WorldWideScience

Sample records for supplemental dietary fiber

  1. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  2. Distinct Difference in Absorption Pattern in Pigs of Betaine Provided as a Supplement or Present Naturally in Cereal Dietary Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    high-fiber breads differing in amount and source of dietary fiber (two experiments, n = 6 pigs each). Plasma betaine peaked after 30 min when betaine was fed as a supplement, whereas it peaked after 120–180 min when high-fiber breads were fed. Plasma betaine showed no diet × time interaction after...... feeding with high-fiber breads, indicating that the absorption kinetic did not differ between fiber sources. The net absorption of choline was not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, betaine in cereal sources has to be liberated from the matrix prior to absorption, causing delayed...

  3. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  4. Phylogenetic characterization of fecal microbial communities of dogs fed diets with or without supplemental dietary fiber using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar S Middelbos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dogs suffer from many of the same maladies as humans that may be affected by the gut microbiome, but knowledge of the canine microbiome is incomplete. This work aimed to use 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize hindgut microbiome in dogs and determine how consumption of dietary fiber affects community structure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six healthy adult dogs were used in a crossover design. A control diet without supplemental fiber and a beet pulp-supplemented (7.5% diet were fed. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rDNA gene amplified using primers suitable for 454-pyrosequencing. Microbial diversity was assessed on random 2000-sequence subsamples of individual and pooled DNA samples by diet. Our dataset comprised 77,771 reads with an average length of 141 nt. Individual samples contained approximately 129 OTU, with Fusobacteria (23-40% of reads, Firmicutes (14-28% of reads and Bacteroidetes (31-34% of reads being co-dominant phyla. Feeding dietary fiber generally decreased Fusobacteria and increased Firmicutes, but these changes were not equally apparent in all dogs. UniFrac analysis revealed that structure of the gut microbiome was affected by diet and Firmicutes appeared to play a strong role in by-diet clustering. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest three co-dominant bacterial phyla in the canine hindgut. Furthermore, a relatively small amount of dietary fiber changed the structure of the gut microbiome detectably. Our data are among the first to characterize the healthy canine gut microbiome using pyrosequencing and provide a basis for studies focused on devising dietary interventions for microbiome-associated diseases.

  5. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  6. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  7. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  8. Adequate dietary fiber supplement and TONE can help avoid surgery in most patients with advanced hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Singh, Pratiksha

    2017-06-01

    The root cause of hemorrhoids resides in three deranged defecation habits (DDH), namely increased straining, prolonged defecation-time, and frequent bowel-motions. These DDH are responsible for the development of new hemorrhoids, progression of existing one and hemorrhoidal rupture (bleeding). DDH can be corrected with the help of the "TONE" mnemonic. TONE entails specifying exact treatment goals: T, three minutes at defecation; O, once-a-day defecation frequency; N, no straining during passing motions; E, enough fiber. TONE can be implemented by proper counseling and by prescribing fiber supplement appropriately (5-6 teaspoonfuls of psyllium husk with 600 mL of water daily. Corrected DDH would prevent the progression of hemorrhoids and bleeding episodes. An office procedure may be done to further downgrade the hemorrhoids. Patients with advanced hemorrhoids (grades III and IV) who were referred for surgery were prescribed fiber supplement and were counseled to follow TONE. The outcome parameters evaluated were improvement in prolapse, bleeding episodes, satisfaction levels. A total of 102 patients (75 males and 10 females, mean age 46.0±13.5 years, 17 lost to follow-up) with advanced hemorrhoids (41 with early grade III, 38 with late grade III, and 6 with grade IV) were included in the study. All patients had symptoms of prolapsed hemorrhoids and bleeding episodes were present in 71.8% (61/85) of patients. After the follow-up of 40 (12-96) months, 68.2% (58/85) patients were highly satisfied, 12.9% (11/85) were moderately satisfied and 18.9% (16/85) were not satisfied with treatment. Prolapse improved in 56.5% (48/85), did not progress over time in 25.9 (22/85) and continued to progress in 4.7% (4/85) patients. 12.9% (11/85) underwent operation for hemorrhoids. Bleeding episodes decreased from 71.8% (61/85) to 29.4% (25/85) (Phemorrhoids and bleeding, and preventing surgery in most patients with advanced hemorrhoids.

  9. Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements for suppression of appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Astrup, Arne

    2012-04-01

    We conducted two single-blinded randomized crossover acute studies with 24 and 20 subjects, respectively, to compare (I) CONTROL vs. Flax drink; and (II) Flax drink vs. Flax tablets. The subjects were exposed to one of the treatments after an overnight fast, and rated appetite sensation for 120 min using visual analog scales (VAS). Hereafter they consumed an ad libitum early lunch to assess energy intake. The treatments were iso-caloric and iso-volumeric: 300 mL drink; Flax drink: CONTROL drink with addition flax fiber extract (2.5 g of soluble fibers); and Flax tablet: CONTROL drink with flax fiber tablets (2.5 g of soluble fibers). Flax drink increased sensation of satiety and fullness compared to CONTROL and a significant decrease in subsequent energy intake was observed after the Flax drink compared to CONTROL (2937 vs. 3214 kJ). Appetite ratings were similar for Flax tablets and Flax drink as they did not differ by more than 1-4%. Subsequent energy intake was similar after the two treatments (3370 vs. 3379 kJ). A small dose of flaxseed fiber significantly suppresses appetite and energy intake. Furthermore, flaxseed fibers administered as drinks or tablets produce similar responses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  11. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  12. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  13. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  14. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brandalise

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  15. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  16. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  17. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  19. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  20. Vasoprotection by Dietary Supplements and Exercise: Role of TNFα Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanrui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Dietary supplements, including fish oil, dietary fibers, and various natural products, and exercise training exert vasoprotective effects. However, the mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective benefits of dietary supplements and physical activity demand extensive investigation. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of macrovascular and microvascular function. TNFα induces vascular inflammation, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, vascular oxidative stress, apoptosis, and atherogenic response and participates in the regulation of thrombosis and coagulation through multiple signaling pathways involving NFκB, Sp1, activator protein 1, JNK, p38, STAT3, and so forth. Dietary supplements and exercise training decrease TNFα production and ameliorate TNFα-mediated pathological changes in vasculature. Thus, the inhibitory effects of dietary supplements and physical exercise on TNFα production and TNFα signaling may contribute to their vasoprotective properties.

  1. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  2. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and

  3. [Changes in cell respiration of postural muscle fibers under long-term gravitational unloading after dietary succinate supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I V; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of cell respiration of the rat m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius c.m. and tibialis anterior fibers during 35-day gravitational unloading, with the addition of succinate in the diet at a dosage rate of 50 mg per 1 kg animal weight has been investigated. The gravitational unloading was modeled by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The intensity of cell respiration was estimated by polarography. It was shown that the rate of oxygen consumption by soleus and gastrocnemius fibers on endogenous and exogenous substrates and with the addition of ADP decreases after the discharge. This may be associated with the transition to the glycolytic energy path due to a decrease in the EMG-activity. At the same time, the respiration rate after the addition of exogenous substrates in soleus fibers did not increase, indicating a disturbance in the function of the NCCR-section of the respiratory chain and more pronounced changes in the structure of muscle fibers. In tibialis anterior fibers, no changes in oxygen consumption velocity were observed. The introduction of succinate to the diet of rats makes it possible to prevent the negative effects of hypokinesia, although it reduces the basal level of intensity of cell respiration.

  4. Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of balady flat bread supplemented with banana peels as a natural source of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareman S. Eshak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different concentrations of banana peels BP (5% and 10% as a partial replacement for wheat flour on physicochemical and sensory properties of Egyptian balady flat bread. The peel powder (0.50 mm size from banana was prepared from their dried peel. The bread was prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of wheat flour with a banana peel. The bread prepared was designated as B1 and B2 respectively. They were tested for moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber as per the standard methods. The physicochemical and sensory parameters of these two test bread were compared with a control bread 100% wheat flour designated as B0. Results showed that BP flour was owing 11.20% crude fiber which is higher than the wheat flour 1.21%. Also, BP flour has high potassium, calcium, sodium, iron and manganese compared with wheat flour. The protein and fiber content of B2 and B1 bread were higher (12.52% and 11.79% protein and 2.18% and 1.97% fiber as compared to the control bread (10.79 protein and 1.42% fiber. B1 and B2 had the highest K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn content compared with control bread. The water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity (OHC of bread with BP flour were higher as compared to the bread control. The bread prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of BP (B2 is found to be sensorially acceptable. Our results showed that the nutritionally and sensory accepted bread can be prepared by replacing at most 10% of flour.

  5. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  6. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  7. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  8. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  9. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna T. Dwyer; Paul M. Coates; Michael J. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes e...

  10. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of

  11. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Why US children use dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  13. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  14. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  15. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  16. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for Consumers Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... site are provided as a service to our users and do not represent FDA endorsement of these ...

  17. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  19. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  20. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  1. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  2. Comparison of dietary fiber methods for foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, M M; Lane, S A

    1981-11-01

    In order to evaluate several proposed dietary fiber methods, 12 food samples, representing different food classes, were analyzed by (1) neutral and acid detergent fiber methods (NDF, ADF); (2) NDF with enzyme modification (ENDF); (3) a 2-fraction enzyme method for soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, proposed by Furda (SDF, IDF, TDF); (+) a 1-fraction enzyme method for total dietary fiber proposed by Hellendoorn (TDF). Foods included cereals, fruits, vegetables, pectin, locust bean gum, and soybean polysaccharides. Results show that TDF by Furda and Hellendoorn methods agree reasonably well with literature values by the Southgate method, but ENDF is consistently lower; that ENDF and IDF (Furda method) agree reasonably well; that except for corn corn bran fiber (insoluble) and pectin and locus bean fiber (soluble), all materials have significant fractions of both soluble and insoluble fiber. The Furda method was used on numerous food and ingredient samples and was found to be practical and informative and to have acceptable precision (RSD values of 2.65-7.05%). It is suggested that the Furda (or similar) method be given consideration for the analysis of foods for dietary fiber.

  3. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and

  4. A controlled, randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of a supplement of cocoa husk that is rich in dietary fiber on colonic transit in constipated pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Gemma; Bulló, Mònica; Anguera, Anna; Escribano, Joaquin; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    Although a diet that is rich in fiber is widely recommended for preventing and treating constipation, the efficacy of fiber supplements have not been tested sufficiently in children. Our aim with this pilot study was to evaluate if fiber supplementation is beneficial for the treatment of children with idiopathic chronic constipation. Using a parallel, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, we conducted an interventional study to evaluate the efficacy of a supplement of cocoa husk rich in dietary fiber on intestinal transit time and other indices of constipation in children with constipation. After screening, the patients were randomly allocated to receive, for a period of 4 weeks, either a cocoa husk supplement or placebo plus standardized toilet training procedures. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, we (1) performed anthropometry, a physical examination, and routine laboratory measurements, (2) determined total and segmental colonic transit time, (3) evaluated bowel movement habits and stool consistency using a diary, and (4) received a subjective evaluation from the parents regarding the efficacy of the treatment. The main variable for verifying the efficacy of the treatment was the total colonic transit time. Fifty-six chronically constipated children were randomly assigned into the study, but only 48 children completed it. These children, who were aged between 3 and 10 years, had a diagnosis of chronic idiopathic constipation. With respect to total, partial colon, and rectum transit time, there seemed to be a trend, although statistically nonsignificant, toward faster transit times in the cocoa husk group than in the placebo group. When we analyzed the evolution of the intestinal transit time throughout the study of children whose total basal intestinal transit time was > 50th percentile, significant differences were observed between the groups. The total transit time decreased by 45.4 +/- 38.4 hours in the cocoa husk group and by 8.7 +/- 28.9 hours

  5. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertised as dietary supplements for weight loss or bodybuilding. Increasingly, products sold as dietary supplements, particularly for weight loss and bodybuilding, contain ingredients that could be harmful, including prescription ...

  6. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many years to boost, even by small margins, their strength and per- formance. ... training or competition routine, even if the rationale for using these products is not .... Dietary supplements adulterated with sibutramine, an anti-obesity agent, which do .... for weight loss and athletic performance: A meta-analysis. JAMA 2003 ...

  7. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  8. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  9. Fiber Supplements: Are They Safe to Take Every Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... function and preventing constipation. It's best to get fiber from food, because supplements don't provide the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients that fiber-rich foods do. But fiber supplements can contribute to the ...

  10. Romanian knowledge and attitudes regarding dietary fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica TARCEA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presently, the scientists recognize the health benefits of food fibers in the menu and also plant food sources are at high interest both for general population and food companies. The food companies are responsible for a clear nutrition labelling that will assist consumers to make informed and healthy choices and health providers has to inform the population about the benefits of fibers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the Romanian knowledge and attitudes regarding dietary fibers from food products. Materials and methods: We made a qualitative survey based on a questionnaire applied in 2015, over a period of 6 months, over 670 Romanian consumers. It was focused on testing the attitudes and knowledge towards ingestion of foods rich in fibers. For all data analysis we used the software SPSS, from IBM Inc. Results and Discussions: Our results showed that the knowledge about dietary fibers and also the ingestion of food products rich in fibers were low, and most of the subjects didn’t have any interest to read the nutritional information from food labels related to fibers. The female participants ate more whole grains and fruits than males and pay more attention to food labelling, the Romanian people prefer to stay and eat home than at restaurants especially in rural areas, and the knowledge about fibers benefits was significantly related to education and urban location. Conclusion: We underline the needs for more efficient community interventions and proper information about the importance of dietary fibers for our health and also to improve and disseminate our nutritional standards and diet recommendation among population.

  11. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Nørskov, Natalja; Bolvig, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion...

  12. Alzheimer's disease dietary supplements in websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmour, Nicole; Vanderbyl, Brandy L; Zimmerman, Emma; Gauthier, Serge; Racine, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Consumer demand for health information and health services has rapidly evolved to capture and even propel the movement to online health information seeking. Seventeen percent (52 million) of health information internet users will look for information about memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Fox Pew Internet & American life project: Online health search. Report. Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/Online-Health-Search-2006.aspx 2006, Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/HealthTopics.aspx 2011). We examined the content of the 25 most frequently retrieved websites marketing AD dietary supplements. We found that the majority of websites and their products claimed AD-related benefits, including improvement and enhancement of function, treatment for AD, prevention of AD, maintenance of function, delayed progression of AD, and decreased symptoms. Supplements were described as effective, natural, powerful or strong, dependable and pure or of high quality. Peer reviewed references to proper scientific studies were infrequent on websites. Statements highlighting the risks of dietary supplements were as common as statements mitigating or minimizing these risks. Different strategies were used to promote supplements such as popular appeals and testimonials. Further enforcement of relevant policy is needed and preparation of clinicians to deal with requests of patients and caregivers is indicated.

  13. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  14. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae . Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  15. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  16. Effects of dietary supplement of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ross 308) to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various levels of turmeric powder on blood constituents and antioxidant activity. The chicks were randomly assigned to eight dietary groups, which were given turmeric powder ...

  17. Dietary fiber in the management of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, F Q

    1993-04-01

    It generally is accepted that a diet high in fiber, particularly soluble fiber, is useful in the management of the plasma glucose concentration in individuals with diabetes. This is one of the reasons several national diabetes associations have recommended that diabetic individuals ingest a diet high in fiber-containing foods. However, more recent data obtained in carefully controlled studies with more definitive end points, indicate this may not be the case. It has been shown clearly that addition of water-soluble, gel-forming fiber in the form of guar gum and perhaps gum tragacanth to an ingested glucose solution or to a mixed meal will reduce the expected rise in glucose concentration. This has been demonstrated in both normal subjects and subjects with IDDM and NIDDM. However, it is only observed when large amounts of fiber are added. The fiber also must be mixed with the administered glucose or food. Other less viscous soluble fiber sources such as the pectins and psyllium powder are not effective. In long-term, well-controlled trials, guar gum, pectin, beet fiber, or cereal bran fiber ingested with meals has been of little or no value in controlling the plasma glucose concentration in individuals with NIDDM. Several studies have been conducted in which a high-carbohydrate diet has been reported to reduce the plasma glucose concentration. In these diets, foods with a high fiber content have been emphasized. In general, they were not well controlled, and several confounding variables such as weight loss, decreased food energy intake, different food sources with potential for differences in starch digestibility, and decreased dietary fat content were present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Are Isolated and Complex Fiber Supplements Good Choices for Weight Management? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-11-01

    Previous trials have reported beneficial effects of isolated and complex fiber supplements in obesity treatment. However, recommending fiber supplements in obese subjects remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review has updated the data on the effects of fiber supplements on obesity since 2010 and the need exists for a systematic review on this topic. Accordingly, a systematic review was undertaken to summarize the efficacy of different types of fiber supplements as a complementary treatment for weight management. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 2010 to August 2016 with no language restriction. Considering the inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality assessment score, finally 17 clinical trials met the eligibility criteria and were included. The present study indicated that the efficacy of various fiber supplements on losing weight is variable. Several mechanisms related to physicochemical properties of fibers such as solubility, fermentability and viscosity rates can be involved in their anti-obesity effects. Dextrin, Mannan (gum Arabic) and pectin-rich fiber (lupin kernel) with no dietary interventions indicated a reduction in body weight and energy intake, while from clinical point of view, their effects were not considerable. Overall, findings indicated that the efficacy of fiber supplements on obesity management is dependent on their contents and physicochemical properties. It seems that fiber supplements with no weight-loss interventions did not have considerable antiobesity effects. However, due to limited studies on each type of fiber, findings should be declared by caution. Additional research is needed on comparison of different fiber supplements in similar conditions to clarify the best type and dosage of fiber supplement as a complementary therapy in obesity management.

  19. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  20. Dietary supplements and disease prevention: a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition are prevalent conditions that affect global public health. Dietary supplements are widely used in many developed countries. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with individual or combined vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients are effe...

  1. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  2. Tigernut: An Underutilized Source of Dietary Fiber | Ekeanyanwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary fiber can contribute to the prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disorders associated with poor of dietary fiber intake. They have several physical properties such as capacity to hold water and increases ion binding in the digestive system. There is currently no available data on the daily fiber consumption by ...

  3. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchorntavakul, C; Reddy, K R

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label. A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'herbal', 'herbs', 'dietary supplement', 'liver injury', 'hepatitis' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation. Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed. Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  5. Problems and Prospects: Public Health Regulation of Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Andy H

    2018-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a global business worth more than US$100 billion annually. These supplements are taken by up to 50% of adults and perhaps one-third of children in economically advanced economies. Definitions of dietary supplements differ from country to country, and regulation is generally lax and often seems to be directed more toward promoting commerce than protecting public health. Supplements may directly cause toxic reactions or may interact with other supplements or pharmaceuticals. Some supplements are found to have been contaminated with heavy metals, and others do not contain the expected quantities of active ingredients. In general, supplements are not needed except in cases of established deficiencies, and excess of some nutrients can increase cancer rates. There are important public health reasons for taking some supplements, including folate and iodine in pregnancy. This review discusses the public health concerns associated with dietary supplements and suggests directions for further regulation.

  6. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  7. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  8. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlett, Judith A; McBurney, Michael I; Slavin, Joanne L

    2002-07-01

    not in a form suitable for the critically ill. Maintenance of body weight in the inactive older adult is accomplished in part by decreasing food intake. Even with a fiber-rich diet, a supplement may be needed to bring fiber intakes into a range adequate to prevent constipation. By increasing variety in the daily food pattern, the dietetics professional can help most healthy children and adults achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes.

  10. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case-control study in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-10-04

    An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case-control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000-2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the

  11. Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Plemenitaš

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to management of medical conditions are based on a holistic view, taking into account bidirectional connections between physical and mental health. The current pharmacologically focused model has so far provided modest benefits in addressing the burden of poor mental health. Convincing data suggest that diet quality and select nutrient-based supplements might influence a range of neurochemical modulatory activities, improving the management of mental disorders. Examples of these nutrient-based supplements include omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, zinc, B vitamins (including folic acid, and vitamin D. The traditional Mediterranean diet is considered to be the most beneficial diet in our region. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we are increasingly aware of the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of mental disorders. Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gut microbiome involving vagal neurocrine and endocrine signalling mechanisms influences mental and physical wellbeing. These findings suggest that using prebiotics, probiotics or in the strict sense psychobiotics, as well as incorporating fermented foods in the diet, could have a potential role in the management of mental disorders. As of now, we lack sufficient evidence to implement recommendations for dietary supplements in treatment guidelines, however, this might change in light of emerging data from contemporary research studies, at least for certain indications.

  12. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  13. A focus on dietary fiber and whole grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der; Jones, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A study in dietary fiber and whole grains is presented. Efficient tools for detailed characterization of fibers, systems for measuring the behavior of products and diets with fibers in the gastrointestinal tract and a broad range of biomarkers showing the impact of fibers on health and well being

  14. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  15. Effect of dietary fiber on properties and acceptance of meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.

  16. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    van der Bijl, P

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements and chemical agents have been used for a number of decades among athletes striving to achieve increased strength and performance. This has led to a huge, growing market for the food supplement industry. The latter's products are classified as 'foods' rather than drugs and are therefore free of the stringent requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals, i.e. no safety and efficacy data are required prior to registration. During the past decade, some dietary supplements ...

  17. IMPACT OF FOOD ENRICHED WITH DIETARY FIBER ON PATIENTS WITH CONSTIPATION PREDOMINANT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Abramashvili, M

    2017-03-01

    The causes of motility disorder of gastrointestinal tract and in particular Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS are multifold, leading to complexity of treatment and requirement of more precise investigation of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The aim of the study was investigation and comparison of the dietary fiber intake among women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and without, improvement of the dietary fiber intake using interventions with less rough changes of food related behavior and study of its effects on the bowel function, general wellbeing and compliance of patients. In total 100 healthy women, without any clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders and 98 women who met Rome III criteria of IBS-C were enrolled in the dietary fiber intake assessment survey. The dietary habits of all participants, as well as bowel function, digestive feelings and general wellbeing of patients at baseline, on the 7th and 14th day of dietary intervention was assessed by the means of adopted questionnaires. The dietary supplementation was provided during the breakfast with fiber enriched food - bread and muesli. Research data reviled significantly lower daily intake of dietary fiber among patients with IBS-C compared with healthy group. The main source of dietary fiber in IBS-C group was bread and cereals, therefore introduction of dietary fiber rich bread and muesli in the breakfast didn't affect diet-related habits and determined high compliance of patients. Two week long intervention significantly improved the bowel function and irritation related complains, the feeling of general wellbeing was considerably better on the endpoint as well.

  18. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  19. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc.) With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving). Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines. PMID:15841264

  20. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p performance reasons, as were performance foods (protein powder, sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p performance rationales and supplementation for common ergogenic aids, however, less so for vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts. Incongruences were found between fatty acids, protein supplements, vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts and health motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  1. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Haub

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.

  2. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Mark A; O'Reilly, Eilis; Augustsson, Katarina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few epidemiologic studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease have compared fiber types (cereal, fruit, and vegetable) or included sex-specific results. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of dietary fiber and its subtypes and risk...... of coronary heart disease. METHODS: We analyzed the original data from 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States and Europe to estimate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Over 6 to 10 years of follow-up, 5249 incident total coronary cases...... associated with risk of coronary heart disease....

  3. Complementarity in dietary supplements and foods: are supplement users vegetable eaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoung-Goo; Joo, Hailey Hayeon; Choi, Kyong Duk; Lee, Dongmin; Moon, Junghoon

    2017-01-01

    Background : The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements correlate. Most previous studies have aimed to identify the determinants of supplement uses or the distinct features of supplement users; this literature lacks a discussion on dietary supplement consumption as a predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective : This study examines how dietary supplement consumption correlates with fruit and vegetable consumption by combining scanner data and surveys of Korean household grocery shopping. Methods : Propensity score matching (PSM) is used to identify the relationship between dietary supplement consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption in a household. A logit regression using supplement consumption as the dependent variable is used. Then, the supplement takers (the treatment group) are matched with non-takers (the control group) based on the propensity scores estimated in the logit regression. The fruit and vegetable consumption levels of the groups are then compared. Results : We found that dietary supplement use is associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. This supports the health consciousness hypothesis based on attention bias, availability heuristics, the focusing effect, and the consumption episode effect. It rejects the health substitute hypothesis based on economic substitutes and mental accounting. Conclusions : Future research on the health benefits of dietary supplements should address the complementary consumption of fruits/vegetables and their health benefits to avoid misstating the health effects of supplements.

  4. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  5. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  6. High dietary fiber during late gestation reduces the rate of stillborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Højgaard, Camilla Kaae; Vinther, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed to inves......The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed...... assigned to the control and treatment group, respectively. Sows in the control group were fed according to normal feeding strategy of the herd, fed a standard gestation diet until 1 week before expected parturition, fed a transition diet until day 5 of lactation and a standard lactation diet until weaning....... Sows in the treatment group were fed as the control group but part of the gestation diet (from day 102 to 108 of gestation) and part of the transition diet (from day 109 of gestation until farrowing) was replaced by a fiber rich supplement. Thus, 350 and 700 g/d of the supplement replaced part...

  7. In Vitro Degradation and Fermentation of Three Dietary Fiber Sources by Human Colonic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Weimer, Paul J.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21d, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits. PMID:23556460

  8. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  9. Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement | Ackom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement. ... The pasting characteristics or properties of wheat flour fortified with the product up to 20 ... of some popular foods to help increase the fibre intake and health of the general population.

  10. An evidence-based elective on dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Machaon; Caron, Whitney; Zeolla, Mario

    2009-08-28

    To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacy elective on dietary supplements that emphasized evidence-based care. A 3-credit elective that employed both traditional lectures and a variety of active-learning exercises was implemented. The course introduction provided a background in dietary supplement use and evidence-based medicine principles before addressing dietary supplements by primary indication. Student learning was assessed through quizzes, case assignments, discussion board participation, and completion of a longitudinal group project. Precourse and postcourse surveys were conducted to assess students' opinions, knowledge, and skills related to course objectives. The course was an effective way to increase students' knowledge of dietary supplements and skills and confidence in providing patient care in this area.

  11. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze; Ngu, Davey Yueh Saint; Dan, Lydia Annabel; Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2015-01-01

    in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements

  12. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  13. Dietary Supplements and Cancer Treatment: A Risky Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some patients with cancer turn to dietary supplements advertised as having anticancer effects or being supportive of general health. But these biologically active compounds may interact dangerously with chemotherapy, radiation, or other cancer treatments.

  14. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases – coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes and colonic and breast cancer. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of whole......-grains, however, are unclear but is most likely assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. The DF fraction of cereals consists of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), resistant starch, oligosaccharides (mostly fructans) and the non-carbohydrate polyphenolic ether...... lignin. The main NSP in cereals are arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkages β(1-3; 1-4)-glucan (β-glucan) and cellulose, which vary significantly according to the cereal species but also between different tissues of the grains. Rye, triticale, wheat and corn are rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain...

