WorldWideScience

Sample records for supplemental application short

  1. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  2. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  3. A Short Supplement to "A Future of Leadership Development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a short supplement to "A Future of Leadership Development." In this supplement, the author discusses the traits of a good leader. He also describes the factors of a good leadership development program. [For the full report, "A Future of Leadership Development," see ED520171.

  4. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  5. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense (∼300 g/cm 3 ) fuel mass with an areal density of ∼3.0 g/cm 2 . To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing ∼20kJ into a ∼35 (micro)m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time (∼20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI facility, called HiPER, designed to

  6. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  7. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  8. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM OF MALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tofighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous exercise stress might be leading cause of immune system disorders and appearance of acute and chronic inflammation in human body. Caffeine supplementation prior to exercise can be effective on body immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term caffeine supplementation on immune response and stress index in male athletes after an exhaustive aerobic exercise. Materials and methods : In a double-blind study 24 male athletes (endurance runner and triathlon randomly divided in Caffeine supplementation (CAF and Placebo (CON groups. One hour prior to main exhaustive treadmill test (Bruce test CAF group consumed caffeine (6 Mg/BW and CON group received placebo. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise test from anticubital vein. After supplying serum; Cortisol, leukocyte and serum Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72 concentrations were determined using ELISA method. Paired and independent t student test was used for analysis of inter and intra group differences respectively. Results: serum cortisol and Hsp72 concentrations in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P0.05. In addition Mean of variation in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Based on study results caffeine supplementation prior to short-term exhaustive aerobic exercise has positive effect on innate immunity and body defensive system.

  9. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM OF MALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tofighi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous exercise stress might be leading cause of immune system disorders and appearance of acute and chronic inflammation in human body. Caffeine supplementation prior to exercise can be effective on body immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term caffeine supplementation on immune response and stress index in male athletes after an exhaustive aerobic exercise. Materials and methods : In a double-blind study 24 male athletes (endurance runner and triathlon randomly divided in Caffeine supplementation (CAF and Placebo (CON groups. One hour prior to main exhaustive treadmill test (Bruce test CAF group consumed caffeine (6 Mg/BW and CON group received placebo. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise test from anticubital vein. After supplying serum; Cortisol, leukocyte and serum Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72 concentrations were determined using ELISA method. Paired and independent t student test was used for analysis of inter and intra group differences respectively. Results: serum cortisol and Hsp72 concentrations in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P0.05. In addition Mean of variation in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Based on study results caffeine supplementation prior to short-term exhaustive aerobic exercise has positive effect on innate immunity and body defensive system.

  10. Supplements and other changes to an approved application. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on supplements and other changes to an approved application to implement the manufacturing changes provision of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The final rule requires manufacturers to assess the effects of manufacturing changes on the identity, strength, quality, purity, and potency of a drug or biological product as those factors relate to the safety or effectiveness of the product. The final rule sets forth requirements for changes requiring supplement submission and approval before the distribution of the product made using the change, changes requiring supplement submission at least 30 days prior to the distribution of the product, changes requiring supplement submission at the time of distribution, and changes to be described in an annual report.

  11. Short communication: immediate and deferred milk production responses to concentrate supplements in cows grazing fresh pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Grala, T M; Sheahan, A J; White, H M; Phyn, C V C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the increase in milk production from supplementation that occurred after supplementation ceased. This portion of the total response (i.e., the deferred response), although accepted, is generally not accounted for in short-term component research projects, but it is important in determining the economic impact of supplementary feeding. Fifty-nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered a generous allowance of spring pasture [>45 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day) and were supplemented with 0, 3, or 6 kg (DM)/d of pelleted concentrate (half of the allowance at each milking event) in a complete randomized design. Treatments were imposed for the first 12 wk of lactation. Treatments were balanced for cow age (5.4 ± 1.68 yr), calving date (July 27 ± 26.0 d), and genetic merit for milk component yield. During the period of supplementation, milk yield and the yield of milk components increased (1.19 kg of milk, 0.032 kg of fat, 0.048 kg of protein, and 0.058 kg of lactose/kg of concentrate DM consumed), but neither body condition score nor body weight was affected. After concentrate supplementation ceased and cows returned to a common diet of fresh pasture, milk and milk component yields remained greater for 3 wk in the cows previously supplemented. During this 3-wk period, cows that previously received 3 and 6 kg of concentrate DM per day produced an additional 2.3 and 4.5 kg of milk/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of fat/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of protein/d, and 0.10 and 0.19 kg of lactose/d, respectively, relative to unsupplemented cows. This is equivalent to an additional 0.19 kg of milk, 0.006 kg of fat, 0.006 kg of protein, and 0.008 kg of lactose per 1 kg of concentrate DM previously consumed, which would not be accounted for in the immediate response. As a result of this deferred response to supplements, the total milk production benefit to concentrate supplements is between 7% (lactose yield) and 32% (fat yield) greater

