco specific treatment. A prospective study that included 15 patients with head and neck neoplasia in advanced stages, and with clinical signs of malnutrition, was conducted in order to evaluate the necessary calorie-energy supplement. All of them were administered an oral nutritional supplement (Adn-22 %) during the radiation treatment to assess the possibility of improving their tolerance and response to the treatment. Of the 15 studied cases, 13 presented complications in connection with the treatment, but most them were mild, and they did not affect in a significant way the time of duration and the total dose of treatment. There was a favorable response in relation to the tumor

  14. Health care costs matter: a review of nutrition economics – is there a role for nutritional support to reduce the cost of medical health care?

    OpenAIRE

    Naberhuis,Jane K; Hunt,Vivienne; Bell,Jvawnna; Partridge,Jamie; Goates,Scott; Nuijten,Mark

    2017-01-01

    Jane K Naberhuis,1 Vivienne N Hunt,2 Jvawnna D Bell,3 Jamie S Partridge,3 Scott Goates,3 Mark JC Nuijten4 1Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 2Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Singapore; 3Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Columbus, OH, USA; 4A2M (Ars Accessus Medica), Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background and aims: As policy-makers assess the value of money spent on health care, researc...

  15. Health care costs matter: a review of nutrition economics – is there a role for nutritional support to reduce the cost of medical health care?

    OpenAIRE

    Naberhuis JK; Hunt VN; Bell JD; Partridge JS; Goates S; Nuijten MJC

    2017-01-01

    Jane K Naberhuis,1 Vivienne N Hunt,2 Jvawnna D Bell,3 Jamie S Partridge,3 Scott Goates,3 Mark JC Nuijten4 1Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 2Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Singapore; 3Abbott Nutrition, Research and Development, Columbus, OH, USA; 4A2M (Ars Accessus Medica), Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background and aims: As policy-makers assess the value of money spent on health care, research in the fie...

  16. Xylitol-supplemented nutrition enhances bacterial killing and prolongs survival of rats in experimental pneumococcal sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renko, Marjo; Valkonen, Päivi; Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Mattila, Pauli; Knuuttila, Matti; Svanberg, Martti; Leinonen, Maija; Karttunen, Riitta; Uhari, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Background Xylitol has antiadhesive effects on Streptococcus pneumoniae and inhibits its growth, and has also been found to be effective in preventing acute otitis media and has been used in intensive care as a valuable source of energy. Results We evaluated the oxidative burst of neutrophils in rats fed with and without xylitol. The mean increase in the percentage of activated neutrophils from the baseline was higher in the xylitol-exposed group than in the control group (58.1% vs 51.4%, P = 0.03 for the difference) and the mean induced increase in the median strength of the burst per neutrophil was similarly higher in the xylitol group (159.6 vs 140.3, P = 0.04). In two pneumococcal sepsis experiments rats were fed either a basal powder diet (control group) or the same diet supplemented with 10% or 20% xylitol and infected with an intraperitoneal inoculation of S. pneumoniae after two weeks. The mean survival time was 48 hours in the xylitol groups and 34 hours in the control groups (P Xylitol has beneficial effects on both the oxidative killing of bacteria in neutrophilic leucocytes and on the survival of rats with experimental pneumococcal sepsis. PMID:18334022

  17. Objective and subjective nutritional assessment of patients with cancer in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ang Yee; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with cancer in palliative care and to examine the interrelationship between objective and subjective nutritional assessment measures. Patients' nutritional status in a palliative care unit of a Malaysian government hospital and a hospice facility were assessed using anthropometric measurements, weight loss at 1/6 months, and the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Moderate-to-severe malnutrition was observed in a range from 31% to 69% using both measurements. Common nutritional impact symptoms were pain, xerostomia, and anorexia. Patient-generated subjective global assessment scores were significantly correlated with anthropometric measurements (P nutritional status assessment of patients with cancer in palliative care.

  18. Is Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation an Efficient Nutritional Strategy to Alleviate Skeletal Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fouré

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury. The potential benefit of a BCAAs supplementation was also analyzed according to the supplementation strategy—amount of BCAAs, frequency and duration of the supplementation—and the extent of muscle damage. The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42017073006 and followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Literature search was performed from the date of commencement until August 2017 using four online databases (Medline, Cochrane library, Web of science and ScienceDirect. Original research articles: (i written in English; (ii describing experiments performed in Humans who received at least one oral BCAAs supplementation composed of leucine, isoleucine and valine mixture only as a nutritional strategy and (iii reporting a follow-up of at least one day after exercise-induced muscle damage, were included in the systematic review analysis. Quality assessment was undertaken independently using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were considered as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures were the extent of change in indirect markers of muscle damage. In total, 11 studies were included in the analysis. A high heterogeneity was found regarding the

  19. Chemical Composition and Nutritive Benefits of Chicory (Cichorium intybus as an Ideal Complementary and/or Alternative Livestock Feed Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Chinyelu Nwafor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicory is a perennial plant grown in different parts of the world, used as forage for livestock, as folklore remedies, or as a vegetable addition in human diets. There are several varieties of the chicory plant, known differently globally due to its numerous medicinal, culinary, and nutritional qualities. Most parts of the plant contain a potpourri of nutrients ranging within carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, soluble fiber, trace elements, and bioactive phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the various nutritive, prophylactic, and therapeutic qualities of chicory. Inulin, coumarins, tannins, monomeric flavonoids, and sesquiterpene lactones are some of the major phytocompounds mostly found in chicory plants. The health-promoting activities attributed to chicory comprise, among others, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial, antimutagenic, antifungal, anthelmintic, immune-stimulating, and antihepatotoxic and its antioxidative qualities. As a versatile plant, chicory’s chemical composition and use as a suitable livestock feed supplement or as an alternative feed ingredient (AFI are thus reviewed.

  20. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Rosell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p < 0.05 increase of the specific volume, crust darkening, and crumb lightness, depending on the dairy supplementation level, rather than the protein type. Dairy proteins incorporated at a 12% level, significantly (p < 0.05 decreased the hardness; nevertheless, the highest amount of proteins tested led to the opposite effect. These results indicate that milk proteins tested could be successfully added to gluten-free bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties.

  1. Determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast by Zeeman-effect graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ekelund, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast is described. The samples were ashed in nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid was used to prevent precipitation of, in particular, iron salts. After appropriate dilutions, the selenium was determined by Zeeman......-effect background corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A furnace ashing step at 1100 °C was necessary in order to obtain a total recovery of selenium when present in the organic form. Palladium nitrate-magnesium nitrate was used as a matrix modifier. Independent methods were used to determine...... the content of selenium in a selenised yeast check sample. Accuracy was assured using this sample and by recovery experiments. Between-day random error showed a coefficient of variation of 4.2%. Results from the analysis of eight different commercial supplements were in good agreement with declared contents....

  2. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morton, Alison M

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation.

  3. Nutritional supplements and herbal medicines for women with polycystic ovary syndrome; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentz, Susan; Smith, Caroline A; Abbott, Jason; Bensoussan, Alan

    2017-11-25

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, reproductive endocrinopathy associated with serious short and long term health risks. Many women with PCOS use ingestible complementary medicines. This systematic review examined the effect on menstrual regulation and adverse effects from randomised controlled trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared herbal or nutritional supplements to placebo or active controls in women with PCOS were eligible for inclusion. Electronic databases were searched to July 2017. Study selection and assessment of quality were conducted independently by two review authors. Twenty four studies (1406 women) investigating seven nutritional supplements and four herbal medicines were included. No one study was assessed as having a low risk of bias. Four trials reported on the primary endpoint menstrual regulation. There was no evidence on improved menstrual regularity for calcium plus vitamin D compared to Metformin (RR: 0.66, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.23, p = 0.19), reduced amenorrhoea for Camellia sinensis compared to placebo (RR: 0.17, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.72, p = 0.13) and no difference in the number of menses per month for Cinnamomum sp. against placebo (MD 0.05, 95% CI -0.36 to 1.36, p = 0.26). Adverse effects were investigated in seven studies (164 women). Mild adverse effects were found for Cinnamomum sp. compared to placebo (17 women, RR: 0.36, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.70, p = 0.03). No difference was found for adverse effects between inositol, B complex vitamins, vitamin D, chromium and placebo. Improved reproduction, metabolic hormones and hyperandrogenism was found for inositol and improved cholesterol for omega three fish oils. There is no high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of nutritional supplements and herbal medicine for women with PCOS and evidence of safety is lacking. High quality trials of nutritional supplements and herbal medicines examining menstrual regulation and adverse effects in women with PCOS

  4. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2014-03-27

    Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (ηp2 = .01, p sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men.

  5. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Nutritional strategies for ruminants fed on local feed supplemented with molasses multi-nutrient blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)

  6. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, A L; Sohel, M; Brown, M; Jenden, D J; Ahn, C; Roch, M; Brawley, T L

    2001-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that choline deficiency, manifested in low plasma-free choline concentration and hepatic injury, may develop in patients who require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary studies have suggested lecithin or choline supplementation might lead to improved visual memory in the elderly and reverse abnormal neuropsychological development in children. We sought to determine if choline-supplemented TPN would lead to improvement in neuropsychological test scores in a group of adult, choline-deficient outpatients receiving TPN. Eleven subjects (8 males, 3 females) who received nightly TPN for more than 80% of their nutritional needs for at least 12 weeks before entry in the study were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included active drug abuse, mental retardation, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, (prothrombin time [PT] >2x control), or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients were randomly assigned to receive their usual TPN regimen (n = 6, aged 34.0 +/- 12.6 years) over a 12-hour nightly infusion or their usual TPN regimen plus choline chloride (2 g) (n = 5, aged 37.3 +/- 7.3 years). The following neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and after 24 weeks of choline supplementation (or placebo): Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R, intellectual functioning), Weschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, two subtests, verbal and visual memory), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (visuospatial functioning and perceptual organization), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), Grooved Pegboard (manual dexterity and motor speed), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, rote verbal learning ability), and Trail Making Parts A & B (visual scanning, psychomotor speed and set shifting). Scores were reported in terms of standard scores including z scores and percentile ranks. Mean absolute changes in raw scores were compared between groups

  7. Nutrition for Early Childhood Care: Implication for guidance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition is very important for children because their bodies are still forming in every way. Bones, muscles, organs, brain and nerve functions of children develop rapidly and needs to be fed all they need. Habits are been formed too and should be healthy ones. This paper therefore looked at the concept of nutrition, ...

  8. 76 FR 38108 - Request for Public Comments for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... additional elements should FNS consider as a component of the selection criteria for this local agency... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Request for Public Comments for Special... Breastfeeding Support Practices AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of request for comments...

  9. Nurses' Knowledge and Responsibility toward Nutritional Assessment for Patients in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al Kalaldeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional assessment is a prerequisite for nutritional delivery. Patients in intensive care suffer from under-nutrition and nutritional failure due to poor assessment. Nursing ability to early detect nutritional failure is the key for minimizing imparities in practice and attaining nutritional goals. Aim of this article is to examine the ability of Jordanian ICU nurses to assess the nutritional status of critically ill patients, considering biophysical and biochemical measures.Methods: This cross sectional study recruited nurses from different health sectors in Jordan. ICU nurses from the governmental sector (two hospitals and private sectors (two hospitals were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Nurses' knowledge and responsibility towards nutritional assessment were examined.Results: A total of 220 nurses from both sectors have completed the questionnaire. Nurses were consistent in regard to knowledge, responsibility, and documentation of nutritional assessment. Nurses in the governmental hospitals inappropriately perceived the application of aspiration reduction measures. However, they scored higher in applying physical examination and anthropometric assessment.  Although both nurses claimed higher use of biochemical measurements, biophysical measurements were less frequently used. Older nurses with longer clinical experience exhibited better adherence to biophysical measurement than younger nurses.Conclusion: Nursing nutritional assessment is still suboptimal to attain nutritional goals. Assessment of body weight, history of nutrition intake, severity of illness, and function of gastrointestinal tract should be considered over measuring albumin and pre-albumin levels.  A well-defined evidence-based protocol as well as a multidisciplinary nutritional team for nutritional assessment is the best to minimize episodes of under-nutrition.

  10. Practitioner and lay perspectives of the service provision of nutrition information leaflets in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinchy, Jane; Dickinson, Angela; Barron, Duncan; Thomas, Hilary

    2011-12-01

    In primary care, leaflets are often used to communicate health information. Increasingly, primary healthcare practitioners need to provide dietary advice. There is limited research exploring how nutrition information leaflets are used in primary care. The present study explored practitioner and lay experiences with respect to providing and receiving nutrition information in primary care, focusing in particular on the use of leaflets for nutrition information. A qualitative design was used incorporating focus groups with 57 practitioners based at seven general practitioner practices and a purposive sample of 30 lay participants attending six Consumer Health Organisations within one primary care trust. Focus groups were taped and transcribed verbatim and data were analysed thematically, assisted by computer software n6® (QSR International Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia). Practitioners discussed barriers to giving nutritional advice, access to leaflets, lay receptiveness to advice and their perceptions about the value of leaflets to lay people. Food was not considered in terms of its nutritional components by lay participants and the need for nutritional information was not perceived to be relevant until they had received a medical diagnosis. Lay participants discussed the importance of receiving nutritional advice relating to their medical diagnosis and the altered status of written information that was delivered personally. Practitioner and lay groups suggested improvements to ensure that nutritional advice be supported by relevant and appropriate written information. This research has underlined the continuing importance of nutrition information leaflets and concludes that there is particular value in involving lay participants in the development of nutrition information leaflets. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Multiple supplements for beef heifers on pasture during the dry season: nutritional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate levels of multiple supplements supplied to beef heifers in low supply of pasture on intake and nutrients digestibility, pH and concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, nitrogen balance, synthesis and microbial efficiency. Five Nellore heifers with initial body weight of 344.00 ± 21.10 kg and average initial age of 22 months were used. The following supplements were evaluated as fed to the animals: control (mineral supplement and supplementation levels of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg/animal/day, composing the following percentages of body weight (BW: 0.55, 1.11, 1.66 and 2.22%, respectively. The experimental design was a Latin square with five replications and five supplements. Intakes of total dry matter, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients, and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates and no fiber carbohydrates increased linearly (P <0.0001 and dry matter intake of forage decreased (P <0.0001 with supplementation levels. Supplementation strategies promoted reduction on ruminal pH (P = 0.0343 and increased concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N (P = 0.0004 before the supply of supplements, and after, this NH3-N presented quadratic behavior (P = 0.0023. Nitrogen intake, excretion of urea in urine and nitrogen excretion in feces increased linearly (P <0.0001 according to supplementation levels. The supply of high levels of multiple supplements reduces forage intake and presents itself as an alternative to cattle maintained in a systems with low supply of pasture in the dry season.

  12. Multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in nursing home and home-care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Gøgsig Christensen, Annette; Stenbæk Hansen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home-care identified with the validated Eating Validation Scheme (EVS). Methods An 11 wk cluster randomized trial with a home-care (3 clusters) or nursing home (3 clusters.......3] versus 1.3 [0.5], P = 0.021) was observed. There was a almost significant difference in mortality (2% versus 13%, P = 0.079). Conclusions Multidisciplinary nutritional support in older adults in nursing home and home-care could have a positive effect on quality of life, muscle strength, and oral care....... means of EuroQol-5D-3L), physical performance (30-seconds chair stand), nutritional status (weight and hand-grip strength), oral care, fall incidents, hospital admissions, rehabilitation stay, moving to nursing homes (participants from home-care), and mortality. Results Respectively, 55 (46 from 2 home...

  13. Malnutrition and nutritional care practices in hospital wards for older people

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderwee, Katrien; Clays, Els; Bocquaert, Ilse; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Lardennois, Miguel; Gobert, Micheline; Defloor, Tom

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: This paper is a report of a study conducted to gain a better insight into the current nutritional care practices in Belgian hospital wards for older people, and to study the association between these practices and the prevalence of malnutrition. BACKGROUND: In 1999, the Council of Europe assessed nutritional care practices and support in 12 European countries and showed them to be sparse and inconsistent. At the time of research, no studies had described the association between nutritio...