  15. Dietary supplement intake during pregnancy; better safe than sorry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Alie; Bast, Aalt; Godschalk, Roger

    2018-06-01

    Consumption of dietary supplements and specifically niche products such as supplements targeting pregnant women is increasing. The advantages of dietary supplementation during pregnancy with folic acid have been established, but health effects of many other supplements have not been confirmed. EU and US legislation on dietary supplements requires the product to be safe for the direct consumer, the mother. Long-term health effects for the fetus due to fetal programming (in utero adaptation of the fetal epigenome due to environmental stimuli such as supplementation) are not taken into account. Such epigenetic alterations can, however, influence the response to health challenges in adulthood. We therefore call for both conducting research in birth cohorts and animal studies to identify potential health effects in progeny of supplement consuming mothers as well as the establishment of a nutrivigilance scheme to identify favorable and adverse effects post-marketing. The acquired knowledge can be used to create more effective legislation on dietary supplement intake during pregnancy for safety of the child. Increasing knowledge on the effects of consuming supplements will create a safer environment for future mothers and their offspring to optimize their health before, during and after pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Content of Mercury in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Fischer, Agnieszka; Szczelina, Wioletta; Stojko, Jerzy

    2018-01-17

    The dietary supplement market in Poland has been growing rapidly, and the number of registered products and their consumption increases steadily. Among the most popular and the easiest to get are herbal supplements, available in any supermarket. The aim of this paper was to investigate the mercury content in the herbal supplements. The dietary supplements that have been examined (24) are available on the Polish market and contain one or more herbal ingredients. Supplements were pulverized in porcelain mortar and identified by AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer. The range of variations for all tested supplements was within 0.02-4293.07 μg/kg. The arithmetic mean of the total result was 193.77 μg/kg. A higher mercury content then this mean was found in preparations-bamboo shoots and alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The studies have shown that mercury is present in every examined herbal supplement, and its content exceeds in two preparations (with bamboo and alga) the permissible limit of 0.10 mg/kg. There were statistically significant differences in the occurrence of mercury depending on the herbal ingredient in the supplement. The lowest content was found in the preparation with Tanacetum parthenium and the highest with bamboo shoots. The mercury content in the tested herbal supplements was statistically significant in the form of a supplement-a tablet and a capsule. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly consumption of mercury with examined supplements was calculated-the results did not exceed the PTWI-provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury. To increase consumer safety, it is imperative to conduct further research on dietary supplements and implement a stricter quality control of the dietary supplements.

  18. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Dietary supplement usage and motivation in Brazilian road runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Vítor Vieira; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara PatríciaTraina

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of dietary supplements is highest among athletes and it can represent potential a health risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of dietary supplements by road runners. We interviewed 817 volunteers from four road races in the Brazilian running calendar. The sample consisted of 671 male and 146 female runners with a mean age of 37.9 ± 12.4 years. Of the sample, 28.33% reported having used some type of dietary supplement. The main motivation for this consumption is to increase in stamina and improve performance. The probability of consuming dietary supplements increased 4.67 times when the runners were guided by coaches. The consumption of supplements was strongly correlated (r = 0.97) with weekly running distance, and also highly correlated (r = 0.86) with the number of years the sport had been practiced. The longer the runner had practiced the sport, the higher the training volume and the greater the intake of supplements. The five most frequently cited reasons for consumption were: energy enhancement (29.5%), performance improvement (17.1%), increased level of endurance (10.3%), nutrient replacement (11.1%), and avoidance of fatigue (10.3%). About 30% of the consumers declared more than one reason for taking dietary supplements. The most consumed supplements were: carbohydrates (52.17%), vitamins (28.70%), and proteins (13.48%). Supplement consumption by road runners in Brazil appeared to be guided by the energy boosting properties of the supplement, the influence of coaches, and the experience of the user. The amount of supplement intake seemed to be lower among road runners than for athletes of other sports. We recommend that coaches and nutritionists emphasise that a balanced diet can meet the needs of physically active people.

  20. Dietary supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics on intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics on gut microbial population and histomorphological characteristics was examined in a 56-day experiment using 128 seven-day-old turkey poults fed with antibiotic, probiotic and synbiotic supplemented diets. The experimental design was a Randomised ...

  1. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplements? Have you considered whether there is any danger in mixing medications and dietary supplements? There could ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  2. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes and consumption of health food store customers in the Cape Town city bowl. ... Conclusions: The demographic profile of the supplement users was similar to that reported in other studies. Knowledge of the ...

  3. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Jawadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8% were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%. Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardiovascular exercise was more among them. The most commonly used supplements were whey protein (22.1%, amino acids (16.8%, multivitamins (16.8%, creatine (11.5%, and omega 3 (11.5%. The reasons for taking dietary supplements were to improve body shape (47.7%, increase health (44.2%, and improve performance (41.5%. Conclusion. Most of the information about supplements was obtained from unreliable sources. More studies are needed to better understand supplements use and their impact on health in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ...

  5. Dietary supplement usage, motivation, and education in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Stadnyk, Megan; Parnell, Jill A

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate dietary supplement use in young Canadian athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, and their sources of information. A questionnaire tested for content validity and reliability was administered to 567 athletes between the ages of 11 and 25 years from the Canadian athletic community in face-to-face meetings. Demographics and sport variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine dietary supplementation patterns and sources of information regarding dietary supplement use between categories of gender, age, sport type, and competition level. Ninety-eight percent of athletes were taking at least one dietary supplement. Males were more likely to consume protein powder, energy drinks, recovery drinks, branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, and glutamine (p performance. Primary sources of information were family and friends, coaches, and athletic trainers; with 48% of athletes having met with a dietitian. Preferred means of education included individual consultations, presentations, and the internet. The majority of young athletes are using dietary supplements with the belief they will improve performance and health; however, may not always have reliable information. Educational programs using individual consultations and electronic media are recommended for this demographic.

  6. Profiling the Use of Dietary Supplements by Brazilian Physical Education Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ricardo Borges; Silva, Maria Sebastiana; da Silva, Wellington Fernando; Campos, Mário Hebling; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andre Barbosa de Lira, Claudio

    2017-12-27

    A survey was designed to examine the use of dietary supplements by Brazilian physical education professionals. The study included 131 Brazilian physical education professionals (83 men and 48 women). A descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, standard deviation, and absolute and relative frequencies). A chi-square test was applied to evaluate differences in use of dietary supplements according to particular variables of interest (p supplements. Approximately 59% of dietary supplement users took two or more kinds of supplements. Among users of supplements, men professionals (73%) consumed more dietary supplements than women (27%). The most-consumed dietary supplement was whey protein (80%). The results showed a higher use of dietary supplements by men. The most-consumed supplements were rich in protein. The consumption of dietary supplements by almost half of the participants in this study suggests that participants did not consider their dietary needs to be met by normal diet alone.

  7. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (Pfiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Nørskov, Natalja P; Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Laerke, Helle Nygaard

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain (WG) cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases-coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and some form of cancers. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of WG are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion and absorption. Associated with the DF matrix of cereals is an array of nonnutritive constituents predominantly concentrated in the bran fraction. Among them, the phenolic phytochemicals, benzoic acid and cinnamic derivatives and lignans, are of importance in a nutritional-health perspective. Only a small fraction of the phenolics is absorbed in the small intestine, but the availability can be increased by bioprocessing. The major part, however, is passed to the large intestine where the microbiota, which degrade and metabolize DF to SCFAs and gases, also convert the phenolic compounds into a range of other metabolites that are absorbed into the body and with the capability of influencing the metabolism at the cellular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A Critical Look at Prebiotics Within the Dietary Fiber Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.

  10. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korfali Samira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples, but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts.

  11. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Hawi, Tamer; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2013-01-18

    The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples), but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts.

  12. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-04-01

    Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. The study was a systematic review. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library until March 2003. Hand searches of medical journals, the authors' own files, and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodologic quality were performed independently by the 2 reviewers. To be included, trials were required to be randomized and double-blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of dietary supplements were included if they were based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. Five systematic reviews and meta-analyses and 25 additional trials were included and reviewed. Data on the following dietary supplements were identified: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate, plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba maté, and yohimbe. The reviewed studies provide some encouraging data but no evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that any specific dietary supplement is effective for reducing body weight. The only exceptions are E. sinica- and ephedrine-containing supplements, which have been associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The evidence for most dietary supplements as aids in reducing body weight is not convincing. None of the reviewed dietary supplements can be recommended for over-the-counter use.

  13. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: • When ... gov/Safety/ReportaProblem/ConsumerComplaintCoordinators • File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal at: http://www. ...

  14. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, especially where food intake or choice is restricted. For this reason, dietary ... health hazard to all consumers.[4,12] While ... physician experienced in the treatment of obesity and familiar with this agent, on a regular basis.

  15. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  16. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn F. Madden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18 and female (n = 22 athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or Adequate Intake (AI for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes.

  17. A Review of Dietary Fiber in the Diabetic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers are a type of carbohydrates that are found in plant-based foods. They are not absorbed or digested by the body, but play an important role in maintaining good health. There are two types of dietary fiber - soluble and insoluble. Most foods contain both types, but are usually richer in one type than the other. Current evidence suggests that high-fiber diets, especially of the soluble variety, may offer some improvement in weight management, in carbohydrate metabolism, lower total and LDL cholesterol, and have other positive effects in patients diagnosed with diabetes (improvement of insulin sensitivity, modulation of the secretion of certain gut hormones, improvement of various metabolic and inflammatory markers associated with the metabolic syndrome, thus reducing the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of our review is to reinforce the role of dietary fiber in the improvement of diabetes management

  18. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Butawan; Rodney L. Benjamin; Richard J. Bloomer

    2017-01-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed ...

  19. Dietary Fiber Intake in Relation to Knee Pain Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The birds in group A received control diet during the experiment but those in ... genera displayed a growth-promoting effect that was comparable to control diet and also decreased .... Table 3. Effects of dietary probiotics on evolution of broiler weekly BW in control, Enterococcus faecium, and Bifidobacterium.

  1. Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy by Socioeconomic Subgroups in Adults of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 2009–2012, assessments were made of socioeconomic differences, based on the Poverty Income Ratio (PIR, in terms of the association of dietary supplement use on nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacies. Compared to food alone, the use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01 higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all socioeconomic groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17 nutrients in the subgroup PIR > 1.85 (not poor, but only 4–5/17 nutrients (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, E for the poor and nearly poor subgroups (PIR < 1.35 and PIR 1.35 to ≤1.85, respectively. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was seen for 3–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% in the PIR subgroups. In conclusion, dietary supplement use was associated with an increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and a slight increase in the prevalence of intakes above the UL, with greater benefits seen in the PIR > 1.85 subgroup.

  2. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, Prince O.; Uden, Peter C.; Tyson, Julian F.

    2009-01-01

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  3. Dietary Supplements for Health, Adaptation, and Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Miles, Mary P; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2018-03-01

    Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Omega 3-fatty acid supplementation may also reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mTBI. Replenishment of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency will likely improve some aspects of immune, bone, and muscle health. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve training or competitive performance. Preliminary data show that gelatin and/or collagen may improve connective tissue health. Some anti-inflammatory supplements, such as curcumin or tart cherry juice, may reduce inflammation and possibly delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not consistently increase strength and/or lean mass or reduce markers of muscle damage, but more research on recovery from injury that includes periods of extreme inactivity is needed. Several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate, omega 3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and curcumin/tart cherry juice could help athletes train and/or compete more effectively.

  4. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

  6. Dietary Supplements in the Management of Hypertension and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of alternative therapies like herbs and dietary supplements is very common among hypertensive and diabetic patients all over the globe. Hypertension is a silent disease that causes increase in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal morbidity and mortality whereas diabetic complications cause heart ...

  7. Effect of Dietary Supplementation on Physico-mechanical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was run under RCBD where the camels were blocked according to their initial body weight and alloted randomly within the block to three dietary treatments. The experimental feed was urea (5%) treated maize stover (UTMS) basal diet given ad-libitum and a supplement of concentrate mix of wheat ...

  8. The Effect of Alone or combined Dietary Supplementation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kurt

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of an organic acid, a probiotic or a ... performance and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens fed a maize-soya based diet. The six .... Bird density was. 12 chicks ...

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of Vitamin A on fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We decided to study the effects of dietary vitamin A supplementation on the fertility and the characteristics of the oviductal and uterine flushing's of gilts because in our thermally harsh environment pigs tend to consume less feeds than needed and so expose themselves to some nutritional stress. The experimental diets ...

  10. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Beynen, A.C.; Borg, van der J.A.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation

  11. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-09-14

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese herb medicine mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... These results indicated that the dietary supplementation of the CHM mixture exerted some positive regulating effects on the nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system of goats, thus improving the functions of immunity and antioxidation, as well as the digestion ...

  13. A review of dietary supplement-induced renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Munz, Kristin; Ulbricht, Catherine

    2007-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a multibillion-dollar industry. Almost half of the American population uses some form of CAM, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their health care providers of their CAM use, and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of dietary supplement-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. CAM manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, because the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate them. However, concern exists surrounding the safety of CAM. A literature search using MEDLINE and EMBASE was undertaken to explore the impact of CAM on renal function. English-language studies and case reports were selected for inclusion but were limited to those that consisted of human subjects, both adult and pediatric. This review provides details on dietary supplements that have been associated with renal dysfunction and focuses on 17 dietary supplements that have been associated with direct renal injury, CAM-induced immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, and hepatorenal syndrome. It is concluded that it is imperative that use of dietary supplements be monitored closely in all patients. Health care practitioners must take an active role in identifying patients who are using CAM and provide appropriate patient education.

  14. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  15. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary supplement use and demographic characteristics of customers visiting health food stores in the Cape Town city bowl, and to determine their awareness and knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intake servings and their fruit and vegetable ...

  16. Dietary supplement use and colorectal tumors : from prevention to diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Expert guidelines formulated by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) advised no use of dietary supplements for cancer prevention. However, it is unclear whether those recommendations also apply to populations at

  17. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Dietary Supplements for ADHD: A Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (345 mg/d) on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was determined in 63 children, ages 6 to 12 years, at the Mayo Clinic and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

  19. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2008-05-23

    One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake.

  20. Polyphenols as dietary supplements: A double-edged sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Keith R Martin, Christy L AppelNutrition Program, Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, USAAbstract: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, and neurodegeneration. Pro-oxidant-induced oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases and, as such, dietary antioxidants can quench and/or retard such processes. Dietary polyphenols, ie, phenolic acids and flavonoids, are a primary source of antioxidants for humans and are derived from plants including fruits, vegetables, spices, and herbs. Based on compelling evidence regarding the health effects of polyphenol-rich foods, new dietary supplements and polyphenol-rich foods are being developed for public use. Consumption of such products can increase dietary polyphenol intake and subsequently plasma concentrations beyond expected levels associated with dietary consumption and potentially confer additional health benefits. Furthermore, bioavailability can be modified to further increase absorption and ultimately plasma concentrations of polyphenols. However, the upper limit for plasma concentrations of polyphenols before the elaboration of adverse effects is unknown for many polyphenols. Moreover, a considerable amount of evidence is accumulating which supports the hypothesis that high-dose polyphenols can mechanistically cause adverse effects through pro-oxidative action. Thus, polyphenol-rich dietary supplements can potentially confer additional benefits but high-doses may elicit toxicity thereby establishing a double-edge sword in supplement use.Keywords: antioxidant, bioavailability, flavonoids, polyphenols, supplement

  1. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  2. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Butawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption.

  3. Fermented Fiber Supplements Are No Better Than Placebo for a Laxative Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, Johnson W; Chey, William D

    2016-11-01

    Misconceptions about the effects of dietary fiber and 'functional' fiber on stool parameters and constipation persist in the literature. A comprehensive literature review was conducted with the use of the Scopus and PubMed scientific databases to identify and objectively assess well-controlled clinical studies that evaluated the effects of fiber on stool parameters and constipation. The totality of well-controlled randomized clinical studies show that, to exert a laxative effect, fiber must: (1) resist fermentation to remain intact throughout the large bowel and present in stool, and (2) significantly increase stool water content and stool output, resulting in soft/bulky/easy-to-pass stools. Poorly fermented insoluble fiber (e.g., wheat bran) remains as discreet particles which can mechanically irritate the gut mucosa, stimulating water & mucous secretion if the particles are sufficiently large/coarse. For soluble fibers, some have no effect on viscosity (e.g., inulin, wheat dextrin) while others form high viscosity gels (e.g., β-glucan, psyllium). If the soluble fiber is readily fermented, whether non-viscous or gel-forming, it has no effect on stool output or stool water content, and has no laxative effect. In contrast, a non-fermented, gel-forming soluble fiber (e.g., psyllium) retains its gelled nature and high water-holding capacity throughout the large bowel, resulting in soft/bulky/easy-to-pass stools. When considering a recommendation for a fiber supplement regimen to treat and/or prevent constipation, it is important to consider which fibers have the physical characteristics to exert a laxative effect, and which fiber supplements have rigorous clinical evidence of a significant benefit in patients with constipation.

  4. Concomitant Use of Dietary Supplements and Medicines in Patients due to Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines. PMID:25894658

  5. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Dietary Fibers from Artocarpus camansi Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Rumingtyas, Y. S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the dietary fiber (DF) contents of Artocorpus camansi (breadnut) fruit and examine their physicochemical properties, such as water-holding capacity (WAC), oil-holding capacity (OHC) and water absorption capacity (WAC). This fruit flour contained of both water soluble fibers (SDF), such as pectin (1.95%) and gum (0.4%), and water insoluble fibers (IDF) (89.25%). The IDF content of this fruit was significantly high in respect to other DF sources. The WHC, OHC and WAC of IDF were 4.10, 2.60 and 4.0%, respectively. Moreover, the WHC, OHC and WHC of total dietary fibers (TDF) were 4.2, 4.3 and 4.6%, respectively. The results showed that the DF of fruit flour had good physicochemical properties. The findings suggested that there is a potential application of A. camansi of fruit as functional ingredients in the food industry.

  7. An assessment of the dietary fiber intake of selected students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colon cancer and heart disease. This study ... The study showed that the dietary fiber intake of the students was adequate. ... Keywords: Dietary Fiber, Cereal Fruits Vegetables, University Students ...

  8. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  9. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta

    2013-10-01

    In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential harmful effects of dietary supplements in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to collect the most recent data regarding the safety of well-known or emerging dietary supplements used by athletes. From January 2014 to April 2016, about 30 articles have been published in the field. New data show that 90% of sports supplements contain trace of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, with 25% of them having a higher estrogenic activity than acceptable. About 50% of the supplements are contaminated by melamine, a source of nonprotein nitrogen. Additional data accumulate toward the safety of nitrate ingestion. In the last 2 years, the safety of emerging supplements such as higenamine, potentially interesting to lose weight, creatine nitrate and guanidinoacetic acid has been evaluated but still needs further investigation. The consumption of over-the-counter supplements is very popular in athletes. Although most supplements may be considered as safe when taking at the recommended doses, athletes should be aware of the potential risks linked to the consumption of supplements. In addition to the risks linked to overdosage and cross-effects when combining different supplements at the same time, inadvertent or deliberate contamination with stimulants, estrogenic compounds, diuretics or anabolic agents may occur.

  11. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  12. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keturah R. Faurot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL (n = 16,415, this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively, for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%, and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%. Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31–0.52. Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  13. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  14. [Use of nopal dietary fiber in a powder dessert formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Elena; Pak, Nelly; Vallejos, Ximena

    2002-12-01

    The development of diverse types of foods of low caloric value and with high content in dietary fiber have occupied a preponderant place in the food industry in the last years, due to the growing interest of the consumers for a healthy and nutritious diet. Pre-cooked or quick to prepare foods are attractive for the time they save; if to this you add their nutritious value, the attractiveness is even greater. For this reason, this study analyzes different formulations of a powder to prepare a dessert (flan), with different percentages of incorporation of nopal flour, as a source of dietary fiber (16%, 18%, 20%). Two flavors (melon and banana) were tried. It was observed that the flan flavored with banana and with 16% of nopal flour, reached better sensorial characteristics. Greater percentages of nopal flour negatively affected the sensorial characteristics, mainly flavor, color and texture. The analysis showed that the powder presented 5.7% of moisture, low water activity (0.48) and therefore a low total recount of microorganisms. The content of protein was high (27.2%), the ether extract low (2.0%) similar to the caloric contribution (40 Kcal/portion). The flan showed a 9.8% of total dietary fiber, being greater the contribution of soluble fiber (6.1%) than that of insoluble fiber (3.7%). Due to these characteristics this formulation could be considered as a food that provides benefits for the human health.

  15. DNA barcode identification of black cohosh herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Little, Damon P

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) herbal dietary supplements are commonly consumed to treat menopausal symptoms, but there are reports of adverse events and toxicities associated with their use. Accidental misidentification and/or deliberate adulteration results in harvesting other related species that are then marketed as black cohosh. Some of these species are known to be toxic to humans. We have identified two matK nucleotides that consistently distinguish black cohosh from related species. Using these nucleotides, an assay was able to correctly identify all of the black cohosh samples in the validation set. None of the other Actaea species in the validation set were falsely identified as black cohosh. Of 36 dietary supplements sequenced, 27 (75%) had a sequence that exactly matched black cohosh. The remaining nine samples (25%) had a sequence identical to that of three Asian Actaea species (A. cimicifuga, A. dahurica, and A. simplex). Manufacturers should routinely test plant material using a reliable assay to ensure accurate labeling.

  16. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.

  17. eSports: the new age of dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, José Emídio Tinoco

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Media Interativos eSports – the competitive form of video gaming – is a growing industry with millions of active players and viewers worldwide. Seen by many as a digital sport, rather than ordinary entertainment, this study explores the definition of eSports and its resemblances with traditional sports. It proposes the possibility of targeting, communicating, market, and selling dietary supplements to digital athletes. The study findings indicate that...

  18. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  1. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein.

  2. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  4. Dietary fiber, plasma insulin, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M J

    1978-10-01

    The relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia is briefly reviewed. The possibility is considered that excess insulin secretion is the cause rather than the result of insulin resistance and obesity. Glucose administration is one of the most frequently studied of those factors known to stimulate insulin secretion. Much less well documented is the fact that meals of equal protein, fat, and carbohydrate content may cause different responses of plasma glucose and insulin. An experiment is reported in which the effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber meal administered to seven healthy young adults were compared with the effects of a meal equally high in carbohydrate but composed largely of glucose in liquid formula form. The high-fiber meal caused an insulin rise less than half that caused by the liquid formula meal although the plasma glucose response to the two meals was not significantly different. The hypothesis is proposed that a high-carbohydrate, fiber-depleted diet, high in simple sugars, by repeatedly stimulating an excessive insulin response, may lead to insulin resistance and obesity in susceptible individuals and may play a role in the common occurrence of obesity in industrialized societies.

  5. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L. [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Fastner, J. [Federal Environmental Agency, Section II 3.3—Drinking-water resources and treatment, Berlin (Germany); Dietrich, D.R., E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  6. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Sani; Adamu, Ahmed; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini Hassan; Ukwenya, Yahaya; Iliyasu, Yawale; Adamu, Abdullahi; Aminu, Surajo Mohammed; Shehu, Mohammed Sani; Ameh, Danladi Amodu; Mohammed, Abdullahi; Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Idoko, John; Ntekim, Atara; Suleiman, Aishatu Maude; Shah, Khalid Zahir; Adoke, Kasimu Umar

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14), mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls ( P fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans "today."

  7. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  8. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attlee, Amita; Haider, Amina; Hassan, Asma; Alzamil, Noura; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2018-01-02

    Dietary supplement intake and associated factors among gym users in a university community in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were assessed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Adults (N = 320) from five gyms in the University City of Sharjah participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 43.8%. Statistically significant associations were found between the use of dietary supplements and sex (47.7% males, 28.1% females; p = .006), as well as weight lifting (88.6% taking supplements vs. 11.4% not taking supplements; p power and to boost exercise recovery. Females mainly used dietary supplements to increase energy, maintain their health, and prevent nutrition deficiency. Overall, protein supplements (whey proteins [48.6%] and protein powder [45.7%]) were among the most-consumed dietary supplements, followed by multivitamins (38.6%), branched-chain amino acids (36.4%), caffeine (35.0%), and creatine (29.3%). A widespread use of Internet-driven, self-prescribed dietary supplement intake was reported among gym users (60.7%). Only 12.8% of dietary supplement users sought information from dietitians. Practical implications suggest that gym instructors and coaches should be sufficiently trained to be able to provide accurate and scientifically sound information on dietary supplements to the exercisers in gyms in the university environment.

  9. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Althoug...

  10. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  12. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of long-term administration of dietary fiber on the exocrine pancreas in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H; Kasper, H

    1984-08-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (50--70g) were fed a standard laboratory diet containing 6% dietary fiber substances (diet I), the same diet supplemented with 5% guar (diet II), 10% wheat bran (diet III), or 5% pectin of high (76%) methylic esterification (diet IV), or a fiber-free diet (diet V). After a 6-week feeding period, the body weight of the animals had increased to 300--350g. The common bile duct was then canulated and the exocrine pancreatic function tested under urethane anesthesia (1.5 g/kg body weight). The tested fiber substances had no effect on the basal pancreatic secretion of volume, bicarbonate, lipase, amylase or protein, or on the wet weight and histological appearance of the organ. However, the fiber substances influenced the pancreatic response to maximal exogenous stimulation with secretin (3.0 CU/100 g X hour) and cholecystokinin (0.6 IDU/100 g X hour) and the enzyme content of the gland significantly. Compared with diet V, diet I increased the DNA content of the pancreas and its secretion of bicarbonate and protein, and decreased the protein concentration in the gland. Diet II reduced the pancreatic content of trypsinogen and protein. Diet III decreased the protein content, but increased the bicarbonate secretion, which was also increased by diet IV. -- We conclude that fiber substances influence stimulated secretion and the enzyme content of the pancrease to a varying degree.

  14. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Les G; Dalvi Tapashi B; Norkus Edward P; Jensen Christopher D; Block Gladys; McManus Jamie F; Hudes Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design...

  15. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Perez-Downes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient’s choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions.

  17. Dietary Inulin Fibers Prevent Proton-Pump Inhibitor (PPI)-Induced Hypocalcemia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mark W; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Gommers, Lisanne M M; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M

    2015-01-01

    Proton-pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia (PPIH) is the most recognized side effect of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). Additionally, PPIH is associated with hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. It is hypothesized that PPIs reduce epithelial proton secretion and thereby increase the pH in the colon, which may explain the reduced absorption of and Mg2+ and Ca2+. Fermentation of dietary oligofructose-enriched inulin fibers by the microflora leads to acidification of the intestinal lumen and by this enhances mineral uptake. This study aimed, therefore, to improve mineral absorption by application of dietary inulin to counteract PPIH. Here, C57BL/J6 mice were supplemented with omeprazole and/or inulin. Subsequently, Mg2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis was assessed by means of serum, urine and fecal electrolyte measurements. Moreover, the mRNA levels of magnesiotropic and calciotropic genes were examined in the large intestine and kidney by real-time PCR. Treatment with omeprazole significantly reduced serum Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels. However, concomitant addition of dietary inulin fibers normalized serum Ca2+ but not serum Mg2+ concentrations. Inulin abolished enhanced expression of Trpv6 and S100g in the colon by omeprazole. Additionally, intestinal and renal mRNA levels of the Trpm6 gene were reduced after inulin intake. This study suggests that dietary inulin counteracts reduced intestinal Ca2+ absorption upon PPI treatment. In contrast, inulin did not increase intestinal absorption of Mg2+ sufficiently to recover serum Mg2+. The clinical potential of dietary inulin treatment should be the subject of future studies.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  20. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supple...