  12. Biochemical Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation in a Simulated Competition of Short Terrestrial Duathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biochemical effects of carbohydrate supplementation in a simulated competition of short terrestrial duathlon. Ten duathletes participated in a simulated competition of short terrestrial duathlon 30 minutes after the ingestion of a 6% (30 g/500 ml maltodextrin solution (MALT or a placebo (PLA. This solution was also ingested every 15 minutes during the competition (12 g/200 ml; and immediately after the competition (18 g/300 ml. Samples of blood were collected at 3 time points: 1 at rest 1 hour before the beginning of the competition; 2 during the competition (approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes after the 1st collection; 3 immediately after the competition. Blood was analyzed for blood glucose, lactate, insulin and cortisol. Significant differences were observed in relation to blood glucose levels between MALT and PLA in the post-competition phase. There was also a significant difference in the lactate levels observed between MALT and PLA during the competition phase. Similarly, a significant difference in the cortisol concentrations during and after the competition phases (MALT and PLA were observed. We conclude that maltodextrin supplementation appears to be beneficial during short terrestrial duathlon competition as evidenced by biochemical markers.

  13. Stability of the human sperm DNA methylome to folic acid fortification and short-term supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D; McGraw, S; Klein, K; Wallock, L M; Konermann, C; Plass, C; Chan, P; Robaire, B; Jacob, R A; Greenwood, C M T; Trasler, J M

    2017-02-01

    Do short-term and long-term exposures to low-dose folic acid supplementation alter DNA methylation in sperm? No alterations in sperm DNA methylation patterns were found following the administration of low-dose folic acid supplements of 400 μg/day for 90 days (short-term exposure) or when pre-fortification of food with folic acid and post-fortification sperm samples (long-term exposure) were compared. Excess dietary folate may be detrimental to health and DNA methylation profiles due to folate's role in one-carbon metabolism and the formation of S-adenosyl methionine, the universal methyl donor. DNA methylation patterns are established in developing male germ cells and have been suggested to be affected by high-dose (5 mg/day) folic acid supplementation. This is a control versus treatment study where genome-wide sperm DNA methylation patterns were examined prior to fortification of food (1996-1997) in men with no history of infertility at baseline and following 90-day exposure to placebo (n = 9) or supplement containing 400 μg folic acid/day (n = 10). Additionally, pre-fortification sperm DNA methylation profiles (n = 19) were compared with those of a group of post-fortification (post-2004) men (n = 8) who had been exposed for several years to dietary folic acid fortification. Blood and seminal plasma folate levels were measured in participants before and following the 90-day treatment with placebo or supplement. Sperm DNA methylation was assessed using the whole-genome and genome-wide techniques, MassArray epityper, restriction landmark genomic scanning, methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation and Illumina HumanMethylation450 Bead Array. Following treatment, supplemented individuals had significantly higher levels of blood and seminal plasma folates compared to placebo. Initial first-generation genome-wide analyses of sperm DNA methylation showed little evidence of changes when comparing pre- and post-treatment samples. With Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays

  14. Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The Effect of Lupin (Lupinus Angustifolius Supplementation on Adaptation of Ewes after Short Transport Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopková D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle transportation represents acute stress to animals with release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland resulting in impaired metabolic state. Such changes in metabolism may be reduced by the application of suitable feed supplement. The aim of this study was to test the effects of lupin supplementation applied after 1-hour transportation. Ewes in the control group (n = 7 were fed on trefoil-grass silage and hay, while the diet of the experimental group (n = 7 was supplemented with lupin groats (Lupinus angustifolius, var. SONET; 500 g per head per day for 8 days. In both groups, blood was collected on the day of transportation and on Days 6 and 11 thereafter. Total blood parameters were assayed using spectrophotometry and fractions of protein, cholesterol, and lactate dehydrogenase using agarose electrophoresis. Lupin increased the albumin: globulin (ALB : GLB ratio and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB concentration and reduced serum cholesterol and lactate, however it had no effect on body weight, body condition score (BCS, plasma glucose, serum protein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or alkaline phosphatise (ALP. Lupin may therefore be used as suitable feed supplement for sheep at times of high nutrient requirement.

  16. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Butawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption.

  17. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  18. Effect of low dose, short-term creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Silva, Aquiles; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Piçarro, Ivan Da C; Januario, Renata S B; Ferreira, Luis H B; McAnulty, Steven R; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tacito P

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of a low dose, short-term Creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation (0.03 g.kg.d -1 during 14 d) on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players. Using a two-group matched, double blind, placebo-controlled design, nineteen male soccer players (mean age = 17.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to either Cr ( N  = 9) or placebo ( N  = 10) group. Before and after supplementation, participants performed a 30s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) to assess peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO), fatigue index (FI), and total work. There were significant increases in both PPO and MPO after the Cr supplementation period ( P  ≤ 0.05) but not the placebo period. There were also significant increases in total work, but not FI, after the Cr supplementation and placebo periods ( P  ≤ 0.05). Notably, there were differences in total work between the Cr and placebo groups after ( P  ≤ 0.05) but not before the 14 d supplementation period. There is substantial evidence to indicate that a low-dose, short-term oral Cr supplementation beneficially affected muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

  19. 21 CFR 99.205 - Application for exemption from the requirement to file a supplemental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minus the costs of goods sold and marketing and administrative expenses attributable to the new use of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for exemption from the requirement to file a supplemental application. 99.205 Section 99.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  20. Applications of nuclear data on short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.; Aagaard, P.; Aleklett, K.; Lund, E.

    1981-01-01

    The study of short-lived fission products gives information about the nuclear structure on the neutron-rich side of stability. The data are also of interest for various applications both to basic science and to nuclear technology. Some of these applications, taken up by the OSIRIS group at Studsvik, are described in the present contribution. (orig.)

  1. Short-term dietary supplementation with fructose accelerates gastric emptying of a fructose but not a glucose solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H

    2014-01-01

    Short-term dietary glucose supplementation has been shown to accelerate the gastric emptying rate of both glucose and fructose solutions. The aim of this study was to examine gastric emptying rate responses to monosaccharide ingestion following short-term dietary fructose supplementation. The gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution containing 36 g of fructose and an equicaloric glucose solution containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate were measured in 10 healthy non-smoking men with and without prior fructose supplementation (water control) using a randomized crossover design. Gastric emptying rate was assessed for a period of 1 h using the [(13)C]breath test with sample collections at baseline and 10-min intervals following drink ingestion. Additionally, appetite ratings of hunger, fullness, and prospective food consumption were recorded at baseline and every 10 min using visual analog scales. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in significantly accelerated half-emptying time of a fructose solution (mean = 48, SD = 6 versus 58, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.037), whereas the emptying of a glucose solution remained unchanged (mean = 85, SD = 31 versus 78, SD = 27 min control; P = 0.273). Time of maximal emptying rate of fructose was also significantly accelerated following increased dietary fructose intake (mean = 33, SD = 6 versus 38, SD = 9 min control; P = 0.042), while it remained unchanged for glucose (mean = 45, SD = 14 versus 44, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.757). No effects of supplementation were observed for appetite measures. Three d of supplementation with 120 g/d of fructose resulted in an acceleration of gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.11 Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications. (a) After approval of a medicated feed...