  14. The nutritional care of people living with dementia at home: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Louise; Kent, Bridie; Abbott, Rebecca; Wood, Chloë; Hickson, Mary

    2018-01-24

    There are an increasing number of people with dementia living in their own home for longer, often supported by a family member. The symptoms of dementia can affect an individual's nutritional status, which can lead to a reduced quality of life for the person with dementia and their family members. A scoping review was conducted from July 2016 until September 2016, using a recognised framework, to explore what is currently known, and identify any gaps in the research regarding the nutritional care of people living with dementia at home. This included any interventions that may have been trialled or implemented, and the views of those living with dementia, carers and clinicians. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2016. A review team was involved in screening and data extraction for selected articles. Published qualitative and quantitative studies were included that explored the nutritional care of people living with dementia at home. Methods included data extraction and conventional content analysis. Stakeholders were involved in the development of final categories. Following screening, 61 studies reported in 63 articles were included. Most studies were cross-sectional (n = 24), cohort (n = 15) or qualitative (n = 9). Only three were randomised controlled trials. Three overarching categories represented the results: Timely identification of nutritional risk and subsequent regular monitoring of nutritional status, multi-component tailored interventions and the influence of the care-giving dyad on nutritional status. Many studies identify people living at home with dementia as a vulnerable group prone to malnutrition; however, a lack of interventions exists to address the increased risk. There is a lack of research exploring the role of home care providers and healthcare professionals in the provision of nutritional care. Further research is required to explore how the emotional aspect of the care-giving dyad influences nutritional care

  15. FEATURES OF INTENSIVE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT OF PREMATURE INFANTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Romanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modern approaches to preterm infants feeding, principles of parenteral and enteral nutrition. The importance of adequate control of deficit status in preterm infants at different periods of developmental care is marked. Arguments for using the enriched milk or specialized formulas for prematurity during the in-clinic and out-clinic periods of care are provided.Key words: premature infants, enteral nutrition, formulas for premature infants, breast milk, breast milk enriches.

  16. Effect of early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the paediatric ICU: a preplanned observational study of post-randomisation treatments in the PEPaNIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Verbruggen, Sascha; Casaer, Michaël P; Gunst, Jan; Wouters, Pieter J; Hanot, Jan; Guerra, Gonzalo Garcia; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2017-06-01

    Large randomised controlled trials have shown that early supplemental parenteral nutrition in patients admitted to adult and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is harmful. Overdosing of energy with too little protein was suggested as a potential reason for this. This study analysed which macronutrient was associated with harm caused by early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the Paediatric Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition In Critical Illness (PEPaNIC) randomised trial. Patients in the initial randomised controlled trial were randomly assigned to receive suppplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) within 24 h of PICU admission (early PN) or to receive such PN after 1 week (late PN) when enteral nutrition was insufficient. In this post-randomisation, observational study, doses of glucose, lipids, and aminoacids administered during the first 7 days of PICU stay were expressed as % of reference doses from published clinical guidelines for age and weight. Independent associations between average macronutrient doses up to each of the first 7 days and likelihood of acquiring an infection in the PICU, of earlier live weaning from mechanical ventilation, and of earlier live PICU discharge were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses. The three macronutrients were included in the analysis simultaneously and baseline risk factors were adjusted for. From June 18, 2012, to July 27, 2015, 7519 children aged between newborn and 17 years were assessed for eligibility. 6079 patients were excluded, and 1440 children were randomly assigned to receive either early PN (n=723) or late PN (n=717). With increasing doses of aminoacids, the likelihood of acquiring a new infection was higher (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] per 10% increase between 1·043-1·134 for days 1-5, p≤0·029), while the likelihood of earlier live weaning from mechanical ventilation was lower (HRs 0·950-0·975 days 3-7, p≤0·045), and the likelihood of earlier live PICU

  17. Multifaceted nutritional intervention among nursing-home residents has a positive influence on nutrition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Damkjær, Karin; Beyer, Nina

    2008-01-01

    intervention study with nutrition (chocolate and homemade oral supplements), group exercise twice a week (45-60 min, moderate intensity), and oral care intervention one to two times a week, with the aim of improving nutritional status and function in elderly nursing-home residents. A follow-up visit was made 4......-home residents by means of a multifaceted intervention consisting of chocolate, homemade supplements, group exercise, and oral care. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  18. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  19. Impact of Early Parenteral Nutrition on Metabolism and Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gunst, Jan; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Casaer, Michaël P.; Hermans, Greet; Wouters, Pieter J.; Dubois, Jasperina; Claes, Kathleen; Schetz, Miet; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2013-01-01

    A poor nutritional state and a caloric deficit associate with increased morbidity and mortality, but a recent multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that early parenteral nutrition to supplement insufficient enteral nutrition increases morbidity in the intensive care unit, including prolonging the duration of renal replacement therapy, compared with withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week. Whether early versus late parenteral nutrition impacts the incidence and recovery of AKI is ...

  20. [Study of vitamin D supplementation in people over 65 years in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Cécile; Guillot, Pascale; Berrut, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Most of the elderly have vitamin D deficiency, which is defined as a serum level below 30 ng/mL. To identify the characteristics of patients over 65 receiving vitamin D supplements by their primary care physician. A descriptive and transverse study was performed on patients over 65 years old admitted to Care Following at the La Croix Rouge in Nantes from September 2012 to February 2013. The criteria for vitamin D supplementation, the type (vitamin D2 or D3, continuous prescription or not, route of administration) and starting date of vitamin D supplementation were identified. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured at admission. Of 163 patients included, 44% received vitamin D supplements (n=71). The patient aged over 80 benefited more often from vitamin D supplementation (p=0.019), so did women (p=0.034), patients with fractures (p=0.05), patients with osteoporosis treatments (pvitamin D supplementation less often than the others (p=0.046). The dosage of the vitamin D was normal for 28% of patients (n=46). The prescription of vitamin D supplements to the elderly is still too scarce and should be encouraged, especially in non-bone indications.

  1. Implementing the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Benchmarks for Nutrition Education for Children: Child-Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Schober, Daniel J; McBride, Brent A; Kok, Car Mun; Ramsay, Samantha

    2017-12-01

    National childhood obesity prevention policies recommend that child-care providers educate young children about nutrition to improve their nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Yet, the provision of nutrition education (NE) to children in child-care settings is limited. Using the 2011 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks for NE in child care as a guiding framework, researchers assessed child-care providers' perspectives regarding delivery of NE through books, posters, mealtime conversations, hands-on learning, and sensory exploration of foods to young children (aged 2 to 5 years). Using a qualitative design (realist method), individual, semistructured interviews were conducted until saturation was reached. The study was conducted during 2012-2013 and used purposive sampling to select providers. Final sample included 18 providers employed full-time in Head Start or state-licensed center-based child-care programs in Central Illinois. Child-care providers' perspectives regarding implementation of NE. Thematic analysis to derive themes using NVivo software. Three overarching themes emerged, including providers' motivators, barriers, and facilitators for delivering NE to children. Motivators for delivering NE included that NE encourages children to try new foods, NE improves children's knowledge of healthy and unhealthy foods, and NE is consistent with children's tendency for exploration. Barriers for delivering NE included that limited funding and resources for hands-on experiences and restrictive policies. Facilitators for delivering NE included providers obtain access to feasible, low-cost resources and community partners, providers work around restrictive policies to accommodate NE, and mealtime conversations are a feasible avenue to deliver NE. Providers integrated mealtime conversations with NE concepts such as food-based sensory exploration and health benefits of foods. Present study findings offer insights regarding providers' perspectives on

  2. Impact of Moringa oleifera lam. Leaf powder supplementation versus nutritional counseling on the body mass index and immune response of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: a single-blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshingani, Koy; Donnen, Philippe; Mukumbi, Henri; Duez, Pierre; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle

    2017-08-22

    To achieve effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes, adherence to an antiretroviral regimen and a good immunometabolic response are essential. Food insecurity can act as a real barrier to adherence to both of these factors. Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) treated with ART in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are faced with nutritional challenges. A significant proportion are affected by under nutrition, which frequently leads to therapeutic failure. Some HIV care facilities recommend supplementation with Moringa oleifera (M.O.) Lam. leaf powder to combat marginal and major nutritional deficiencies. This study aims to assess the impact of M.O. Lam. leaf powder supplementation compared to nutritional counseling on the nutritional and immune status of PLHIV treated with ART. A single-blind randomized control trial was carried out from May to September 2013 at an outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kinshasa (DRC). Sixty adult patients who were at stable HIV/AIDS clinical staging 2, 3 or 4 according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and were undergoing ART were recruited. After random allocation, 30 patients in the Moringa intervention group (MG) received the M.O. Lam. leaf powder daily over 6 months, and 30 in the control group (CG) received nutritional counseling over the same period. Changes in the body mass index (BMI) were measured monthly and biological parameters were measured upon admission and at the end of the study for the patients in both groups. The two study groups were similar in terms of long-term nutritional exposure, sociodemographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and biological features. At 6 months follow-up, patients in the MG exhibited a significantly greater increase in BMI and albumin levels than those in the CG. The interaction between the sociodemographic, clinical, and biological characteristics of patients in the two groups was not significant, with the exception of professional

  3. The Evolving Role of Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplement Use among Adults in the Age of Personalized Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies occur in segments of the adult population in the United States. Multivitamin/multimineral supplements (MVMS are widely used by this population, which reduces inadequacies in micronutrient intake, but the potential for exceeding tolerable upper intake levels in others should be considered. There are concerns associated with the excessive intake of certain nutrients, particularly folic acid, and potential untoward consequences. The advent of nutrigenomics and the enhanced ability to directly study the interactions between nutrition and genetic variants and expression will allow for the conduct of more targeted studies with specific endpoints and may ultimately lead to progress in the field of personalized nutrition. The role of MVMS in health maintenance and chronic disease prevention remains controversial. Conducting studies in this area has been hampered by, among other factors, inconsistent definitions of MVMS, ranging from as few as three vitamins to broad-spectrum products containing more than two dozen vitamins and minerals. Results from some observational studies and large-scale, randomized, controlled trials suggest that MVMS may reduce the risk of some forms of cancer and, potentially, cardiovascular disease. The ongoing COcoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS is expected to build on this research and provide additional insights into these areas.

  4. Smartphone apps and the nutrition care process: Current perspectives and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juliana; Gemming, Luke; Hanning, Rhona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    To provide dietitians with practical guidance on incorporating smartphone applications (apps) in the nutrition care process (NCP) to optimize patient education and counseling. The current evidence-base for mobile health (mHealth) apps was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Where and how apps could be implemented by dietitians across the four steps of the NCP is discussed. With functionality to automatically convert patient dietary records into nutrient components, nutrition assessment can be streamlined using nutrition apps, allowing more time for dietitians to deliver education and nutrition counseling. Dietitians could prescribe apps to provide patients with education on nutrition skills and in counseling for better adherence to behavior change. Improved patient-provider communication is also made possible through the opportunity for real-time monitoring and evaluation of patient progress via apps. A practical framework termed the 'Mobile Nutrition Care Process Grid' provides dietitians with best-practice guidance on how to use apps. Including apps into dietetic practice could enhance the efficiency and quality of nutrition care and counseling delivered by dietitians. Apps should be considered an adjunct to enable dietetic counseling and care, rather than to replace the expertise, social support and accountability provided by dietitians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of nutritional supplement combined with exercise intervention on sarcopenia in the elderly: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This systematic review was conducted to explore whether nutritional supplement can improve the benefits of exercise intervention on sarcopenia in the elderly. Methods: Databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG, and VIP, were searched. All related papers with randomized controlled trials (RCT methodology that were included in the databases from inception to 19 July 2016 were selected for the study. The tool “assessing risk of bias” from Cochrane Handbook 5.10 was used to evaluate the quality of included papers. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed using Stata12.0. Data that we were unable to convene or merge were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results: Six trials were included in our study, which included 429 elderly patients with sarcopenia. The overall methodological quality of the trials was moderate. Compared with the exercise group, patients who were given nutritional supplements gained a bigger boost in fat-free mass (standard mean difference (SMD = 5.78, 95% CI: 5.17 to 6.40, P = 0.000 and muscle mass (SMD = 2.048, 95% CI: 0.907 to 3.189, P = 0.000, as well as showed enhancement of keen extension strength (SMD = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.45, P = 0.000 and usual walk speed (SMD = 0.570, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.95, P = 0.003. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation may magnify the effect of exercise intervention on sarcopenia elderly in terms of muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. Inconsistencies were present among research studies. More robust studies are needed to determine the most suitable type of nutrient and target population and to explore the actual role of combined intervention in managing sarcopenia in the elderly. Keywords: Sarcopenia, Exercise, Nutritional status, Meta-analysis

  6. 78 FR 46799 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... and Nutrition Service (FNS) is issuing this affirmation of a final rule, without change, of an interim... SNAP State agencies to share information with local educational agencies (LEAs) administering the...

  7. The effect of nutritional supplementation on quality of life in people living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye Woldeyohannes, Markos; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm

    2016-01-01

    the subsequent 3 months. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in three ART clinics within public health facilities in Jimma, Ethiopia. Participants were PLHIV eligible to start ART with body mass index >17kg/m(2) and given daily supplements of 200 grams of LNS containing whey or soy either during the first 3......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on the quality of life of people living with HIV (PLHIV) during the first 3 months of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and to investigate the effects of timing of supplementation by comparing with supplementation during...... months or the subsequent months of ART. The outcome was measured in terms of total quality of life scores on the adapted version of the WHOQOL-HIV-BREF assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Of the 282 participants, 186 (66.0%) were women. The mean age (standard deviation SD) was 32.8 (±9...

  8. Evaluation of human milk titratable acidity before and after addition of a nutritional supplement for preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Iáskara do Vale Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the initial Dornic acidity in raw human milk, after pasteurization and after heating and dilution of a dietary supplement for preterm infants. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, and experimental study was carried out with a convenience sample at the human milk bank at a Brazilian public maternity, with specialized care for pregnant women and newborns at risk. The eligibility criteria for the study sample included 93 frozen raw human milk in suitable containers with volumes ≥100 mL and initial Dornic acidity ≤8° Dornic (ºD. Milk acidity of human milk was measured in four stages: in raw human milk (initial; after pasteurization; after the heating of pasteurized milk and dilution of the supplement; and after thirty minutes of supplementation. Results: The initial acidity was 3.8° D ± 1.3 (95% CI: 3.56-4.09 with no significant difference in Dornic acidity in pasteurized milk, which was 3.6° D ± 1.2 (95% CI: 3.36-3.87. The dilution of the supplement in pasteurized milk that was heated significantly increased mean Dornic acidity to 18.6 °D ± 2.2 (95% CI: 18.18-19.11, which remained high after thirty minutes of supplementation at 17.8 °D ± 2.2 (95% CI: 17.36-18.27, considering p < 0.05. Conclusions: The study observed no significant differences in Dornic acidity of raw human milk and pasteurized human milk; however, the dilution of a human milk supplementation caused a significant increase in acidity. Further investigations are necessary on the influence of this finding on the quality of supplemented milk and its consequences on the health of preterm infants.

  9. Evaluation of human milk titratable acidity before and after addition of a nutritional supplement for preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cibelle Iáskara do Vale; Dametto, Juliana Fernandes Dos Santos; Oliveira, Janaína Cavalcanti Costa

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the initial Dornic acidity in raw human milk, after pasteurization and after heating and dilution of a dietary supplement for preterm infants. A quantitative, descriptive, and experimental study was carried out with a convenience sample at the human milk bank at a Brazilian public maternity, with specialized care for pregnant women and newborns at risk. The eligibility criteria for the study sample included 93 frozen raw human milk in suitable containers with volumes ≥100mL and initial Dornic acidity ≤8° Dornic (°D). Milk acidity of human milk was measured in four stages: in raw human milk (initial); after pasteurization; after the heating of pasteurized milk and dilution of the supplement; and after thirty minutes of supplementation. The initial acidity was 3.8°D±1.3 (95% CI: 3.56-4.09) with no significant difference in Dornic acidity in pasteurized milk, which was 3.6°D±1.2 (95% CI: 3.36-3.87). The dilution of the supplement in pasteurized milk that was heated significantly increased mean Dornic acidity to 18.6°D±2.2 (95% CI: 18.18-19.11), which remained high after thirty minutes of supplementation at 17.8°D±2.2 (95% CI: 17.36-18.27), considering praw human milk and pasteurized human milk; however, the dilution of a human milk supplementation caused a significant increase in acidity. Further investigations are necessary on the influence of this finding on the quality of supplemented milk and its consequences on the health of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. [Does the nutritional care plan and report upon discharge under the health care system substitute the nutrition support team summary at patient discharge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Kumi; Matsuoka, Mio; Kajiwara, Kanako; Hinokiyama, Hiromi; Mito, Saori; Doi, Seiko; Konishi, Eriko; Ibata, Takeshi; Komuro, Ryutaro; lijima, Shohei

    2013-12-01

    Our nutrition support team (NST) designed the NST summary for cooperation among personnel providing medical care for nutritional management of high-need patients in our area. After the introduction of the NST fee under the health care system, the number of summary publications decreased. The requested NST fee is necessary for publication of a nutritional care plan and report upon patient discharge. We hypothesized that the nutritional care plan and discharge report were being substituted for the NST summary at the time of patient discharge. We retrospectively investigated 192 cases with NST fee. There were only 13 cases of overlapping publication, and the NST summary was necessary for 107 of 179 cases in which no NST summary had been prepared. Since the space on the report form is limited, it can provide only limited information. However, the NST summary can convey detailed supplementary information. Therefore, there is a high need for the NST summary, and publication of NST summaries for the appropriate cases must continue.