  1. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  2. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry dietary supplements and food products (total n = 74 were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples or were adulterated with anthocyanins from unlabeled sources (three samples. Five of 41 food products contained no detectable anthocyanins. In mg per serving, the dietary supplements tested contained 0.02–86.27 (average 10.00, and food products contained 0.48–39.66 (average 7.76. Anthocyanin levels between the dietary supplements and food products were not significantly different in mg per serving. Individual anthocyanin profiles can be used to evaluate quality of Rosaceae food products and dietary supplements. These findings show that increasing anthocyanin content and reducing adulteration could improve the quality of Rosaceae products available in the marketplace. Keywords: Rubus, Fragaria, Prunus, Dietary supplement, Nonmineral dietary supplement, Nonvitamin dietary supplement

  3. Use of dietary supplements for weight loss in obese patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is a prevalent and worldwide health problem . The most common weight loss method preferred by obese individuals is dietary supplements. This study was performed in order to determine the dietary supplements used by obese individuals for weight loss and to examine the barriers to informing health ...

  4. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry) dietary supplements and food products (total n=74) were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples) o...

  5. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples... Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold reserve samples of dietary supplements in a manner that protects against contamination and...

  6. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.

  7. [Dietary fiber and nutritional support in pediatrics: current understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L

    2010-01-01

    The article summarizes the materials on the use of dietary fiber (DF) in the diet of children of different ages. According to the few studies that DF used in children's diets, play an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and in lowering serum cholesterol, which reduces the risk of children of cardiovascular disease. Given that children and adolescents consume food insufficient number of DF should be encouraged to increase in baby food for their consumption at the expense of fruit, vegetables and products prepared from cereals. A number of recommendations on the level of consumption of DF children and adolescents of all ages.

  8. Effect of dietary fiber in lowering serum glucose and body weight in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Chohan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The present study evaluated the hypoglycemic perspectives and weight loss significance of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber was supplemented in commercial wheat flour (atta for the preparation of chapaties, a staple diet of South Asia. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 100 were randomly divided into 4 diet groups (n = 25 per group. The control group was fed basal diet that included commercial wheat flour chapati, cornstarch, corn oil, salt and vitamin mixture in such a way that 10% of the protein was available from the final diet. To the basal diet of other 3 groups, chapaties supplemented with 2% guar gum (GG 2%, 3% guar gum (GG 3% and 5% chickpea + 1% guar gum (CP5%+GG1% were added, respectively. All diets were fed to the rats for a period of 8 weeks to perceive the impact of respective compositions. Rats fed on CP 5% + GG1%, showed maximum glucose reduction (14.57% followed by GG 3% (11.64% and GG 2% (9.60% as compared to control diet. Likewise, rats fed on 3% GG showed maximum decline (7.90% in body weight. It was concluded that chapaties prepared from selected treatments provide an additional dietary fiber that could be supportive for diabetic and obese individuals.Results:The results indicated that addition of dietary fiber influenced the physical characteristics of chapati non-significantly. Maximum glucose concentration was found to be 112.50 mg/dL in control group followed by 101.70 and 99.41 mg/dL in groups fed on guar gum 2% and guar gum 3%, respectively. Lowest glucose concentration (96.11 mg/dL was observed in rats fed on the combination of chickpea 5 %+ guar gum 1%. Maximum serum protein concentration was found to be 6.39 g/dL in rats fed on combination of chickpea 5 % + guar gum 1% whilst the remaining three groups showed non significant variations with respect to each other. Means for serum Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:261-278 protein were 6.33, 6.30 and 6.32 g/dL for control, guar gum 3%, and guar gum 2

  9. Evaluation of the prevalence of dietary supplement consumption in selected group of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior and habits of dietary supplemnts consumed by adults. The study included 108 participants. In the study group, 67,6% of respondents were females whereas 32,4% were males. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 35 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to March 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 21 questions single-choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. Respondents were asked about education, knowledge of dietary supplements and frequency of dietary supplements and the reason for their use. More than half of respondents used or currently apply dietary supplements 67.6%. All respondents were convinced of the effectiveness of dietary supplements, especially those of natural origin. Diet supplements were more often used by women (p <0.05, especially with higher education. The reason most women used dietary supplements was the desire to lose weight (31.5% of respondents and beneficial effects on hair, nails and complexion (29.6% of respondents. Among the group of men, the reason they used to go to dietary supplements was the desire to increase the body's immunity (38.9% of respondents.Respondents said that they most often use dietary supplements bought at pharmacies (57.4%. As the average time of dietary supplements, the most common response was 2-3 months (50.9%. 7.4% of respondents experienced side effects of dietary supplements (gastrointestinal disorders, headache, rash, skin discoloration.

  10. Development and validation of analytical methods for dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Darryl; Crowley, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of innovative botanical ingredients in dietary supplements and foods has resulted in a flurry of research aimed at the development and validation of analytical methods for accurate measurement of active ingredients. The pressing need for these methods is being met through an expansive collaborative initiative involving industry, government, and analytical organizations. This effort has resulted in the validation of several important assays as well as important advances in the method engineering procedures which have improved the efficiency of the process. The initiative has also allowed researchers to hurdle many of the barricades that have hindered accurate analysis such as the lack of reference standards and comparative data. As the availability for nutraceutical products continues to increase these methods will provide consumers and regulators with the scientific information needed to assure safety and dependable labeling

  11. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  12. Role of PHGG as a dietary fiber: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, G

    2013-12-01

    Functional and metabolic effects of dietary fiber are recognized by the scientific, clinical and nutritional experts. Dietary fiber plays a very significant role in modifying the intestinal microbiota, exerting prebiotic effects such as stimulating the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG) is a natural dietary fiber (Benefibra™, Novartis CH Italy): it is a white powder, water-soluble, colorless and transparent in water solution and almost tasteless. PHGG is stable and soluble at various pH levels commonly found in foods as well as resistant to heat, acid, salt, high pressure and digestive enzymes. Low viscosity of PHGG provides a distinct advantage for the use of fiber in enteral feeding products to be administered through feeding tubes. It has been studied in adults, both healthy volunteers and patients, in different disorders such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), enteral nutrition, small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and, very recently, in children suffering from functional abdominal pain according to the Rome III Criteria definition for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review takes stock of the situation concerning what is known to date on PHGG as dietary fiber, in order to give the health care professionals, such as gastroenterologists, dieticians and general practitioners, a complete overview on its intrinsic characteristics, preclinical and clinical evaluations, uses in different situations as supportive therapy in the management of the main intestinal functional

  13. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faruk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Methods: Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14, mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. Results: We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls (P<0.05. The CRC patients had significantly more fecal pH level than the matched apparently healthy controls (P=0.017. Conclusions: The identified differences in the fecal fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans “today.”

  14. Dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf flavonoids inhibits methanogenesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Dan-Dan; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Nai-Feng; Si, Bing-Wen; Diao, Qi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of flavonoids on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes were evaluated in two experiments. To investigate the effects of flavonoids on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, 18 ewes (60.0 ± 1.73 kg body weight (BW)) were allotted to two dietary treatments in experiment one, a control diet and the control diet supplemented with flavonoids (2 g/head/day). In experiment two, the effects of supplementary flavonoids on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with six ewes (67.2 ± 0.79 kg BW) with ruminal cannula assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment one. Supplementary flavonoids improved the apparent digestibility of nitrogen (N, P flavonoids, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (P = 0.037). Supplementary flavonoids decreased ruminal populations of protozoans (P = 0.002) and methanogens (P flavonoids improved the digestibility of organic matter and reduced CH 4 output by inhibiting the populations of microbes involved in methanogenesis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Characteristics and trends of drug and dietary supplement inquiries by college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Peter J; Tsourounis, Candy; Uryasz, Frank D; Patterson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the types of drug and dietary supplement inquiries submitted to the National Center for Drug Free Sport through the Resource Exchange Center (REC). Cross-sectional study. United States, from July 2009 through June 2010. Athletes and athletic personnel associated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Tabulation and classification of drugs and dietary supplement inquiries. Characteristics and trends of drug and dietary supplement inquiries. Inquiries for prescription medications for albuterol inhalers, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and prednisone were the most common using a drug lookup function. The most common inquiries for over-the-counter medications included pseudoephedrine, loratadine, cetirizine, and caffeine. Among dietary supplements, inquiries for amino acids/metabolites, vitamins and minerals, and herbal products occurred most frequently. One dietary supplement, N.O.-Xplode (Bio-Engineered Supplements and Nutrition, Inc.), accounted for the majority of individual dietary supplement inquiries. Banned substances accounted for 30% of all inquiries submitted to the REC and 18% of medications searched in a drug lookup database. Almost 25,000 inquiries were submitted to the REC. Pharmacists can use this information to advise, counsel, and refer NCAA athletes regarding the use of banned and permitted substances. Education programs regarding stimulants, dietary supplements, and the risk of using substances such as animal byproducts are needed, and pharmacists can participate in these programs.

  16. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Concerning Dietary Supplements among a Student Population in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavičić Žeželj

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of usage and the knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements among medical sciences and nonmedical sciences students from Croatia. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire about dietary supplement usage, knowledge and attitudes. The prevalence of dietary supplement use, among 910 university students was 30.5%. The most-used dietary supplements were vitamins (18.0% in medical sciences students and 9.8% in non-medical sciences students. For all students, the internet (66.1% was the most common source of information, followed by healthcare professionals (33.2%. The most common reason for taking dietary supplements was to maintain good health (26.4%. Use of the internet rather than health professionals as a trusted information source should be revised among this young population. Supplement intake was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (p = 0.016 and physical activity (p = 0.050. Students with normal BMI (61.5% and the most physically active students (37.7% took significantly more dietary supplements. Results of this study could help medicine faculties to improve their curriculum and support the development of public health messages aimed at wise and safe use of dietary supplements.

  17. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? 111.525 Section 111.525 Food and Drugs... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned...

  18. Determinants of the use of dietary supplements among secondary and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Karolina; Zielińska, Monika; Ciecierska, Anna; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys). Authors’ questionnaire was used to evaluate the intake of dietary supplements. The use of cluster analysis allowed to distinguish groups of students with similar socio-demographic characteristics and the frequency of use of dietary supplements. In the studied population of students three clusters were created that significantly differed in socio-demographic characteristics. In cluster 1 and 2, were mostly students who used dietary supplements (respectively, 56% of respondents and 100%). In cluster 1 there were mostly students coming from rural areas and small city, with a worse financial situation, mainly boys (56%), while cluster 2 was dominated by girls (81%) living in a big city, coming from families with a good financial situation and who were more likely to be underweight (28.8%). In cluster 3 there were mostly older students (62%), not taking dietary supplements. In comparison to cluster 2, they had lower frequency of breakfast consumption (55% vs. 69%), but higher frequency of the consumption of soft drinks, fast-food, coffee as well as salt use at the table. The results show that the use of dietary supplements in adolescence is a common phenomenon and slightly conditioned by eating behaviors. This unfavorable habit of common dietary supplements intake observed among students indicates the need for education on the benefits and risks of the supplements usage.

  19. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robert G; Mellon, Michael W; Katusic, Slavica K; Weaver, Amy L; Matern, Dietrich; Mellon, Bryan; Jensen, Craig L; Barbaresi, William J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves the behavior of children with autism. A group of 3- to 10-year-old children with autism were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive a supplement containing 200 mg of DHA or a placebo for 6 months. The parents and the investigator completed the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale to rate changes in core symptoms of autism after 3 and 6 months. The parents completed the Child Development Inventory and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and both parents and teachers completed the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC) at enrollment and after 6 months. A total of 48 children (40 [83%] boys, mean age [standard deviation] 6.1 [2.0] years) were enrolled; 24 received DHA and 24 placebo. Despite a median 431% increase in total plasma DHA levels after 6 months, the DHA group was not rated as improved in core symptoms of autism compared to the placebo group on the CGI-I. Based on the analysis of covariance models adjusted for the baseline rating scores, parents (but not teachers) provided a higher average rating of social skills on the BASC for the children in the placebo group compared to the DHA group (P = 0.04), and teachers (but not parents) provided a higher average rating of functional communication on the BASC for the children in the DHA group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Dietary DHA supplementation of 200 mg/day for 6 months does not improve the core symptoms of autism. Our results may have been limited by inadequate sample size.

  20. Dietary fibre supplementation of a 'normal' breakfast administered to diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D R; James, W P; Evans, I E

    1980-05-01

    The supplementation of a breakfast by 10 g of guar, pectin, agar or locust bean gum in powder form in 13 maturity onset, non-insulin dependent diabetics failed to decrease significantly the post-prandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin seen after a similar meal without the supplement. The values of one hour post-prandial increment in blood glucose seen with guar powder were, for control meal (mean +/- SEM) 5.8 %/- 0.4 mmol/l, for test, 5.7 +/- 0.5; with pectin powder, control 6.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l, test 5.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; with agar powder, control 7.5 +/- 1.0, test 7.0 +/- 0.5; with locust bean gum powder, control 5.9 +/- 1.0, test 5.0 +/- 0.7. The equivalent values for one hour insulin (microU/ml, mean +/- SEM) were, for guar powder, 51 +/0 21 and 51 +/- 16; for pectin powder 60 +/- 24 and 63 +/- 17; for agar powder, 27 +/- 9 and 36 +/- 11 and, for locust bean gum powder 53 +/- 26 and 62 +/- 18. The guar, pectin and locust gum tended to form lumps, and all the substances tested were unpalatable in powder form producing feelings of abdominal discomfort and abnormal fullness. Administering the same quantity of guar or pectin in a well hydrated form (but not premixed with the carbohydrate portion of the food) to the same people under identical conditions did not enhance its effectiveness. Supplementing diets with any of these sources of dietary fibre in either of these forms and in these amounts is unlikely to be beneficial in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes.

  1. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Spagner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design: A cross-...

  2. Isomalto/Malto-polysaccharide, a novel soluble dietary fiber made via enzymatic conversion of starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, Hans; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Ebbelaar, Monique; Faber, Folkert; Buwalda, Pieter L; van der Maarel, Marc J.E.C.; Kamerling, Johannis P; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an

  3. Isomalto/Malto-Polysaccharide, A Novel Soluble Dietary Fiber Made Via Enzymatic Conversion of Starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, H.; Dobruchowska, J.M.; Ebbelaar, M.; Faber, F.; Buwalda, P.L.; Maarel, M.J.E.J.; Kamerling, J.P.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an

  4. Dietary fiber analysis of common pulses using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber is an important non-nutritive component of food and is believed to have various benefits to human health. In many countries, such as the United States and Canada, the intake of dietary fiber is 50 to 70% below recommended levels in greater than 95% of the population. We recently adva...

  5. the effect of cooking time on the vitamin c, dietary fiber and mineral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (Sandra, 1995). Several methods of processing the vegetables are being use without considering the effect on the vitamin C, dietary fiber and minerals components. This study is designed to determine the effect of cooking time on the Vitamin C, dietary fiber. & mineral constituents of T. occidentalis (FP), V. amygdalina (BL),.

  6. Current dietary supplement use of Australian military veterans of Middle East operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pols, Jolieke C; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Bell, Alison; Lui, Chi-Wai

    2017-12-01

    To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss). Middle East Area of Operations post-deployment health survey. Current and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel (n 14 032) who deployed to the Middle East between 2001 and 2009. Bodybuilding supplements were used by 17·5 % of participants, energy supplements by 24·5 % and weight-loss supplements by 7·6 %. Overall, 32·3 % of participants used any of these supplements. Bodybuilding and energy supplements were more often used by men, younger persons and those in the Army, while weight-loss supplements were more commonly used by women and Navy personnel. Supplements in all three categories were more commonly used by persons in lower ranks, active service and combat roles. Users of bodybuilding supplements had healthier lifestyles and better health status, while users of energy and weight-loss supplements had less healthy lifestyles and poorer mental and physical health status. Overall, 11·7 % of participants used supplements containing caffeine and 3·6 % used a creatine-containing product. Use of dietary supplements among Australian Defence Force personnel is common, and patterned by lifestyle factors and health status.

  7. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  8. Factors influencing dietary supplement consumption: A case study in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consumer survey on dietary supplement consumption was carried out on 494 consumers aged 20 years and older in Chiang Mai province. The percentage of consumers who regularly consumed dietary supplements was 38.5%. Vitamins and minerals were the most consumed products, followed by functional drinks, functional foods, protein extracts, dietary fibre, cod liver oil, phytochemicals, algae products, fat absorbers, fish oils and bee products in that order. Females and participants who had recommended waistlines, had higher income, usually felt stressed or sick, and who preferred eating fruits/vegetables or routinely drank water tended to have a higher rate of consumption of dietary supplements. Participants gave priority over a product with guaranteed quality when they made decision to purchase dietary supplements, but their purchase was also influenced by the attractiveness of the product and advertisement for it.

  9. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. © 2012

  10. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  11. A Review of the Toxicity of Compounds Found in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amy; Lopez, Elizabeth; Almalki, Ahmad J; Roe, Amy L; Calderón, Angela I

    2018-04-19

    Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk. While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities. Using primarily the National Library of Medicine journal database and SciFinder for current reports, 47 toxic compounds in 55 species from 46 plant families were found to demonstrate harmful effects due to hepatic, cardiovascular, central nervous system, and digestive system toxicity. This review further contributes a novel and comprehensive view of toxicity across the botanical dietary market, and investigates the toxicity of the top ten botanical dietary supplements purchased in the United States of America to gauge the exposure risk of toxicity to the public. The criteria of measuring toxicity in this review (plant compound, family, quantity, and toxicity effects) across the entire market in the United States, with special attention to those supplements whose exposure to the consumer is maximal, provides a unique contribution to the investigation of botanical supplements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Decision-making patterns for dietary supplement purchases among women aged 25 to 45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K; Russell, Teri; Kissling, Grace

    2003-11-01

    Women frequently consume dietary supplements but the criteria used to select supplements have received little investigation. This research identified the decision-making criteria used for dietary supplements among women aged 25 to 45 years who consumed a supplement at least four times per week. Participants (N=51) completed an in-store shopping interview that was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively for the criteria used to make supplement selections. Qualitative analysis revealed 10 key criteria and the number of times each person used each criterion was quantified. Cluster analysis identified five homogeneous subgroups of participants based on the criteria used. These included brand shopper, bargain shopper, quality shopper, convenience shopper, and information gatherer. Supplement users vary in the criteria used to make point-of-purchase supplement selections. Dietetics professionals can classify supplement users according to the criteria used to tailor their nutrition counseling and better meet the educational needs of consumers.

  13. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  14. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas; Wong, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    U.S. nutrition surveys find that intakes of many nutrients fall short of recommendations. The majority of U.S. adults use multivitamins and other dietary supplements as one means of improving nutrient intakes. Some policy makers and health professionals appear reluctant to recommend routine use of dietary supplements to fill nutrient gaps in the diet, in part because they are concerned that people will view the supplements as a substitute for dietary improvement and that the use of supplements may lead to overconsumption of micronutrients. Surveys find that in fact users of dietary supplements tend to have better diets and adopt other healthy habits, suggesting that the supplements are viewed as one aspect of an overall effort to improve wellness. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that the incidence of excess micronutrient intake is low. We report the results of a survey probing consumer attitudes about the role of dietary supplements. The Council for Responsible Nutrition funded a survey to measure consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, and other supplements in improving dietary intakes. The research was designed and analyzed by FoodMinds and was fielded using Toluna's On-line Omnibus. The weighted sample of 2159 respondents is representative of U.S. adults. Nearly 90% of the survey respondents agreed that multivitamins and supplements of calcium and/or vitamin D can help meet nutrient needs when desirable intakes are not achieved through food alone. At the same time, 80% agreed that dietary supplements should not be used to replace healthy dietary or lifestyle habits, and 82% agreed that people considering taking a high dose, single nutrient supplement should talk with their physician. These results provide additional support for the conclusion that the vast majority of consumers recognize that multivitamins and other supplements can help fill nutrient gaps but should not be viewed as replacements for a healthy

  15. Effects of dietary fibers with different physiochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Da Silva, C.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    he satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to

  16. Faster, Stronger, Healthier: Adolescent-Stated Reasons for Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdešar Kotnik, Katja; Jurak, Gregor; Starc, Gregor; Golja, Petra

    Examine the underlying reasons and sources of recommendation for dietary supplement (DS) use among adolescents. Cross-sectional analysis of children's development in Slovenia in September to October, 2014. Nationally recruited sample. Adolescents aged 14-19 years enrolled in 15 high schools (n = 1,463). Reasons for and sources of recommendation for DS use, sports club membership, sports discipline, and extent of physical activity (PA) were self-reported data. Chi-square test of independence was performed to compare the prevalence of DS use between groups with different extents of PA and nonathletes/athletes, referring to 11 different reasons and 9 different sources of recommendation for DS use. Use of DS was widespread among adolescents (69%), athletes (76%), and nonathletes (66%). Higher prevalence of supplementation was observed in males, who justified it use for sports performance enhancement and better development and function of muscles. In contrast, females emphasized immune system improvement. Higher extent of PA was associated with a higher prevalence of DS use. This was especially evident in males, who participated in team sports. A high percentage of adolescents (41%) decided on their own to use DS and because of advice from parents or relatives (30%). Several reasons for the widespread use of DS in adolescents were associated with sports participation. Therefore, educational programs regarding DS use should be targeted primarily to adolescents and their parents who are involved in sports, and especially team sports. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mining Adverse Events of Dietary Supplements from Product Labels by Topic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yefeng; Gunashekar, Divya R.; Adam, Terrence J.; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    The adverse events of the dietary supplements should be subject to scrutiny due to their growing clinical application and consumption among U.S. adults. An effective method for mining and grouping the adverse events of the dietary supplements is to evaluate product labeling for the rapidly increasing number of new products available in the market. In this study, the adverse events information was extracted from the product labels stored in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and analyzed by topic modeling techniques, specifically Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Among the 50 topics generated by LDA, eight topics were manually evaluated, with topic relatedness ranging from 58.8% to 100% on the product level, and 57.1% to 100% on the ingredient level. Five out of these eight topics were coherent groupings of the dietary supplements based on their adverse events. The results demonstrated that LDA is able to group supplements with similar adverse events based on the dietary supplement labels. Such information can be potentially used by consumers to more safely use dietary supplements. PMID:29295169

  18. Does Dietary Fiber Affect the Levels of Nutritional Components after Feed Formulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu Adams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dietary fiber and nutrient bioavailability have gained an increasing interest in both human and animal nutrition. Questions are increasingly being asked regarding the faith of nutrient components such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids after feed formulation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence with the perspective of fiber usage in feed formulation. The consumption of dietary fiber may affect the absorption of nutrients in different ways. The physicochemical factors of dietary fiber, such as fermentation, bulking ability, binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity and solubility affect nutrient absorption. The dietary fiber intake influences the different methods in which nutrients are absorbed. The increase in the total fiber content of the diet may delay the glycemic response. Soluble fiber decreased blood glucose content whereas purified insoluble fiber has a little or no effect on the blood glucose levels after a meal. Dietary fiber and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters. Previous studies suggest that fiber affects the bioavailability of nutrients, and maintains the host wellness.

  19. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-04-09

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  20. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren García-Cortés

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements (DS are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™ while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang. Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  1. CONTAMINATION OF PROPOLIS USED AS A DIETARY SUPPLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Roman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of the study was to determine the extent of chosen toxic elements (zinc, copper, lead, arsenic and cadmium bioaccumulation in propolis collected in Opole area. The present study demonstrates that propolis can be used as a dietary supplement. The research material were samples of propolis originated from 3 bee colonies in 30 apiaries (n=3x30=90. Quantitative analysis of studied elements were conducted using Varian ICP-AES plasma spectrometer with mass detection controlled, and CETAC-5000 AT ultrasonic nebulizer. The presence of toxic elements was determined in an examined biological materials. The sequence of accumulation level of studied elements in propolis was as follows: Zn>>Cu>Pb>As>Cd. An average concentration of zinc, copper, lead, arsenic and cadmium amounted  to 56.28, 7.12, 6.91, 0.745, 0.218 mg.kg-1, respectively. Only the copper average content in propolis was within acceptable standards, whereas the mean contents of other elements greatly exceed these standards. All portions of propolis should be subjected to toxicological testing before applying these samples for internal use.doi:10.5219/184

  2. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hood Kaylene L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others. Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed. Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals.

  3. Online education about herbs and dietary supplements: margin or mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Patel, Sejal

    2015-01-01

    Online education is increasingly used to train health professionals, but little is known about how variations in cost affect use of elective training. We assessed whether offering registration for free increased the number of modules consumed in both absolute terms (# modules consumed per person, pp) and relative terms (# modules consumed per # modules registered). We analyzed results of the 'natural experiment' on learner's use of the OSU Center for Integrative Health and Wellness online elective curriculum, Introduction Herbs and Dietary Supplements Across the Lifespan, in which costs varied based on monthly discounts for students, faculty, staff, alumni, and members of selected professional associations. Over 7 months there were a total of 905 registrants for 8553 modules. Most (847/905, 94%) registered for free; they completed 1505 (18%) of 8344 modules for which they registered. Fewer (58/905, 6%) people paid for registration; they completed a significantly higher percentage 90/209 (43%, P online elective training addresses the institutional mission of increasing the number health professionals trained and the number of modules consumed compared with charging for training. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of pricing on educational outcomes and ultimately on patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  5. Use of dietary supplements by female seniors in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged ≥ 65 years are high utilizers of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and many of these women are also taking dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use by older women is a concern because of possible side effects and drug-supplement interactions. The primary aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of dietary supplement use among older women in a large health plan in Northern California, USA, to raise awareness among health care providers and pharmacists about the need for implementing structural and educational interventions to minimize adverse consequences of self-directed supplement use. A secondary aim was to raise awareness about how the focus on use of herbals and megavitamins that has occurred in most surveys of complementary and alternative therapy use results in a significant underestimate of the proportion of older women who are using all types of dietary supplements for the same purposes. Methods We used data about use of different vitamin/mineral (VM supplements and nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM supplements, including herbals, from a 1999 general health survey mailed to a random sample of adult members of a large Northern California health plan to estimate prevalence of and characteristics associated with supplement use among women aged 65–84 (n = 3,109. Results Based on weighted data, 84% had in the past 12 months used >1 dietary supplement, 82% a VM, 59% a supplement other than just multivitamin or calcium, 32% an NVNM, and 25% an herbal. Compared to white, nonHispanic women, African-Americans and Latinas were significantly less likely to use VM and NVNM supplements and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to use NVNM supplements. Higher education was strongly associated with use of an NVNM supplement. Prevalence did not differ by number of prescription medications taken. Among white, nonHispanic women, multiple logistic regression models showed that college

  6. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-03-05

    A practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for fingerprint analysis of and determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The study is the first reported chromatographic method that separates corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract. The chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to the analysis of 18 yohimbe commercial dietary supplement samples. Quantitation of yohimbine, the traditional method for analysis of yohimbe barks, were also performed to evaluate the results of the fingerprint analysis. Wide variability was observed in fingerprints and yohimbine content among yohimbe dietary supplement samples. For most of the dietary supplements, the yohimbine content was not consistent with the label claims. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. 6 Things to Know about Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCCIH NCCIH At a Glance Mission and Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & ... 6 Things To Know About Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Supplements Share: Diabetes is ...