  3. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Lisbeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OHD in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OHD and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.

  4. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; Marcotte, George R; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Breen, Leigh; von Allmen, Mark; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-02-01

    Higher dietary energy as protein during weight loss results in a greater loss of fat mass and retention of muscle mass; however, the impact of protein quality on the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and lipolysis, processes that are important in the maintenance of muscle and loss of fat, respectively, are unknown. We aimed to determine how the consumption of different sources of proteins (soy or whey) during a controlled short-term (14-d) hypoenergetic diet affected MPS and lipolysis. Men (n = 19) and women (n = 21) (age 35-65 y; body mass index 28-50 kg/m(2)) completed a 14-d controlled hypoenergetic diet (-750 kcal/d). Participants were randomly assigned, double blind, to receive twice-daily supplements of isolated whey (27 g/supplement) or soy (26 g/supplement), providing a total protein intake of 1.3 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d), or isoenergetic carbohydrate (25 g maltodextrin/supplement) resulting in a total protein intake of 0.7 ± 0.1 g/(kg · d). Before and after the dietary intervention, primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(2)H5]-glycerol were used to measure postabsorptive and postprandial rates of MPS and lipolysis. Preintervention, MPS was stimulated more (P whey than with soy or carbohydrate. Postintervention, postabsorptive MPS decreased similarly in all groups (all P whey group, which was less (P whey. We conclude that whey protein supplementation attenuated the decline in postprandial rates of MPS after weight loss, which may be of importance in the preservation of lean mass during longer-term weight loss interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530646. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Short-term folic acid supplementation induces variable and paradoxical changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Williams, M A; Kruger, W D; Evans, A A; Anderson, P H; Block, P C; Hess, D L; Upson, B M; Graf, E E; Irvin-Jones, A; Wang, L

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is presently the mainstay of treatment for most subjects with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations [Plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine, or total homocysteine, refers to the sum of the sulfhydryl amino acid homocysteine and the homocysteinyl moieties of the disulfides homocystine and homocystein-cysteine, whether free or bound to plasma proteins.] Changes in homocyst(e)ine in response to folic acid supplementation are characterized by considerable interindividual variation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to heterogeneity in short-term responses to folic acid supplementation. The effects of folic acid supplementation (1 or 2 mg per day) for 3 wk on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations were assessed in 304 men and women. Overall, folic acid supplementation increased mean plasma folate 31.5 +/- 98.0 nmol/L and decreased mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations 1.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/L. There was evidence of substantial interindividual variation in the homocyst(e)ine response from -18.5 to +7.1 micromol/L, including an increase in homocyst(e)ine in 20% of subjects (mean increase 1.5 +/- 1.4 micromol/L). Basal homocyst(e)ine, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, use of multivitamins, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and cystathionine beta-synthase polymorphisms accounted for 47.6% of the interindividual variability in the change in homocyst(e)ine after folic acid supplementation, but about 50% of variability in response to folic acid was not explained by the variables we studied.

  6. Application of short rockbolts in ultradeep tabular stoping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, MKC

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Most rock related fatalities and injuries in South African gold mines occur in the stope face area. These mines generally do not use rockbolts to support this area. This paper describes short rockbolt applications in the stope face area in a narrow...

  7. Supplemental Report: Application of Emission Spectroscopy to Monitoring Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides supplemental information to an earlier report BNF-98-003-0199, ''Evaluation of Emission Spectroscopy for the On-Line Analysis of Technetium''. In this report data is included from real Hanford samples as well as for solutions spiked with technetium. This supplemental work confirms the ability of ICP-ES to monitor technetium as it breaks through an ion exchange process

  8. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Butawan; Rodney L. Benjamin; Richard J. Bloomer

    2017-01-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed ...