  11. Training Nonnursing Staff to Assist with Nutritional Care Delivery in Nursing Homes: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sandra F; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily A; Liu, Xulei; Shotwell, Matthew S; Keeler, Emmett; An, Ruopeng; Silver, Heidi J

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect and cost-effectiveness of training nonnursing staff to provide feeding assistance for nutritionally at-risk nursing home (NH) residents. Randomized, controlled trial. Five community NHs. Long-stay NH residents with an order for caloric supplementation (N = 122). Research staff provided an 8-hour training curriculum to nonnursing staff. Trained staff were assigned to between-meal supplement or snack delivery for the intervention group; the control group received usual care. Research staff used standardized observations and weighed-intake methods to measure frequency of between-meal delivery, staff assistance time, and resident caloric intake. Fifty staff (mean 10 per site) completed training. The intervention had a significant effect on between-meal caloric intake (F = 56.29, P staff time to provide assistance. It is cost effective to train nonnursing staff to provide caloric supplementation, and this practice has a positive effect on residents' between-meal intake. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M; Rosenbom, E; Rasmussen, H H; Nielsen, M A; Thomsen, T

    2014-04-01

    New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay. In IG, 76% versus 70% CG patients reached ≥75% of their energy requirements (P = 0.57); 66% IG versus 30% CG patients reached ≥75% of their protein requirements (P = 0.001). The risk ratio for achieving ≥75% of protein requirements: 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.7); number needed to treat = 3 (95% confidence interval = 2-6). IG had a higher mean intake of energy and protein when adjusted for body weight (CG: 82 kJ kg(-1) versus IG: 103 kJ kg(-1) , P = 0.013; CG: 0.7 g protein kg(-1) versus 0.9 g protein kg(-1) , P = 0.003). Body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay did not differ between groups. The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Nutritional supplements modulate fluorescent protein-bound advanced glycation endproducts and digestive enzymes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Emily R; Deo, Permal

    2016-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia enhances the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to diabetic complications. Thus, controlling blood glucose levels, inhibiting the formation of AGEs and reducing ROS are key therapeutic targets in early stage type 2 diabetes. The inhibitory effects of seven commercial liquid nutritional supplements against carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, was determined by dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside solution, respectively. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of fluorescent protein-bound AGEs. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant properties (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl antioxidant activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) were determined for correlation among these components and inhibitory activities. Samoan noni juice showed the greatest inhibitory effects against α-amylase, whereas chlorophyll extracts showed the greatest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase. Inhibition of α-glucosidase correlated with TFC (r(2) = 0.766; p 1) and FRAP (r(2) = 0.750; p 1) whereas no correlation was observed for α-amylase inhibition. All supplements inhibited fluorescent protein-bound AGEs, with the greatest effect exerted by Olive Leaf Extract, Blood Sugar Support (IC50 = 0.5 mg/ml). The IC50 values negatively correlated with TPC (r(2) = -0.707; p 1) and DPPH scavenging activities (r(2) = 0.515; p nutritional supplements in managing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Perioperative Alanyl-Glutamine-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition in Chronic Radiation Enteritis Patients With Surgical Intestinal Obstruction: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Danhua; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Jian; Guo, Mingxiao; Yin, Jianyi; Li, Yousheng

    2016-04-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed to evaluate the effects of perioperative alanyl-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition (PN) support on the immunologic function, intestinal permeability, and nutrition status of surgical patients with chronic radiation enteritis (CRE)-induced intestinal obstruction. Patients who received 0.4 g/kg/d alanyl-glutamine and isonitrogenous PN were assigned to an alanyl-glutamine-supplemented PN (Gln-PN) group and a control group, respectively. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and glutamine, body fat mass (FM), immunologic function, and intestinal permeability were measured before and after surgery. Serum glutamine levels of the Gln-PN group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P nutrition state and intestinal motility of surgical patients with CRE-induced intestinal obstruction. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Additive effects of nutritional supplementation, together with bisphosphonates, on bone mineral density after hip fracture: a 12-month randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flodin L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lena Flodin,1,2 Maria Sääf,3 Tommy Cederholm,4 Amer N Al-Ani,2,5 Paul W Ackermann,5,6 Eva Samnegård,7 Nils Dalen,7 Margareta Hedström2,51Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Department of Orthopedics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 7Department of Clinical Science, Division of Orthopedics, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: After a hip fracture, a catabolic state develops, with increased bone loss during the first year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of postoperative treatment with calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates (alone or together with nutritional supplementation on total hip and total body bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: Seventy-nine patients (56 women, with a mean age of 79 years (range, 61–96 years and with a recent hip fracture, who were ambulatory before fracture and without severe cognitive impairment, were included. Patients were randomized to treatment with bisphosphonates (risedronate 35 mg weekly for 12 months (B; n=28, treatment with bisphosphonates along with nutritional supplementation (40 g protein, 600 kcal daily for the first 6 months (BN; n=26, or to controls (C; n=25. All participants received calcium (1,000 mg and vitamin D3 (800 IU daily. Total hip and total body BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Marker of bone resorption C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were analyzed in serum

  16. The relationship between nutrition and frailty: Effects of protein intake, nutritional supplementation, vitamin D and exercise on muscle metabolism in the elderly. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza-Artabe, Iñaki; Sáez-López, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Natalia; Fernández-Gutierrez, Naiara; Malafarina, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that predicts the onset of disability, morbidity and mortality in elderly people; it is a state of pre-disability and is reversible. The aim of this review is to assess how nutrition influences both the risk of developing frailty and its treatment. We searched two databases, PubMed and Web of Science. We included epidemiologic studies and clinical trials carried out on people aged over 65 years. We included 32 studies with a total of over 50,000 participants. The prevalence of frailty is ranges from 15% among elderly people living in the community to 54% among those hospitalized. Furthermore, the prevalence of frailty is disproportionately high among elderly people who are malnourished. Malnutrition, which is very prevalent in geriatric populations, is one of the main risk factors for the onset of frailty. A good nutritional status and, wherever necessary, supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients reduce the risk of developing frailty. Physical exercise has been shown to improve functional status, helps to prevent frailty and is an effective treatment to reverse it. Despite the relatively large number of studies included, this review has some limitations. Firstly, variability in the design of the studies and their different aims reduce their comparability. Secondly, several of the studies did not adequately define frailty. Poor nutritional status is associated with the onset of frailty. Screening and early diagnosis of malnutrition and frailty in elderly people will help to prevent the onset of disability. Effective treatment is based on correction of the macro- and micronutrient deficit and physical exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anesthesiologists’ Choice of Nutritional Therapy of Intensive Care Patients: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Şen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Providing adequate nutrition to critical patients as early as possible following internalization is important. Hospitalized patients are among the highest risk groups for malnutrition. Material and Method: A questionnaire including 21 questions about clinician’s demographics and nutritional therapies in intensive care units was e-mailed to anesthesiologists only. Partially answered questionnaires were not included in the analysis. Results: A total of 121 questionnaires were analyzed. Every three out of four clinician reported application of nutritional therapy in intensive care unit, and according to the guidelines. While 75% of the clinicians following the guidelines were routinely evaluating nutritional status of their patients, this ratio was only 19% in clinicians not following the guidelines (p=0.0003. Enteral nutrition was the first choice of all clinicians, and majority of the clinicians (90, 74.4% preferred central venous catheter for parenteral nutrition. The most important criteria for the choice of parenteral nutritional solution were reported as calories per volume and presence of the solution at the hospital by all clinicians. Among the clinicians following the guidelines, 70% were administering fish oil, 95% were administering glutamin to their patients. Among the clinicians not following the guidelines, these ratios were 44% and 80%, respectively (p=0.01 and 0.02. Conclusion: We are in opinion that following the guidelines instead of the clinician’s individual forecasts may improve the nutritional therapy.

  18. Empowering Esrd Patients For Assisted Self Nutritional Care: A Simple But Effective Intervention For Improving Nutritional Status Of Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratim Sengupta

    2012-06-01

    nutrition care is proved to be an effective intervention for improving nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.

  19. Nutritional care routines in Italy: results from the PIMAI (Project: Iatrogenic MAlnutrition in Italy) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, E; Lucchin, L; Pedrolli, C; D'Amicis, A; Gentile, M G; Battistini, N C; Fusco, M A; Palmo, A; Muscaritoli, M

    2010-08-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a common comorbidity at hospital admission. The purpose of the present report was to describe the data on nutritional care routines collected during the Project: Iatrogenic MAlnutrition in Italy (PIMAI) study, as these may be helpful to avoid iatrogenic malnutrition and improve nutritional policies. Standards of nutritional care were assessed on the basis of (1) adherence to study protocol (completeness of data collected); (2) attitude in assessing the nutritional status; (3) prescription of nutritional therapy (within 3 days) at least in patients presenting with overt malnutrition (body mass index (BMI) or=10% in 3 months and/or >or=5% in the last month)), regardless of its adequacy, and adherence to current guidelines and (4) attitude in monitoring nutritional status during the stay (number of weight measurements performed compared with those expected). In total, 1583 subjects were assessed. A minimum data set for performing the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 tool was available in 1284 patients (81.1%), but nutritional screening was possible in every patient by alternative analytical criteria related to food intake, anthropometry and biochemistry. However, several missing values were recorded, particularly in biochemical parameters due to lack of prescription by admission wards. According to ward practices, only 38.2% of the patients had the BMI calculated. A nutritional support was prescribed only to 26/191 patients (13.6%) presenting with overt malnutrition. Finally, we recorded that only 21.6% of the patients (207/960 were randomly selected) had their weight monitored on a scheduled basis. This reality was worse in surgical rather than medical departments (17 vs 26%; P<0.001). Present results confirm that in Italy, nutritional care routines are still poor and need improvements.

  20. EFNEP graduates' perspectives on social media to supplement nutrition education: focus group findings from active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of advertising for nutritional supplements in health and bodybuilding magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philen, R M; Ortiz, D I; Auerbach, S B; Falk, H

    1992-08-26

    The use of food supplements by the general public is poorly quantified, and little information on this subject is available in the medical literature. We surveyed 12 recent issues of popular health and bodybuilding magazines (1) to quantify the number of advertisements for food supplements, the number of products advertised, and the number and type of ingredients in these products; (2) to identify the purported health benefits of these products; and (3) as a preliminary effort to identify areas for future research. We counted 89 brands, 311 products, and 235 unique ingredients, the most frequent of which were unspecified amino acids; the most frequently promoted health benefit was muscle growth. We also found many unusual or unidentifiable ingredients, and 22.2% of the products had no ingredients listed in their advertisements. Health professionals may not be aware of how popular food supplements are or of a particular supplement's potential effects or side effects. In addition, patients may be reluctant to discuss their use of these products with traditional medical practitioners. We recommend that routine history taking include specific questions about patients' use of food supplements and that any possible adverse effects or side effects be reported to public health authorities.

  2. Antioxidant supplementation in pig nutrition: effects on shelf life of longissimus dorsi muscle and consumers’ preferences for smoked cured ham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Maghin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture in medium-heavy swine on oxidative status, nutritional and sensory characteristics of longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and smoked cured ham were evaluated. Seventy-four pigs (PIC x Max Grow, were assigned to two experimental groups: control (CT and treated supplemented with antioxidant mixture (AOX for 45 days before slaughter. The total antiradicalic activity of blood (KRL test and carcass dressing percentage was positively affected (P<0.05 by AOX supplementation. Chemical composition of LD was not affected by dietary treatment. Oxidative stability and colour indices were significantly affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatment and storage time (0, 6, 12, 15 days under modified atmosphere packs - MAP. Sensory analysis revealed that at 12 and 15 days of storage a loss of colour beside presence of off odors was higher (P<0.05 in CT than AOX group. The seasoning losses of smoked cured ham tended to be lower (P=0.06 in AOX group than CT. Physical and chemical composition was not affected by dietary treatment. Sensory analysis revealed a difference between CT and AOX (P<0.05 in salty and sweet taste. Furthermore, the consumer test revealed that smoked cured ham from AOX were preferred (P<0.05 than CT. Dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture improves total antioxidant status, carcass dressing percentage and smoked cured ham seasoning losses. The oxidative, colour stability and sensory parameters of LD muscle was improved in AOX groups during refrigerated storage in MAP. Antioxidant mixture positively affect the consumer preference of smoked cured ham, without affecting other quality parameters.

  3. Health economics evidence for medical nutrition: are these interventions value for money in integrated care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Health care decision-makers have begun to realize that medical nutrition plays an important role in the delivery of care, and it needs to be seen as a sole category within the overall health care reimbursement system to establish the value for money. Indeed, improving health through improving patients' nutrition may contribute to the cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability of health care systems. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill either in Europe or in the United States, which offers specific legislations and guidelines (as provided to patients with special nutritional needs) and indications for nutritional support. Given that the efficacy of medical nutrition has been proven, one can wonder whether the heterogeneous nature of its coverage/reimbursement across countries might be due to the lack of health-related economic evidence or value-for-money of nutritional interventions. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by performing a systematic literature review on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, and by summarizing the results of these publications related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. A systematic literature search was initiated and executed based on a predefined search protocol following the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) criteria. Following the systematic literature search of recently published literature on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, this study aims to summarize the results of those publications that are related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. The evaluations were conducted by analyzing different medical nutrition according to their indications, the economic methodology or perspective adopted, the cost source and utility measures, selected efficiency measures, as well as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A total of 225 abstracts were identified for the detailed review, and the data were

  4. Effect of oral nutritional supplementation on wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D G; Hanft, J R; Driver, V R; Smith, A P S; Lazaro-Martinez, J L; Reyzelman, A M; Furst, G J; Vayser, D J; Cervantes, H L; Snyder, R J; Moore, M F; May, P E; Nelson, J L; Baggs, G E; Voss, A C

    2014-09-01

    Among people with diabetes, 10-25% will experience a foot ulcer. Research has shown that supplementation with arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate may improve wound repair. This study tested whether such supplementation would improve healing of foot ulcers in persons with diabetes. Along with standard of care, 270 subjects received, in a double-blinded fashion, (twice per day) either arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate or a control drink for 16 weeks. The proportion of subjects with total wound closure and time to complete healing was assessed. In a post-hoc analysis, the interaction of serum albumin or limb perfusion, as measured by ankle-brachial index, and supplementation on healing was investigated. Overall, there were no group differences in wound closure or time to wound healing at week 16. However, in subjects with an albumin level of ≤ 40 g/l and/or an ankle-brachial index of healed at week 16 compared with control subjects (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). Those with low albumin or decreased limb perfusion in the supplementation group were 1.70 (95% CI 1.04-2.79) and 1.66 (95% CI 1.15-2.38) times more likely to heal. While no differences in healing were identified with supplementation in non-ischaemic patients or those with normal albumin, addition of arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as an adjunct to standard of care may improve healing of diabetic foot ulcers in patients with risk of poor limb perfusion and/or low albumin levels. Further investigation involving arginine, glutamine and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate in these high-risk subgroups might prove clinically valuable. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  5. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  6. Comparison of a commercially available oral nutritional supplement and intravenous fluid therapy for dehydration in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared D; Rodenburg, Merel; Snider, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours. Twenty-four colostrum-fed suckling dairy calves were used in a modified crossover design. An osmotic diarrhea was induced by orally feeding commercial milk replacer modified with high level of sucrose to create a hypertonic milk solution, and administering oral hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone for 48 h. The intention was to create a challenge sufficient to result in moderately dehydrated, standing calves without producing severe depression or loss of suckle. The efficacy of i.v. fluid therapy and a commercial nutritional supplement were subsequently compared for reversing the effects of the diarrheal disease. Treatment A consisted of administering the nutritional supplement according to label directions (100 g in 1.9 L of warm water, 3 times a day), and treatment B consisted of i.v. LRS (2 L, once a day). Clinical signs and laboratory results were obtained once daily by a blinded observer. The induction method was effective in creating the desired effect, as demonstrated by weight loss and subjective health and hydration scores. Both treatment groups experienced increases in body weight, base excess, and bicarbonate, and decreases in total protein and packed cell volume following treatment. Both i.v. LRS and Diaque are effective methods to correct hypovolemia and control derangements in acid-base status in calves with diarrhea and dehydration. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the