  8. Time to Talk: 5 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things You Should Know About Dietary Supplements for Hepatitis C Share: Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by a ... more years to happen. Without medical treatment, chronic hepatitis C can eventually cause liver cancer or liver ...

  9. Effects of vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and other dietary supplements on schizophrenic symptoms in people with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smedslund, Geir; Berg, Rigmor C.

    2011-01-01

    ENGLISH: There is considerable scientific disagreement about the possible effects of dietary supplements on mental health and illness. Do dietary supplements (possibly in megadoses) have an effect on symptoms and consequences of schizophrenia? We critically appraised randomized controlled trials about supplemental vitamins, fatty acids and other dietary supplements given to people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The primary outcome was symptoms of schizophrenia. We evaluated the evidence to be ...

  10. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  11. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Patients with Proven or Suspected Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic search of bibliographic databases was conducted to describe the prevalence of dietary supplement use in cardiac patients. Included for review were studies that investigated supplement use in people with cardiovascular risk factors or proven cardiovascular disease. Databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Meditext, H&S and IPA. Over five hundred articles were retrieved and twenty studies met the criteria for this review. Dietary supplements were taken by a median 36% (interquartile range: 26–42% of cardiac patients; 36% (IQR 18–43% reported taking a vitamin/mineral supplement and 12% (IQR 7–21% used herbal supplements. Many users indicated that supplements were taken specifically for heart health and 16–64% of users reported using supplements alongside prescription medications. However 39–95% of treating physicians were unaware of patients’ supplement use. Dietary supplement use in patients with cardiovascular disease appears common, as does the concurrent use of supplements with prescription medicines. This information is often not communicated to doctors and treating physicians may need to be more proactive in asking about supplement use.

  12. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments...

  13. The history of efforts to regulate dietary supplements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, John P

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the emergence of dietary supplements and how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) attempted to regulate these, beginning with the arrival of vitamins and how these were managed under the 1906 Food and Drugs Act, and ending with the seismic influence of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Included are the impact of major laws, key court decisions, and the construction of the FDA's supplement actions and rules from the 1920s to the 1990s for products that were neither drugs nor typical foods. Stiff resistance to the regulations by supplement manufacturers, trade associations, politicians, and especially the public at large is an important part of this story. The paper closes with the passage of DSHEA and how it literally changed the definition and parameters of control of dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Dietary Supplements Commonly Used by Cancer Survivors: Are There Any Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Mary J

    2017-10-01

    Following a cancer diagnosis, dietary supplements are reportedly used by 20%-80% of individuals. Supplements are most commonly used by breast cancer survivors, followed by patients with prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers, which is not surprising since these are the most common types of cancer diagnosed in adults. Reasons cited for such use include improving quality of life, reducing symptoms related to treatment and/or the disease process, and recommendation from medical practitioners; family and friends may also be an influence. However, controversy surrounds the use of dietary supplements, particularly during treatment-specifically, whether supplements affect treatment efficacy is unknown. This article discusses the evidence related to common dietary supplements used to prevent cancer or a recurrence.

  15. Dietary Fiber Analysis of Four Pulses Using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency referred to as the dietary fiber gap. Using an analytical method American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC 2011.25 that conforms to the Codex Alimentarius Commission consensus definition for dietary fiber, the fiber content of these pulse crops was evaluated in seed types used for commercial production. These pulse crops have 2 to 3 times more fiber per 100 g edible portion than other dietary staples. Moreover, there is marked variation in fiber content among cultivars of the same crop. We conclude that pulse crop consumption should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. The substantial differences in fiber content among currently available cultivars within a crop can be used to further improve gains in fiber intake without the need to change dietary habits. This provides a rationale for cultivar-based food labeling.

  16. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.; Cools, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huyghebaert, G.; Buyse, J.; Roose, P.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil)

  17. Selenium, Chromium, and Vitamin D: What Dietitians Need to Know Regarding Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate nutrient data for dietary supplement composition are essential for determining supplements’ contribution to total dietary intake. To plan a nationwide adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) study, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) obtained prevalence information for the most common labeled...

  18. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.130 What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements? Quality control operations for returned dietary...

  19. Soluble Fiber Dextrin and Soluble Corn Fiber Supplementation Modify Indices of Health in Cecum and Colon of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. C. de Godoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control, Pectin, soluble fiber dextrin (SFD, or soluble corn fiber (SCF. Rats fed Pectin had a higher average daily food intake, but no differences in final body weights or rates of weight gain among treatments were observed. No differences were observed in total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA or branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA concentrations in the cecum and colon of rats fed either SFD or SCF. The SFD and SCF treatments increased cecal propionate and decreased butyrate concentrations compared to Control or Pectin. Pectin resulted in increased BCFA in the cecum and colon. Supplementation of SFD and SCF had no effect on cecal microbial populations compared to Control. Consumption of SFD and SCF increased total and empty cecal weight but not colon weight. Gut histomorphology was positively affected by SFD and SCF. Increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers, and acidic mucin were observed in both the cecum and colon of rats supplemented with SFD, SCF, and Pectin. These novel, low-digestible carbohydrates appear to be beneficial in modulating indices of hindgut morphology when supplemented in the diet of the rat.

  20. Micronutrient Intake and the Contribution of Dietary Supplements in Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Rivera, Kiara; López-Cepero, Andrea; Diaz, Beatriz; Lee, Jae Eun; Palacios, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants and toddlers and to determine the contribution of dietary supplements to this adequacy, micronutrient intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls in a sample of 296 infants aged 0-24 months. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and beverages and from supplements and compared between nonusers and users of supplements. Percentages of children below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and above the tolerable upper limit intake (UL) were also compared between groups. A total of 241 participants had complete data. The prevalence of dietary supplement use among the sample was 15%. Mean intake of all micronutrients from foods and beverages was similar between nonusers and users of supplements (p > .05) but significantly higher for the following vitamins when supplements were included: D, E, B1, B2, B3, and B6 (p supplements were included, this percentage significantly decreased among users compared to nonusers (p supplements were added. Supplements significantly increased the intake of some vitamins. Vitamins D and E had the highest percentage of children below the DRI, which was partly corrected with the use of supplements. The UL was exceeded for magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B3 in many children. It is important to understand these patterns as they may be indicative of future nutritional deficiencies and excesses.

  1. Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christine; Kearney, Tom; Bent, Stephen; Ko, Richard; Benowitz, Neal; Olson, Kent

    2008-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is of growing concern to regulators, health-care providers and consumers. Few scientific data exist on clinical effects and potential toxicities of marketed products. Harmful supplements may not be identified for months or years with existing adverse event monitoring mechanisms. Retrospective review of poison center statistics to capture supplement-associated toxicity also has limitations. We collaborated with the FDA Center for Food Safety and Nutrition (CFSAN) to conduct a 1-year prospective surveillance study of dietary supplement-related poison control center calls in 2006. Prompt follow-up of symptomatic cases, laboratory analysis of implicated dietary supplements, and causality assessment by a case review expert panel were performed. Of 275 dietary supplements calls, 41% involved symptomatic exposures; and two-thirds were rated as probably or possibly related to supplement use. Eight adverse events required hospital admission. Sympathomimetic toxicity was most common, with caffeine products accounting for 47%, and yohimbe products accounting for 18% of supplement-related symptomatic cases. Suspected drug-herb interactions occurred in 6 cases, including yohimbe co-ingested with buproprion (1) and methamphetamine (3), and additive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs taken with fish oils (1) and ginkgo (1). Laboratory analysis identified a pharmacologically active substance in 4 cases; supplement toxicity was ruled unlikely when analytical testing was negative in 5 cases. Most supplement-related adverse events were minor. Clinically significant toxic effects were most frequently reported with caffeine and yohimbe-containing products. Active surveillance of poison control center reports of dietary supplement adverse events enables rapid detection of potentially harmful products, which may facilitate regulatory oversight.

  2. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  3. 75 FR 9232 - Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... completed a strategic planning process resulting in the development of the ODS Strategic Plan for 2010-2014, entitled Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements. The strategic plan is available... Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan ACTION: Notice of availability of the ODS Strategic Plan for 2010...

  4. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition methods and dietary supplements have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about the history of research, laboratory, and human studies on various prostate supplements, such as calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy, and vitamin E in this expert-reviewed summary.

  5. An Increase in Dietary Supplement Exposures Reported to US Poison Control Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nisha; Spiller, Henry A; Hodges, Nichole L; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Casavant, Marcel J; Kamboj, Amrit K; Smith, Gary A

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of dietary supplement exposures in the USA. A retrospective analysis was conducted of out-of-hospital dietary supplement exposures reported to the National Poison Data System from 2000 through 2012. There were 274,998 dietary supplement exposures from 2000 through 2012. The annual rate of dietary supplement exposures per 100,000 population increased by 46.1% during 2000-2002, decreased 8.8% during 2002-2005, and then increased again by 49.3% from 2005 to 2012. These trends were influenced by the decrease in ma huang exposures starting in 2002. Miscellaneous dietary supplements accounted for 43.9% of all exposures, followed by botanicals (31.9%), hormonal products (15.1%), and other supplements (5.1%). The majority of dietary supplement exposures (70.0%) occurred among children younger than 6 years old and were acute (94.0%) and unintentional (82.9%). Serious medical outcomes accounted for 4.5% of exposures and most (95.0%) occurred among individuals 6 years and older. Ma huang products, yohimbe, and energy products were the categories associated with the greatest toxicity. There was an overall increase in the rate of dietary supplement exposures from 2000 through 2012. Although the majority of these exposures did not require treatment at a health care facility or result in serious medical outcomes, exposures to yohimbe and energy products were associated with considerable toxicity. Our results demonstrate the success of the FDA ban on ma huang products and the need for FDA regulation of yohimbe and energy products in the USA.

  6. Identifying and assessing views among physically-active adult gym members in Israel on dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druker, Inbal; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Sports dietary supplements are available for sale in public places including sports clubs. Although there is uncertainty regarding their safety, many gym members who regularly work out consume them. The present study aimed to identify the approaches and perspectives of the public who work out in gyms and take dietary supplements. It examined how professionals view sports dietary supplement consumption, and how they communicate this issue to gym members. The literature discusses the prevalence of SDS use among athletes, but rarely discusses or compares between the risk perceptions of gym members, trainers, and dietitians, who represent the physically-active general public, regarding SDS. We conducted constructivist qualitative research in semi-structured one-on-one interviews ( n  = 34). We held in-depth interviews ( n  = 20) with a heterogeneous population of adult gym members who take dietary supplements, and ( n  = 14) with dietitians and fitness trainers. The main finding was a gap in risk perception of dietary supplement use between dietitians, gym members and fitness trainers. There was low risk perception among dietary supplements consumers. Trainers believed that benefits of supplement consumption exceeded risk, and therefore they did not convey a message to their clients about risk. In contrast, dietitians interviewed for this study renounced general use of sports dietary supplements and doubted whether trainers had proper nutritional knowledge to support it. Lack of awareness of risks suggests that there is a need for communication on this issue. We recommend that professionals (physicians and dietitians) be present in sports clubs that sell such products in an uncontrolled way.

  7. Regulatory alerts for dietary supplements in Canada and the United States, 2005-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Andrew M; Hein, Darren J; Gregory, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    Dietary supplement regulatory alerts published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada were evaluated and characterized. FDA MedWatch and Health Canada websites were reviewed to identify regulatory alerts regarding dietary supplements from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2013. Alerts were analyzed to identify product characteristics that may be predictive of product quality issues and potential patient harm. A total of 1560 dietary supplement-related regulatory alerts were identified. Of those, 1287 (83%) were identified through Health Canada, and 273 (18%) were identified through FDA MedWatch. The country of origin of dietary supplements associated with regulatory alerts was not provided in most regulatory alerts; however, when their origin was provided, the United States was the most common. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement were the subject of 33% of all regulatory alerts identified. Products purchased online were the most likely to be associated with a regulatory alert. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance appeared to pose the greatest risk for patient harm due to product contamination with a pharmaceutical such as a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor or sibutramine. Analysis of Canadian and U.S. regulatory alerts concerning dietary supplements revealed that more than 80% of the composite alerts were issued by Health Canada. The most common intended uses of supplements for which alerts were issued were sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance. The most common reason for alerts was the presence of a pharmaceutical contaminant. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  9. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here.

  10. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  12. Prevalence of dietary supplement use and associated factors among female college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawaz, Hanan; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alfaifi, Aziza; Shahrani, Fatima M; Al Tameem, Huda M; Al Otaibi, Seetah F; Abudigin, Weaam I; Al-Shayaa, Mohammad S; Al-Ghanim, Saad A; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2017-11-22

    The economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics among Saudi female students. In this cross-sectional study, 534 female participants (≥19 years of age) completed a self-administered questionnaire that include sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, perceived health status, dietary supplement use, general awareness, attitudes and behavior. In all participants, the prevalence of dietary supplement use was 76.6% (n = 409). High level of education (p = 0.002) and more physical activity (p = 0.008) exhibited a significant positive association with users than to non-users. The frequency showed that beta-carotene (54.2%), chamomile (54.2%), and glucosamine (53.8%) were the most preferred diet supplements under the category "when needed". Cod liver oil (71.3%), omega 3 (68.3%), multi-vitamins (61.5%), ginseng (60%), and vitamin A (60%), were mostly used "from time to time". Multi-minerals (34.4%) were the preferred choice when it comes to daily use. The main reasons for supplement use were to "maintain healthy hair" and "injury and illness" (both 26.2%). About 38.4% were not aware and 30.3% disagree on differences taking supplements with or without consulting a medical professional. About 36.7% lack information about side effects while, 35.0% were unaware about any health effect of dietary supplements. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was high in Saudi female students and was significantly associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  13. Improved method for measurement of dietary fiber as non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englyst, H N; Cummings, J H

    1988-01-01

    A method is described that allows rapid estimation of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber as the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in plant foods. It is a modification of an earlier, more complex procedure. Starch is completely removed enzymatically, and NSP is measured as the sum of its constituent sugars released by acid hydrolysis. The sugars may, in turn, be measured by gas chromatography (GC), giving values for individual monosaccharides, or more rapidly by colorimetry. Both GC and colorimetry are suitable for routine measurement of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Values obtained are not affected by food processing so the dietary fiber content of various processed foods and mixed diets can be calculated simply from knowing the amount in the raw materials. The additional information obtained by GC analysis is valuable in the interpretation of physiological studies and in epidemiology where disease is related to type and amount of dietary fiber.

  14. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804

  15. Applying of dietary fiber from sugar beet for diffusion juice purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Loseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pilot study examined the effects of dietary fiber and filtroperlit on the efficiency of juice purification. The rational consumption of combined sorbent is determined, sorbent contact time with juice and temperature is defined.

  16. Consumer usage and reasons for using dietary supplements: report of a series of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; Blatman, Judy; El-Dash, Neale; Franco, Julio C

    2014-01-01

    Consumer usage of dietary supplements is prevalent in the United States, and total usage is higher than reported in recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), because these surveys capture usage only in the 30 days prior to the respondent's interview and do not capture occasional and seasonal use throughout the year. We report data from a series of consumer surveys on the full extent of dietary supplement use, on the reasons for supplement use, and on the products most commonly taken, as well as other health habits of supplement users. The Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), a trade association of the dietary supplement industry, has contracted with Ipsos Public Affairs to conduct consumer surveys annually since 2000. The surveys have been administered online since 2007 to about 2000 subjects each year. We report 5 years of data (2007 to 2011) on the prevalence of dietary supplement use, as well as more detailed data from the 2011 survey on the products used, the reasons for using supplements, and other health habits of supplement users. The prevalence of supplement use fluctuated within the range of 64% to 69% from 2007 to 2011, and the prevalence of regular supplement use ranged from 48% to 53%, with no statistically significant differences from year to year. Over the 5-year period, the percentage of respondents who said that they regularly used a variety of supplements increased from 28% to 36%, and the increase from 2010 to 2011 was statistically significant. The percentage of respondents who said that they regularly used only a multivitamin, as opposed to a variety of supplements, declined from 24% to 17%, and the decrease from 2007 to 2008 was statistically significant. Detailed results from the 2011 survey confirm that supplement use increases with age and is higher in women than in men. Vitamin or mineral supplements were used by 67% of all respondents in 2011, specialty supplements by 35%, botanicals by 23%, and sports

  17. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with betaine on a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Kitano, Tomoko; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Nagura, Taizo; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2012-01-01

    The effects of betaine supplementation on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice were examined by measuring the accumulation of fat in the livers of NASH model mice compared to a control. Betaine from sugar beets was provided to the model mice as a dietary supplement. After 3 wk of dietary supplementation, there were no significant differences in body weight or liver weight between the groups. However, the liver to body weight ratio in the high-fat diet with betaine (HFB) group was significantly (pNASH model mice.

  19. Dietary Fiber Treatment Corrects the Composition of Gut Microbiota, Promotes SCFA Production, and Suppresses Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Bishehsari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies propose a protective role for dietary fiber in colon cancer (CRC. One possible mechanism of fiber is its fermentation property in the gut and ability to change microbiota composition and function. Here, we investigate the role of a dietary fiber mixture in polyposis and elucidate potential mechanisms using TS4Cre × cAPCl°x468 mice. Stool microbiota profiling was performed, while functional prediction was done using PICRUSt. Stool short-chain fatty acid (SCFA metabolites were measured. Histone acetylation and expression of SCFA butyrate receptor were assessed. We found that SCFA-producing bacteria were lower in the polyposis mice, suggesting a decline in the fermentation product of dietary fibers with polyposis. Next, a high fiber diet was given to polyposis mice, which significantly increased SCFA-producing bacteria as well as SCFA levels. This was associated with an increase in SCFA butyrate receptor and a significant decrease in polyposis. In conclusion, we found polyposis to be associated with dysbiotic microbiota characterized by a decline in SCFA-producing bacteria, which was targetable by high fiber treatment, leading to an increase in SCFA levels and amelioration of polyposis. The prebiotic activity of fiber, promoting beneficial bacteria, could be the key mechanism for the protective effects of fiber on colon carcinogenesis. SCFA-promoting fermentable fibers are a promising dietary intervention to prevent CRC.

  20. Dietary Supplements in American Children: Scientific vs Marketing Justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivetti, Louis E.

    2002-01-01

    The American public receives conflicting messages from dietitians, nutritionists, physicians, and manufacturers regarding food supplements. Consumers commonly distrust scientists and justify supplement use based upon word of mouth and friendship patterns. Scientific-based education regarding supplement use is vital in the present atmosphere where consumer misinformation is rampant.

  1. Toxic hepatitis in a group of 20 male body-builders taking dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timcheh-Hariri, Alireza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Aryan, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2012-10-01

    Dietary supplements have been used for decades for enhancing muscle growth. The harm caused by some of these products is well documented. We investigated and reported toxic hepatitis in 20 male athletes following self-prescribing of a number of dietary supplements which are lesser known. The patients' ages ranged from 24 to 32 with a mean of 28 years. They had taken three kinds of supplements for 1 year including testosterone optimizer agent T Bomb II, a creatine supplement Phosphagen and an amino acid based supplement Cell-Tech. Based on the history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings the cases were diagnosed as toxic hepatitis. After discontinuation of taking the supplements, clinical recovery and improvement of liver function tests were achieved within 30 days. Causality assessment with the CIOMS (Council for International Organization Medical Sciences) scale showed a "possible" grade of causality (+5 points) for these supplements. It can be concluded that these newer anabolic supplements may induce toxic hepatitis. Since the health risks of them may be severe, the use of these kinds of dietary supplements should be discouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Ward

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376 attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05 number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05 females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05 calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years had the highest (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05 in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  3. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in ...

  4. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0......: The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary...

  5. Can claims, misleading information, and manufacturing issues regarding dietary supplements be improved in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James E; Taylor, David A

    2005-09-01

    The safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are assessed through the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) OTC drug review. Prescription drugs are approved through the rigorous new drug application (NDA) process. In contrast, dietary supplements are regulated as foods, and the FDA must determine that a dietary supplement ingredient poses a "significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury" instead of requiring the manufacturer to provide safety data. According to the FDA, there are more than 29,000 different dietary supplements available to consumers today. This momentum has its roots in consumer interest in health and self-care and suggests that Americans are searching for alternatives to conventional foods for physical and mental well being. The Committee on the Framework for Evaluating the Safety of Dietary Supplements was formed under the auspices of the Food and Nutrition Board that produced a report entitled Dietary Supplements: A Framework for Evaluating Safety. Categories of specific information identified for use are 1) human data, 2) animal studies, 3) in vitro experiments, and 4) information on related substances. Several factors were identified to guide the FDA in applying the framework. Two of these factors are expressed as follows: 1) "the appropriate scientific standard to be used to overturn this basic assumption of safety is to demonstrate significant or unreasonable risk, not prove that an ingredient is unsafe"; and 2) "approaches taken by diverse organizations and governmental bodies, both within and outside the United States, which evaluate the safety and at times efficacy of dietary supplement ingredients, vary in their relevance to the protection of the American public from risks associated with consumption of dietary supplement ingredients".

  6. Equine dietary supplements: an insight into their use and perceptions in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J M D; Hanna, E; Hastie, P

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry. An online survey was designed to ascertain the following information: demographics, types of supplements fed and reasons for use, factors that influenced respondents' choice of supplement, where advice was sought and perceptions of testing and regulation of equine supplements. The survey yielded 134 responses, 70% non-professionals and 30% professionals. A greater percentage of professionals included supplements in their horse(s) diets (98%) compared to non-professionals (86%). Almost 70% of professionals fed more than two supplements, whereas 80% of non-professionals reported to feed only one supplement. Joint supplements were most commonly fed by all respondents (22%) followed by calming supplements (13%). The enhancement of performance (35%) and prevention of joint disorders (34%) were the most common reasons reported by respondents for using a supplement. Over 53% of respondents sought advice on choosing a supplement from their feed merchant, followed by their veterinarian (46%). Veterinary recommendation was given as the most influential factor when choosing a supplement by 90% of respondents, followed by cost (69%). Most (93%) respondents thought that feed supplements had to meet legal standards, with each batch analysed for quality (72%) and the supplement tested on horses before being launched on to the market (92%). This study has identified the main types of supplements used in the Irish equestrian industry along with the reasons for their use. However, it has also highlighted

  7. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Vegetables as a Source of Dietary Fiber to Prevent Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Muchtadi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body's health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.

  9. High-Fiber Orange Juice as a Nutrition Supplement in Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Tolerance and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Christiane; Horie, Lilian Mika; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2015-11-01

    The daily consumption of dietary fiber is frequently below suggested recommendations. Using a double-blind, controlled, randomized study, we assessed the efficiency and tolerance of a fiber-enriched orange juice to supplement fiber intake in women. After 1 week of noninterventional observation, 192 healthy adult women ingested 400 mL of orange juice for 21 days, which either was not (placebo group) or was enriched with fiber (fiber group). Orange juice ingestion was registered daily and controlled for each week during the study period. Macronutrient, fiber, and energy intake were determined using a 3-day food record, validated food chemical composition databases, and the "Pro Diet" software. Gastrointestinal symptoms were self-evaluated daily by scoring 4 grades of symptom intensity and using a visual analog scale to grade pain severity. No changes were observed for macronutrient and energy ingestion. For the placebo group (n = 97), the total fiber intake record was under the daily recommended value. In contrast, the fiber group (n = 95) displayed higher comparative values of total and soluble fiber consumption (P ≤ .001), achieving the daily recommended values of fiber intake. Both groups reported an increased frequency of slight bloating and rumbles over time (P ≤ .05). The fiber group also experienced a higher frequency of slight flatulence over time (P = .002). Consumption of fiber-enriched orange juice was efficient to achieve the daily fiber intake recommendation for women, was not accompanied by intense adverse events, and may represent a suitable method to supplement fiber intake in woman. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

  11. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  12. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  13. Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Da Silva, C.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated

  14. Dietary intake of fiber and risk of knee osteoarthritis in two U.S. prospective cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fiber intake and risk of knee OA. Methods: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Os...

  15. Caffeine and Creatine Content of Dietary Supplements Consumed by Brazilian Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Suelen Galante; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine and creatine are ingredients in the most popular dietary supplements consumed by soccer players. However, some products may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the safe usage and the effectiveness of these supplements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the content of caffeine and creatine in dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players. The results obtained were compared with the caffeine content listed on the product label. Two batches of the supplement brands consumed by ≥ 50% of the players were considered for analysis. The quantification of caffeine and creatine in the supplements was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detector. Nine supplements of caffeine and 7 supplements of creatine met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Eight brands of caffeine and five brands of creatine showed significantly different values (p soccer players present inaccurate values listed on the label, although most presented no difference among batches. To ensure consumer safety and product efficacy, accurate information on caffeine and creatine content should be provided on all dietary supplement labels.

  16. Does Perception of Dietary Fiber Mediate the Impact of Nutrition Knowledge on Eating Fiber-Rich Bread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królak, Maria; Jeżewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Sajdakowska, Marta; Gębski, Jerzy

    2017-11-16

    The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber as a substitute of white bread is one of the ways to increase fiber intake. The aim of this study was to find out whether nutrition knowledge and perception of dietary fiber affected the frequency of eating wholemeal bread and white bread fortified with fiber. The data were collected in 2014 through a cross-sectional quantitative survey that was performed under the Bioproduct project among a group of 1013 Polish adults. The associations between variables were investigated using multiple regression analysis. The respondents' general knowledge on nutrition influenced their knowledge on fiber intake (correlation coefficient r = 0.30). Respondents with a greater knowledge perceived higher benefits of consuming cereal products that were fortified with fiber ( r = 0.78), and attached greater importance to the information on the label ( r = 0.39) as well. The nutrition knowledge determined the familiarity with fiber-enriched bread and the consumption of this product ( r = 0.40) to a greater degree than the frequency of wholemeal bread consumption ( r = -0.10). The respondents' perception of dietary fiber was observed to play a partial mediation role between the knowledge on nutrition and the consumption of both kinds of breads, suggesting that it can be an important predictor of bread consumption. To increase the consumption of bread that is rich in fiber, emphasis should be laid on specific information on fiber, referring to food products as well as on individual's perception of those products. The said information should be reinforced along with overall communication regarding nutrition to influence the bread-related decisions.