  9. Short children with a low midupper arm circumference respond to food supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Phelan, Kevin P Q; Cichon, Bernardette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is based on food supplementation in outpatient programs. When midupper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as the sole admission criterion, it is common practice to exclude children with lengths .... The WHO calls for research to determine the treatment effect among children with MAM included by MUAC and aged ≥6 mo with lengths children given supplementary feeding based on an MUAC of 115-124 mm as the sole criterion, there would be no difference in growth...... rate between children Children aged 6-23 mo were included...

  10. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  11. Short term protein supplementation during a long interval prostaglandin-based protocol for timed AI in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errandonea, N; Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Gil, J; Banchero, G; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2018-03-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive impact of a short-term protein supplementation on a long interval prostaglandin-based protocol (two PG injections 15 d apart; PG15) for timed artificial insemination in sheep. During the breeding season, 437 multiparous Merino ewes grazing native pastures (forage allowance of 6 kg of dry matter/100 kg of live weight; crude protein: 10.8%, metabolic energy: 2.1 Mcal/kg of dry matter) were selected. Ewes were allocated, according to body condition score (3.2 ± 0.2) and body weight (40.6 ± 4.9 kg, mean ± SD), to a 2 × 2 factorial design: type of estrus -spontaneous estrus (SE) or induced with PG15 (PG15)-, and supplementation (yes or no) before insemination (+FF; soybean meal at Days -10 to -3; crude protein: 51.9%, metabolic energy: 2.8 Mcal/kg of dry matter; average consumption 0.9% live weight/ewe/day of dry matter). All ewes were cervically artificial inseminated (Day -2 to -3 in SE ewes at estrus detection; Day 0 = timed artificial insemination in PG15 ewes). Ovulation rate on Day 7, non-return to service on Day 23, conception, fertility, prolificacy and fecundity on Day 60 were evaluated. Ovulation rate (1.17 ± 0.40 vs. 1.06 ± 0.25), non-return to service at Day 23 (81.7 vs. 64.2%), conception (78.8 vs. 61.5%), fertility (75.2 vs. 61.5%) and fecundity (0.77 vs. 0.62) were higher in ewes from SE than PG15 group (P  0.05). Protein supplementation increased ovulation rate (1.30 ± 0.45 vs. 1.17 ± 0.40), prolificacy (1.18 ± 0.39 vs. 1.02 ± 0.16) and fecundity (0.94 vs. 0.77%; P conception (82.9 vs. 78.8%) or fertility (79.1 vs. 75.2%; P > 0.05) in SE group. The supplement feed to PG15 ewes increased ovulation rate (1.35 ± 0.45 vs. 1.06 ± 0.25), prolificacy (1.25 ± 0.43 vs. 1.01 ± 0.12) and fecundity (0.79 vs. 0.62%; P  0.05). The magnitude of the increase in ovulation rate in PG15 was greater than in the SE group (27 vs. 11%; P conception (63.3 vs 61

  12. Measurement of toxic elements in infant food supplements marketed in Iran (short comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mehrnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarities with breast-feeding, baby food is used as a partial replacement for babies between 6 to 12 months of age. In this study, five samples of famous infant food supplement consisting of three types from Ghoncheh company (rice with milk, wheat with milk, almond porridge and two types from Nestle company (wheat and milk, and banana and wheat with milk were prepared. Samples were digested with nitric acid and the concentrations of cadmium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and nickel were analyzed. In addition, the estimated daily intake (EDI index for all samples was calculated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI index. The minimum and maximum concentration of cadmium was found in the sample with rice + milk formula (40.3 µg/kg and infant food supplements containing wheat + milk (58.0 µgr/kg, respectively. The amount of cadmium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and nickel were estimated in the range of 40.3-58.0 ppb, 31.85 ppb, 2.3-4.9 ppm, 417.9-518.8 ppb and 4479.1-6415.0 ppb, respectively. In was concluded that the amount of toxic elements in infant foods marketed in Iran were found below the maximum limit.