  7. Effect of changed organisation of nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyholm Ruth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients are undernourished during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study is 1 to implement a new organisation with a focus on improving the quality of the nutritional care of medical inpatients at risk of undernutrition, and 2 to investigate the effect of the intervention. Methods Social and healthcare assistants are educated to the higher level of nutritional and healthcare assistants to provide nutritional care in daily practice to undernourished medical inpatients. The effect of the intervention is investigated before and five months after the employment of the nutritional and healthcare assistants. Data are obtained from structured interviews with patients and staff, and the amount of ordered and wasted food is recorded. Results Patients regard the work of the nutritional and healthcare assistant as very important for their recovery and weight gain: the assistant takes care of the individual patient's nutritional requirements and wishes, and she imparts knowledge to the patient about optimum nutrition. Staff members benefit from the knowledge and dedication of the nutritional and healthcare assistant and from her work; the staff is often too busy with other nursing tasks to make it a priority to ensure that patients who are nibblers get sufficient nutrition. The choices of food from the production kitchen are utilised to a higher degree, and more of the food is eaten by the patients. Before the intervention, a 20% increase in ordered food in relation to the food budget is found. During the intervention a 20% decrease in ordered food in relation to the food budget is found, and food wastage decreases from 55% to 18% owing to the intervention. Conclusion The job function of the nutritional and healthcare assistants on the medical wards is of great value to patients, nursing staff members and the

  8. A protocol for sustained reduction of Total Parenteral Nutrition and cost savings by improvement of nutritional care in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Rian; Van den Abeele, Kurt; Melsens, Glenn; Schepens, Peter; Lanssens, Truus; Vlaemynck, Bernadette; Devisch, Maria; Niewold, Theo A

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition and the use of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) contribute considerably to hospital costs. Recently, we reported on the introduction of malnutrition screening and monitoring of TPN use in our hospital, which resulted in a large (40%) reduction in TPN and improved quality of nutritional care in two years (2011/12). Here, we aimed to assure continuation of improved care by developing a detailed malnutrition screening and TPN use protocol involving instruction tools for hospital staff, while monitoring the results in the following two years (2013/14). A TPN decision tree for follow up of TPN in patients and a TP-EN instruction card for caregivers was introduced, showing TPN/EN introduction schedules based on the energy needs of patients according to EB guidelines, also addressing the risk of refeeding syndrome. TPN patients were monitored by dietitians and TPN usage and costs were presented to the (medical) staff. Screening and treatment of malnourished patients by dietitians is simultaneously ongoing. In 2014 48% of patients, hospitalized for at least 48 h, were screened on malnutrition, 17% of them were diagnosed at risk, 7.9% malnourished and treated by dietitians. TPN usage dropped by 53% and cost savings of 51% were obtained due to 50% decrease of TPN users in 2014 versus 2010. TPN over EN ratio dropped from 2.4 in 2010 to 1.2 in 2014. Sustained improvement of nutritional care and reduction of TPN usage and costs is possible by introduction of procedures embedded in the existing structures. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Registered nurses' and older people's experiences of participation in nutritional care in nursing homes: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren Forss, Katarina; Nilsson, Jane; Borglin, Gunilla

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation and treatment of older people's nutritional care is generally viewed as a low priority by nurses. However, given that eating and drinking are fundamental human activities, the support and enhancement of an optimal nutritional status should be regarded as a vital part of nursing. Registered nurses must therefore be viewed as having an important role in assessing and evaluating the nutritional needs of older people as well as the ability to intervene in cases of malnutrition. This study aimed to illuminate the experience of participating in nutritional care from the perspectives of older people and registered nurses. A further aim is to illuminate the latter's experience of nutritional care per se. A qualitative, descriptive design was adopted. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews ( n  = 12) with eight registered nurses and four older persons (mean age 85.7 years) in a city in the southern part of Sweden. The subsequent analysis was conducted by content analysis. The analysis reflected three themes: 'participation in nutritional care equals information', 'nutritional care out of remit and competence' and 'nutritional care more than just choosing a flavour'. They were interpreted to illuminate the experience of participation in nutritional care from the perspective of older people and RNs, and the latter's experience of nutritional care in particular per se. Our findings indicate that a paternalistic attitude in care as well as asymmetry in the nurse-patient relationship are still common characteristics of modern clinical nursing practice for older people. Considering that participation should be central to nursing care, and despite the RN's awareness of the importance of involving the older persons in their nutritional care this was not reflected in reality. Strategies to involve older persons in their nutritional care in a nursing home context need to take into account that for this population participation might not always be

  10. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  11. Child and youth care workers: Profile, nutrition knowledge and food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCWs (N = 40) employed permanently or part-time were included. Convenience purposive sampling of the CCWs was undertaken. A structured self-administered questionnaire, developed and tested for this purpose, was used to gather information on the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices.

  12. Protein calorie malnutrition, nutritional intervention and personalized cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Anju; Choi, Sung Eun; Hassan, Ahmed; Ayoub, Nehad M; Durante, Gina; Balwani, Sakshi; Kim, Young Hee; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen

    2017-04-04

    Cancer patients often experience weight loss caused by protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) during the course of the disease or treatment. PCM is expressed as severe if the patient has two or more of the following characteristics: obvious significant muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat; nutritional intake of 2% in 1 week, 5% in 1 month, or 7.5% in 3 months. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a multifactorial condition of advanced PCM associated with underlying illness (in this case cancer) and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Cachexia is defined as weight loss of more than 5% of body weight in 12 months or less in the presence of chronic disease. Hence with a chronic illness on board even a small amount of weight loss can open the door to cachexia. These nutritional challenges can lead to severe morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. In the clinic, the application of personalized medicine and the ability to withstand the toxic effects of anti-cancer therapies can be optimized when the patient is in nutritional homeostasis and is free of anorexia and cachexia. Routine assessment of nutritional status and appropriate intervention are essential components of the effort to alleviate effects of malnutrition on quality of life and survival of patients.

  13. Nutritional status of day care attendees in Port Harcourt metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-29

    Jul 29, 2013 ... method of nutritional status assessment in under-fives, involves the measurement of ... aged 5 to 34 months (mean 23.78 ± 7.04 months, median. - 25 months and mode- 24 months with 110(7.2%) chil- dren aged less than 12 ...

  14. Effect of bambara groundnut flour (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) supplementation on chemical, physical, nutritional and sensory evaluation of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y; Ali, Ali O; Elkhalifa, Elamin A; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim E

    2012-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verdc) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74 +/- 0.02% for the control bread to 15.49 +/- 0.02, 17.00 +/- 0.05 and 18.98 +/- 0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33 +/- 0.03 in the control bread to 85.42 +/- 0.04, 86.57 +/- 0.04 and 87.64 +/- 0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased

  15. Evaluation of a Continuing Educational Intervention for Primary Health Care Professionals about Nutritional Care of Patients at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E; Orrevall, Y; Olin, A Ödlund; Strang, P; Szulkin, R; Törnkvist, L

    2016-04-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of a continuing educational intervention on primary health care professionals' familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase, their collaboration with other caregivers, and their level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care. Observational cohort study. 10 primary health care centers in Stockholm County, Sweden. 140 district nurses/registered nurses and general practitioners/physicians working with home care. 87 professionals participated in the intervention group (IG) and 53 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of a web-based program offering factual knowledge; a practical exercise linking existing and new knowledge, abilities, and skills; and a case seminar facilitating reflection. The intervention's effects were measured by a computer-based study-specific questionnaire before and after the intervention, which took approximately 1 month. The CG completed the questionnaire twice (1 month between response occasions). The intervention effects, odds ratios, were estimated by an ordinal logistic regression. In the intra-group analyses, statistically significant changes occurred in the IG's responses to 28 of 32 items and the CG's responses to 4 of 32 items. In the inter-group analyses, statistically significant effects occurred in 20 of 32 statements: all 14 statements that assessed familiarity with important concepts and all 4 statements about collaboration with other caregivers but only 2 of the 14 statements concerning level of knowledge. The intervention effect varied between 2.5 and 12.0. The intervention was effective in increasing familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase and collaboration with other caregivers, both of which may create prerequisites for better nutritional care. However, the intervention needs to be revised to better increase the professionals' level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care.

  16. Using Nutrition Against Aging and Degenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    A review of historical and research literature presents various perspectives on the growing controversy surrounding the use of vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain good health and for preventive health care. Several points are made in opposition to many health professionals' opinions that most nutritional supplements are unnecessary.…

  17. Nursing Minimum Data Sets for documenting nutritional care for adults in primary healthcare: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete; Bygholm, Ann; Peters, Micah D J

    2018-01-01

    To identify all published nutritional screening instruments that have been validated in the adult population in primary healthcare settings and to report on their psychometric validity. Within health care, there is an urgent need for the systematic collection of nursing care data in order to make visible what nurses do and to facilitate comparison, quality assurance, management, research and funding of nursing care. To be effective, nursing records should accurately and comprehensively document all required information to support safe and high quality care of patients. However, this process of documentation has been criticized from many perspectives as being highly inadequate. A Nursing Minimum Data Set within the nutritional area in primary health care could therefore be beneficial in order to support nurses in their daily documentation and observation of patients. The review considered studies that included adults aged over 18 years of any gender, culture, diagnosis and ethnicity, as well as nutritional experts, patients and their relatives. The concepts of interest were: the nature and content of any nutritional screening tools validated (regardless of the type of validation) in the adult population in primary healthcare; and the views and opinions of eligible participants regarding the appropriateness of nutritional assessment were the concept of interest. Studies included must have been conducted in primary healthcare settings, both within home care and nursing home facilities. This scoping review used a two-step approach as a preliminary step to the subsequent development of a Nursing Minimum Data Set within the nutritional area in primary healthcare: i) a systematic literature search of existing nutritional screening tools validated in primary health care; and ii) a systematic literature search on nutritional experts opinions on the assessment of nutritional nursing care of adults in primary healthcare as well as the views of patients and their relatives

  18. Nutrition care by general practitioners: Enhancing women's health during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Wilkinson, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    The importance of healthy dietary behaviours during pregnancy and after birth is well recognised given the short-term and long-term effects on the health of mothers and infants. Pregnancy is an ideal time to implement health behaviour changes, as women are receptive to health messages at this time. The majority of pregnant women have regular, ongoing contact with general practitioners (GPs), particularly during early pregnancy. This paper provides an overview of the latest evidence regarding the nutrition requirements of women during and after birth, and describes simple ways that GPs can incorporate brief, effective nutrition care into standard consultations. Two approaches for enhancing the nutrition care provided by GPs are presented. These approaches are for GPs to feel confident in raising the topic of nutrition in standard consultations and being equipped with effective, evidence-based messages that can be incorporated into consultations. Collectively, these approaches promote healthy dietary behaviours for intergenerational benefits.

  19. Effect of nutritional support on terminally ill patients with cancer in a palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koji; Morita, Tatsuya; Baba, Mika; Kawasaki, Muneyoshi; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Uemura, Minako; Kobayashi, Yuka; Hori, Moeko; Wakayama, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    The role of nutritional support on terminally ill patients with cancer in a palliative care unit has not been clarified. A total of 63 patients were retrospectively investigated; the patients receiving individualized nutritional support (intervention group [n = 22]) were compared to the others (control group [n = 41]). The intervention group received individualized nutritional support. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of patients between the groups. The prevalence of bedsores was significantly lower in the intervention group (14% vs 46%, P = .012). The prevalence of edema and the use of antibiotic therapies tended to be lower in the intervention group than in the control group (36% vs 54%, P = .19; 14% vs 27%, P = .34, respectively). Some terminally ill patients with cancer in a palliative care unit might benefit from nutritional support.

  20. The science and practice of micronutrient supplementations in nutritional anemia: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Mike, Leigh Ann

    2014-08-01

    Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia, affecting millions of people in all age groups worldwide. While inadequate access to food and nutrients can lead to anemia, patients with certain health status or medical conditions are also at increased risk of developing nutritional anemia. Iron, cobalamin, and folate are the most recognized micronutrients that are vital for the generation of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency is associated with insufficient production of hemoglobin. Deficiency of cobalamin or folate leads to impaired synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins, and cell division. Recent research has demonstrated that the status of copper and zinc in the body can significantly affect iron absorption and utilization. With an increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgical procedures, more cases of anemia associated with copper and zinc deficiencies have also emerged. The intestinal absorption of these 5 critical micronutrients are highly regulated and mediated by specific apical transport mechanisms in the enterocytes. Health conditions that persistently alter the histology of the upper intestinal architecture, expression, or function of these substrate-specific transporters, or the normal digestion and flow of these key micronutrients, can lead to nutritional anemia. The focus of this article is to review the science of intestinal micronutrient absorption, discuss the clinical assessment of micronutrient deficiencies in relation to anemia, and suggest an effective treatment plan and monitoring strategies using an evidence-based approach. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Responses of Preterm Pigs to an Oral Fluid Supplement During Parenteral Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berding, Kirsten; Makarem, Patty; Hance, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrients and electrolytes in amniotic fluid swallowed by fetuses are important for growth and development. Yet, preterm infants requiring parenteral nutrition (PN) receive minimal or no oral inputs. With the limited availability of amniotic fluid, we evaluated the responses of preterm...

  2. Do anabolic nutritional supplements stimulate human growth hormone secretion in elderly women with heart failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ellen T.H.C.; Schutzler, Scott E.; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Azhar, Gohar; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment has gained attention over the past decade as a treatment for heart failure. Human growth hormone (HGH) must be administered by injections (usually daily), so there is considerable advantage to stimulation of endogenous secretion by amino acid-based nutritional

  3. 76 FR 59885 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Implementation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... and to their parents/caregivers distinguishes WIC as an exemplary nutrition assistance program. This... all pregnant, breastfeeding and postpartum participants as well as to the parents or caregivers of... follows: Sec. 246.16a Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. * * * * * (c) What is the...

  4. 75 FR 18377 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Regulation Restructuring: Issuance Regulation Update...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Program participants and households, the number and type of authorized food retailers and authorized... Gold, Chief, Retailer Management and Issuance Branch, Benefit Redemption Division at Food and Nutrition....'' Furthermore, retailers were required to provide change above 99 cents in the form of coupons as well to ensure...

  5. 76 FR 35095 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Exclusion of Combat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of... 12988 This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. This rule is... donations, Grant programs--Social programs, Indians, Nutrition education, Public assistance programs, WIC...

  6. Effect of micronutrient supplement on health and nutritional status of schoolchildren: mental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Thangiah, Vijayapushpam; Kamasamudram, Vijayaraghavan; Bhattiprolu, Sivakumar

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of a micronutrient-fortified beverage on mental function in schoolchildren. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, matched-pair, cluster, randomized feeding trial assessed baseline before supplementation and after 14 mo in a cohort of 608 children aged 6 to 15 y who received a micronutrient-fortified beverage or placebo. Children in two classes (clusters) in each of nine grades were assessed for intelligence, attention and concentration, memory, and school achievement. Mean intelligence quotient scores of the micronutrient-fortified beverage group and the placebo group at baseline and final follow-up were not significantly different. Mean verbal and performance scores and increments were also not different. After supplementation, attention-concentration increment scores of the micronutrient group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the placebo group. Mean and incremental scores of the supplemented group on the memory scale were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. Supplementation with a beverage fortified with a range of micronutrients significantly improved attention-concentration over 14 mo, but not intelligence quotient, memory, or school achievement among middle-income schoolchildren.