  17. Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-05-01

    More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003-2006 (n=8,860). Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  19. The Association of Dietary Fiber Intake with Cardiometabolic Risk in Four Countries across the Epidemiologic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition. We examined population-based samples of men and women, aged 25–45 of African origin from Ghana, Jamaica, the Seychelles and the USA. Ghanaians had the lowest prevalence of obesity (10%, while Jamaicans had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (5% across all the sites. Participants from the US presented with the highest prevalence of obesity (52%, and metabolic syndrome (22%. Overall, the Ghanaians consumed the highest dietary fiber (24.9 ± 9.7 g, followed by Jamaica (16.0 ± 8.3 g, the Seychelles (13.6 ± 7.2 g and the lowest in the USA (14.2 ± 7.1 g. Consequently, 43% of Ghanaians met the fiber dietary guidelines (14 g/1000 kcal/day, 9% of Jamaicans, 6% of Seychellois, and only 3% of US adults. Across all sites, cardiometabolic risk (metabolic syndrome, inflammation and obesity was inversely associated with dietary fiber intake, such that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13% for those in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, compared to 9% those in the highest quartile of fiber intake. Notably, twice as many of participants (38% in the lowest quartile were obese compared to those in the highest quartile of fiber intake (18%. These findings further support the need to incorporate strategies and policies to promote increased dietary fiber intake as one component for the prevention of cardiometabolic

  20. EXPERIENCE OF USING THE “DE ALEX” DIETARY SUPPLEMENT: RESULTS OF A SINGLE CENTER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Vasil’ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since their first appearance and through present day, dietary supplements remain popular among customers. In medical practice, dietary supplements are used as an additional source of nutrients and biologically active compounds aimed at optimization of various types of metabolism as well as normalization and/or improvement of functional state of organs and systems.Objective: is to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a dietary supplement “De Alex” in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH.Materials and methods. The study included 35 volunteers who signed the informed consent form and received treatment at urology departments of the S.I. Spasokukotsky Municipal Clinical Hospital. The main group included 20 men, the control group included 15 men. “De Alex” dietary supplement was administered according to the following scheme: 1 tablet 3 times a day for the first 3 months, then 4 tablets a day for 2 more months. Clinical, laboratory and instrumental data were evaluated as well as validated questionnaires filled out by the patients.Results. There weren’t any allergic reactions or individual intolerance to the “De Alex”  dietary supplement in the main group. The total IPSS score decreased in all patients, and symptoms of the lower urinary tract were less pronounced. “De Alex” administration didn’t affect the levels of prostate-specific antigen and testosterone. In the studied subgroups, a moderate decrease of the prostate volume was observed. Conclusions. The “De Alex” dietary supplement has a satisfactory safety profile. In patients with BPH the supplement causes a moderate decrease of the prostate volume.

  1. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ — Hawaii, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David I.; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L.; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases’ medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and trace back, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. PMID:26538199

  2. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ - Hawaii, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David I; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases' medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and traceback, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of licorice extract and a prebiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    Six hundred Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used to study the effect of ... A 5% reduction in dietary RDAA concentration caused an increase in feed ..... 3 High density lipoprotein; 4 Low density lipoprotein; 5 Very low density lipoprotein.

  4. Effect of dietary citric acid supplementation and partial replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... evaluate the effect of soybean meal (SBM) as a fishmeal (FM) partial replacement and citric acid (CA) .... temperature, pH and salinity were monitored daily and dissolved .... Digestibility, metabolism and excretion of dietary.

  5. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  6. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have......The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six...... sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated...

  7. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: vitor.ito@outlook.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  8. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  9. Dietary Supplement Use in Patients With Celiac Disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Samantha; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tennyson, Christina A; Simpson, Suzanne; Greenlee, Heather; Green, Peter H

    2015-08-01

    There has been increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population. Little is known about CAM use in patients with celiac disease (CD). We aimed to determine the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven CD who use dietary supplements to treat their symptoms. CD patients completed a questionnaire on demographics, types of dietary supplement use, attitudes toward CAM, and 3 validated scales: CD-related Quality Of Life (CD-QOL), the CD Symptoms Index (CSI), and the CD Adherence Test (CDAT). Of 423 patients, 100 (23.6%) used dietary supplements to treat CD symptoms. The most frequently used supplement was probiotics (n=59). Supplement users had a higher CD-QOL score (75.06 vs. 71.43, P=0.04) but had more symptoms based on CSI (35.64 vs. 32.05, P=0.0032). On multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, sex, education, symptom improvement following a gluten-free diet, and where the survey was completed, patients presenting with classic symptoms (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.01-6.44) or nonclassic symptoms (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.04-7.24) were significantly more likely to use supplements than those with asymptomatic/screen-detected CD. Patients with biopsy-proven CD who have symptoms at diagnosis tend to use dietary supplements more than those that are screen detected. Those using supplements report persistent symptoms, but a higher quality of life. The contribution of the gluten-free diet and supplement use to quality of life in the symptomatic CD patient needs to be determined.

  10. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Periodontal Disease among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole

  11. The nonfermentable dietary fiber lignin alters putative colon cancer risk factors but does not protect against DMH-induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, I L; Hardman, W E; Heitman, D W

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementation of the diet with autohydrolyzed lignin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied using 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received eight weekly injections of DMH (9.5 mg/kg s.c.) or the saline vehicle solution and then were maintained on a basal AIN-76 fiber-free diet or the basal fiber-free diet plus 5% or 10% (wt/wt) lignin for 24 weeks. Rats were killed 32 weeks after the start of the experiment. Colon tumor incidence, location, and multiplicity were determined. Body weight, caloric intake, fecal dry weight, gut transit time, pH of cecal contents, and total fecal bile acid excretion were measured. Supplementation of the diet with 5% or 10% lignin resulted in increased fecal dry weight and total fecal bile acid excretion and in decreased gut transit time, colon pH, and fecal bile acid concentration. Dietary lignin did not significantly affect colon tumor incidence or multiplicity compared with the fiber-free diet. Thus dietary supplementation with autohydrolyzed lignin, a food fiber with good bulking characteristics, had a significant effect on several factors that have previously been linked to reduction of colon cancer risk, but the consumption of high levels of lignin did not decrease the risk for colon cancer.

  12. Association Between Dietary Fiber Intake and Bone Loss in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Zhang, Yuqing; Lu, Na; Felson, David T; Kiel, Douglas P; Sahni, Shivani

    2018-02-01

    Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between sexes. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L 2 to L 4 ) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up BMD was measured in 2001-2005 and 2005-2008 among 792 men (mean age 58.1 years; BMI 28.6 kg/m 2 ) and 1065 women (mean age 57.3 years; BMI 27.2 kg/m 2 ). We used sex-specific generalized estimating equations in multivariable regressions to estimate the difference (β) of annualized BMD change in percent (%ΔBMD) at each skeletal site per 5 g/d increase in dietary fiber. We further estimated the adjusted mean for bone loss (annualized %ΔBMD) among participants in each higher quartile (Q2, Q3, or Q4) compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1) of fiber intake. Higher dietary total fiber (β = 0.06, p = 0.003) and fruit fiber (β = 0.10, p = 0.008) was protective against bone loss at the femoral neck in men but not in women. When examined in quartiles, men in Q2-Q4 of total fiber had significantly less bone loss at the femoral neck versus those in Q1 (all p fiber from vegetables appeared to be protective against spine bone loss in women but not men. There were no associations with cereal fiber or nut and legume fiber and bone loss in men or women. Our findings suggest that higher dietary fiber may modestly reduce bone loss in men at the hip. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  14. Dietary supplement intake by recreationally trained men and motives behind these procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Kurylas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last 2-3 decades a significant increase in consumption of dietary supplements in physically active subjects has been observed. Supplements are easily accessible as they are sold by numerous companies on-line or at most food markets and pharmacies. Physically active men and women are constantly adding new supplements to their diets. Most scientists agree that exercise performance can be improved only through a combination of a proper training program, a well-balanced diet and specific supplementation geared to individual needs. Objective: The main objective of this research was to assess the type of supplements used by recreationally trained men in fitness clubs. Additionally the motives behind using particular supplements were evaluated. Material and methods: The research was conducted through interviews directly at fitness clubs and through the internet. The research subjects include 99 men between the age of 20 and 40 training at fitness clubs on a regular basis. The statistical analysis was conducted with the Statistica Microsoft Office Excel 2013 program. Results: From the 99 interviewed subjects 79% used supplements, with 47% declaring the objective of enhanced performance. Complex vitamin-mineral products were the most popular supplements among the interviewed group. The second most often used supplements included protein powders (52%, as well as protein-carbohydrate complexes and carbohydrate powders or liquids. According to the interviewed men creatine monohydrate was the most effective single supplement (25%. Conclusions: The most often reported motive for supplementation intake of recreationally trained men included enhanced performance and supplementation of daily diet. Taking into consideration the very dynamic development of dietary supplements industry such research should be conducted on a regular basis in different populations of men and women at a wide age scope.

  15. Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products and Dietary Supplements Are Not Interchangeable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilleman, Daniel; Smer, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    To provide an overview of prescription and dietary supplement omega-3 fatty acid (OM3-FA) products and considerations for clinical use. Narrative review. The PubMed database was searched for cardiovascular-related investigations focused on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (limit: English-only articles). Additional regulatory information on prescription and dietary supplements was obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration online sources. Prescription QM3-FA products are supported by robust clinical development and safety monitoring programs, whereas dietary supplements are not required to demonstrate safety or efficacy prior to marketing. There are no over-the-counter OM3-FA products available in the United States. Investigations of OM3-FA dietary supplements show that quantities of EPA and DHA are highly variable within and between brands. Dietary supplements also may contain potentially harmful components, including oxidized OM3-FA, other lipids, cholesterol, and toxins. Prescription OM3-FA products may contain DHA and EPA or EPA alone. All prescription OM3-FA products have demonstrated statistically significant triglyceride reduction as monotherapy or in combination with statins in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Differential effects between products containing EPA and DHA compared with a high-purity EPA product (icosapent ethyl) have clinical implications: Increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with DHA have the potential to confound strategies for managing patients with dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular outcomes studies of prescription CM3-FA products are ongoing. OM3-FA dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products, and prescription OM3-FA products that contain DHA are not equivalent to or interchangeable with high-purity EPA (icosapent ethyl) and should not be substituted for it.

  16. Surveillance of the armed forces as a sentinel system for detecting adverse effects of dietary supplements in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Austin, Krista G; Farina, Emily K

    2018-04-01

    Half the US population takes dietary supplements, but surveillance systems available to regulatory and public health authorities to determine whether specific dietary supplements present a risk are inadequate and numerous severe injuries and deaths have occurred from their consumption. Uniformed military personnel regularly use dietary supplements and are more likely to use potentially dangerous supplements than civilians. Recently, the supplement 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) was marketed for physical performance-enhancement and weight loss. However, after over 100 reports of illness attributed to DMAA, including six deaths, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning to cease its sale. When DMAA was legal (2010-2011), we conducted, using convenience samples, supplement surveys of service members and determined prevalence of use and self-reported symptoms of DMAA use. We surveyed 4374 armed forces personnel using a standardized dietary supplement survey administered by local health-care professionals. Overall, 11 % of survey respondents used dietary supplements labelled as containing DMAA at least once/week. Regular users were over two times more likely to report tachycardia (Psupplements using electronic surveys and medical records. Since armed forces personnel are much more likely than civilians to use potentially dangerous dietary supplements like DMAA, near real-time surveillance of them using electronic surveys and medical records would provide early warning to regulatory agencies and the medical and public health communities when high-risk dietary supplements are introduced.

  17. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  18. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J

    1981-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.

  20. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on lipid and colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Key words: Chicken, diet supplementation, vitamin E, lipid oxidation, meat colour. INTRODUCTION ... the α-tocopherol content of muscle membranes in many animals .... condition, eijk is the error, and k = 3 number of analysis.

  2. Effects of niacin supplementation (40 weeks) and two dietary levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer, Ulrich

    2006-05-18

    May 18, 2006 ... on performance, blood and fatty acid profiles of dairy cattle. C. Rauls1, U. ... included 40 treatment comparisons with niacin supplementation, and, in most cases, found positive ...... Effects of feeding heat-treated soybeans and.

  3. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on lipid and colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Lipid and myoglobin oxidation are major causes of meat quality deterioration during storage of fresh ... Peroxide value (PV) and oxidation products specific extinctions ... of vitamin E for animals' food supplementation is the.

  4. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  5. Biochemical and Anthropometric Effects of a Weight Loss Dietary Supplement in Healthy Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background We have recently noted an acute increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol, as well as resting metabolic rate, when men and women ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ in a single dose. We have also noted a reduction in appetite when subjects were treated with this supplement for 14 consecutive days. It is possible that such findings may favor body weight and fat loss over time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this dietary supplement on weight loss and associated markers using an eight week intervention. Methods Exercise-trained subjects were randomly assigned in double blind manner to ingest either the dietary supplement (n = 16; aged 22.8 ± 0.7 or a placebo (n = 16; 22.5 ± 0.5 every day for eight weeks. Body weight, body composition, skinfold thickness, serum lipids, and appetite were measured as the primary outcome variables. As measures of supplement safety, a complete blood count and comprehensive metabolic panel were performed, and resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured (pre and post intervention. Results No interactions or main effects were noted for our primary outcome measures ( P > 0.05. However, when comparing pre and post intervention values for the supplement, significant decreases were noted in appetite, body weight, body fat percentage, and skinfold thickness ( P 0.05, with the exception of an increase in HDL-C ( P 0.05, with the exception of monocytes, for which an interaction effect was noted ( P = 0.04. Conclusion These data indicate that the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ may assist in weight and body fat loss in a sample of exercise-trained men and women. The supplement does not result in any adverse effects pertaining to resting blood pressure or bloodborne markers of safety; however a small increase in resting heart rate is observed.

  6. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quer...

  7. The effect of dietary fiber and other factors on insulin response: role in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1985-07-01

    Epidemiologic evidence favors the hypothesis that obesity may result from the fiber-depleted diet of industrialized societies. Since hyperinsulinemia is a universal characteristic and perhaps causal of obesity, the possibility is considered that dietary factors causing excess insulin secretion might lead to obesity. Dietary glucose causes a slightly greater insulin rise than cooked starch containing an equal amount of carbohydrate, and high fiber starchy foods cause a much lesser insulin response than does glucose in solution. Doubling the dose of carbohydrate in a meal causes only a small increase in glucose response but a large increase in insulin response. Dietary fiber could act by displacing some of the carbohydrate that would normally be absorbable in the small intestine, or could translocate the carbohydrate to a point lower in the intestinal tract where less effect on insulin secretion would be observed. Evidence is presented that a higher fiber diet is associated with a higher concentration of fasting circulating free fatty acids, a lesser post-cibal decrease in circulating free fatty acids and triglycerides and less chronic increase in fasting triglycerides than a low fiber diet. These differences are associated with a lesser insulin response to high fiber meals. The extreme fluctuations between the fed and fasted states seen with low fiber diets are thus dampened by high fiber diets. The less complete inhibition of lipolysis during the fed state, and more intense lipolysis during fasting, suggested by the above data, might tend to prevent obesity. The mechanisms of the lesser insulin response to high rather than low fiber meals are not known, but the possibility that dietary fiber decreases the GIP response is considered.

  8. Dietary fiber content and associated antioxidant compounds in Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Arranz, Sara; Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2007-09-19

    The beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers is widely consumed in Mexico. Polyphenols contained in plant foods are frequently associated with dietary fiber. The aim of this work is to quantify the dietary fiber, associated polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of the Roselle flower and the beverage traditionally prepared from it and its contribution to the Mexican diet. Roselle flower contained dietary fiber as the largest component (33.9%) and was rich in phenolic compounds (6.13%). Soluble dietary fiber was 0.66 g/L in beverage, and 66% of total extractable polyphenols contained in Roselle flower passed to the beverage and showed an antioxidant capacity of 335 micromoL trolox equivalents/100 mL beverage measured by ABTS. These data suggest that Roselle flower beverage intake in the Mexican diet may contribute around 166 and 165 mg/per serving to the intake of dietary fiber and polyphenols, respectively. The health benefits from consumption of Hibiscus beverage could be of considerable benefit to the whole population.

  9. Prevalence, Adverse Events, and Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement and Nutritional Supplement Use by US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    DMDC included the service member’s name, branch of service, pay grade (rank), postal address, e-mail address, sex, age, marital status, education...resistance training but few relationships with aerobic training. The discrepancies in the literature can possibly be explained by different definitions of...dietary supplements. JAMA Int Med. 2013;173(3):355-361. 32. Owens GM. Gender differences in health care expenditures, resource utilization, and quality of

  10. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  11. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  12. Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjing; Kanno, Chihiro; Oshima, Eiki; Kuzuma, Yukiko; Kim, Sung Woo; Bai, Hanako; Takahashi, Masashi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Nagano, Masashi; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    Improving sperm motility and viability are major goals to improve efficiency in the poultry industry. In this study, the effects of supplemental dietary turmeric by-product (TBP) from commercial turmeric production on sperm motility, viability, and antioxidative status were examined in domestic fowl. Mature Rhode Island Red roosters were divided into two groups - controls (groupC) without TBP administration and test subjects (groupT) fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.8g of TBP/day in a temperature-controlled rearing facility (Experiment 1) and 1.6g/day under heat stress (Experiment 2) for 4 weeks. In Experiment 1, TBP dietary supplementation increased the sperm motility variables straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, and linearity based on a computer-assisted semen analysis, 2 weeks following TBP supplementation. In Experiment 2, using flow cytometry, sperm viability at 3 and 4 weeks following TBP supplementation was greater in Group T than C, and this increase was consistent with a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrate that dietary supplementation with TBP enhanced sperm motility in the controlled-temperature conditions as well as sperm viability, and reduced ROS generation when heat stress prevailed. Considering its potential application in a range of environments, TBP may serve as an economical and potent antioxidant to improve rooster fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary fiber and lipid peroxidation: effect of dietary fiber on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P

    1991-06-01

    Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.

  14. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  15. The impact of cGMP compliance on consumer confidence in dietary supplement products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, Richard; FitzGerald, Libby Harvey

    2006-01-01

    The FDA estimates that US citizens spend more than $ 8.5 billion a year on dietary supplements and world wide the market is estimated at more than $ 60 billion. However, although a majority of consumers express confidence in the safety of these products, 74% believe the government should be more involved in ensuring that these products are safe and efficacious. Recent regulatory initiatives such as the imminent adoption of cGMPs for dietary supplements in the US, implementation of cGMPs in Canada and the recent EU dietary supplement initiative represent legislative and industry response to public clamor for more comprehensive oversight of dietary supplements. Regardless of mandated practices, the majority of dietary supplement manufacturers have done an excellent job of protecting the safety and quality of their products. The promulgation of these cGMPs will help ensure consumers that equal standards are followed throughout the industry. For some companies with established processes based on existing food or pharmaceutical cGMP regulations, the transition will be relatively painless while, for many, it will represent a significant increase in the level of documentation and testing. However, consumers deserve and demand that products meet standards for safety and quality and the implementation of cGMPs for these products are an important first step. Although the cGMPs are designed to ensure products are safe from a standpoint of identity, purity, quality, strength and composition, they do not address preclinical or clinical testing of ingredients for safety or efficacy. This would involve ingredients meeting the requirements of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status or going through the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) process

  16. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing γH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2μg/mL], Trinovin [10μg/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 μg/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10μg/mL) and Prostate Rx (6μg/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

  17. Implementing a "quality by design" approach to assure the safety and integrity of botanical dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhlas A; Smillie, Troy

    2012-09-28

    Natural products have provided a basis for health care and medicine to humankind since the beginning of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 80% of the world population still relies on herbal medicines for health-related benefits. In the United States, over 42% of the population claimed to have used botanical dietary supplements to either augment their current diet or to "treat" or "prevent" a particular health-related issue. This has led to the development of a burgeoning industry in the U.S. ($4.8 billion per year in 2008) to supply dietary supplements to the consumer. However, many commercial botanical products are poorly defined scientifically, and the consumer must take it on faith that the supplement they are ingesting is an accurate representation of what is listed on the label, and that it contains the purportedly "active" constituents they seek. Many dietary supplement manufacturers, academic research groups, and governmental organizations are progressively attempting to construct a better scientific understanding of natural products, herbals, and botanical dietary supplements that have co-evolved with Western-style pharmaceutical medicines. However, a deficiency of knowledge is still evident, and this issue needs to be addressed in order to achieve a significant level of safety, efficacy, and quality for commercial natural products. The authors contend that a "quality by design" approach for botanical dietary supplements should be implemented in order to ensure the safety and integrity of these products. Initiating this approach with the authentication of the starting plant material is an essential first step, and in this review several techniques that can aid in this endeavor are outlined.

  18. Use of dietary supplements, and awareness and knowledge of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of health food store customers in the Cape Town city bowl. Introduction. Dietary ... adults living in South Africa.1,2,3,4 The importance of micronutrients in disease .... demographic information and sources of nutrition information. The questions on ..... Proanthocyanidins are especially effective in protecting the body from the ...

  19. Effect of dietary organic and inorganic copper supplement on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary copper source and dosage on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility, trace mineral retention, ileal morphology and blood parameters of cockerel chicks were investigated using two hundred and forty (240) day-old chicks arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements involving 2 Cu sources (copper sulphate ...

  20. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the

  1. Effect of dietary fibers on physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties of Misti Dahi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P Narender; Pal, Dharam

    2014-11-01

    Misti dahi, a popular ethnic delicacy of eastern India analogous to caramel coloured set style sweetened yoghurt, besides several therapeutic virtues, contains high fat and sugar. Alike people elsewhere in the world, people in India too are now becoming health conscious and are aware of the relation between diet and health. Hence, high fat and sugar contents are causes of concern for the successful marketing of misti dahi in India. With a view to enhance the health attributes of misti dahi and improve marketability, three commercial dietary fiber preparations (inulin, soy fiber and oat fiber) were incorporated and their effect on the product's quality in terms of physicochemical, sensory and textural quality was assessed. Standard method was followed for the preparation of fiber fortified misti dahi (FFMD). Among the three dietary fibers, inulin significantly decreased viscosity and instrumental firmness and increased lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), syneresis and work of shear values of FFMD. Oat fiber settled at the bottom and gave a poor appearance. Soy fiber did not affect the flavor of FFMD. Although overall acceptability scores of inulin and soy fiber containing FFMD were significantly lower than control, they were still above the minimum acceptable score. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that acceptable quality FFMD could be prepared using inulin and soy fiber at 1.5 % level of fortification.

  2. Use of dietary supplements in Denmark is associated with health and former smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, V. K.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    and gender, being highest among elderly women (78%). Ex-smokers were more likely to use supplements than subjects who had never smoked (odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.76). Supplement use was more likely among subjects who had many days of illness (OR=1.37,95% CI 1......Objectives: To describe the use of dietary supplements in a group of Danish adults and to investigate the differences between users and non-users with respect to age, gender, health and lifestyle factors. Design: Cross-sectional study in two Danish cities. Setting: The Danish Investigation...

  3. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. METHODS: A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet...... with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity advance online...

  4. Phosphorus Balance in Adolescent Girls and the Effect of Supplemental Dietary Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, Colby J; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Gallant, Kathleen M Hill

    2018-03-01

    There are limited data on phosphorus balance and the effect of dietary calcium supplements on phosphorus balance in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine phosphorus balance and the effect of increasing dietary calcium intake with a supplement on net phosphorus absorption and balance in healthy adolescent girls. This study utilized stored urine, fecal, and diet samples from a previously conducted study that focused on calcium balance. Eleven healthy girls ages 11 to 14 years participated in a randomized crossover study, which consisted of two 3-week periods of a controlled diet with low (817 ± 19.5 mg/d) or high (1418 ± 11.1 mg/d) calcium, separated by a 1-week washout period. Phosphorus intake was controlled at the same level during both placebo and calcium supplementation (1435 ± 23.5 and 1453 ± 28.0 mg/d, respectively, p = 0.611). Mean phosphorus balance was positive by about 200 mg/d and was unaffected by the calcium supplement ( p = 0.826). Urinary phosphorus excretion was lower with the calcium supplement (535 ± 42 versus 649 ± 41 mg/d, p = 0.013), but fecal phosphorus and net phosphorus absorption were not significantly different between placebo and calcium supplement (553 ± 60 versus 678 ± 63 versus mg/d, p = 0.143; 876 ± 62 versus 774 ± 64 mg/d, p = 0.231, respectively). Dietary phosphorus underestimates using a nutrient database compared with the content measured chemically from meal composites by ~40%. These results show that phosphorus balance is positive in girls during adolescent growth and that a calcium dietary supplement to near the current recommended level does not affect phosphorus balance when phosphorus intake is at 1400 mg/d, a typical US intake level. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  6. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  7. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  8. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly ( p cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly ( p cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  9. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  10. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically Optimized Brain - JWF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol; Vitamins / Minerals / Antioxidants / Dietary supplements (not specified); Herbal Medicine (Subsets: Ginseng and Gingko Biloba); Diet...looking specifically at the role of glucose (Hoyland 2008). c. Other Intervention Groupings considered: i. Herbal Medicine : 58 abstracts identified...involved herbal medicine (excluding gingko biloba and ginseng) as an intervention on the healthy adult population. 31 separate herb or herbal

  12. Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplements: Statistical Comparison of Methods in the Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…

  13. Time to Talk: 6 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach, skin irritation, and garlic taste, breath, and body odor. Only minor side effects are associated with MSM in humans including allergy, upset stomach, and skin rashes. ... that is naturally produced in the body and is often taken as a dietary supplement; ...

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme complex on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of REAP® enzyme into corn-soybean diet on the energy utilization in poultry and performance of broiler chicks. In the first experiment, a total of 16 50 weeks adult roosters (ISA-Brown) were divided into 4 groups with 4 birds per replicate ...

  15. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  16. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  17. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements? 111.370 Section 111.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  18. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  19. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  20. Supplementary Material for: Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  1. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  2. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  3. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Yui Kau Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%. Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n=17, followed by food (n=10, dietary supplements (n=3, and other herbs/botanicals (n=3. Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients’ therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.

  4. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  5. Improvement of physico-chemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFCs) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, with the highest content found with 100% H 2 O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H 2 O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H 2 O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H 2 O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of dietary probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation on growth performance and serum IgG concentrations in broilers. One thousand two hundred one-day old Ross-308 broiler chicks of mixed sex were randomly divided into four treatment groups of 300 birds each. The treatments ...

  7. Effect of dietary citric acid supplementation and partial replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beluga is one of the most important fishes in Caspian Sea. The purpose of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of soybean meal (SBM) as a fishmeal (FM) partial replacement and citric acid (CA) supplement on the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) of muscle, scute and serum of Beluga diets. Three isonitrogenous and ...

  8. The influence of dietary supplementation on testicular growth rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty adult Merino rams were fed a ration with a 16% protein and. 75% TDN content. Live body mass increased by 51,4% and testes volume by 111,7% in 210 days. Testicular growth responded rapidly to supplementation and testes volume increased by86,5% inonly 60days. Inanother experiment diets of four groups of 15 ...

  9. Chlorella vulgaris: A Multifunctional Dietary Supplement with Diverse Medicinal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Darvishi, Behrad; Jowzi, Narges; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteinsChlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects., omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  10. Threonine supplementation reduces dietary protein and improves lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Wen, Z G; Qiao, S Y; Hou, S S

    2017-12-01

    1. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of threonine (Thr) supplementation on reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and the effects of Thr on lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. The effects of dietary CP concentration (160, 190 and 220 g/kg) and Thr supplemental concentration (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 g/kg) on growth performance, carcass, liver lipid and plasma profiles were determined in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age. 2. A total of 720-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage for each treatment according to average body weight. 3. Dietary Thr supplementation improved growth performance and breast muscle percentage at all CP diets, and ducks fed Thr-supplemented diets had higher plasma concentrations of some plasma amino acids. Thr supplementation reduced the concentrations of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol in liver, and plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterin concentration at 160 and 190 g/kg CP, whereas it increased triglyceride concentration at 160 g/kg CP. 4. Thr requirements based on quadratic broken-line model estimation were 6.6 and 7.0 g/kg for optimal average daily gain (ADG), and 6.7 and 7.3 g/kg for breast muscle percentage of Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age at 190 and 220 g/kg CP, respectively. The dietary Thr requirements and estimated ADG (55.18 vs. 55.86 g/d/bird) and breast muscle percentage (2.79% vs. 2.75%) of Pekin ducks did not differ between 190 and 220 g/kg CP according to the t-test results. 5. Dietary CP level could be reduced to 190 g/kg in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age with Thr supplementation to balance dietary amino acids, and Thr supplementation prevented excess liver lipid deposition in this instance.