  13. Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Ghotbeddin, Z.; Parham, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

  14. Applications of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT): A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti Bera, Tushar

    2018-03-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a tomographic imaging method which solves an ill posed inverse problem using the boundary voltage-current data collected from the surface of the object under test. Though the spatial resolution is comparatively low compared to conventional tomographic imaging modalities, due to several advantages EIT has been studied for a number of applications such as medical imaging, material engineering, civil engineering, biotechnology, chemical engineering, MEMS and other fields of engineering and applied sciences. In this paper, the applications of EIT have been reviewed and presented as a short summary. The working principal, instrumentation and advantages are briefly discussed followed by a detail discussion on the applications of EIT technology in different areas of engineering, technology and applied sciences.

  15. Effect of short-term low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiming; Long, Quan; Shao, Chunhai; Fan, Hong; Yuan, Li; Huang, Bihong; Gu, Yong; Lin, Shanyan; Hao, Chuanming; Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of short-term restriction of dietary protein intake (DPI) supplemented with keto acids on hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Forty MHD patients with uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia were randomized to either low DPI with keto acid-supplemented (sLP) or normal DPI (NP) group for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the sLP group was shifted to NP for another 8 weeks. Low-protein diet (LPD) was individualized with total caloric intake 30-35 kcal/kg/day, protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day and phosphate intake of 500 mg/day. Keto acids were supplied in a dosage of 12 pills per day. Calcium phosphorous metabolism index and nutritional index (serum albumin, total protein, somatometric measurements, 3-day diaries and Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) were recorded. C-reactive protein, CO(2) combining power and Kt/V were measured to evaluate the inflammation, metabolic acidosis and dialysis adequacy, respectively. Serum phosphorus level and calcium-phosphate product were significantly decreased at the end of the first 8 weeks in the sLP group compared to the basal value and the NP group (p keto acids could decrease hyperphosphatemia and calcium-phosphate product, while keeping stable nutritional status among MHD patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  17. 7 CFR 3015.156 - Application for Federal assistance (short form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for Federal assistance (short form). 3015... Application for Federal Assistance § 3015.156 Application for Federal assistance (short form). Governments shall use the Application for Federal Assistance (Short Form) form prescribed by Circular A-102 in...

  18. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Corder, Katherine R. Newsham, Jennifer L. McDaniel, Uthayashanker R. Ezekiel, Edward P. Weiss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2 were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS, swelling (arm circumference, muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension, skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02. Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006, indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78 or arm swelling (p = 0.75. Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby

  19. The effects of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation on exercise performance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Joshua F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the efficacy of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC monotherapy supplementation immediately prior to moderate- and high-intensity single bout exercise performance. Methods Thirteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 2.5 years; 81.6 ± 12.6 kg participated in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover experiment. Each subject completed one familiarization and four experimental trials with either 1.5 g or 9.0 g of either KIC or isocaloric placebo control (CONT, following an overnight fast. During the experimental trials, subjects consumed the supplement regimen and then completed leg and chest press repetitions to failure and 30 s of repeated maximal vertical jumping (VJ on a force plate. Results In this treatment regimen, no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed between dosages or conditions for leg press (low CONT = 19.8 ± 0.4 SEM, low KIC = 21.0 ± 0.5, high CONT = 20.1 ± 0.3, high KIC = 22.4 ± 0.6 or chest press (low CONT = 18.1 ± 0.2, low KIC = 18.5 ± 0.3, high CONT = 17.8 ± 0.3, high KIC = 18.0 ± 0.3 repetitions to failure. Additionally, no significant differences were observed for peak or mean VJ performance (low CONT = 34.6 ± 2.2 cm and 28.6 ± 1.8 cm; low KIC = 35.6 ± 2.0 cm and 29.4 ± 1.6 cm; high CONT = 35.7 ± 2.1 cm and 29.4 ± 1.7 cm; high KIC = 34.8 ± 2.3 cm and 28.3 ± 1.7 cm, respectively. Conclusion Based on our results, we conclude that acute KIC ingestion by itself with no other ergogenic supplement, immediately prior to exercise, did not alter moderate- nor high-intensity single-bout exercise performance in young resistance-trained males. This study addressed single-dose single-bout performance events; the efficacy of KIC monotherapy supplementation on repeated high-intensity exercise bouts and long-term exercise training remains unknown.