  7. Nutritional supplementation with arginine protects radiation-induced effects: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Flavia Cristina Morone, E-mail: fcmorone@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos-Silva, Pamella; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. Methods: Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. Results: After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine. (author)

  8. Perceptions of the characteristics of the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth by child care providers may influence early adoption of nutrition guidelines in child care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Hara; Farmer, Anna; Berry, Tanya R; McCargar, Linda J; Mager, Diana R

    2015-04-01

    In 2008, the Alberta government released the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) as a resource for child care facilities to translate nutrition recommendations into practical food choices. Using a multiple case study method, early adoption of the guidelines was examined in two child care centres in Alberta, Canada. Key constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations framework were used to develop an interview protocol based on the perceived characteristics of the guidelines (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability) by child care providers. Analysis of the ANGCY was conducted by a trained qualitative researcher and validated by an external qualitative researcher. This entailed reviewing guideline content, layout, organisation, presentation, format, comprehensiveness and dissemination to understand whether characteristics of the guidelines affect the adoption process. Data were collected through direct observation, key informant interviews and documentation of field notes. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Overall, the guidelines were perceived positively by child care providers. Child care providers found the guidelines to have a high relative advantage, be compatible with current practice, have a low level of complexity, easy to try and easy to observe changes. It is valuable to understand how child care providers perceive characteristics of guidelines as this is the first step in identifying the needs of child care providers with respect to early adoption and identifying potential educational strategies important for dissemination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Enteral nutrition practices in the intensive care unit: Understanding of nursing practices and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutritional support is important for the comprehensive management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs. Aim: The study was aimed to survey prevalent enteral nutrition practices in the trauma intensive care unit, nurses′ perception, and their knowledge of enteral feeding. Study Design: The study was conducted in the ICU of a level 1 trauma center, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The study design used an audit. Materials and Methods: Sixty questionnaires were distributed and the results analyzed. A database was prepared and the audit was done. Results: Forty-two (70% questionnaires were filled and returned. A majority (38 of staff nurses expressed awareness of nutrition guidelines. A large number (32 of staff nurses knew about nutrition protocols of the ICU. Almost all (40 opined enteral nutrition to be the preferred route of nutrition unless contraindicated. All staff nurses were of opinion that enteral nutrition is to be started at the earliest (within 24-48 h of the ICU stay. Everyone opined that the absence of bowel sounds is an absolute contraindication to initiate enteral feeding. Passage of flatus was considered mandatory before starting enteral nutrition by 86% of the respondents. Everyone knew that the method of Ryle′s tube feeding in their ICU is intermittent boluses. Only 4 staff nurses were unaware of any method to confirm Ryle′s tube position. The backrest elevation rate was 100%. Gastric residual volumes were always checked, but the amount of the gastric residual volume for the next feed to be withheld varied. The majority said that the unused Ryle′s tube feed is to be discarded after 6 h. The most preferred (48% method to upgrade their knowledge of enteral nutrition was from the ICU protocol manual. Conclusion: Information generated from this study can be helpful in identifying nutrition practices that are lacking and may be used to review and revise enteral feeding

  10. Central venous catheter infections in home parenteral nutrition patients: Outcomes from Sustain: American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition's National Patient Registry for Nutrition Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Vicki M; Guenter, Peggi; Corrigan, Mandy L; Kovacevich, Debra; Winkler, Marion F; Resnick, Helaine E; Norris, Tina L; Robinson, Lawrence; Steiger, Ezra

    2016-12-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a high-cost, complex nutrition support therapy that requires the use of central venous catheters. Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most serious risks of this therapy. Sustain: American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition's National Patient Registry for Nutrition Care (Sustain registry) provides the most current and comprehensive data for studying CLABSI among a national cohort of HPN patients in the United States. This is the first Sustain registry report detailing longitudinal data on CLABSI among HPN patients. To describe CLABSI rates for HPN patients followed in the Sustain registry from 2011-2014. Descriptive, χ 2 , and t tests were used to analyze data from the Sustain registry. Of the 1,046 HPN patients from 29 sites across the United States, 112 (10.7%) experienced 194 CLABSI events during 223,493 days of HPN exposure, for an overall CLABSI rate of 0.87 episodes/1,000 parenteral nutrition-days. Although the majority of patients were female (59%), adult (87%), white (75%), and with private insurance or Medicare (69%), CLABSI episodes per 1,000 parenteral nutrition-days were higher for men (0.69 vs 0.38), children (1.17 vs 0.35), blacks (0.91 vs 0.41), and Medicaid recipients (1.0 vs 0.38 or 0.39). Patients with implanted ports or double-lumen catheters also had more CLABSIs than those with peripherally inserted or central catheters or single-lumen catheters. Staphylococci were the most commonly reported pathogens. These data support findings of smaller studies about CLABSI risk for children and by catheter type and identify new potential risk factors, including gender, race, and insurance type. Additional studies are needed to determine effective interventions that will reduce HPN-associated CLABSI. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving the nutritional quality and shelf life of broiler meat by feeding diets supplemented with fermented pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S T; Ko, S-Y; Yang, C-J

    2017-12-01

    1. Four experimental diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% fermented pomegranate by-products (FPB) were supplied to 320d-old broilers to evaluate the effects of FPB on growth performance, nutritional composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat. 2. Dietary supplementation of FPB linearly increased the weight gain and feed intake of broilers with linear reduction in feed conversion ratio. 3. The crude protein, iron, magnesium, and sodium content were linearly higher, whereas cholesterol was linearly lower in the breast meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. In thigh meat, linearly lower ether extract and cholesterol with higher moisture was noted in response to increasing levels of FPB. 4. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was both linearly and quadratically lower in breast and thigh meat, whereas those of monounsaturated fatty acids of breast (linear and quadratic) and n-3 fatty acids of breast and thigh (linear) meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented broilers. The n-6/n-3 ratio of breast meat was linearly lower in response to FPB supplementation. The hypocholesterolaemic to hypercholesterolaemic ratio of thigh meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented groups. 5. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pH value were lower in the breast and thigh meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. 6. Thus, additive supplementation of the diet with up to 2% FPB improved the nutritional quality, fatty acid profile and shelf life of broiler meat.

  12. Specifics of nursing care for a patient with nutritional stoma.

    OpenAIRE

    MUSILOVÁ, Klára

    2017-01-01

    Main goal of the thesis was to map out the specifics of nursing care for a patient with a nutritious stoma. Three research questions have been identified in connection to this goal. First research question was focused on mapping out the nursing care for a patient prior applying the nutritious stoma. Second research question was focusing on nursing care for a patient while the nutritious stoma is being applied, and the last third question researches the nursing care for a patient after applyin...

  13. Parenteral Nutrition Basics for the Clinician Caring for the Adult Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenski, Karrie; Catlin, Jennifer; Allen, Livia

    2016-10-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-sustaining therapy providing nutrients to individuals with impaired intestinal tract function and enteral access challenges. It is one of the most complex prescriptions written routinely in the hospital and home care settings. This article is to aid the nutrition support clinician in the safe provision of PN, including selecting appropriate patients for PN, vascular access, development of a PN admixture, appropriate therapy monitoring, recognition of preparation options, and awareness of preparation and stability concerns. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. Malnutrition on the menu: nutritional status of institutionalised elderly Australians in low-level care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Walker, K Z; Iuliano Burns, S; Strauss, B J

    2009-10-01

    Most studies reporting malnutrition in the elderly relate to high-level care. However, one third of Australians in aged care reside in low-level care facilities. Data is limited on their nutritional status. To investigate the nutritional status of elderly in low-level care facilities. A cross sectional study design. 14 low-level aged care facilities in metropolitan Melbourne. Convenience sample of 103 ambulatory elderly (86 +/- 6.6 years (mean +/- SD), 76% female, comprising 15% of the hostel population) able to perform daily functions of living. Nutritional intake assessed by three-day weighed food records, and nutritional status by haematological and biochemical markers and body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). FOOD served did not supply the estimated average requirements (EAR) for 5 of the 14 nutrients analysed. Compared with EAR, 34% of participants were protein malnourished and 62% had energy intake deficits. Micronutrient intake was low for calcium, magnesium, folate, zinc (for men) and dietary fibre. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OH Vitamin D sarcopenia, 28% of men and 44% women had excess body fat (> 28% and >40%, respectively) and 14% of men and 12 % of women were sarcopenic-obese. Only 12% showed no sign of undernutrition using seven different nutritional indicators. Around 65% had two or more indicators of undernutrition. These findings highlight the need for the supply of more, better quality, nutrient dense food to residents and better detection of undernutrition in aged care facilities. Maintenance of nutritional status has the potential to reduce morbidity and delay the transition to high-level care.

  15. Nutrition and psychological well-being among long-term care residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muurinen, S; Savikko, N; Soini, H; Suominen, M; Pitkälä, K

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between nutritional status of service housing and nursing home residents with dementia and their psychological well-being (PWB), and the associations of nutritional care and PWB. This cross-sectional nutrition study was carried out in 2011. The study included all older long-term care residents (N=4966) living in nursing homes and service housing units (N=61) in Helsinki. The response rate of was 72%. Of the respondents, only persons who had a diagnosis of dementia were included in this analysis (N=2379). The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and a structured questionnaire were used in assessing the residents. Six dimensions of PWB were included in the questionnaire. Information was also retrieved from medical records. Of residents 9% were well-nourished and 28% malnourished according to the MNA. PWB was good in 50% (score ≥ 0.80) and poor in 10% (score snacks were associated with poor PWB. Mild cognitive impairment was more often associated with poor PWB, whereas moderate or severe impairment was more often associated with good PWB. Nutritional status and nutritional care of residents with dementia were significantly associated with their psychological well-being. The residents suffering from malnutrition had the poorest psychological well-being.

  16. Nutritional Care of Gastric Cancer Patients with Clinical Outcomes and Complications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wook Jin; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have been steadily decreased over the past few decades. However, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths across many regions of the world, particularly in Asian countries. In previous studies, nutrition has been considered one of significant risk factors in gastric cancer patients. Especially, malnourished patients are at greater risk of adverse clinical outcomes (e.g., longer hospital stay) and higher incidence of complications (e.g., wound/infectious complications) compared to well-nourished patients. Malnutrition is commonly found in advanced gastric cancer patients due to poor absorption of essential nutrients after surgery. Therefore, nutritional support protocols, such as early oral and enternal feeding, have been proposed in many studies, to improve unfavorable clinical outcomes and to reduce complications due to delayed application of oral nutritional support or parental feeding. Also, the supplied with enternal immune-enriched diet had more benefits in improving clinical outcomes and fewer complications compared to a group supplied with control formula. Using nutritional screening tools, such as nutritional risk index (NRI) and nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002), malnourished patients showed higher incidence of complications and lower survival rates than non-malnourished patients. However, a long-term nutritional intervention, such as nutritional counseling, was not effective in the patients. Therefore, early assessment of nutritional status in patients using a proper nutritional screening tool is suggested to prevent malnutrition and adverse health outcomes. Further studies with numerous ethnic groups may provide stronger scientific evidences in association between nutritional care and recovery from surgery in patients with gastric cancer.

  17. Protein and glucogenic precursor supplementation: a nutritional strategy to increase reproductive and economic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Cox, S H; Kemp, M E; Endecott, R L; Waterman, R C; Vanleeuwen, D M; Torell, L A; Petersen, M K

    2011-10-01

    Reproductive performance in young beef cows is often compromised due to a mismatch of physiological demands and suboptimal environmental conditions. Studies conducted at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center from 2000 to 2007 evaluated 3 postpartum supplement strategies that varied in the amount of glucogenic potential (GP) supplied. Reproductive variables, milk production, and serum metabolites were used to assess supplement effectiveness and economics associated with 2- and 3-yr-old beef cows (n = 379) grazing native range. Supplements were individually fed twice/week at 1,135 g/d (2003 to 2004) or 908 g/d (all other years) and provided 1) 327 g of CP, 109 to 118 g of RUP (CON); 2) 327 to 341 g of CP, 142 to 157 g of RUP (RUP); or 3) 327 g of CP, 151 to 173 g of RUP + 40 to 100 g of propionate salt (PS; RUP+PS). Ultimately, total GP for CON, RUP, and RUP+PS was 44 to 47, 57 to 70, and 93 to 141 g, respectively. Blood samples were collected once/week (2000) or twice/week (2001 to 2007) for progesterone analysis to estimate days to resumption of estrus. Cows were exposed to bulls for 60 d or less, and pregnancy was confirmed by rectal palpation at weaning. Days to resumption of estrus after calving decreased linearly (P = 0.02), resulting in an increased pregnancy rate (P = 0.03) with increasing GP. Milk production exhibited a quadratic (P = 0.04) response to increasing GP, with cows fed RUP producing the most amount of milk. However, a linear decrease (P = 0.07) in days from BW nadir to estrus was found with increasing GP. Total kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed for the supplemental year and subsequent year was increased linearly (P = 0.07) with increased GP. The improvement in pregnancy rate by supplementing RUP+PS resulted in an increase in total revenue of 18% compared with CON-fed cows and 9.5% compared with RUP-fed cows in the subsequent year after supplementation. These data suggest feeding young cows additional GP in the form of PS allows

  18. Glycine does not add to the beneficial effects of perioperative oral immune-enhancing nutrition supplements in high-risk cardiac surgery patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tepaske, Robert; te Velthuis, Henk; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Eijsman, Leon; Vroom, Margreeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients and patients with a poor cardiac function have increased morbidity rates when undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether addition of glycine to a standard preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutrition supplement (OIENS) improves outcome.

  19. Social Media as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Education: The Perspectives of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Paraprofessionals and Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Sarah R.; Harrison, Judy A.; da Silva, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media is an inexpensive, innovative approach to supplementing direct education provided by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). Focus group research was conducted with EFNEP paraprofessionals (n = 33) and participants (n = 39) to inform the development of a social media presence for the program. Although…

  20. Self-reported use of vitamins and other nutritional supplements in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Is daily practice in concordance with recommendations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Dopheide, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In cystic fibrosis (CF), prophylactic supplementation of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K is recommended. Limited data is available describing vitamin prescription adherence by adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the use of prescribed vitamins and other nutritional

  1. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  2. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition with butyrate acutely increases structural aspects of intestinal adaptation after an 80% jejunoileal resection in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholome, Anne L; Albin, David M; Baker, David H

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) enhances intestinal adaptation in the adult rodent model. However, the ability and timing of SCFA to augment adaptation in the neonatal intestine is unknown. Furthermore, the specific...

  3. Improving the uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation: what do women think?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Anna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong evidence of the benefits of preconception interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes, the delivery and uptake of preconception care in general and periconceptional folate supplementation in particular remains low. The aim of this study was to determine women's views of the barriers and enablers to the uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation. Methods Focus groups were undertaken in 2007 with 17 women of reproductive age (18-45 years. To identify key issues and themes within the data, focus groups were analysed using an inductive process of thematic analysis. Results Most women were unaware of the need to attend for preconception care and were surprised at the breadth of issues involved. Women also felt general practitioners (GPs should be more proactive in promoting preconception care availability but acknowledged that they themselves had to be thinking about pregnancy or becoming pregnant to be receptive to it. Barriers to periconceptional folate supplementation included confusion about reasons for use, dose, duration, timing and efficacy of folate use. Enablers included the desire to do anything they could to ensure optimum pregnancy outcomes, and promotional material and letters of invitation from their GP to advise them of the availability and the need for preconception care. Conclusion A number of important barriers and enablers exist for women regarding the delivery and uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation. It is essential that these patient perspectives are addressed in both the implementation of evidence based clinical practice guidelines and in the systematic design of an intervention to improve preconception care delivery.