  11. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Verstegen, M W A; Huyghebaert, G; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2011-04-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil) as main fat source. In the vegetal fat diets, production value was significantly linearly improved by supplementation with DMG up to 11%. Irrespective of dietary fat source, abdominal fat percentage was significantly linearly reduced up to 24% and meat yield tended to increase linearly with DMG level up to 4%. In the vegetal fat groups, DMG significantly lowered abdominal fat pad by up to 38% and tended to increase meat yield up to 6% at the highest dose. Fasted non-esterified fatty acid level significantly decreased with increasing DMG level up to 36% and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) decreased with a statistical trend up to 46% at the highest dose. In vegetal fat diets, addition of DMG resulted in significant lower TBARS level by 56% at the highest dose. Finally, a significant quadratic effect on ascites heart index was present in the vegetal fat diets, with a minimal value at 0.5 g Na-DMG/kg. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DMG may improve technical and slaughter performance, and may reduce oxidative stress and pulmonary hypertension, but the degree of effects is modulated by fatty acid profile of the diet. Herewith, effects are more pronounced in a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with a diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Performance and Health Benefits of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

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    Luke Stanaway

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with nitrate (NO3−-rich beetroot juice has been shown to improve exercise performance and cardiovascular (CV responses, due to an increased nitric oxide (NO availability. However, it is unclear whether these benefits are greater in older adults who have an age-related decrease in NO and higher risk of disease. This systematic review examines 12 randomised, crossover, control trials, investigating food-based NO3− supplementation in older adults and its potential benefits on physiological and cognitive performances, and CV, cerebrovascular and metabolic health. Four studies found improvements in physiological performance (time to exhaustion following dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults. Benefits on cognitive performance were unclear. Six studies reported improvements in CV health (blood pressure and blood flow, while six found no improvement. One study showed improvements in cerebrovascular health and two found no improvement in metabolic health. The current literature indicates positive effects of dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults on physiological performance, with some evidence indicating benefits on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health. Effects on cognitive performance were mixed and studies on metabolic health indicated no benefit. However, there has been limited research conducted on the effects of dietary NO3− supplementation in older adults, thus, further study, utilising a randomised, double-blind, control trial design, is warranted.

  13. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Halas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies suggest that dietary phytase enhance the growth rate of pigs fed P-adequate diets. This may be due to an increased N digestibility and/or improved protein gain. The aim was to study the effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs upon protein limiting condition. A total of 24 hybrid individually kept barrows (25kg BW were assigned into 4 treatments. Diet in AP0 (AP: adequate protein contained 190g/kg crude protein and no phytase supplementation, diets in RP0, RP500 and RP1000 (RP: reduced protein contained 160g/kg crude protein and 0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg phytase supplementation, respectively. The balance trial consisted of 7 days adaptation and 5 days collection, during which the feces and urine were collected quantitatively. Additional phytase to low protein diets increased the N-retention of the pigs (P0.05. Dietary treatments did not affect the digestibility of protein, however, 500 FTU/kg phytase supplementation increased the efficiency of N-retention. Our results show that the protein content of the feed for pigs of 20-30kg can be reduced from 190 to 160 g/kg if the diet is supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase without weakening the N-balance of pigs.

  15. [Determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Yang, Y; Zhou, R; Bian, L

    2001-11-01

    For studying the contents of dietary fiber in general foods and functional foods, a enzymatic-gravimetric method recommended by AOAC was established in our laboratory. The method for the determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods and functional foods could be used for many other kind of foods. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of reproducibility between-run and within-run were 2.04%-7.85%, 3.42%-55.23% respectively. The repeatability of the methods was good, and the methods are suitable for many foods.

  16. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Jian; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2017-09-02

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. All eligible studies were identified by electronic searches in PubMed and Embase through February 2015. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. A total of 15 studies involving 16,885 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43-0.64). Stratified analyses for tumor subtype, study design, geographic location, fiber type, publication year, total sample size, and quality score yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis indicated that a 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a 31% reduction in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors produced similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the overall risk estimate. Our findings indicate that dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. Further large prospective studies are warranted.

  17. Interactions of waterborne and dietary cadmium on the expression of calcium transporters in the gills of rainbow trout: Influence of dietary calcium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, Fernando; Franklin, Natasha M.; Tuttle, Ryan B.; Wood, Chris M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation strongly inhibits uptake of Ca 2+ and Cd at the fish gill. To better understand the influence of dietary Ca 2+ on branchial Ca 2+ transport, we examined the expression of two trout gill calcium transporters during waterborne and dietary Cd exposure, at two different levels of dietary Ca 2+ . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) and sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) mRNA levels following 7-28 days of exposure to these treatments. In brief, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to control, 3 μg/L waterborne Cd, 500 mg/kg dietary Cd, or a combined 3 μg/L waterborne plus 500 mg/kg dietary Cd exposure, supplemented with either 20 mg/g or 60 mg/g dietary calcium (Ca 2+ ). Two-way analysis of variance was used to discern the main effects of Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ supplementation on ECaC and NCX mRNA levels. We found that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation decreased significantly ECaC mRNA expression on days 14 and 21. In comparison, NCX mRNA levels were not influenced by dietary Ca 2+ supplementation, but rather were significantly inhibited in the combined waterborne and dietary Cd exposure on day 7 alone. Statistical analysis found no interactive effects between Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ exposure at any time point, except for day 28.This study provides evidence of the importance of nutritional status on the transcriptional regulation of ion transport at the fish gill. We discuss the importance of diet and nutritional status to the development of new regulatory approaches, such as the biotic ligand model, which currently do not account for the significance of diet on metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms

  18. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  19. IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Phillips, Stuart M; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Luc; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard G M; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Soligard, Torbjørn; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can offer benefits to the athlete, but others may be harmful to the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation if an anti-doping rule violation results. A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome, and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialed in training or simulated competition before implementation in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete's health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount, and expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before embarking on supplement use.

  20. Enrichment of probiotic ice cream with different dietary fibers: Structural characteristics and culture viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Kesenkas, H; Dinkci, N; Unal, G; Ozer, E; Kınık, O

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 5 dietary fibers (apple, orange, oat, bamboo, and wheat) on the physicochemical, rheological, and textural characteristics; sensory properties; and culture viability of probiotic ice cream stored at -18°C for 180 d. The presence of orange and apple fibers increased the titratable acidity, decreased the lightness (color) value of the ice creams, and enhanced the red and yellow coloration. Compared with the control sample, the consistency indices and apparent viscosities of the experimental samples increased with the addition of all dietary fibers except oat fiber. The highest viscosity was obtained in the sample fortified with apple fiber, whereas the ice cream containing orange fiber showed the highest hardness after d 60 of storage. The addition of orange and apple fibers significantly increased melting resistance; however, panelists did not generally like these samples in terms of taste-flavor. All ice creams had viable counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus of ≥7 log cfu/g during storage except the samples with orange and bamboo fiber. Bifidobacterium lactis counts were also found to be >6 log cfu/g in those samples until d 150 of storage. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

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    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  2. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  3. Dietary Fiber and the Human Gut Microbiota: Application of Evidence Mapping Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleigh M. Sawicki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidence map of current research activity in this area was created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber intervention studies in humans to identify studies with the following broad outcomes: (1 modulation of colonic microflora; and/or (2 colonic fermentation/short-chain fatty acid concentration. Study design characteristics, fiber exposures, and outcome categories were summarized. A sub-analysis described oligosaccharides and bacterial composition in greater detail. One hundred eighty-eight relevant studies were identified. The fiber categories represented by the most studies were oligosaccharides (20%, resistant starch (16%, and chemically synthesized fibers (15%. Short-chain fatty acid concentration (47% and bacterial composition (88% were the most frequently studied outcomes. Whole-diet interventions, measures of bacterial activity, and studies in metabolically at-risk subjects were identified as potential gaps in the evidence. This evidence map efficiently captured the variability in characteristics of expanding research on dietary fiber, gut microbiota, and physiological health benefits, and identified areas that may benefit from further research. We hope that this evidence map will provide a resource for researchers to direct new intervention studies and meta-analyses.

  4. Relation between breakfast food choices and knowledge of dietary fat and fiber among Swedish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Inger; Conner, Mark T; Lissner, Lauren

    2002-08-01

    To investigate dietary knowledge and beliefs of schoolchildren, in relationship to breakfast choices, with specific attention to fat and fiber content. Food choice and perceptions were studied by interviews using the "stacking box methodology". Youth (n = 181) aged 11-15 years were instructed to select food items among photographs of breakfast foods. In addition to choosing their own typical breakfasts, they were asked to exchange foods in hypothetical breakfasts to create meals with less fat and more fiber. The interview also dealt with recent changes in breakfast habits, and perceptions of healthy breakfasts, dietary fat, and foods rich in fiber. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Knowledge concerning sources and health attributes of dietary fiber was associated with usual consumption of bread and breakfast cereals rich in fiber. In a similar way, a positive attitude toward limited fat intake predicted consumption of reduced-fat milk products. However, no association was observed between food choices and knowledge of a food-packaging symbol indicating low-fat and fiber-enriched foods. Lack of awareness of, and knowledge about, healthy eating may be important barriers to the development of health promoting food habits by schoolchildren.

  5. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  6. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1 control diet (C group, (2 high fat + high fiber diet (HF group, (3 high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group, and (4 HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  7. High-Fiber Diet and Acetate Supplementation Change the Gut Microbiota and Prevent the Development of Hypertension and Heart Failure in Hypertensive Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Nelson, Erin; Chu, Po-Yin; Horlock, Duncan; Fiedler, April; Ziemann, Mark; Tan, Jian K; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; El-Osta, Assam; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M

    2017-03-07

    Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effect of a high-fiber diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function, and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid excess-treated mice with a control diet, high-fiber diet, or acetate supplementation. We also determined the renal and cardiac transcriptome of mice treated with the different diets. We found that high consumption of fiber modified the gut microbiota populations and increased the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria independently of mineralocorticoid excess. Both fiber and acetate decreased gut dysbiosis, measured by the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and increased the prevalence of Bacteroides acidifaciens . Compared with mineralocorticoid-excess mice fed a control diet, both high-fiber diet and acetate supplementation significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Acetate had similar effects and markedly reduced renal fibrosis. Transcriptome analyses showed that the protective effects of high fiber and acetate were accompanied by the downregulation of cardiac and renal Egr1 , a master cardiovascular regulator involved in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiorenal fibrosis, and inflammation. We also observed the upregulation of a network of genes involved in circadian rhythm in both tissues and downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart. A diet high in fiber led to changes in the gut microbiota that played a protective role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The favorable effects of fiber may be explained by the generation and distribution of one of the main metabolites of the gut

  8. Interactions of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Salmaan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this systematic review was to examine the benefits, harms and pharmacokinetic interactions arising from the co-administration of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs. Many patients on cardiovascular drugs take dietary supplements for presumed benefits and may be at risk for adverse supplement-drug interactions. Methods The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements and MEDLINE were searched from the inception of the review to October 2011. Grey literature was also reviewed. Two reviewers independently screened records to identify studies comparing a supplement plus cardiovascular drug(s with the drug(s alone. Reviewers extracted data using standardized forms, assessed the study risk of bias, graded the strength of evidence and reported applicability. Results Evidence was obtained from 65 randomized clinical trials, 2 controlled clinical trials and 1 observational study. With only a few small studies available per supplement, evidence was insufficient for all predefined gradable clinical efficacy and harms outcomes, such as mortality and serious adverse events. One long-term pragmatic trial showed no benefit from co-administering vitamin E with aspirin on a composite cardiovascular outcome. Evidence for most intermediate outcomes was insufficient or of low strength, suggesting no effect. Incremental benefits were noted for triglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acid added to statins; and there was an improvement in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with garlic supplementation when people also consumed nitrates Conclusions Evidence of low-strength indicates benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (plus statin, or calcium channel blockers and antiplatelets and garlic (plus nitrates or warfarin on triglycerides and HDL-C, respectively. Safety concerns, however, persist.

  9. A Prospective Study of Different Types of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mirmiran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. Methods: In 2006–2008, we used a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake among 2295 health professionals with no previous history of heart disease. Subjects were subsequently followed until 2012 for incidence of CVD events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of total dietary fiber and different types of fiber. Linear regression models were also used to indicate the association of dietary fiber intakes with changes of cardiovascular risk factors during the follow-up. Results: Mean age of participants (42.8% men was 38.2 ± 13.4, at baseline. Mean (SD dietary intake of total fiber was 23.4 (8.9 g/day. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk score and dietary confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between intakes of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and CVD risk, in the highest compared to the lowest tertiles (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.83, HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09–0.41, and HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14–0.69, respectively. Inverse relations were observed between risk of CVD and dietary fiber from legumes, fruits and vegetables; however, dietary fiber intake from grain and nut sources was not related to risk of CVD. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that higher intakes of dietary fiber from different sources is associated with CVD events and modify its major risk-related factors.

  10. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-undegradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L E; Gomez, N A; Bowyer, A; Lascano, G J

    2017-12-01

    fiber benefited the most from a high RUP supply, complementing the substantial reduction in predicted MP caused by the incremental dietary fiber concentration. These results suggest that RUP supplementation is a practical method for reestablishing optimal ruminal N balance in the event of increased dietary fiber through forage inclusion in precision-fed dairy heifer diets.

  11. Using the theory of planned behavior to explore attitudes and beliefs about dietary supplements among HIV-positive Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Stephanie; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Herring, R Patti; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hilliard, Charles; Campbell, Danielle; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to intention of dietary supplements use among African-American women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and/or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A closed-ended questionnaire based on the TPB was utilized to explore the use of dietary supplements among a cohort of 153 HIV-positive African-American women. Overall, 45% of the respondents used dietary supplements to manage/control their HIV. Combined, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention toward dietary supplement use (69% of the variance explained, pbehavioral control (β=0.45, pBehavioral intention and proximal TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), as well as their underlying beliefs about dietary supplements use, were all found to be significantly more positive in users of dietary supplements compared to non-users (pbehavioral control are important predictors in the intention to use dietary supplements for control of HIV among African-American women. Implications from this study suggest that the TPB can be used to better identify and understand salient beliefs that surround intentions to use alternative therapies for management of disease. These beliefs can be used to develop interventions surrounding HIV treatment and care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alterations of fecal steroid composition induced by changes in dietary fiber consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Lai, H Y; Vona, L; Reid, R L; Albrink, M J

    1981-10-01

    The short-term effects of high carbohydrate diets of normal foods either high or low in dietary fiber on fecal steroids and fiber was assessed in eight healthy young men. Each subject consumed in random order for 4 days a diet containing 59 g (high fiber) or 21 g (low fiber) neutral detergent fiber. After a 9-day rest period he consumed the other diet. Analysis of random fecal samples during their usual diet and after 4 days of each experimental diet showed an increased in primary bile acids from less than 4 to 32% of total bile acids, and a decreases of coprostanol from 76% (control diet) or 64% (low fiber diet) to 45% of total neutral sterol after the high fiber diet. Fecal fiber concentration doubled after the high fiber diet. We conclude that 4 days of high fiber diet is sufficient to cause a large increase in primary and decrease in secondary fecal steroids. Such changes have implications for prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer of the colon.

  13. Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P < 0.05). Butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria were more prevalent in a subgroup of HC subjects with a high fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P < 0.05). A high-fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.

  14. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  15. Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott K; Hirai, Daniel M; Copp, Steven W; Holdsworth, Clark T; Allen, Jason D; Jones, Andrew M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2013-01-15

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation, via its reduction to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequent conversion to nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates, reduces blood pressure and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise in humans. Despite these observations, the effects of dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation on skeletal muscle vascular control during locomotory exercise remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) would reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increase hindlimb muscle blood flow in the exercising rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-6 months) were administered either NO(3)(-) (via beetroot juice; 1 mmol kg(-1) day(-1), BR n = 8) or untreated (control, n = 11) tap water for 5 days. MAP and hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance (radiolabelled microsphere infusions) were measured during submaximal treadmill running (20 m min(-1), 5% grade). BR resulted in significantly lower exercising MAP (control: 137 ± 3, BR: 127 ± 4 mmHg, P exercising hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (control: 108 ± 8, BR: 150 ± 11 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1), P exercise predominantly in fast-twitch type II muscles, and provide a potential mechanism by which NO(3)(-) supplementation improves metabolic control.

  16. Enantiomeric determination of DOPA in dietary supplements containing Mucuna pruriens by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Saijo, Masaaki; Motoki, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    We developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the enantiomeric determination of DOPA in dietary supplements containing Mucuna pruriens. L- and D-DOPA were ultrasonically extracted with 1% formic acid aqueous solution. The isolated extracts were analyzed by LC/MS using a Crownpak CR (-) column at 30℃. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive mode of electrospray ionization, and the mobile phase was aqueous formic acid (pH 2.0). L-DOPA-ring-d3 was used as an internal standard. The method was validated for a dietary supplement spiked with L- and D-DOPA at 50 and 500 μg/g, respectively, and the recoveries of the DOPA enantiomers were between 97.5% and 101.3%. Relative standard deviation values of repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 7%. The method was applied to 14 dietary supplements. L-DOPA was detected in these supplements in the range of 0.88-12.8 mg/unit. D-DOPA was not detected.

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  18. Prevention of obesity relatred metabolic diseases by processed foods containing soluble dietary fibers and flavonoids (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asians and other non-caucasians are generally more susceptible to obesity related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Viscous soluble dietary fibers such as cereal beta-glucans and psyllium reduce plasma cholesterol and postprandial glycemia in humans. We have stud...

  19. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha

    2014-06-01

    The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3-3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet.

  20. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  1. PCB126 modulates fecal microbial fermentation of the dietary fiber inulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can alter gut microbial populations. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from gut microbial fermentation of dietary fibers such as inulin, exert numerous effects on host energy metabolism. SCFAs are also linked to health promoting effects, including a red...

  2. Effect of Graded Levels of Dates Dietary Fiber on Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of dates dietary fiber on diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methodology: Rats were divided into eight groups, among which four groups (Groups 1-4) were normal and the other four groups were ...

  3. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...

  4. Dietary Fiber Extraction from Defatted Corn Hull by Hot-Compressed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.

  5. Dietary supplementation of resveratrol attenuates chronic colonic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Cárdeno, Ana; Villegas, Isabel; Talero, Elena; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2010-05-10

    Ulcerative colitis is a nonspecific inflammatory disorder characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leucocyte infiltration and upregulation of inflammatory mediators. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, with multiple pharmacological actions, mainly anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary resveratrol on chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Six-week-old mice were randomized into two dietary groups: one standard diet and the other enriched with resveratrol at 20mg/kg of diet. After 30days, mice were exposed to 3% DSS for 5days developing acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation after 21days of water. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol group significantly attenuated the clinical signs such as loss of body weight, diarrhea and rectal bleeding improving results from disease activity index and inflammatory score. Moreover, the totality of resveratrol-fed animals survived and finished the treatment while animals fed with standard diet showed a mortality of 40%. Three weeks after DSS removal, the polyphenol caused substantial reductions of the rise of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and an increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Also resveratrol reduced prostaglandin E synthase-1 (PGES-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins expression, via downregulation of p38, a mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signal pathway. We conclude that resveratrol diet represents a novel approach to the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  7. Maternal folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake and congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohong Mao

    Full Text Available It has been reported that folic acid supplementation before and/or during pregnancy could reduce the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between maternal folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake, and the risk of CHDs.A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010-2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. After exclusion of stillbirths and multiple births, a total of 94 births were identified with congenital heart defects, and 9,993 births without any birth defects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users before pregnancy had a reduced risk of overall CHDs (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.86, Ptrend = 0.025 after adjusted for potential confounders. A protective effect was observed for certain subtypes of CHDs (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85 for malformation of great arteries; 0.26, 0.10-0.68 for malformation of cardiac septa; 0.34, 0.13-0.93 for Atrial septal defect. A similar protective effect was also seen for multiple CHDs (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, Ptrend = 0.004. Compared with the middle quartiles of dietary folate intake, lower dietary folate intake (<149.88 μg/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of overall CHDs (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62 and patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03-3.32. Women who were non-user folic acid supplement and lower dietary folate intake have almost 2-fold increased CHDs risk in their offspring.Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation before pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of CHDs, lower dietary folate intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk. The observed associations varied by CHD subtypes. A synergistic effect of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation was also observed.

  8. In vitro binding of estrogens by dietary fiber and the in vivo apparent digestibility tested in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, C.J.M.; Govers, C.A.R.L.; Berg, H. van den; Wolters, M.G.E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Thijsen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Within the framework of experiments related to the association between dietary fiber and breast cancer an in vitro test system was used to study the binding of estrogens to various fibers (e.g. cholestyramin, lignin and cellulose) and fiber sources (e.g. wheat bran, cereals, seeds and legumes).

  9. Understanding the prebiotic potential of different dietary fibers using an in vitro continuous adult fermentation model (PolyFermS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeker, Sophie A; Geirnaert, Annelies; Berchtold, Laura; Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Steinert, Robert E; de Wouters, Tomas; Lacroix, Christophe

    2018-03-12

    Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host. Supplementation of DFs, equivalent to a 9 g daily intake, induced a consistent metabolic response depending on the donor microbiota. Irrespective to the DF supplemented, the Bacteroidaceae-Ruminococcaceae dominated microbiota produced more butyrate (up to 96%), while the Prevotellaceae-Ruminococcaceae dominated microbiota produced more propionate (up to 40%). Changes in abundance of specific bacterial taxa upon DF supplementation explained the observed changes in short-chain fatty acid profiles. Our data suggest that the metabolic profile of SCFA profile may be the most suitable and robust read-out to characterize microbiota-modulating effects of a DF and highlights importance to understand the inter-individual response to a prebiotic treatment for mechanistic understanding and human application.

  10. Pharmaceutical quantities of yohimbine found in dietary supplements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Maller, Gregory; DeSouza, Renan; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, botanical dietary supplements are presumed to be safe, but this is not necessarily always the case. Extracts of the evergreen tree yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe, though banned in many countries, are sold in hundreds of dietary supplements in the USA. We analyzed 49 brands of supplements labelled as containing yohimbe or yohimbine available for sale from seven major retailers in the USA. Supplements were analyzed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detectors for quantity of three alkaloids found in P. johimbe (yohimbine, rauwolscine, and corynanthine). The alkaloids were confirmed on the basis of retention time, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectra against reference standards. The quantity of the most active alkaloid, yohimbine, per recommended serving ranged from none detected to 12.1 mg. Thirty-nine percent of the supplements (19/49) did not contain rauwolscine and corynanthine suggesting that the yohimbine was either from highly processed plant extract or synthetic in origin. Only 11 supplement brands (22%, 11/49) listed a specific quantity of yohimbine on the label. Most of these were inaccurately labelled (actual content ranged from 23% to 147% of the content on the label). Eighteen percent (9/49) of the supplements' labels did not provide any information about yohimbine's adverse effects. Of the 49 yohimbine supplement brands sold at seven major retail chains in the USA, only 4.1% (2/49) provided consumers with both accurate information about the quantity of yohimbine as well as information about yohimbine's known adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  12. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD. For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  13. Impact of dietary fiber and fat on gut microbiota re-modeling and metabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gómez Del Pulgar, Eva M.; Kjølbæk, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Scientific evidence suggests that diet plays a role in obesity and its comorbidities, partly via its interactions with the individual's gut microbiota. Likewise, the individual's microbiota influences the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce body weight. However, we require...... a better understanding of the key components of the gut microbiota that are responsive to specific diets and of their effects on energy balance in order to use this information in practice. Scope and approach This review provides an up-to-date description of the influence of dietary fibers and fat on gut...... microbiota and the mechanisms presumably mediating their effects on metabolic health. We also discuss the main knowledge gaps and the need to gain greater understanding of the role of diet-microbe interactions in obesity and the associated comorbidities. Key findings and conclusions Dietary fibers are major...

  14. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Gastrointestinal Transit Time, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Health: Modulation by Dietary Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mattea; Canfora, Emanuel E; Blaak, Ellen E

    2018-02-28

    Gastrointestinal transit time may be an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and metabolic health through effects on nutrient absorption and microbial composition, among other mechanisms. Modulation of gastrointestinal transit may be one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary fibers. These effects include improved glucose homeostasis and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we first discuss the regulation of gastric emptying rate, small intestinal transit and colonic transit as well as their relation to glucose homeostasis and metabolic health. Subsequently, we briefly address the reported health effects of different dietary fibers and discuss to what extent the fiber-induced health benefits may be mediated through modulation of gastrointestinal transit.

  16. A Dietary Supplement Containing and Velvet Bean Improves Sleep Quality in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Impaired sleep quality is commonplace within industrialized societies, as evidenced by the increasing number of prescription sleep aids available. Certain herbal preparations have been suggested to provide a natural benefit to sleep; however, limited controlled data are available documenting this benefit. In the present study we tested the effect of an experimental dietary supplement, containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean, on sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Methods Eighteen healthy and active men and women, with evidence of impaired sleep quality, consumed the supplement daily for 28 days. The PSQI was administered before and after the intervention period. As indicators of safety, resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured, and a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel were determined. Results Sleep quality was influenced by the supplement, as evidenced by an improvement in every category of the PSQI questionnaire ( P < 0.05, with most category scores improving approximately 50% from pre to post intervention. No adverse outcomes were noted with use of the supplement, as indicated by no change in resting heart rate, blood pressure, or any bloodborne parameter. Conclusions An investigational dietary supplement containing the active ingredients Chlorophytum borivilianum and Velvet bean improves sleep quality in men and women. Additional placebo controlled trials are needed to corroborate these findings in individuals with self-reported sleeping difficulty.

  17. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Dietary supplements at high doses as part of medical therapy have been controversial, but the evidence suggests that they play a significant role in prevention and treatment of diseases as well as protection from accelerated aging that results from oxygen free-radical damage, inflammation, and glycation. This literature review examines several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, L-carnitine, and quercetin. The evidence shows benefits in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, age-related deterioration of brain function and vision, and immune function, as well as other age-related health problems.