  20. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  1. Effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollahosseini, Mehdi; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Rahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Specific components of dairy, such as whey proteins may have beneficial effects on body composition by suppressing appetite, although the findings of existing studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to investigate effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite. A systematic search was conducted to identify eligible publications. Means and SDs for hunger, fullness, satiety, desire to eat and prospective consumption of food, before and after intervention, were extracted and then composite appetite score (CAS) calculated. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I 2 tests were used. Eight publications met inclusion criteria that 5 records were on short term and 3 records on long term appetite. The meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in long term appetite by 4.13 mm in combined appetite score (CAS) (95% Confidence interval (CI): -6.57, -1.96; p = 0.001). No significant reduction in short term appetite was also seen (Mean difference (MD) = -0.39 95% CI = -2.07, 1.30; p = 0.653). Subgroup analyses by time showed that compared with carbohydrate, the reduction in appetite following consumption of whey consumption was not significant (MD = -0.39, 95% CI = -2.07, 1.3, p = 0.65, I 2  = 0.0%.)A significant reduction in prospective food consumption was seen (MD = -2.17, 95% CI = -3.86, -0.48). The results of our meta-analysis showed that whey protein may reduce the long and short term appetite, but our finding did not show any significant difference in appetite reduction between whey protein and carbohydrate in short duration. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A pilot randomized crossover trial assessing the safety and short-term effects of pomegranate supplementation in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Matthew B; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Linke, Lori; Ruzinski, John; Ikizler, T Alp; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are highly prevalent in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and are linked to excess cardiovascular risk. This study examined whether short-term supplementation with pomegranate juice and extract is safe and well tolerated by MHD patients. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of pomegranate supplementation on oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, monocyte function, and blood pressure. Prospective, randomized, crossover, pilot clinical trial (NCT01562340). The study was conducted from March to October 2012 in outpatient dialysis facilities in the Seattle metropolitan area. Twenty-four patients undergoing MHD (men, 64%; mean age, 61 ± 14 years) were randomly assigned to receive pomegranate juice or extract during a 4-week intervention period. After a washout period, all patients received the alternative treatment during a second 4-week intervention period. Patients assigned to receive pomegranate juice received 100 mL of juice before each dialysis session. Patients assigned to receive pomegranate extract were given 1,050 mg of extract daily. The main outcome measures were safety and tolerability of pomegranate juice and extract. Additional secondary outcomes assessed included serum lipids, laboratory biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) and oxidative stress (plasma F2 isoprostanes and isofurans), monocyte cytokine production, and predialysis blood pressure. Both pomegranate juice and extract were safe and well tolerated by study participants. Over the study period, neither treatment had a significant effect on lipid profiles, plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, F2-isoprostane or isofuran concentrations, predialysis systolic or diastolic blood pressure nor changed the levels of monocyte cytokine production. Both pomegranate juice and extract are safe and well tolerated by patients undergoing MHD but do not influence markers of inflammation or oxidative stress

  3. Increased Plasmodium chabaudi malaria mortality in mice with nutritional iron deficiency can be reduced by short-term adjunctive iron supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Filip C; Maretty, Lasse; Staalsoe, Trine

    2018-01-01

    infected mice had extramedullary splenic haematopoiesis, and iron-supplemented mice had visually detectable intracellular iron stores. CONCLUSIONS: Blood transfusions are the only currently available means to correct severe anaemia in children with malaria. The potential of carefully timed, short...... parts of the world. This has rendered interventions against iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas controversial. METHODS: The effect of nutritional iron deficiency on the clinical outcome of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice and the impact of intravenous iron supplementation with ferric...... deficiency was associated with increased mortality from P. chabaudi malaria. This increased mortality could be partially offset by carefully timed, short-duration adjunctive iron supplementation. Moribund animals were characterized by low levels of hepcidin and high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23. All...