  4. Compliance of zinc supplementation by care givers of children suffering from diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S Valekar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over 2 million children die as a result of diarrhea and dehydration every year. A new ORS formula and introduction of Zinc supplementation offers much improved outcomes for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. Aims: To assess the compliance of Zinc supplementation by caregivers Objectives: 1. To assess the compliance of Zinc supplementation by caregivers, 2. To find out the reason for non-compliance 3. To study the association of socio-demographic variables and non-compliance of children suffering from diarrhea Materials & Method:  Study Design: Cross-sectional survey Study Period: from 1st Sept. 2014 to 31st Oct. 2014 Study Area: Pediatric Outpatient department of Tertiary Care Hospital Inclusion Criteria: Under five children suffering from diarrhea attending Pediatric OPD Study Tool: Questionnaire was administered to care givers and follow up was done on 3rd, 7th & 14th day of Zinc supplementation. Result: 84% of non-compliance was seen in this study. Conclusion: The compliance of Zinc supplementation is poor among caretakers of children suffering from diarrhea.

  5. Influence of care practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children

    OpenAIRE

    Nti, Christina Antwiwaa; Lartey, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Manya Krobo District of the Eastern Region of Ghana with the objective of assessing how caregiving practices influence nutritional status of young children in Ghana. The study subjects were one hundred mothers with infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Each child was visited at home monthly for a period of six months. On each visit, information was collected on caregiver household and personal hygiene, child's immunization statu...

  6. Protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge as a nutritional supplement in chicken feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Evans M N; Lebitso, Moses T

    2014-01-01

    Five groups of broiler chickens were raised on feed containing varying substitutions of single cell protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge (pWAS) in varying compositions of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 pWAS: fishmeal by mass. Forty chickens per batch were evaluated for growth rate, mortality rate, and feed conversion efficiency (ηє). The initial mass gain rate, mortality rate, initial and operational cost analyses showed that protein from pWAS could successfully replace the commercial feed supplements with a significant cost saving without adversely affecting the health of the birds. The chickens raised on preprocessed WAS weighed 19% more than those raised on fishmeal protein supplement over a 45 day test period. Growing chickens on pWAS translated into a 46% cost saving due to the fast growth rate and minimal death losses before maturity.

  7. Strategies to improve the dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) beneficiaries: an assessment of stakeholder opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Susan J; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Leung, Cindy W; Lofink, Hayley; Jensen, Helen H; Foerster, Susan B; Cheung, Lilian Wy; Nestle, Marion; Willett, Walter C

    2014-12-01

    To examine the opinions of stakeholders on strategies to improve dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Participants answered a thirty-eight-item web-based survey assessing opinions and perceptions of SNAP and programme policy changes. Survey of 522 individuals with stakeholder interest in SNAP, conducted in October through December 2011. The top three barriers to improving dietary quality identified were: (i) unhealthy foods marketed in low-income communities; (ii) the high cost of healthy foods; and (iii) lifestyle challenges faced by low-income individuals. Many respondents (70 %) also disagreed that current SNAP benefit levels were adequate to maintain a healthy diet. Stakeholders believed that vouchers, coupons or monetary incentives for purchasing healthful foods might have the greatest potential for improving the diets of SNAP participants. Many respondents (78 %) agreed that sodas should not be eligible for purchases with SNAP benefits. More than half (55 %) believed retailers could easily implement such restrictions. A majority of respondents (58 %) agreed that stores should stock a minimum quantity of healthful foods in order to be certified as a SNAP retailer, and most respondents (83 %) believed that the US Department of Agriculture should collect data on the foods purchased with SNAP benefits. Results suggest that there is broad stakeholder support for policies that align SNAP purchase eligibility with national public health goals of reducing food insecurity, improving nutrition and preventing obesity.

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs, identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis, based on difference in mean pain related outcomes between treatment and comparator groups, was carried out based on a random effect model. Seven potential trials were identified of which three RCTs, two DMSO and one MSM (total N=326 patients were eligible for inclusion. All three trials were considered high methodological quality. A significant degree of heterogeneity (χ2=6.28, P=.043 was revealed. Two studies demonstrated statistically significant (but not clinically relevant reduction in pain compared with controls; with one showing no group difference. The meta-analysis confirmed a non significant reduction of pain on visual analogue scale of 6.34 mm (SE = 3.49, 95% CI, −0.49, 13.17. The overall effect size of 1.82 was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Current evidence suggests DMSO and MSM are not clinically effective in the reduction of pain in the treatment of OA. No definitive conclusions can currently be drawn from the data due to the mixed findings and the use of inadequate dosing periods.

  9. Nutritional screening for improving professional practice for patient outcomes in hospital and primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Vali, Yasaman; Murray, Susan M; Wonderling, David; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-06-06

    Given the prevalence of under-nutrition and reports of inadequate nutritional management of patients in hospitals and the community, nutritional screening may play a role in reducing the risks of malnutrition. Screening programmes can invoke costs to health systems and patients. It is therefore important to assess the effectiveness of nutritional screening programmes. To examine the effectiveness of nutritional screening in improving quality of care (professional practice) and patient outcomes compared with usual care. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to June 2012 to find relevant studies. Randomised controlled studies, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies assessing the effectiveness of nutritional screening were eligible for inclusion in the review. We considered process outcomes (for example patient identification, referral to dietitian) and patient outcomes (for example mortality, change in body mass index (BMI)). Participants were adult patients aged 16 years or over. We included studies conducted in different settings, including hospitals, out-patient clinics, primary care or long term care settings. We independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included studies. Meta-analysis was considered but was not conducted due to the discrepancies between the studies. The studies were heterogeneous in their design, setting, intervention and outcomes. We analysed the data using a narrative synthesis approach. After conducting initial searches and screening the titles and abstracts of the identified literature, 77 full text papers were retrieved and read. Ultimately three studies were included. Two controlled before-after studies were conducted in hospital settings (one in the UK and one in the Netherlands) and one cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary care setting (in the USA).The study conducted in

  10. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  11. Promotion of nutrition care by Australian fitness businesses: a website analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K; Ball, L; Desbrow, B

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the intention of fitness businesses to promote the provision of nutrition care from personal trainers. Cross-sectional evaluation of webpage content. Fitness businesses within two Australian federal electorates were identified using the Fitness Australia list of registered fitness businesses. Inductive content analysis of these fitness business websites and associated social media sites was undertaken to compare website content to the Fitness Australia Position Statement outlining the Roles and Responsibilities of Registered Fitness Professionals. Fitness businesses were classified as 'within scope of practice' if they referred to national nutrition guidelines or dietetic services. 'At risk of being beyond scope' included websites which did not include enough information to definitively state within or beyond scope. Fitness businesses were classified as 'definitely beyond scope of practice' if they advertised nutrition care which clearly extended beyond translation of the national dietary guidelines. Of the businesses reviewed, 15% were within scope despite none referring to a dietitian; 34% were at risk of being beyond scope; and 51% were beyond scope as they advertised nutrition care such as personalized diets without indicating dietetic input. A considerable portion of fitness businesses reviewed advertised their personal trainers as able to provide nutrition care outside the recommended scope of practice. Strategies that help fitness businesses and personal trainers to support clients to have healthy dietary behaviours without extending outside the scope of practice are warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and Reauthorization of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Hearings before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate; and the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. Ninety-Eighth Congress Second Session, March 15 and April 9, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This document records hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and its sub-committee on Nutrition. The hearings, dated March 15 and April 9, 1984, were conducted in order to evaluate and reauthorize the special supplemental food program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), due to expire in 1984. Testimony…

  13. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and dietary quality among US adults: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Shuval, Kerem; Njike, Valentine Y; Katz, David L

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and diet quality among low-income adults. We examined US nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. The data were analyzed from October 7, 2013, to March 1, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 4211 low-income adults aged 20 to 64 years, of whom 1830 participate in SNAP. We adhered to the National Cancer Institute method in calculating the Healthy Eating Index 2010 and other dietary indicators, such as empty calorie intake. Bivariate and multivariable regression was used to compare SNAP participants and income-eligible nonparticipants among the full sample and subsamples of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and food insecurity. Compared with low-income nonparticipants, adjusted analyses reveal that SNAP participants had lower dietary quality scores overall (42.58 vs 44.36, P≤.0001) and lower scores for fruits and vegetables, seafood and plant proteins (1.55 vs 1.77, P≤.0022), and empty calories (9.03 vs 9.90, P≤.0001), but they exhibited comparable scores on whole grain, refined grain, total dairy, total protein, fatty acid, and sodium intakes. The association between SNAP participation and lower dietary quality was statistically significant among women, Hispanics, young adults, and individuals who were food secure. Our analyses suggest that SNAP participants have lower dietary quality than their income-eligible nonparticipant counterparts. Although SNAP has an important role in providing nutrition assistance to eligible low-income individuals, interventions are warranted to improve the dietary quality of participants. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing quality of nutritional care in Dutch and German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith M M; Schols, Jos M G A; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates possible differences in malnutrition prevalence rates in Dutch and German nursing homes. It seeks to provide insight into the screening, prevention and treatment of malnutrition and the indicators for nutritional care policy. For decades, malnutrition has been an important problem in health care settings worldwide. A considerable percentage of frail older people suffer from malnutrition. In European nursing homes, the reported prevalence rates range widely (2% to 85%). This is a multicentre, cross-sectional prevalence study of malnutrition in Dutch and German nursing homes using standardised methodology, with the participation of respectively 5848 and 4923 residents (65+ years). Patient characteristics differed significantly between the two countries. Dutch residents were more often male, younger, more care-dependent and significantly more at risk of malnutrition (31·7%). However, overall malnutrition prevalence rates did not differ significantly (Netherlands 26·8% and Germany 26·5%). All German residents were screened at admission, whereas only 73·1% of the Dutch residents were. As part of screening, nutritional screening tools were used in 38·0% of Dutch and 42·1% of the German residents. A dietician was consulted for 36·7% Dutch and 9·3% German malnourished residents. The proportion of malnourished receiving nutritional intervention was larger in Germany than in the Netherlands. Structural indicators for nutritional policy were fulfilled more often in the Netherlands care at institutional level whereas in Germany they were fulfilled more often at ward level. In this study, German residents had a somewhat better nutritional status than Dutch residents and more is done to enhance nutritional status in German nursing homes. The differences would be somewhat larger if both populations were more comparable. Comparing malnutrition prevalence rates, prevention and interventions in health care institutions and countries gives insight into

  15. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  16. How much do residential aged care staff members know about the nutritional needs of residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Maria; Strange, Elise; Franklin, Sara; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2014-03-01

    Undernutrition, weight loss and dehydration are major clinical issues for people with dementia in residential care, with excessive weight loss contributing to increased risk of frailty, immobility, illness and premature morbidity. This paper discusses a nutritional knowledge and attitudes survey conducted as part of a larger project focused on improving nutritional intake of people with dementia within a residential care facility in Brisbane, Australia. The specific aims of the survey were to identify (i) knowledge of the nutritional needs of aged care facility residents; (ii) mealtime practices; and (iii) attitudes towards mealtime practices and organisation. A survey based on those used in other healthcare settings was completed by 76 staff members. The survey included questions about nutritional knowledge, opinions of the food service, frequency of feeding assistance provided and feeding assessment practices. Nutritional knowledge scores ranged from 1 to 9 of a possible 10, with a mean score of 4.67. While 76% of respondents correctly identified risk factors associated with malnutrition in nursing home residents, only 38% of participants correctly identified the need for increased protein and energy in residents with pressure ulcers, and just 15% exhibited correct knowledge of fluid requirements. Further, while nutritional assessment was considered an important part of practice by 83% of respondents, just 53% indicated that they actually carried out such assessments. Identified barriers to promoting optimal nutrition included insufficient time to observe residents (56%); being unaware of residents' feeding issues (46%); poor knowledge of nutritional assessments (44%); and unappetising appearance of food served (57%). An important step towards improving health and quality of life for residents of aged care facilities would be to enhance staff nutritional awareness and assessment skills. This should be carried out through increased attention to both preservice

  17. Health-Care Costs, Glycemic Control and Nutritional Status in Malnourished Older Diabetics Treated with a Hypercaloric Diabetes-Specific Enteral Nutritional Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Lardies-Sanchez, Beatriz; Perez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2016-03-09

    Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and nutritional status, in 93 type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) malnourished patients. Changes in health-care resources use and health-care costs were collected the year before and during the year of intervention. Glucose status and nutritional laboratory parameters were analyzed at baseline and one-year after the administration of HDSF. The administration of HDSF was significantly associated with a reduced use of health-care resources, fewer hospital admissions (54.7%; p Health-care costs were reduced by 65.6% (p nutritional parameters were improved at one year (albumin: +10.6%, p nutritional parameters. The use of health-care resources and costs were significantly reduced during the nutritional intervention.

  18. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Rodah M; Byrne, Nuala M; Munthali, Grace K; Chipeta, James; Handema, Ray; Musonda, Mofu; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-09-21

    Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS) is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW) and derive fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396.

  19. Assessing the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status and body composition of HIV-infected Zambian women on ARVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Mofu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV, currently estimated at 14%. Poor nutritional status due to both protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition has worsened this situation. In an attempt to address this combined problem, the government has instigated a number of strategies, including the provision of antiretroviral (ARV treatment coupled with the promotion of good nutrition. High-energy protein supplement (HEPS is particularly promoted; however, the impact of this food supplement on the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA beyond weight gain has not been assessed. Techniques for the assessment of nutritional status utilising objective measures of body composition are not commonly available in Zambia. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the impact of a food supplement on nutritional status using a comprehensive anthropometric protocol including measures of skinfold thickness and circumferences, plus the criterion deuterium dilution technique to assess total body water (TBW and derive fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass (FM. Methods/Design This community-based controlled and longitudinal study aims to recruit 200 HIV-infected females commencing ARV treatment at two clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, 4-month, 8-month and 12-month follow-up visits. Outcome measures to be assessed include body height and weight, body mass index (BMI, body composition, CD4, viral load and micronutrient status. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of a food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV-infected females initiating ARVs using a range of anthropometric and body composition assessment techniques. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201108000303396.

  20. 100% Juice, Fruit, and Vegetable Intake Among Children in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and Nonparticipants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Kelsey A; Moran, Alyssa J; Zatz, Laura Y; Rimm, Eric B

    2018-05-15

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides monthly food packages to low-income children (aged 1-4 years) in the U.S., including 128 ounces of 100% fruit juice and an $8 cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables. The fruit juice allowance translates to 71%-107% of the maximum intake recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (4-6 ounces/day). Careful examination of WIC food package allocations is necessary because overconsumption of fruit juice among young children has been linked to weight gain and juice lacks important nutrients found in whole fruit (e.g., fiber). A total of 1,576 children aged 2-4 years were assessed using the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Multiple linear regressions were conducted in 2017 to analyze the association between WIC program participation and intake of 100% fruit juice, whole fruits, and vegetables. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between WIC program participation and the odds of exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics maximum intake for juice. Adjusting for child and parent/caregiver characteristics, WIC participants consumed significantly more 100% fruit juice (β=0.22 cup equivalents/day, 95% CI=0.04, 0.40) compared with income-eligible nonparticipants, but not more whole fruits or total vegetables. WIC participants had 1.51-times greater odds (95% CI=1.06, 2.14) of exceeding the age-specific American Academy of Pediatrics maximum intake for juice compared with income-eligible nonparticipants. These findings support recommendations to reduce 100% fruit juice allowances in the WIC program and reallocate those funds to the cash value voucher to increase whole fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of care in nutrition programmes: current research and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, P L; Bentley, M; Pelto, G

    2000-02-01

    The importance of cultural and behavioural factors in children's nutrition, particularly with regard to feeding, has been recognized only recently. The combination of evidence regarding the importance of caregiving behaviour for good nutrition, and improved strategies for measuring behaviour have led to a renewed interest in care. The UNICEF conceptual framework suggests that care, in addition to food security and health care services, are critical for children's survival, growth and development. The present paper focuses on the care practice of complementary feeding, specifically behavioural factors such as parental interaction patterns, feeding style and adaptation of feeding to the child's motor abilities (self-feeding or feeding by others). Three kinds of feeding styles (Birch & Fisher, 1995) are identified: controlling; laissez-faire; responsive. Probable effects of each feeding style on nutrient intake are described. A number of studies of feeding behaviour have suggested that the laissez-faire style is most frequently observed among families and communities with a higher prevalence of malnourished children. Nutrition interventions that have been able to show significant effects on outcomes, such as the Hearth Model in Vietnam (Sternin et al. 1997), have usually incorporated behavioural components in their intervention. At this time, there have been no tests of the efficacy of behavioural interventions to improve feeding practices. Research is needed to understand behavioural factors in complementary feeding, and to identify and test intervention strategies designed to improve nutrient intake of young children. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of how nutrition programmes might change if care were incorporated.