  18. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  19. Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446 and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372. Results In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3.37 ± 3.06 DS per user and in 2009, a total of 73% of the athletes (a mean of 2.60 ± 2.69 per DS user used them. After adjusting for age-, sex- and sport type, the OR (95% confidence interval, CI for use of any dietary supplement was significantly less in 2009 as compared with 2002 results (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90. Decrease in DS use was observed in all supplement subgroups (vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements. Athletes in speed and power events and endurance events reported use of any dietary supplement significantly more often than team sport athletes both in 2002 and 2009. In year 2009, the frequency of all dietary supplement use increased when athlete's age increased and the increase was significant in older age groups: of the athletes under 21 years 63%, 21-24 years 83% and over 24 years 90% consumed nutritional supplements. Conclusions Based in our study, there seems to be a lowering trend of dietary supplement use among elite Finnish athletes although differences between sport subgroups and age groups are considerable.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bravo, David; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2011-09-27

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on chicken immune responses following immunization with an Eimeria profilin protein. Chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet, or with VAC- or MC-supplemented diets, immunized with profilin, and orally challenged with virulent oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Immunity against infection was evaluated by body weight, fecal oocyst shedding, profilin antibody levels, lymphocyte recall responses, cytokine expression, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Following immunization and infection, chickens fed the VAC- or MC-supplemented diets showed increased body weights, greater profilin antibody levels, and/or greater lymphocyte proliferation compared with non-supplemented controls. Prior to Eimeria infection, immunized chickens on the MC-supplemented diet showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels, but increased expression of TNFSF15, compared with non-supplemented controls. Post-infection levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased, while IL-17F transcripts were decreased, with MC-supplementation. For VAC-supplemented diets, decreased IL-17F and TNFSF15 levels were observed only in infected chickens. Finally, immunized chickens fed the MC-supplemented diet exhibited increased MHC class II(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), TCR1+, or TCR2(+) T cells compared with nonsupplemented controls. Animals on the VAC-containing diet only displayed an increase in K1(+) macrophages. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with VAC or MC alters immune parameters following recombinant protein vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  2. Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, Paul E; Varon, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce cardiovascular disease. The clinical benefit of dietary fish oil supplementation in preventing cardiovascular events in both high and low risk patients is unclear. To assess whether dietary supplements of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decrease cardiovascular events across a spectrum of patients. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and citation review of relevant primary and review articles. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that evaluated clinical cardiovascular end points (cardiovascular death, sudden death, and nonfatal cardiovascular events) and all-cause mortality in patients randomized to EPA/DHA or placebo. We only included studies that used dietary supplements of EPA/DHA which were administered for at least 1 year. Data were abstracted on study design, study size, type and dose of omega-3 supplement, cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and duration of follow-up. Studies were grouped according to the risk of cardiovascular events (high risk and moderate risk). Meta-analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. We identified 11 studies that included a total of 39 044 patients. The studies included patients after recent myocardial infarction, those with an implanted cardioverter defibrillator, and patients with heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and hypercholesterolemia. The average dose of EPA/DHA was 1.8 +/- 1.2 g/day and the mean duration of follow-up was 2.2 +/- 1.2 years. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular deaths (odds ratio [OR]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.95, p = 0.002), sudden cardiac death (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, p = 0.04), all-cause mortality (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-0.99, p = 0.02), and nonfatal cardiovascular events (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-0.99, p = 0.02). The mortality benefit was

  3. Prevention and treatment of erectile dysfunction using lifestyle changes and dietary supplements: what works and what is worthless, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A; Barada, James H; Lue, Tom F; Mulhall, John P; Goldstein, Irwin; Fawzy, Ahmed

    2004-05-01

    It seems naïve to believe that some plants or herbs do not contain specific compounds that could benefit patients with ED. Many supplements have not been investigated in a laboratory or clinical research setting before commercial sale, however,which creates a complex situation. If efficacy is or is not demonstrated through adequate research, then the benefit or lack thereof cannot be mentioned on the label. Furthermore, clinicians and the public cannot be made aware of which compounds or supplements are effective because no general standards for sale exist under the current guidelines. Dietary supplements have received a tremendous amount of publicity. The large and growing market for ED treatment seems to have contributed partly to the promotion of numerous supplements and their apparent benefits. Whether these dietary supplements have merit is questionable. Some supplements may produce results opposite to those advertised. Other supplements may be enjoying the benefits of the placebo effect. Because a placebo response of 25% to 50% has been recorded in clinical trials with effective agents, it is understandable that some supplements enjoy financial success despite the limited research espousing their use. If one to two of four individuals or one of three individuals who try a dietary supplement gain some benefit for their ED, the market for these supplements will remain extraordinary. On a larger scale, of 100,000 men who try a supplement, approximately 25,000 to 50,000 will claim some success. The challenge for clinicians is to discuss the placebo response properly and the need for good research before any intervention, especially supplements, can be advocated for general use. Table 2 summarizes some popular ED supplements and general conclusions that can be drawn from clinical investigations. Some dietary supplements may have an active ingredient that benefits patients with certain types of ED. An exciting area of future dietary supplement research is the

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of the dietary supplement Testostam in patients with erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Горпинченко, І. І.; Ситенко, А. М.

    2017-01-01

    The objective: assessment of tolerability and effect of dietary supplement (DS) Testers on the parameters of erectile function provided that within 30 days, 2 capsules per day. Patients and methods. An open study of the effectiveness and tolerability of the DS Testostam (1 capsule of 500 mg: 350 mg of the Tribulus terrestri extract / 150 mg of the Pausinystalia yohimbe extract), ingested 1 capsule twice a day for 30 days, in 30 patients aged 53±5 years with moderate erectile dysfunction (i...

  5. ANALYSIS OF ω-3 FATTY ACID CONTENT OF POLISH FISH OIL DRUG AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadnik, Kamila; Jaworska, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Study results indicate that a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA n-3) exerts favorable effect on human health, accounting for reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PUFA n-3 contained in marine fish oils, particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acids, are attributed antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-arrhythmic effects. They have also beneficial effects on cognitive functions and immunological mechanisms of an organism. Considering the fact that marine fish are not abundant in Western diet, the pharmaceutical industry reacts with a broad selection of PUFA n-3 containing dietary supplements and drugs. Increased consumers' interest with those products has been observed recently. Therefore, their quality, understood as reliability of manufacturer's declaration of composition of offered dietary supplements, is highly important. We have tested 22 products available in pharmacies and supermarkets, manufacturers of which declared content of n-3 fatty acids (21 dietary supplements and I drug). Identity and content of DHA and EPA were assessed using ¹H NMR spectroscopy, based on characteristic signals from protons in methylene groups. Almost one in five of the examined dietary supplements contains content was consistent with the actual composition. It is notable that more cases of discrepancy between the declared and the actual content regarded DHA than EPA, which indicates a less favorable balance, considering the pro-health effect of those acids. Over a half of tested products provides the supplementary dose (250 mg/day) with one capsule taken daily, and in 27% of cases the daily dosage should be doubled. Only 10% of those products ensure the appropriate dose for cardiovascular patients (1 g/day) with the use of I capsule a day. Correct information provided by a manufacturer on a label regarding the total amount of DHA and EPA is a basis for selection of an appropriate

  6. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  7. Dietary supplementation with tart cherries for prevention of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Ashli

    2017-01-01

    The cherry fruit is a nutrient-dense food with comparatively low caloric content and significant amounts of key nutrients and bioactive food chemicals. Much of the health benefit of cherries is attributed to their high amounts of anthocyanins, which have anti-oxidant and anticancer properties that contribute to changes in cell signaling pathways involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. In this project, we aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with tart cherries ...

  8. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P < 0.001), while users consumed significantly more protein-rich foods (P < 0.01) with a particular preference for meat (48.0%). Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based

  9. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radiolabeled cellulose ( 131 I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested 131 I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of 131 I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, 99 mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 mTc-DTPA), showed that 131 I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some 131 I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. 131 I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of 131 I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet

  10. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    A radiolabeled cellulose (/sup 131/I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested /sup 131/I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of /sup 131/I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, /sup 99/mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-DTPA), showed that /sup 131/I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some /sup 131/I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. /sup 131/I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of /sup 131/I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet.

  11. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  12. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  13. Effect of a Soy Dietary Supplement on Menopausal Symptoms and Hormones in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Margo

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of a dietary soy supplement resulting in an intake of 45 mg/day of phytoestrogens, was tested in a randomized cross-over design in menopausal women aged 45-58 years of age who reported...

  14. May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Riccio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify the dietary molecules, their targets and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a molecular basis for the nutritional intervention in MS by evaluating at molecular level the effect of dietary molecules on the inflammatory and autoimmune processes involved in the disease.

  15. Analysis of Menaquinone-7 Content and Impurities in Oil and Non-Oil Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Szterk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, global technological development has caused the food industry to use concentrated food component sources like dietary supplements ever more commonly as part of the human diet. This study analysed the menaquinone-7 (MK-7 content of dietary supplements in oil capsule and hard tablet forms. A novel method for separating and measuring geometric isomers of MK-7 in dietary supplements was developed and validated. Eleven different isomers of cis/trans- menaquinone-7 were identified. Identification of cis/trans isomers was performed by combination of HPLC, UPLC and HRMS-QTOF detection, whereas their quantities were determined by DAD detection. The content of menaquinone impurities was ascertained, including cis/trans- menaquinone-6 isomers (5.5–16.9 µg per tablet/capsule and cis/trans-menaquinone-7 isomers (70.9–218.7 µg tablet/capsule, which were most likely formed during the chemical synthesis of the menaquinone-7. The all-trans MK-7 content was lower than the isomeric form and often lower than what the labels declared. A new method of quantification, developed and validated for menaquinones in oil capsules, provided on average 90% recovery and a limit of quantification (LOQ of approximately 1 µg mL−1.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements by HPLC and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H; Kim, J W; Han, K M; Lee, J H; Hwang, I S; Lee, J H; Kim, J; Kweon, S J; Cho, S; Chae, K R; Han, S Y; Kim, J

    2013-01-01

    In order to test health foods for illegally added diuretics for weight loss, we developed simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive methods using HPLC and LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements. HPLC conditions were set with a Capcell-pak C18, using a mobile phase consisting of gradient conditions, UV detection at 254 nm and validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.999), precision (CV ≤ 3%), recoveries (90.4-102.8%) and reproducibility. Identification and quantification of 17 diuretics were accomplished by ion-spray LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The chromatographic separation was carried out under the reversed-phase mechanism on an HSS-T3 column. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.99) and precision (CV Diuretics were not detected in all samples. Extraction recovery was also investigated and the extraction recoveries in different formulations were from 88% to 110% and from 81% to 116% using HPLC and LC-MS/MS, respectively. There was no significant difference in recoveries in the type of dietary supplements. Based on this result, the developed methods to monitor illegal drug adulterations in dietary supplements using HPLC and LC-MS/MS are simple, fast and reliable. Therefore, it is applicable to routine drug-adulteration screening.

  17. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  18. Raw coffee based dietary supplements contain carboxyatractyligenin derivatives inhibiting mitochondrial adenine-nucleotide-translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roman; Fromme, Tobias; Beusch, Anja; Lang, Tatjana; Klingenspor, Martin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Capsules, powders and tablets containing raw coffee extract are advertised to the consumer as antioxidant rich dietary supplements as part of a healthy diet. We isolated carboxyatractyligenin (4), 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl carboxyatractyligenin (6) and 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-isovaleryl-2β-(2-desoxy-carboxyatractyligenin)-β-d-glucopyranoside (8) from green coffee and found strong inhibitory effects on phosphorylating respiration in isolated mitochondria similar to the effects of the known phytotoxin carboxyatractyloside. LC-MS/MS analysis of commercial green coffee based dietary supplements revealed the occurrence of carboxyatractyligenin, 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-2'-O-isovaleryl-2β-(2-desoxy-carboxyatractyligenin)-β-d-glucopyranoside, and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl carboxyatractyligenin in concentrations up to 4.0, 5.7, and 41.6μmol/g, respectively. These data might help to gain first insight into potential physiological side-effects of green coffee containing dietary supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  1. Dietary probiotic supplementation improves growth and the intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M A; Batista, S; Pires, M A; Silva, A P; Pereira, L F; Saavedra, M J; Ozório, R O A; Rema, P

    2017-08-01

    Probiotic administration can be a nutritional strategy to improve the immune response and growth performance of fish. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of a probiotic blend (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp.) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immune and oxidative stress responses and intestinal morphology in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The probiotic was incorporated into a basal diet at three concentrations: 0 g/kg (A0: control), 3 g/kg (A1: 1.0×106 colony forming unit (CFU)/g) and 6 g/kg (A2: 2.3×106 CFU/g diet). After 8 weeks of probiotic feeding, weight and specific growth rate where significantly higher in fish-fed A1 diet than in fish-fed A0. Alternative complement in plasma was significantly enhanced in fish-fed A2 when compared with A0. The hepatic antioxidant indicators were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Villi height and goblet cell counts increased significantly in the intestine of fish-fed A1 and A2 diets compared with A0. The dietary probiotic supplementation was maintained until 20 weeks of feeding. Then the selected immune parameters, digestive enzymes and apparent digestibility of diets were studied. No effect of probiotic feeding was observed after that longer period supplementation. The dietary supplementation of mixed species probiotic may constitute a valuable nutritional approach towards a sustainable tilapia aquaculture. The improvement of the immune responses and intestinal morphology play an important role in increasing growth performance, nutrient absorption and disease resistance in fish, important outcomes in such a competitive and developing aquaculture sector.

  2. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin supplementation intensifies plantaris muscle fiber hypertrophy in functionally overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Akiko; Machida, Masanao; Setoguchi, Yuko; Ito, Ryouichi; Sugitani, Masanori; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Omi, Naomi; Takemasa, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) is produced from rutin using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by treatment with glycosyltransferase in the presence of dextrin to add glucose residues. EMIQ is absorbed in the same way as quercetin, a powerful antioxidant reported to prevent disused muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria and to have ergogenic effects. The present study investigated the effect of EMIQ on skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload. In Study 1, 6-week-old ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control, sham-operated EMIQ, overload-operated control, and overload-operated EMIQ groups. In Study 2, mice were divided into 3 groups: overload-operated whey control, overload-operated whey/EMIQ (low dose), and overload-operated whey/EMIQ (high dose) groups. The functional overload of the plantaris muscle was induced by ablation of the synergist (gastrocnemius and soleus) muscles. EMIQ and whey protein were administered with food. Three weeks after the operation, the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle fibers were measured. In Study 1, functional overload increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ supplementation significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle in both the sham-operated and overload-operated groups. In Study 2, EMIQ supplementation combined with whey protein administration significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ, even when administered as an addition to whey protein supplementation, significantly intensified the fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle in functionally overloaded mice. EMIQ supplementation also induced fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris in sham-operated mice.

  3. An investigation on physical quality control parameters of dietary supplements tablets commercially available on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    H M Maswadeh; A N Al-Jarbou

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The goal of this study was to investigate the physical quality control parameters of dietary supplements tablets commercially available on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using weight variation, friability and disintegration tests. The impact of immersion medium pH and the use of disk during disintegration test of dietary supplements as well as a price comparison with respect to quality were investigated. All products were found to fulfill the USP >2091< weight variation and >...

  4. Role of dietary fibers on health of the gastro-intestinal system and related types of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers are classified into water soluble or insoluble, and most plant foods include in their composition variable amounts of a mixture of soluble and insoluble fibers. This soluble or insoluble nature of fiber is related to its physiological effects. Insoluble fibers are characterized by high porosity, low density and the ability to increase fecal bulk, and act by facilitating intestinal transit, thus reducing the exposure to carcinogens in the colon and therefore acting as protectors...

  5. Effect of extrusion parameters on some properties of dietary fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... Méndez-García, S.1, Martínez-Flores, H.E.2* and Morales-Sánchez, E.3. 1Student of ... product (Sánchez-Alonso et al., 2007), coconut fiber ..... Rodríguez R, Jiménez A, Fernández-Bolaños J, Guillén R, Heredia A. (2006).

  6. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Lucas J C; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard GM; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation (if an antidoping rule violation results). A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialled in training or simulated competition before being used in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the antidoping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete’s health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount; expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before an athlete embarks on supplement use. PMID:29540367

  7. Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Pear Pomace Can Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Mainly by Improving the Structure of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing

    2017-04-28

    Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.

  8. Association of dietary and supplemental iron and colorectal cancer in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Joseph H; Lesko, Samuel M; Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Muscat, Joshua E; Zhu, Junjia; Liao, Jason; Harper, Gregory; Lazarus, Philip; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary iron, heme iron, and supplemental iron on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in a population-based case-control study in Pennsylvania, including 1005 incident cases and 1062 controls. Diet was assessed through a modified food frequency questionnaire that included supplement use and a meat-specific module. Cases reported intakes for the year before diagnosis, whereas controls reported intakes for the year before interview. Heme iron intake was calculated using a new heme database developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, there were no significant associations between heme iron or total iron intake and CRC incidence. Dietary iron intake was inversely associated with CRC among women (OR Q5 vs. Q1=0.45; 95% CI=0.22-0.92), but not among men. Supplemental iron intake of more than 18 mg/day versus none was positively associated with CRC incidence (OR=2.31; 95% CI=1.48-3.59; P-trendconsumption of more than 18 mg/day of supplemental iron may increase risk for CRC.

  9. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend enhances intestinal function in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dan; Li, Baocheng; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Di; Chen, Hongbo; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Ying; Ding, Binying; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-05-16

    The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB. On day 20 of the trial, blood and intestinal tissue samples were obtained from piglets. Compared with the control, AAB supplementation reduced (P sodium-independent amino acid transporters (b 0,+ AT and y + LAT1), aquaporin (AQP) 3, AQP8, AQP10, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and glutathione S-transferase omega-2, and protein abundances of AQP3, AQP4, claudin-1, occludin and myxovirus resistance 1; and the numbers of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus genus in the colon digesta. Collectively, these comprehensive results indicate that dietary AAB supplementation plays an important role in improving piglet growth and intestinal function.

  11. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  12. The marketing of dietary supplements in North America: the emperor is (almost) naked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2010-07-01

    Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly sold include exotic fruit juices (such as goji juice) and single herbs or mixture of herbs. Common claims made in support of particular supplements are that they are rich in antioxidants, induce detoxification, stimulate the immune system, and cause weight loss. Supplements are commonly sold through health food stores and by multilevel marketing. Sales may be promoted using bulk mail ("junk mail"), spam e-mails, and Web sites. A large part of marketing is based on claims that are blatantly dishonest. Whereas supplements for which good supporting evidence exists generally cost around $3-$4 per month, those that are heavily promoted for which there is little supporting evidence cost about $20-$60 per month. The major cause of this problem in the United States is weakness of the law. There is an urgent need for stricter regulation and for giving better advice to the general public.

  13. Dietary supplement use in the context of health disparities: cultural, ethnic and demographic determinants of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Bentley, Margaret E

    2003-06-01

    Women of African American, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American and Alaskan descent constitute 29% of the female population in the United States but they experience health problems disproportionately. Compared with white women as a group, they are in poorer health and use fewer health services. We know from recent studies that the daily use of multivitamins has been associated with lower risk of coronary disease, colon cancer and breast cancer, particularly for alcohol drinkers. In addition, daily multivitamin and multimineral usage by the elderly can reduce the number of days of illness due to infections by 50%. However, supplement use among women tends to be more prevalent among the middle and older age categories; white, well-educated and higher income women; and those residing in the western part of the United States. This examination of the current health disparities and usage patterns indicates that the women who could benefit most from supplements are not typical users. Qualitative data collected on iron and folic acid supplementation programs in developing countries indicate that diverse cultural practices, attitudes and beliefs among vulnerable populations may influence supplement use. However, data in the U.S literature that describe these factors by culture or ethnicity are sparse. If we are to promote dietary supplements to women who are most vulnerable, more research is warranted in the area of health beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic determinants of supplement use by culture and or ethnicity, particularly among underprivileged groups.

  14. Dietary Chromium Supplementation for Targeted Treatment of Diabetes Patients with Comorbid Depression and Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Young, Laura; Cefalu, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary chromium supplementation for the treatment of diabetes remains controversial. The prevailing view that chromium supplementation for glucose regulation is unjustified has been based upon prior studies showing mixed, modest-sized effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Based on chromium's potential to improve insulin, dopamine, and serotonin function, we hypothesize that chromium has a greater glucoregulatory effect in individuals who have concurrent disturbances in dopamine and serotonin function – that is, complex patients with comorbid diabetes, depression, and binge eating. We propose, as suggested by the collective data to date, the need to go beyond the “one size fits all” approach to chromium supplementation and put forth a series of experiments designed to link physiological and neurobehavioral processes in the chromium response phenotype. PMID:25838140

  15. A cocktail of synthetic stimulants found in a dietary supplement associated with serious adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, Bastiaan; Keizers, Peter; van Riel, Antoinette; de Kaste, Dries

    2014-06-01

    Food supplements are regularly found to contain pharmacologically active substances. Recently, the food supplement Dexaprine was removed from the Dutch market because it was associated with severe adverse events. Reports to the Dutch Poisons Information Center (DPIC) showed that ingestion of as little as half a tablet caused several cases of nausea, agitation, tachycardia, and palpitations and even one case of cardiac arrest. The remaining tablets of four patients were sent in by different healthcare professionals. Analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass-spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) confirmed the presence of synephrine, oxilofrine, deterenol, yohimbine, caffeine, and theophylline. Two more compounds were found which were tentatively identified as β-methyl-β-phenylethylamines. This incident is only the next in a series of similar incidents involving dietary supplements with (undeclared) active substances that are either unsafe or have no known safety profile. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  17. The Effect of Dietary Supplements on the Development of Bombyx Mori L. Silkworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We know that the silkworms consume leaves in large quantities. The scope of the research was their reaction to various additives for their food. Mulberry leaves spray-coated in several dietary supplements were administered starting with the 5th day of the 3rd instar. The substances used were flax (linseed oil, hemp oil and 2.5% fat cow’s milk. The research was performed on four different silkworm hybrid strands. Each hybrid was separated in 4 lots, a control group and one for each of the three supplements. The preliminary conclusions of the research were that the best results were obtained with the 2.5% milk supplement, where we observed the highest individual mass and silk quantity compared to the other lots.

  18. Chronic dietary supplementation with soy protein improves muscle function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi J Khairallah

    Full Text Available Athletes as well as elderly or hospitalized patients use dietary protein supplementation to maintain or grow skeletal muscle. It is recognized that high quality protein is needed for muscle accretion, and can be obtained from both animal and plant-based sources. There is interest to understand whether these sources differ in their ability to maintain or stimulate muscle growth and function. In this study, baseline muscle performance was assessed in 50 adult Sprague-Dawley rats after which they were assigned to one of five semi-purified "Western" diets (n = 10/group differing only in protein source, namely 19 kcal% protein from either milk protein isolate (MPI, whey protein isolate (WPI, soy protein isolate (SPI, soy protein concentrate (SPC or enzyme-treated soy protein (SPE. The diets were fed for 8 weeks at which point muscle performance testing was repeated and tissues were collected for analysis. There was no significant difference in food consumption or body weights over time between the diet groups nor were there differences in terminal organ and muscle weights or in serum lipids, creatinine or myostatin. Compared with MPI-fed rats, rats fed WPI and SPC displayed a greater maximum rate of contraction using the in vivo measure of muscle performance (p<0.05 with increases ranging from 13.3-27.5% and 22.8-29.5%, respectively at 60, 80, 100 and 150 Hz. When the maximum force was normalized to body weight, SPC-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05, whereas when normalized to gastrocnemius weight, WPI-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05. There was no difference between groups using in situ muscle performance. In conclusion, soy protein consumption, in high-fat diet, resulted in muscle function comparable to whey protein and improved compared to milk protein. The benefits seen with soy or whey protein were independent of changes in muscle mass or fiber cross-sectional area.

  19. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

  20. Dietary Fisetin Supplementation Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2016-10-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary interventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet for 4 weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d. Alcohol feeding induced lipid accumulation in the liver and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, which were attenuated by fisetin supplementation. The EtOH concentrations in the plasma and liver were significantly elevated by alcohol exposure but were reduced by fisetin supplementation. Although fisetin did not affect the protein expression of alcohol metabolism enzymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased by fisetin compared to the alcohol alone group. In addition, fisetin supplementation remarkably reduced hepatic NADPH oxidase 4 levels along with decreased plasma hydrogen peroxide and hepatic superoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal levels after alcohol exposure. Alcohol-induced apoptosis and up-regulation of Fas and cleaved caspase-3 in the liver were prevented by fisetin. Moreover, fisetin supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis through increasing plasma adiponectin levels and hepatic protein levels of p-AMPK, ACOX1, CYP4A, and MTTP. This study demonstrated that the protective effect of fisetin on ALD is achieved by accelerating EtOH clearance and inhibition of oxidative stress. The data suggest that fisetin has a therapeutical potential for treating ALD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Effects of dietary biotin supplementation on glucagon production, secretion, and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Larrieta, Elena; Tixi-Verdugo, Wilma; Ramírez-Mondragón, Rafael; Hernández-Araiza, Ileana; German, Michael S; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    Despite increasing evidence that pharmacologic concentrations of biotin modify glucose metabolism, to our knowledge there have not been any studies addressing the effects of biotin supplementation on glucagon production and secretion, considering glucagon is one of the major hormones in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary biotin supplementation on glucagon expression, secretion, and action. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7 mg biotin/kg diet) for 8 wk postweaning. Glucagon gene mRNA expression was measured by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Glucagon secretion was assessed in isolated islets and by glucagon concentration in plasma. Glucagon action was evaluated by glucagon tolerance tests, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) mRNA expression, and glycogen degradation. Compared with the control group, glucagon mRNA and secretion were increased from the islets of the biotin-supplemented group. Fasting plasma glucagon levels were higher, but no differences between the groups were observed in nonfasting glucagon levels. Despite the elevated fasting glucagon levels, no differences were found in fasting blood glucose concentrations, fasting/fasting-refeeding glucagon tolerance tests, glycogen content and degradation, or mRNA expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic rate-limiting enzyme, Pck1. These results demonstrated that dietary biotin supplementation increased glucagon expression and secretion without affecting fasting blood glucose concentrations or glucagon tolerance and provided new insights into the effect of biotin supplementation on glucagon production and action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Uso de suplementos alimentares por adolescentes Dietary supplement use by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar crititcamente o uso, benefícios e efeitos adversos dos principais suplementos alimentares utilizados por adolescentes. FONTES DOS DADOS: A pesquisa bibliográfica, realizada nos últimos 10 anos, utilizou os bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS. Foram examinados 377 artigos, sendo selecionados 52. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O consumo de suplementos dietéticos é amplamente difundido entre adolescentes. Tal fato é constatado, com frequência, nos consultórios de pediatria e hebeatria. Na maioria das vezes ele ocorre sem uma necessidade específica, sendo motivado pela busca do corpo ideal. Outros motivos para essa suplementação são: compensar dieta inadequada, aumentar imunidade, prevenir doenças, melhorar o desempenho competitivo e superar os próprios limites. Os suplementos alimentares mais utilizados e discutidos nesse artigo e para os quais existem poucas evidências de um efeito benéfico de sua utilização por adolescentes saudáveis são: proteínas, aminoácidos, betahidroxibetametilbutirato, microelementos, carnitina, creatina, vitaminas, cafeína e bicarbonato. CONCLUSÃO: O uso irrestrito de suplementos dietéticos deve ser desaconselhado, uma vez que expõe o adolescente a vários efeitos adversos, além da falta de evidência de que tal prática levará a melhora no desempenho. Uma nutrição balanceada, com aquisição da energia e dos nutrientes necessários é geralmente suficiente para boa performance nas atividades físicas. A reposição com suplementos dietéticos deve ser reservada para atletas competitivos que não consomem uma dieta balanceada, após a comprovação de alguma deficiência específica.OBJECTIVE: To review the use, benefits and adverse effects of the main dietary supplements consumed by adolescents. SOURCES: The literature review was performed using MEDLINE and LILACS databases (1997-2008. We analyzed 377 articles, and 52 of them were selected as references. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS

  3. Whole Grains Contribute Only a Small Proportion of Dietary Fiber to the U.S. Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Kranz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF, found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG, is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber WG, and sources of fiber that are not from WG. The study is based on the two-day diets reported consumed by the nationally representative sample of Americans participating in What We Eat In America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003–2010. Foods consumed were classified into tertiles of DF and WG and the contribution of fiber by differing levels of WG content were examined. Foods containing high amounts of WG and DF only contributed about 7% of total fiber intake. Overall, grain-based foods contributed 54.5% of all DF consumed. Approximately 39% of DF came from grain foods that contained no WG, rather these foods contained refined grains, which contain only small amounts of DF but are consumed in large quantities. All WG-containing foods combined contributed a total of 15.3% of DF in the American diet. Thus, public health messaging needs to be changed to specifically encourage consumption of WG foods with high levels of DF to address both recommendations.