  2. Clinical and protein metabolic efficacy of glutamine granules-supplemented enteral nutrition in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Yan, Hong; You, Zhongyi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shiliang

    2005-05-01

    As an abundant amino acid in the human body, glutamine has many important metabolic roles that may protect or promote tissue integrity and enhance the immune system. A relative deficiency of glutamine in such patients could compromise recovery and result in prolonged illness and an increase in late mortality. The purpose of this clinical study is to observe the effects of enteral supplement with glutamine granules on protein metabolism in severely burned patients. Forty-eight severe burn patients (total burn surface area 30-75%, full thickness burn area 20-58%) who met the requirements of the protocol joined this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: burn control group (B group, 23 patients) and glutamine treated group (Gln group, 25 patients). There was isonitrogenous and isocaloric intake in both groups, glutamine and B group patents were supplemented with glutamine granules or placebo (glycine) at 0.5 g/kg per day for 14 days with oral feeding or tube feeding, respectively. The level of plasma glutamine, plasma protein content, urine nitrogen and urine 3-methylhistidine (3-MTH) excretion were determined, wound healing rate of the burned area and hospital stay were recorded. The results showed that there were significant reductions in plasma glutamine level and abnormal protein metabolism. After supplement with glutamine granules for 14 days, the plasma glutamine concentration was significantly higher than that in B group (607.86+/-147.25 micromol/L versus 447.63+/-132.38 micromol/L, P0.05). On the other hand, the amount of urine nitrogen and 3-MTH excreted in Gln group were significantly lower than that in B group. In addition, wound healing was faster and hospital stay days were shorter in Gln group than B group (46.59+/-12.98 days versus 55.68+/-17.36 days, P<0.05). These indicated that supplement glutamine granules with oral feeding or tube feeding could abate the degree of glutamine depletion

  3. The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff J. d C. Harvey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Adaptation to a ketogenic diet (keto-induction can cause unpleasant symptoms, and this can reduce tolerability of the diet. Several methods have been suggested as useful for encouraging entry into nutritional ketosis (NK and reducing symptoms of keto-induction. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the effects of these methods on time-to-NK and on symptoms during the keto-induction phase. Methods PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Alt Health Watch, Food Science Source and EBSCO Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection electronic databases were searched online. Various purported ketogenic supplements were searched along with the terms “ketogenic diet”, “ketogenic”, “ketosis” and ketonaemia (/ ketonemia. Additionally, author names and reference lists were used for further search of the selected papers for related references. Results Evidence, from one mouse study, suggests that leucine doesn’t significantly increase beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB but the addition of leucine to a ketogenic diet in humans, while increasing the protein-to-fat ratio of the diet, doesn’t reduce ketosis. Animal studies indicate that the short chain fatty acids acetic acid and butyric acid, increase ketone body concentrations. However, only one study has been performed in humans. This demonstrated that butyric acid is more ketogenic than either leucine or an 8-chain monoglyceride. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs increase BOHB in a linear, dose-dependent manner, and promote both ketonaemia and ketogenesis. Exogenous ketones promote ketonaemia but may inhibit ketogenesis. Conclusions There is a clear ketogenic effect of supplemental MCTs; however, it is unclear whether they independently improve time to NK and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. There is limited research on the potential for other supplements to improve time to NK and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. Few studies have specifically evaluated symptoms and adverse

  4. The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Cliff J D C; Schofield, Grant M; Williden, Micalla

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation to a ketogenic diet (keto-induction) can cause unpleasant symptoms, and this can reduce tolerability of the diet. Several methods have been suggested as useful for encouraging entry into nutritional ketosis (NK) and reducing symptoms of keto-induction. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the effects of these methods on time-to-NK and on symptoms during the keto-induction phase. PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Alt Health Watch, Food Science Source and EBSCO Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection electronic databases were searched online. Various purported ketogenic supplements were searched along with the terms "ketogenic diet", "ketogenic", "ketosis" and ketonaemia (/ ketonemia). Additionally, author names and reference lists were used for further search of the selected papers for related references. Evidence, from one mouse study, suggests that leucine doesn't significantly increase beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) but the addition of leucine to a ketogenic diet in humans, while increasing the protein-to-fat ratio of the diet, doesn't reduce ketosis. Animal studies indicate that the short chain fatty acids acetic acid and butyric acid, increase ketone body concentrations. However, only one study has been performed in humans. This demonstrated that butyric acid is more ketogenic than either leucine or an 8-chain monoglyceride. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) increase BOHB in a linear, dose-dependent manner, and promote both ketonaemia and ketogenesis. Exogenous ketones promote ketonaemia but may inhibit ketogenesis. There is a clear ketogenic effect of supplemental MCTs; however, it is unclear whether they independently improve time to NK and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. There is limited research on the potential for other supplements to improve time to NK and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. Few studies have specifically evaluated symptoms and adverse effects of a ketogenic diet during the induction phase. Those that

  5. Do Nutritional Supplements Have a Role in Age Macular Degeneration Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Pinazo-Durán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD, as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 supplements in AMD prevention. Materials and Methods. Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and ω-3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTARED (Spain. Results. High dietary intakes of ω-3 and macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS showed a beneficial effect of high doses of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, and zinc/copper in reducing the rate of progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with one-sided late AMD. The AREDS-2 study has shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may substitute beta-carotene because of its potential relationship with increased lung cancer incidence. Conclusion. Research has proved that elder people with poor diets, especially with low AOX and ω-3 micronutrients intake and subsequently having low plasmatic levels, are more prone to developing AMD. Micronutrient supplementation enhances antioxidant defense and healthy eyes and might prevent/retard/modify AMD.

  6.  Hepatoportal sclerosis related to the use of herbals and nutritional supplements. Causality or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Fernanda Ferreira; Rodrigues de Freitas, Luiz Antônio; Codes, Liana; Santos Junior, Genario Oliveira; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

     Introduction and aim. Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH), also known as hepatoportal sclerosis (HPS) is a disease of uncertain etiology. However, various pathophysiological mechanisms has been postulated, including chronic or recurrent infections and exposure to drugs or toxins. In this context, it appears to be of multifactorial etiology or resulting from a portal vascular endothelium aggression. It is important to consider whether the use of dietary supplements and herbs can trigger or contribute to the occurance of HPS. We report a possible association of HPS with the consumption of herbals and / or dietary supplements. We describe two cases of HPS in patients without known etiology causes associated with this disease. Both patients were females who were diagnosed with HPS following the consumption of Herbalife® products and putative anorexigenic agents in the form herbals infusions. Image-based analysis and the assessment of the histopathological alterations found in the livers confirmed the diagnosis. The histopatological analysis of liver samples from both patients showed portal tracts enlarged by fibrosis with disappearance or reduction in the diameter of the portal vein branches. In many portal tracts, portal veins branches were replaced by aberrant thin-walled fendiforme vessels. The bile ducts and branches of the hepatic artery show normal aspects. After the exclusion of other etiologic factors and a comprehensive analysis of clinical history, consumption of Herbalife® products and anorexigenic agents was pointed-out as a puttative predisposing factor for the development of the disease.

  7. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Nutrition in childhood--demands and reality. Outcomes of the nutrition and catering situation in Saxon day-care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, N; Hillger, C; Jüttler, G; Müller, C; Benterbusch, R; Kirch, W

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this research project was to compile a significant database and information about the nutritional and catering situation concerning children aged between 4 and 6 years in Saxony. The project focused on the range of foods available in day-care centers. The actual food consumption was not assessed. Standardized interviews of the management of day-care centers were undertaken. Furthermore standardized questionnaires, which included a three-day-recall of the contents of the children's lunch boxes, were used to interview parents (n = 4082, response rate 49 %). In order to evaluate the lunch catering, the menus were analysed for 4 weeks. Hot lunches were delivered to the day-care centers. For the most part caterers and day-care center management did not translate the recommendations of an optimized mixed diet. Meat dishes were too often part of the menus. Salt-water fish was offered irregularly and the preparation did not fulfill the recommendations. Potatoes, fresh fruits, uncooked vegetarian food or salads were seldom offered on the menus. Regardless of the monthly household budget most children have lunch in day-care centers. The meal offerings, not only lunches, showed potential for improvement concerning a balanced energy and nutrient provision. Therefore all persons involved in providing children's meals should take on full responsibility.

  9. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  10. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  11. A cluster randomised feasibility trial evaluating six-month nutritional interventions in the treatment of malnutrition in care home-dwelling adults: recruitment, data collection and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Ruth; Rushton, Alison; Ives, Natalie; Smith, Christina; Rick, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition predisposes individuals to disease, delays recovery from illness and reduces quality of life. Care home residents are especially vulnerable, with an estimated 30%-42% at risk. There is no internationally agreed protocol for the nutritional treatment of malnutrition in the care home setting. Widely used techniques include food-based intervention and/or the use of prescribed oral nutritional supplements, but a trial comparing the efficacy of interventions is necessary. In order to define outcomes and optimise the design for an adequately powered, low risk of bias cluster randomised controlled trial, a feasibility trial with 6-month intervention is being run, to assess protocol procedures, recruitment and retention rates, consent processes and resident and staff acceptability. Trial recruitment began in September 2013 and concluded in December 2013. Six privately run care homes in Solihull, England, were selected to establish feasibility within different care home types. Residents with or at risk of malnutrition with no existing dietetic intervention in place were considered for receipt of the allocated intervention. Randomisation took place at the care home level, using a computer-generated random number list to allocate each home to either a dietetic intervention arm (food-based or prescribed supplements) or the standard care arm, continued for 6 months. Dietetic intervention aimed to increase daily calorie intake by 600 kcal and protein by 20-25 g. The primary outcomes will be trial feasibility and acceptability of trial design and allocated interventions. A range of outcome assessments and data collection tools will be evaluated for feasibility, including change in nutrient intake, anthropometric parameters and patient-centric measures, such as quality of life and self-perceived appetite. The complexities inherent in care home research has resulted in the under representation of this population in research trials. The results of this

  12. Becoming Food Aware in Hospital: A Narrative Review to Advance the Culture of Nutrition Care in Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Laur, Celia; McCullough, James; Davidson, Bridget; Keller, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Nutrition Care in Canadian Hospitals (2010–2013) study identified the prevalence of malnutrition on admission to medical and surgical wards as 45%. Nutrition practices in the eighteen hospitals, including diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of malnourished patients, were ad hoc. This lack of a systematic approach has demonstrated the need for the development of improved processes and knowledge translation of practices aimed to advance the culture of nutrition care in hospitals. A narrativ...

  13. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George

    2015-01-01

    in malnourished patients starting ART and that vitamin and mineral supplementation would improve appetite and permit nutritional recovery. DESIGN:: The randomised controlled Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy (NUSTART) trial was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania and Lusaka, Zambia. ART......-upper-arm circumference. CONCLUSIONS:: Provision of high levels of vitamins and minerals to patients referred for ART, delivered with substantial macronutrients, increased nutritional recovery but did not appear to act through treatment group differences in appetite.This is an open access article distributed under......BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain...

  14.  Nutritional care of Danish medical in-patients - patients' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Karin Østergaard; Kruse, Filip; Bjerrum, Merete

    2005-01-01

    with the nutritional care.The patients includeed a total of 91 medical inpatients at two internal medical wards, aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Their average age was 72 (+/-) 11 yerars. They were individually interviewed about the fodd service ad the nutritinal care upon discharge.Patients satifaction...... with the meals was overall high (90%). About 80% found the meals to be very important, but they lacked information about the food service, and the patient-staff communication about the food service was poor. The reults indicate that the nursing staff was exercising a 'knowledge monopoly' in relation to the food...... service. In conclusion, a majority of the patients dis not perceive the nutritional care as part of the therapy and nursing care during their hospitalization....

  15. Implementation of nutrition care service development plan at Banning Memorial Hospital: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Oumlil, A; Rao, C P

    1992-01-01

    Health care service markets in general and hospital care service markets in particular are characterized by many competitive developments. Hence, hospital marketing managers are forced to respond to these emerging competitive pressures. However, in formulating appropriate marketing management strategies, hospital managers need to have detailed knowledge about consumers and their behaviors in the marketplace. This paper focuses on the Nutrition Care division of the Department of Nutrition Service at a hospital and its venture into new service development. This case study is intended to emphasize the significance of acquiring adequate knowledge of customers in the health care services industry. It particularly emphasizes the critical role that this type of information concerning customer behavior plays in the development and implementation of an appropriate business expansion strategy. Furthermore, the aim of this case study is to help the reader to relate the acquired marketing information to the problem at hand, and make the appropriate marketing management decision.

  16. Serial changes in selected serum constituents in low birth weight infants on peripheral parenteral nutrition with different zinc and copper supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Pendray, M R; Godolphin, W J; Quigley, G

    1985-07-01

    One hundred and five infants of birth weight 2000 g or less who received peripherally administered parenteral nutrition for periods of three or more weeks, were randomly assigned to groups receiving different amounts of zinc and copper supplement. The blood concentrations of zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase were followed weekly. Mean serum zinc, retinol-binding protein and prealbumin declined significantly over time while alkaline phosphatase rose. Only the group receiving the highest zinc supplement maintained a mean serum zinc concentration within the normal range at seven weeks. No difference in the protein or enzyme concentrations was found between the different zinc supplement groups. No difference was seen in serum copper or ceruloplasmin between copper dose groups although one intravenous supplement was double that of the other.

  17. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  18. Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Fabiana; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Cañete, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer. To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Oncology Clinic, Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil from September 2007 to July 2009. Forty six patients with BC, Stage II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day) or placebo. Patients were evaluated during treatment period. Patient supplemented with A. sylvaticus improved in clinical parameters and gastrointestinal functions. Poor appetite decreased by 20% with no changes in bowel functions (92.8%), nausea and vomiting (80%). Dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus improved nutritional status and reduced abnormal bowel functions, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with BC receiving chemotherapy.

  19. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P breads increased significantly (P bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations.

  20. Nutritional care of the elite child and adolescent athlete: Part I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional care of the elite child and adolescent athlete: Part I - Energy and nutrient needs. ... assessed with skin folds or body fat percentages. Anthropometric measurements should be limited to twice yearly and too much ... 1300 mg calcium per day which can be achieved by having ~3 milk and/or dairy servings per day.

  1. “Parenteral Nutrition Supplementation in Biliary Atresia Patients Listed for Liver Transplantation”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jillian S; Sundaram, Shikha S; Pan, Zhaoxing; Sokol, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of parenteral nutrition (PN) on outcomes in biliary atresia (BA) patients listed for liver transplantation (LTx). Study Design We retrospectively reviewed charts of all BA patients from 1990 through 2010 at our institution, s/p hepatoportoenterostomy, ≤ 36 months old, and listed for LTx. Initiation of PN was based on clinical indications. Results 25 PN and 22 non-PN subjects (74% female) were studied. Median PN initiation age was 7.7 months, mean duration 86 days, and mean PN energy supplied 77 kcal/kg/day. Prior to PN, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC) Z-scores were decreasing. After PN, TSF (p=0.003) and MAC (pnutritional status in malnourished BA patients awaiting LTx, which is associated with post-LTx outcomes comparable to those not requiring PN. PMID:21987426

  2. Fatty acid profile and nutritional composition of table eggs after supplementation by pumpkin and flaxseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Herkeľ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pumpkin and flaxseed oils on the fatty acid profile and nutrient changes in table eggs. At 38 weeks of age, Lohmann Brown Lite hens were divided into three groups depending up the diet. The birds were housed in individual cages (6 hens per cage with a space allowance of 943.2 cm2 per hen, and given diet standard complete feed mixture for laying hens. Hens from experimental groups were fed with complete feed mixtures supplemented by pumpkin (group E1 or flaxseed (group E2 oils at a dosage of 3%. The experiment lasted 52 days. In the last week of the trial, the eggs were collected for chemical analysis. Twelve eggs from each dietary treatment were randomly selected and analysed. Significant differences between control and group E1 in the content of crude protein (P < 0.05, between both experimental groups (E1 and E2 in the content of ash (P < 0.01 in yolk, and between control and the experimental groups in the content of dry matter (P < 0.05 in albumen were detected. Significant (P < 0.01 differences were found in contents of myristic, palmitic, heptadecanoic, oleic, linoleic, and cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acids between control and experimental groups E1 and E2. Compared to control, higher (P < 0.01 concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and also lower contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the experimental groups were observed. The supplementation of flaxseed oil had a positive effect on the content of n-3 α-linolenic acid.