  4. Effect of dietary fiber, genetic strain and age on the digestive metabolism of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Krás

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 360 male broilers, out of which 240 of a fast-growing strain (Cobb500, and 120 of a slow-growing strain (Label Rouge, were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber on digesta transit time and digestive metabolism during the period of 1 to 42 days of age. A completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of three groups of birds (slow-growing - SG; fast-growing fed ad libitum - FGAL; and fast-growing pair-fed with SG broilers - FGPF and two iso-protein diets (a 3100 kcal ME/kg low-fiber diet - LFD- and a 2800 kcal ME/kg high-fiber diet - HFD- with 14% wheat bran and 4% oat hulls. HFD-fed birds presented lower ME retention (p < 0.001 and lower dry matter metabolizability (DMM (p < 0.001, which is possibly related to the shorter digesta transit time observed in these birds (p < 0.001. DMM was reduced with age, whereas metabolizable energy remained almost constant (p < 0.001 independently of strain. This may be related to the increase in feed intake as birds age. The slow-growing strain did not present better utilization of the high-fiber diet as compared to the fast-growing strain in none of the analyzed ages, even though showing a significant better use of fiber and dietary energy from 31 days of age.

  5. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Sospedra, Isabel; Ortiz, Christian Mañas; Baladía, Eduard; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-10-04

    The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement.

  6. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA. The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement.

  7. Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas Ortiz, Christian; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement. PMID:28976928

  8. Volumetric Titrations Using Electrolytically Generated Reagents for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Iron in Dietary Supplement Tablets: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Christopher; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment for the volumetric quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid and iron in dietary supplement tablets is presented. Powdered samples of the dietary supplement tablets were volumetrically titrated against electrolytically generated reagents, and the mass of dietary reagent in the tablet was determined from the…

  9. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from Konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan, V; Sievenpiper, J L; Owen, R; Swilley, J A; Spadafora, P; Jenkins, D J; Vidgen, E; Brighenti, F; Josse, R G; Leiter, L A; Xu, Z; Novokmet, R

    2000-01-01

    Dietary fiber has recently received recognition for reducing the risk of developing diabetes and heart disease. The implication is that it may have therapeutic benefit in prediabetic metabolic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of supplementing a high-carbohydrate diet with fiber from Konjac-mannan (KJM) on metabolic control in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome. We screened 278 free-living subjects between the ages of 45 and 65 years from the Canadian-Maltese Diabetes Study. A total of 11 (age 55+/-4 years, BMI 28+/-1.5 kg/m2) were recruited who satisfied the inclusion criteria: impaired glucose tolerance, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, and moderate hypertension. After an 8-week baseline, they were randomly assigned to take either KJM fiber-enriched test biscuits (0.5 g of glucomannan per 100 kcal of dietary intake or 8-13 g/day) or wheat bran fiber (WB) control biscuits for two 3-week treatment periods separated by a 2-week washout. The diets were isoenergetic, metabolically controlled, and conformed to National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 guidelines. Serum lipids, glycemic control, and blood pressure were the outcome measures. Decreases in serum cholesterol (total, 12.4+/-3.1%, PFasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and body weight remained unchanged. A diet rich in high-viscosity KJM improves glycemic control and lipid profile, suggesting a therapeutic potential in the treatment of the insulin resistance syndrome.

  10. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  11. Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Toine F.H.; Mol, Hans G.J.; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E.; Heskamp, Henri H.; Bruchem, van Gerard D.; Ginkel, van Leendert A.; Kooijman, Martin; Lasaroms, Johan J.P.; Dam, van Ruud; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the

  12. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)

  13. Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon......-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer were related to intake of total or specific fiber source using Cox proportional hazards models. For men, an inverse association was observed between intake of total fiber and the risk of colon cancer per an incremental increase of 10 g day(-1) , IRR...... fiber per 2 g day(-1) was also associated with lower risk of colon cancer, 0.97 (0.93-1.00). No clear associations were seen for rectal cancer. Our data indicate a protective role of total and cereal fiber intake, particularly from cereal foods with high fiber content, in the prevention of colon cancer....

  14. Dietary aspects in fibromyalgia patients: results of a survey on food awareness, allergies, and nutritional supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Laura-Isabel; Canela, Miguel-Ángel; Rafecas, Magda

    2012-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common disease that results in poor quality of life, causing widespread musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, fatigue, sleep disorders, and cognitive impairment among other symptoms. The lack of an effective treatment makes necessary a multidimensional management. FM patients usually seek, from different sources, information about possible benefits from foods, nutrients, or diets. Our objective was to investigate the dietary awareness, food allergies and/or intolerances (FAIs), and nutritional supplement (NS) consumption of FM patients. A questionnaire was prepared with six questions regarding dietary habits, FAIs, and NS use. The questionnaire was filled out by patients recruited in local fibromyalgia associations. One hundred and one women were suffering from FM, diagnosed for more than 6 months, mean age of 53.88 ± 7.78 years; 30% of them changed their diet because of their disease, trying to improve it, and most of them were also using some NS; 7% of women in this group had FAIs, a figure slightly higher than the FAI prevalence in the general population (2-5%) and positively associated with consumption of supplements. Among NS users, some differences were observed; past NS users currently consume a wider range of products, more than new NS users. Magnesium was one of the supplements most recommended specifically for FM. Seventy-four percentage of these patients used NS following advice from health professionals. Once patients are diagnosed, they change their dietary habits and nutritional supplement intake, seeking nutritional strategies to improve their symptoms. Health professionals' advice plays a relevant role.

  15. Vitamin D intoxication due to an erroneously manufactured dietary supplement in seven children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Cengiz; Gunindi, Figen; Ustyol, Ala; Aydin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication (VDI) with dietary supplements have not been previously reported. We report on 7 children with VDI caused by consumption of a fish oil supplement containing an excessively high dose of vitamin D due to a manufacturing error. Seven children aged between 0.7 and 4.2 years were admitted with symptoms of hypercalcemia. Initial median (range) serum concentrations of calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 16.5 (13.4-18.8) mg/dL and 620 (340-962) ng/mL, respectively. Repeated questioning of the parents revealed use of a fish oil that was produced recently by a local manufacturer. Analysis of the fish oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the vitamin D3 content was ~4000 times the labeled concentration. Estimated daily amounts of vitamin D3 intake varied between 266,000 and 800,000 IU. Patients were successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and pamidronate infusions. With treatment, serum calcium returned to the normal range within 3 days (range: 2-7 days). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels normalized within 2 to 3 months. Complications, including nephrocalcinosis, were not observed throughout the 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, errors in manufacturing of dietary supplements may be a cause of VDI in children. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in unexplained VDI cases and repeatedly question the families about dietary supplement use. To prevent the occurrence of such unintentional incidents, manufacturers must always monitor the levels of ingredients of their products and should be rigorously overseen by governmental regulatory agencies, as is done in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Determination of higenamine in dietary supplements by UHPLC/MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajić, A; Anđelković, M; Dikić, N; Rašić, J; Vukašinović-Vesić, M; Ivanović, D; Jančić-Stojanović, B

    2017-11-30

    From 1st January 2017 higenamine was added on the WADA (World Anti-doping Agency) Prohibited list under S3 group beta-2 agonists as at all times banned substance for the athletes. The main origine of higenamine (or norcoclaurine) are different plants including Nandina domestica, Aconitum carmichaelii, Asarum heterotropioides, Galium divaricatum, Annona squamosa, Nelumbo nucifera etc. Higenamine main use is related to weight loss and it could be found (un)labeled in different dietary supplements. The objective of this study was development of sensitive and reliable UHPLC/MS/MS method for determination of higenamine in various dietary supplement samples. In order to obtain high method sensitivity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode was applied. Separation was carried out on UHPLC Acquity BEH HILIC analytical column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm particle size). Mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, respectively, was mixed in ratio of 30:70, v/v. Flow rate was set at 0.2mLmin -1 . Quercetin was used as an internal standard. ESI (+) source ionization mode using multi reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized and three ion transitions of higenamine were followed 272.08→107.01, 272.08→161.07 and 272.08→77.08. Developed method was fully validated and applied for identification and quantification of higenamine in different dietary supplements. According to the results, the most of investigated supplements were free of higenamine, and on the other hand, presence of higenamine was confirmed in some samples while it was not declared on the label. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the Risk of Probiotic Dietary Supplements in the Context of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied. These products are consumed with increasing regularity due to their health claims that include the improvement of intestinal health and immune response as well as prevention of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhea and cancer; but, a comprehensive risk assessment on the spread of resistant genes to human health is lacking. Here, we highlight recent reports of antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria isolated from dietary supplements, and propose complementary strategies that can shed light on the risks of consuming such products in the context of a global widespread of antibiotic resistance. In concomitant with a broader screening of antibiotic resistance in probiotic supplements is the use of computational simulations, live imaging and functional genomics to harvest knowledge on the evolutionary behavior, adaptations and dynamics of probiotics studied in conditions that best represent the human gut including in the presence of antibiotics. The underlying goal is to enable the health benefits of probiotics to be exploited in a responsible manner and with minimal risk to human health.

  18. A Finished Dietary Supplement Stimulates Lipolysis and Metabolic Rate in Young Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary supplements are often marketed to increase lipolysis and thermogenesis, with the proposed end result being weight loss and body fat reduction. It was the purpose of the present investigation to study the acute effects of a weight/fat loss supplement within a sample of healthy human subjects. Methods Twelve subjects (men 24.8 ± 4.3 yrs; women 22.8 ± 0.4 yrs ingested a dietary supplement (OxyELITE Pro™ or a placebo, on two separate days in a double-blind, cross-over design. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 60 and 120 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA. Breath samples were collected immediately before ingestion and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post ingestion, for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure using indirect calorimetry. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times and rate pressure product (RPP was calculated. Results AUC was greater for supplement compared to placebo for glycerol (22.74 ± 1.98 μg · mL -1 · 2 hr -1 vs. 15.76 ± 1.36 μg · mL -1 · 2 hr -1 ; P = 0.001, FFA(1.62 ± 0.07 mmol · L -1 · 2 hr -1 vs. 0.78 ± 0.12 mmol · L -1 · 2 hr -1 ; P < 0.0001, and kilocalorie expenditure (149 ± 7 kcal · 2 hr -1 vs. 122 ± 8 kcal · 2 hr -1 ; P = 0.005. Heart rate ( P = 0.02, systolic blood pressure ( P < 0.0001, and RPP ( P = 0.002 were higher for supplement compared to placebo. Conclusion Ingestion of OxyELITE Pro™ resulted in an increase in blood markers of lipolysis, as well as metabolic rate, during a two-hour post ingestion time period. An increase in hemodynamic variables was also observed. These findings are in reference to a sample of healthy men and women who were naïve to treatment with the dietary supplement. Additional work is needed to determine if the acute changes observed here would persist with chronic use of the supplement and possibly lead to weight

  19. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed...

  20. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  1. Interactions of waterborne and dietary cadmium on the expression of calcium transporters in the gills of rainbow trout: Influence of dietary calcium supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, Fernando [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: galvezf@lsu.edu; Franklin, Natasha M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Tuttle, Ryan B. [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2007-08-30

    Recent studies have shown that dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation strongly inhibits uptake of Ca{sup 2+} and Cd at the fish gill. To better understand the influence of dietary Ca{sup 2+} on branchial Ca{sup 2+} transport, we examined the expression of two trout gill calcium transporters during waterborne and dietary Cd exposure, at two different levels of dietary Ca{sup 2+}. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) and sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) mRNA levels following 7-28 days of exposure to these treatments. In brief, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to control, 3 {mu}g/L waterborne Cd, 500 mg/kg dietary Cd, or a combined 3 {mu}g/L waterborne plus 500 mg/kg dietary Cd exposure, supplemented with either 20 mg/g or 60 mg/g dietary calcium (Ca{sup 2+}). Two-way analysis of variance was used to discern the main effects of Cd exposure and dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation on ECaC and NCX mRNA levels. We found that dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation decreased significantly ECaC mRNA expression on days 14 and 21. In comparison, NCX mRNA levels were not influenced by dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation, but rather were significantly inhibited in the combined waterborne and dietary Cd exposure on day 7 alone. Statistical analysis found no interactive effects between Cd exposure and dietary Ca{sup 2+} exposure at any time point, except for day 28.This study provides evidence of the importance of nutritional status on the transcriptional regulation of ion transport at the fish gill. We discuss the importance of diet and nutritional status to the development of new regulatory approaches, such as the biotic ligand model, which currently do not account for the significance of diet on metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms.

  2. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population.A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity.The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05.Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  3. Use and perception of herbal and dietary supplements in the Hutterites of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stacy; Shiyanbola, Olayinka

    2013-12-01

    South Dakota is home to 6,000 Hutterites, the largest population of Hutterites in the United States. Observation of frequent supplement use by this population prompted the current survey based study. Use of supplements is on the rise with around 53 percent of Americans reporting at least one herbal and dietary supplement (HDS). Use and perception of HDS has not previously been evaluated in the Hutterite population. Participants were 18 years of age and older and had to be present at the time of survey administration. Surveys were administered before and after an educational presentation at five colonies to volunteer participants. Survey data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and chi-square tests. One-hundred and six surveys were completed with 81.1 percent being female. Approximately 78 percent reported using at least one type of HDS, with an average of 2.7 (SD = 1.4) supplements per person. Women were more likely to report supplement use than men. Hutterites reported they felt HDS were safer than prescription medications. Education was effective on some aspects such as telling their doctor if they are taking HDS. Some study limitations included small sample size, possible lack of survey understanding, and the limited number of male participants. The frequency of HDS use in South Dakota Hutterites appears to be very high. Baseline knowledge on the safety and regulation of HDS reveals that education of this population is needed. Further investigation of HDS use in Hutterites is warranted.

  4. The Evidence for Dietary Interventions and Nutritional Supplements as Treatment Options in Multiple Sclerosis: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische, Leah J; Mowry, Ellen M

    2018-03-17

    This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive. With regard to nutritional supplements, pilot data show a possible benefit of biotin with respect to disability worsening in people with progressive MS (PMS). The best designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PUFA supplementation have not shown significant impact, but several weaker RCTs have. Many other nutritional supplements have been tested, including several anti-oxidants. While some early studies show positive results, no result has been definitive. Unfortunately, there is no strong evidence for a direct benefit of any given dietary intervention on MS risk or prognosis. However, due to its relationship with vascular co-morbidities, the Mediterranean diet has the strongest rationale for employment in PwMS. Higher-quality clinical trials are needed to ascertain the possible benefits of nutritional supplements.

  5. Composition variability in soy-derived dietary supplements designated for menopausal symptom prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Jane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of soy isoflavone supplements are commercialized and many investigations are conducted to define their real impact on human health. The presence of other compounds (soyasaponins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids… is rarely considered when discussing the bioactivity of an isoflavone-enriched product. Moreover, the process used can modify the phytochemical content and composition of the final product. This report evaluated the variability in content and composition of isoflavones as well as soyasaponins, proteins, fatty acids and α-galactooligosaccharides of 25 soy based dietary supplements. For isoflavones and soyasaponins, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC/UV, the ‘intra product’variability was investigated by analyzing two different lots of five of these 25 dietary supplements. Proteins were determined through the quantification of total nitrogen by an elementar analyzer, fatty acids by gaz chromatography, and α-galactooligosaccharides were analyzed using a refractive index detector. These components showed a high variability: the total isoflavone contents, expressed as aglycone equivalents, varied from 4.4 mg/g (16.7 lmol/g to 95.3 mg/g (365.6 lmol/g, and the isoflavones/ soyasaponins ratio varied from 0.9 (more saponins than isoflavones to 12.9. In the same way, the protein contents ranged from 0.4 to 42.9%, and the lipid contents from 1.6 to 20%. A high variability was also observed in the profiles of these metabolites. All these differences allowed us to distinguish two main classes of dietary supplements; the whole seed based products, with genistein occurring as the major isoflavone, and the soy germ based products, with a low genistein but high glycitein content. Soy germ and whole seed based products displayed also very contrasted profiles for the other components. An additional variability, more related to the process used, was detected

  6. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. PMID:26980817

  7. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-03-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Dietary fibers as immunoregulatory compounds in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismar, René; Brix, Susanne; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    structures. In order to enhance our understanding of factors important for the immunoregulatory activities, this article addresses the importance of chemical structure, origin, and purity of fibers for their capacity to interact with key regulatory immune cells. Furthermore, we assess bioavailability...... important for the activity. Within beta-glucans the activity varies according to structure, molecular weight, and solubility. As many of the preparations tested constitute crude extracts or partly purified NSPs, the risk of contaminants holding immunoregulatory activities should not be ignored. To what...... a major challenge. Studies demonstrating in vivo effects of beta-glucans on microbial infections and cancer treatment strongly indicate an immunoregulatory mechanism behind the effects. However, the potential of NSPs as immunoregulatory food ingredients is still far from fully explored....

  9. Dietary choline supplementation in adult rats improves performance on a test of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Hayarelis; Hall, Geoffrey; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-04-22

    In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-h interval (Experiments 1 and 2) and when retested after a further 24 h (Experiment 1). But when tested for the first time after a 48-h interval (Experiment 2), control subjects showed no evidence of retention, exploring both objects equally, whereas those given the dietary supplement continued to show a preference for the changed object. This supports the conclusion that dietary choline supplementation can enhance performance on a task regarded as a test of declarative memory, and will do so even when the supplementations is given in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of novel dietary supplement on metabolism in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro. Human males ingested either a placebo or commercially available supplement (RF in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over fashion. Metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood pressure were measured hourly for 3 h post-ingestion. To investigate molecular effects, human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD and mouse myocytes (C2C12 were treated with various doses of RF for various durations. RF enhanced energy expenditure and systolic blood pressure in human males without altering substrate utilization. In myocytes, RF enhanced metabolism, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial content suggesting RF may target common energetic pathways which control mitochondrial biogenesis. RF appears to increase metabolism immediately following ingestion, although it is unclear if RF provides benefits beyond those provided by caffeine alone. Additional research is needed to examine safety and efficacy for human weight loss.

  11. Dietary fiber sources consumption and overweight among Polish male students. A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusińska, Beata; Wuenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna

    There has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and young adults, especially in men than women. Many adolescents have a sedentary lifestyle and consume more processed, low-fiber foods. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fiber intake and its selected dietary source consumption in relation to the overweight among Polish male students. This cross-sectional study involved 1,233 male students aged 13.0-24.9 years from northern, eastern and central Poland. The respondents completed a self-administered Block Screening Questionnaire for Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber Intake and measurements of their body mass and height were performed. The overweight and obesity prevalence was assessed using international standards. The most frequently consumed foods by students included: white bread and potatoes, fruit and fruit or vegetable juices. The odds of overweight (including obesity) were lower from 28% (OR=0.72; 95%CI:0.56-0.93) to 31% (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.50-0.95) with a daily consumption of white bread compared to non-daily consumption of white bread. Consumption ≥4 times/week of prepared vegetables (cooked, preserved or marinated) was associated with 51% lower odds of overweight (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.27-0.97) compared to consumption less than 4 times/week of these foods. The odds of overweight for the level of fiber intake was insignificant. This study provides surprising insights regarding high-fiber and low-fiber food consumption and overweight in Polish male students. A lower odds of overweight was associated with a higher frequency consumption of relatively low in fiber foods as white bread and cooked, preserved or marinated vegetables. Most of the students consumed fiber at an unacceptable level, so a beneficial impact of high-fiber foods on overweight prevalence was not shown.

  12. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and dietary starch content on rumen fermentation and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A L G; Freitas, J A; Micai, B; Azevedo, R A; Greco, L F; Santos, J E P

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of feeding a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on rumen metabolism and digestibility when cows are fed diets varying in starch content. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were low starch (LS; 23% of diet DM) and no yeast culture (YC; LS-control), LS and 15 g of YC/d (LS-YC), high starch (HS; 29% of diet DM) and no YC (HS-control), and HS and 15 g of YC/d (HS-YC). Periods lasted 28 d, with the last 9 d for data collection. Days 20 to 24 were used to determine production, nutrient flow, and digestibility. On d 25, 3 kg of corn grain DM was placed in the rumen 1 h before the morning feeding, and yields of milk and milk components were measured after the challenge. Blood was sampled -1, 3, 7, and 11 h relative to the morning feeding on d 24 and 25. Rumen pH was measured continuously on d 24 and 25. Rumen papillae were collected on d 24 and 28 to quantify mRNA expression of select genes. Supplementing YC increased yields of milk (26.3 vs. 29.6 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM; 26.5 vs. 30.3 kg/d), fat (0.94 vs. 1.08 kg/d), true protein (0.84 vs. 0.96 kg/d), and ECM/dry matter intake (1.15 vs. 1.30) compared with the control but did not affect dry matter intake (22.6 vs. 22.9 kg/d). Cows fed HS had increased milk true protein percentage (3.18 vs. 3.31%) and yield (0.87 vs. 0.94 kg/d) compared with cows fed LS. Feeding HS-YC increased the proportion of dietary N incorporated into milk true protein from 24.9% in the other 3 treatments to 29.6%. Feeding HS increased the concentration of propionate (21.7 vs. 32.3 mM) and reduced that of NH 3 -N (8.3 vs. 6.7 mg/dL) in rumen fluid compared with the control, and combining HS with YC in HS-YC tended to increase microbial N synthesis compared with LS-YC (275 vs. 322 g/d). Supplementing YC to cows fed HS reduced plasma haptoglobin and rumen lactate concentrations

  13. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-01-01

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber

  14. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gang [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Xu, Zhenjiang [Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Tian, Xiangli, E-mail: xianglitian@ouc.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Dong, Shuanglin [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Peng, Mo [School of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University (China)

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  15. Effect of type and level of dietary fibre supplements in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharib, Sorial A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both experimental and clinical studies have indicated that a novel source of dietary fibres is potentially hypolipidemic. In the present study, turnip, sugar beet, cabbage and fenugreek green leaves were used as natural new sources of dietary fibres, to examine their effects on nutritional parameters and lipid metabolism in rats fed for 8 weeks comparing with a control diet (fibre-free control. Chemical analyses of the 4 plants revealed that there are differences between the ratios of soluble and insoluble non - starch polysaccharides (NSP and their monomers constituents. Higher levels of uronic acid were present in soluble fibre (NSP in all fibre sources than that of insoluble one. Generally, highly significant decrease in the weight gain and food intake of the rats fed the 4 experimental diets after 8 weeks feeding comparing with those fed control diet. Rats fed turnip diet exhibited a highly significant decrease in all the nutritional parameters through the feeding period. Rats fed a diet supplemented with sugar beet fibre, have a highly significant decrease in the value of weight gain, food intake and Dapp over the feeding period. Sugar beet, cabbage and fenugreek green fibre-containing diets had lowering effect on serum total lipid, total cholesterol, LDL-C (except sugar beet and triglycerides levels than that of control diet fed rats. Supplemented the diet with turnip fibre had only lowering effect on serum triglycerides over the feeding period. Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower when rats fed cabbage and fenugreek green fiber-containing diets. Highly significant decrease in the level of triglycerides was achieved in the liver of rats fed turnip fibre supplemented diet comparing with the experimental period (8 weeks.Estudios clínicos y experimentales han indicado que nuevas fuentes de fibras dietéticas son potencialmente hipolipídicas. En el presente estudio nabo, remolacha, col y fenogreco verde

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic zinc on laying performance, egg quality and some biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; Amer, S A; Arif, M; Wahdan, K M M; El-Kholy, M S

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the performance, egg quality, antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters of blood serum in laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age. A total of 120 Hisex Brown laying hens of 22-week-old were randomly allocated into five treatments with six cage replicates for each (four hens/replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet with no Zn-Met supplementation (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. No significant differences were observed on body weight, body weight gain or feed conversion ratio due to dietary Zn-Met supplementation. However, highly significant impact was observed on daily feed intake. Egg number, egg weight and egg mass were increased in the group fed diet supplemented with the highest level of Zn-Met (100 mg/kg of diet) as compared to other groups. All egg quality traits were statistically (p > .05 or .01) affected as a response to dietary Zn-Met supplementation except egg shape index, shell percentage and yolk index. In comparison with the control group, dietary supplementation of 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg decreased serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol level was increased with all dietary levels of Zn-Met in comparison with the control group. Dietary Zn-Met supplementation increased the serum content of zinc, where the highest values were recorded with 50 and 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. Dietary Zn-Met levels did not affect the antioxidant indices in blood serum except for the activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD). The activity of Cu-Zn-SOD was increased with Zn-Met supplementations with no differences among supplemental zinc levels. It is concluded that dietary Zn-Met supplementation reduced serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and increased Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability of laying hens, and the addition of 100 mg Zn

  17. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  18. Characterization of soluble dietary fiber from Moringa oleifera seeds and its immunomodulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anudeep, Sandanamudi; Prasanna, Vaddi K; Adya, Shruthi M; Radha, Cheruppanpullil

    2016-10-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa or drumstick) seeds are a potential source of dietary fiber with 6.5% w/w soluble dietary fiber. Biochemical characterization of moringa seed soluble fiber revealed that it is a glycoprotein with 5% neutral sugars. Arabinose and xylose are the major neutral sugars identified by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Moringa seed soluble fiber was identified as protease resistant-glycoprotein and termed as moringa seed resistant protein (MSRP). MSRP was found to be a homodimer (18kDa) containing two 9kDa monomeric units as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis with pI 10.8. Immunostimulating activity of MSRP was assessed by murine splenocyte proliferation and production of NO from macrophages. MSRP at low concentration (0.01μg/well) strongly increased proliferation of splenocytes, while MSRP at high concentration weakly responded. MSRP induced 6-fold increase in NO production when compared to the control which indicates the activation of macrophages. MSRP isolated from defatted moringa seed flour is a potent mitogen, enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes and inducing NO from macrophages. This study concludes that moringa seed is a potential nutritional source to promote the immune system of the host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  20. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  1. Dietary intake of fibers: differential effects in men and women on perceived general health and immune functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernstrand, Amanda M; Bury, Didi; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: It has been reported previously that dietary fiber intake provides health benefits. Nevertheless, only a limited number of human studies have investigated whether gender differences exist in the relationship between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status. Objective: To

  2. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi L. Navarro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, specifically and colorectal cancer (CRC risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017. During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010, 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08. An interaction (p = 0.01 was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.

  3. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  4. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonino; Mammina, Caterina; Thomas, Ewan; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Moro, Tatiana; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Se...

  5. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Catherine; Remontet, Laurent; Noel-Baron, Florence; Nicolas, Alain; Feugier-Favier, Nathalie; Roy, Pascal; Claustrat, Bruno; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Kassaï, Behrouz

    2010-06-22

    To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measur