  3. Nutritional leucine supplementation attenuates cardiac failure in tumour-bearing cachectic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneto, Aline Tatiane; Ferreira Ramos, Luiz Alberto; Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Tomasin, Rebeka; Aereas, Miguel Arcanjo; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2016-12-01

    The condition known as cachexia presents in most patients with malignant tumours, leading to a poor quality of life and premature death. Although the cancer-cachexia state primarily affects skeletal muscle, possible damage in the cardiac muscle remains to be better characterized and elucidated. Leucine, which is a branched chain amino acid, is very useful for preserving lean body mass. Thus, this amino acid has been studied as a coadjuvant therapy in cachectic cancer patients, but whether this treatment attenuates the effects of cachexia and improves cardiac function remains poorly understood. Therefore, using an experimental cancer-cachexia model, we evaluated whether leucine supplementation ameliorates cachexia in the heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either a leucine-rich or a normoprotein diet and implanted or not with subcutaneous Walker-256 carcinoma. During the cachectic stage (approximately 21 days after tumour implantation), when the tumour mass was greater than 10% of body weight, the rats were subjected to an electrocardiogram analysis to evaluate the heart rate, QT-c, and T wave amplitude. The myocardial tissues were assayed for proteolytic enzymes (chymotrypsin, alkaline phosphatase, cathepsin, and calpain), cardiomyopathy biomarkers (myeloperoxidase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, and total plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), and caspase-8, -9, -3, and -7 activity. Both groups of tumour-bearing rats, especially the untreated group, had electrocardiography alterations that were suggestive of ischemia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and sudden death risk. Additionally, the rats in the untreated tumour-bearing group but not their leucine-supplemented littermates exhibited remarkable increases in chymotrypsin activity and all three heart failure biomarkers analysed, including an increase in caspase-3 and -7 activity. Our data suggest that a leucine-rich diet could modulate heart damage, cardiomyocyte proteolysis, and apoptosis driven by cancer

  4. Reactivity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Media: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, A.; Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-22

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3]+ (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic) = 2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4]+ (CrCl3 {center_dot} 6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of a library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].

  5. Poor Dietary Guidelines Compliance among Low-Income Women Eligible for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinyoung Jun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed program aims to improve nutritional intakes of low-income individuals (<185% poverty threshold. The objective of this study was to describe the compliance with Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains among SNAP-Ed eligible (n = 3142 and ineligible (n = 3168 adult women (19–70 years nationwide and SNAP-Ed participating women in Indiana (n = 2623, using the NHANES 2007–2012 and Indiana SNAP-Ed survey data, respectively. Sensitivity analysis further stratified women by race/ethnicity and by current SNAP participation (<130% poverty threshold. Nationally, lower-income women were less likely to meet the fruit (21% vs. 25% and vegetable (11% vs. 19% guidelines than higher-income women, but did not differ on whole grains, which were ~5% regardless of income. The income differences in fruit and vegetable intakes were driven by non-Hispanic whites. Fewer SNAP-Ed-eligible U.S. women met fruit (21% vs. 55% and whole grain (4% vs. 18% but did not differ for vegetable recommendations (11% vs. 9% when compared to Indiana SNAP-Ed women. This same trend was observed among current SNAP participants. Different racial/ethnic group relationships with DGA compliance were found in Indiana compared to the nation. Nevertheless, most low-income women in the U.S. are at risk of not meeting DGA recommendations for fruits (79%, vegetables (89%, and whole grains (96%; SNAP-Ed participants in Indiana had higher compliance with DGA recommendations. Increased consumption of these three critical food groups would improve nutrient density, likely reduce calorie consumption by replacing high calorie choices, and improve fiber intakes.

  6. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE NUTRITIVE VALUES OF PUFA-CONCENTRATE SUPPLEMENTED WITH YEAST AND Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb STORED IN SEVERAL WEEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sulistyowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid-concentrates containing fatty acid sources (roasted corn grain,roasted soy bean meal, and corn oil was designated as PUFA- concentrate for dairy goat. There werefour PUFA-concentrates, no supplement (PC0, 0.5% or 5 g yeast (PCY, 2% or 20 g curcuma powder(PCC, and 0.5% or 5g yeast with 2% or 20g curcuma powder (PCM. These PUFA-concentrates wereevaluated for nutrients and fatty acid contents during 2, 4, and 6 weeks of storage. The application oftreatments utilized in this research was completely randomized design with repeated measurement andsplit plot statistical analysis. Results showed that the contents of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract,crude protein, N-free extract, gross energy, acid detergent fiber, Ca, P, and Saccharomyces cereviseaewere significantly (P<0.05 remained stable as caused by unchained moisture of PUFA-concentrate withcombined supplements (Y5C20 in the 6 weeks of storage. The total PUFA (P, P/S, monounsaturatedfatty acid (MUFA, and long chained fatty acid contents tended to be high in PUFA-concentrate with 2%or 20 g curcuma powder. Whereas, the PUFA-concentrate with a combination of 0.5% or 5 g yeast and2% or 20 g curcuma powder was higher in unsaturated (U fat and the ratio of U/S. In conclusion, combining all nutrient performances during the storage of 2 to 6 weeks, the PUFA-concentrate with0.5% or 5 g yeast and 2% or 20 g curcuma powder was considered nutritionally good.

  8. Reproduction of muscular dystrophy in broiler chickens through early nutrition with deficient feed supplemented with oxidised fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stoyanchev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was the experimental reproduction of muscular dystrophy in broiler chickens through early nutrition with a diet deficient in vitamin E, selenium and sulfur-containing amino acids, supplemented with oxidised fat in order to throw light on the etiopathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, course, treatment and prognosis of the disorder. The experiments were conducted with 1 day-old Cobb 500 broiler chickens. By the 3rd day of life, they were divided into 60 experimental and 20 control birds; the latter were fed a standard compound feed whereas the former group received a diet deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine (reduced up to 50%, vitamin E, and Se (from 0.2 mg/kg in standard feed to 0.01 mg/kg, further supplemented with 4% oxidized fat containing peroxides and aldehydes with peroxide number of the food 8.0 meq O2/kg. Peroxide number (meq O2/kg was determined in pork lard oxidised through UV irradiation as per BSS 11374:1986. The clinical signs of experimental muscle dystrophy in broiler chickens appeared first by the 19th day of feeding, when the severe clinical form was established and by the 21st and 25th day in the severe and the mild clinical form. The proportion of diseased chickens during the clinical period was the highest (93.3% mild and 46.6% severe clinical form, and gradually decreased after the treatment with Seled®. The 7-day treatment with Seled® at a dose of 0.06 mg/kg per os for compensation of Se deficiency and replacement of the deficient compound feed with a regular one contributed to recovery of birds by the 31st day after the therapy of mild experimental muscular dystrophy while birds affected by the severe clinical form could not recovery.

  9. Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: Lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Rojas, M. Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Tedders, W. Louis

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema riobrave, were tested for virulence and reproductive yield in Tenebrio molitor that were fed wheat bran diets with varying lipid- and protein-based supplements. Lipid supplements were based on 20% canola oil, peanut, pork or salmon, or a low lipid control (5% canola). Protein treatments consisted of basic supplement ingredients plus 0, 10, or 20% egg white; a bran-only control was also included. Some diet supplements had positive effects on nematode quality, whereas others had negative or neutral effects. All supplements with 20% lipids except canola oil caused increased T. molitor susceptibility to H. indica, whereas susceptibility to S. riobrave was not affected. Protein supplements did not affect host susceptibility, and neither lipid nor protein diet supplements affected reproductive capacity of either nematode species. Subsequently, we determined the pest control efficacy of progeny of nematodes that had been reared through T. molitor from different diets against Diaprepes abbreviatus and Otiorhynchus sulcatus. All nematode treatments reduced insect survival relative to the control (water only). Nematodes originating from T. molitor diets with the 0% or 20% protein exhibited lower efficacy versus D. abbreviatus than the intermediate level of protein (10%) or bran-only treatments. Nematodes originating from T. molitor lipid or control diets did not differ in virulence. Our research indicates that nutritional content of an insect host diet can affect host susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes and nematode fitness; therefore, host media could conceivably be optimized to increase in vivo nematode production efficiency. PMID:19259513

  10. Child and youth care workers: Profile, nutrition knowledge and food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... Child and youth care workers (CCWs) in these centres are encouraged to .... underweight, poor bone health and dental caries (Wenhold et al. 2008:443) ... habits; secondly, children who feel stressed, unsafe or anxious do not eat well, ..... America indicate that even though CCWs seem to be well educated ...

  11. Growing Healthy Bodies: Nutrition Education for Day Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebrock, Margaret A.; Berry, Holly

    This booklet discusses the important role that day care providers can play in ensuring that children eat healthy snacks and meals and learn good eating habits. Section one of the booklet examines snack foods, discusses the difference between nutritious and less-nutritious snacks, and recommends snack foods appropriate for different age groups.…

  12. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Pediatric Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nilesh M; Skillman, Heather E; Irving, Sharon Y; Coss-Bu, Jorge A; Vermilyea, Sarah; Farrington, Elizabeth Anne; McKeever, Liam; Hall, Amber M; Goday, Praveen S; Braunschweig, Carol

    2017-07-01

    role of supplemental parenteral nutrition has been highlighted, and a delayed approach appears to be beneficial. Immunonutrition cannot be currently recommended. Overall, the pediatric critical care population is heterogeneous, and a nuanced approach to individualizing nutrition support with the aim of improving clinical outcomes is necessary.

  13. 76 FR 25413 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Eligibility, Certification, and Employment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... previously mentioned, FNS' longstanding policy permits dependent care expenses for children from birth... would be adjusted based on the previous year's rate of inflation. The value of a household's [[Page... income poverty guidelines; or The work hours of an able-bodied adult without dependents (ABAWD) falls...

  14. 77 FR 48045 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Disqualified Recipient Reporting and Computer Matching...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... reliable, shows only that individuals have been incarcerated in the past, and does not provide the... including children and one-person households in the PVS matches provide little value. FNS carefully... children, as that status is defined by each State, and one-person households where there is a face-to-face...

  15. [Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Spanish Neonatology Society: recommendations and evidence for dietary supplementation with probiotics in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbona López, E; Uberos Fernández, J; Armadá Maresca, M I; Couce Pico, M L; Rodríguez Martínez, G; Saenz de Pipaon, M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for improving healthcare. In recent years there has been accumulating evidence on the impact of nutritional supplementation with probiotics in the very low birth weight infants. With no uniformity in microorganisms and strains used. The Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo), through its Nutrition and Metabolism Group has undertaken to develop recommendations that will be useful as a guide for the neonatologist in this field. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between cognitive impairment and nutritional assessment on functional status in Calabrian long-term-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (Pnutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). The present study clearly shows that malnutrition may play an important role in the progression of cognitive loss.

  17. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P oral nutrition group (P oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal surgery. Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004395 . Registered 15 March 2014.

  18. Effects of elastic band resistance training and nutritional supplementation on physical performance of institutionalised elderly--A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesen, Stefan; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Jandrasits, Waltraud; Franzke, Bernhard; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Graf, Alexandra; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Quittan, Michael; Wagner, Karl Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of elastic band resistance training in combination with nutrient supplementation on muscular strength and the ability to perform mobility-related activities of daily living in older adults living in retirement care facilities. Randomized controlled trial, with a 6-month intervention period. A retirement care facility, Vienna, Austria. One hundred and seventeen older adults (14 males (12%) and 103 females (88%)), aged 65 to 97 years (mean age: 82.8 ± 6.0), having a mini-mental state examination score ≥ 23 and no chronic diseases posing a medical contraindication to training therapy. Participants were randomly assigned, but stratified by sex, to one of three intervention groups: supervised resistance exercise training (RT), RT in combination with nutrient supplementation (RTS), or cognitive training group (CT). All interventions were performed two times a week for 6 months. RT was designed to train all major muscle groups using elastic bands. The nutrient supplement (rich in proteins, vitamin D, B2, B12) was distributed every morning as well as after each RT session. A battery of motor ability tests and functional test were performed prior to as well as following 3 months and finally after 6 months of intervention. These tests included isokinetic torque measurements of the knee extensors and flexors in concentric mode at 60 and 120°/s, isometric handgrip strength, senior arm-lifting test, chair stand test, maximum walking speed and a 6-minute walking test (6 MWT). A repeated-measures ANOVA analysis revealed significant improvements in physical function of lower (p=0.002) and upper extremities (p=0.006) for RT and/or RTS in comparison to CT. For isokinetic measurements, 6 MWT, and gait speed time effects (pperformance in chair stand test (p=0.012), 6 MWT (p=0.003), and gait speed (p=0.013) at baseline than that of the finishers of the study. Six months of a low intensity resistance exercise using elastic bands and own body weight is safe

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition services for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Wittenbrook, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutrition services provided by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs), who work under RDN supervision, are essential components of comprehensive care for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). Nutrition services should be provided throughout life in a manner that is interdisciplinary, family-centered, community based, and culturally competent. Individuals with IDD and CYSHCN have many risk factors requiring nutrition interventions, including growth alterations (eg, failure to thrive, obesity, or growth retardation), metabolic disorders, poor feeding skills, drug-nutrient interactions, and sometimes partial or total dependence on enteral or parenteral nutrition. Furthermore, these individuals are also more likely to develop comorbid conditions, such as obesity or endocrine disorders that require nutrition interventions. Poor nutrition-related health habits, limited access to services, and long-term use of multiple medications are considered health risk factors. Timely and cost-effective nutrition interventions can promote health maintenance and reduce risk and cost of comorbidities and complications. Public policy for individuals with IDD and CYSHCN has evolved, resulting in a transition from institutional facilities and programs to community and independent living. The expansion of public access to technology and health information on the Internet challenges RDNs and NDTRs to provide accurate scientific information to this rapidly growing and evolving population. RDNs and NDTRs with expertise in this area are best prepared to provide appropriate nutrition information to promote wellness and improve quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Vitamins and nutritional supplements in older persons: How to diagnose and when to substitute?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, D; von Arnim, C A F

    2015-11-01

    Despite an excellent food supply in Germany, a large percentage of older persons living at home or institutionalized older persons suffer from or are at risk for malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between nutrient deficiencies and age-related diseases and give rational recommendations for substitution. Both malnutrition and low levels of specific nutrients are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, dementia, and depression in older persons. Most prevalent are deficiencies in vitamin B1, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Serum levels are often misleading and show false negative results in vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies; therefore, determination of erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect for vitamin B1 and of methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamine for vitamin B12 is recommended. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamins is not supported by prospective trials; however, positive data from observational studies support a Mediterranean diet combined with intake of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids. Older persons should be regularly screened for malnutrition and the threshold for determination of vitamin B1, B12, and vitamin D should be low. Vitamin substitution should be reserved for proven deficits. There is now data regarding cognition from prospective trials on effects of a healthy diet combined with other life-style factors like physical and cognitive activity.

  1. Enhanced uridine bioavailability following administration of a triacetyluridine-rich nutritional supplement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E Weinberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uridine is a therapy for hereditary orotic aciduria and is being investigated in other disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, including toxicities resulting from treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV. Historically, the use of uridine as a therapeutic agent has been limited by poor bioavailability. A food supplement containing nucleosides, NucleomaxX®, has been reported to raise plasma uridine to supraphysiologic levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single- and multi-dose PK studies following NucleomaxX® were compared to single-dose PK studies of equimolar doses of pure uridine in healthy human volunteers. Product analysis documented that more than 90% of the nucleoside component of NucleomaxX® is in the form of triacetyluridine (TAU. Single and repeated dosing with NucleomaxX® resulted in peak plasma uridine concentrations 1-2 hours later of 150.9 ± 39.3 µM and 161.4 ± 31.5 µM, respectively, levels known to ameliorate mitochondrial toxicity in vitro. C(max and AUC were four-fold higher after a single dose of NucleomaxX® than after uridine. No adverse effects of either treatment were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NucleomaxX®, containing predominantly TAU, has significantly greater bioavailability than pure uridine in human subjects and may be useful in the management of mitochondrial toxicity.

  2. Evidence for the use of parenteral nutrition