  4. Short communication : Supplementation of fructo-oligosaccharides does not improve insulin sensitivity in heavy veal calves fed different sources of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A. J.; Gilbert, M. S.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Vonk, R. J.

    Heavy veal calves (4–6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  5. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in Fermented Rice Pudding Supplemented with Short Chain Inulin, Long Chain Inulin, and Oat as a Novel Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic that has been shown to reduce the risk of urogenital problems and urinary tract infections. Rice pudding is a popular gluten-free dairy product, and could be a vehicle to deliver L. rhamnosus GR-1 to a broader population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in six fermented rice pudding samples, each one supplemented with one type of prebiotic (short-chain inulin-2% w/w, 4% w/w; long-chain inulin-2% w/w, 4% w/w and oat-0.5% w/w, 1% w/w, along with control, over a 21-day storage period. The objective was to determine if the supplementation would have a positive effect on the microbial viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1, and to evaluate the sensory properties of the samples. All of the samples had viable levels of L. rhamnosus GR-1. Bacterial counts were at least 1 × 108 CFU/mL over the 21-day storage period. The probiotic rice pudding sample supplemented with 4% w/w short-chain inulin had the highest hedonic score for flavour, sweetness, texture, and overall acceptability. This study shows that the addition of short-chain inulin, long-chain inulin, and oat had no adverse supplementation effects on the viability of L. Rhamnosus GR-1. There is the potential for the production of a novel functional food.

  7. Synergistic effect of supplemental enteral nutrients and exogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 on intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Nelson, David W; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) can lead to intestinal failure and require total or supplemental parenteral nutrition (TPN or PN, respectively). Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived gut hormone that stimulates intestinal adaptation. OBJECTIVE: Our...... objective was to determine whether supplemental enteral nutrients (SEN) modulate the intestinotrophic response to a low dose of GLP-2 coinfused with PN in a rat model of SBS (60% jejunoileal resection plus cecectomy). DESIGN: Rats were randomly assigned to 8 treatments by using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design...

  8. 20 CFR 416.305 - You must file an application to receive supplemental security income benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits will be stopped because you are no longer eligible and you again meet the requirements for... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You must file an application to receive supplemental security income benefits. 416.305 Section 416.305 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY...

  9. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... the use of materials containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed... human health and environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a...

  10. 77 FR 35705 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Supplement to Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., address, telephone number, and other relevant information of a family member, friend, or person associated... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Supplement to Application for Federally Assisted Housing AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information...

  11. Chemical Reaction Engineering Applications in Non-traditional Technologies. A Textbook Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Phillip E.; Blaine, Steven

    1991-01-01

    A set of educational materials that have been developed which deal with chemical engineering applications in emerging technologies is described. The organization and the content of the supplemental textbook materials and how they can be integrated into an undergraduate reaction engineering course are discussed. (KR)

  12. Short-term ensemble radar rainfall forecasts for hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo de Oliveira, M.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is a very common natural disaster around the world, putting local population and economy at risk. Forecasting floods several hours ahead and issuing warnings are of main importance to permit proper response in emergency situations. However, it is important to know the uncertainties related to the rainfall forecasting in order to produce more reliable forecasts. Nowcasting models (short-term rainfall forecasts) are able to produce high spatial and temporal resolution predictions that are useful in hydrological applications. Nonetheless, they are subject to uncertainties mainly due to the nowcasting model used, errors in radar rainfall estimation, temporal development of the velocity field and to the fact that precipitation processes such as growth and decay are not taken into account. In this study an ensemble generation scheme using rain gauge data as a reference to estimate radars errors is used to produce forecasts with up to 3h lead-time. The ensembles try to assess in a realistic way the residual uncertainties that remain even after correction algorithms are applied in the radar data. The ensembles produced are compered to a stochastic ensemble generator. Furthermore, the rainfall forecast output was used as an input in a hydrodynamic sewer network model and also in hydrological model for catchments of different sizes in north England. A comparative analysis was carried of how was carried out to assess how the radar uncertainties propagate into these models. The first named author is grateful to CAPES - Ciencia sem Fronteiras for funding this PhD research.

  13. 77 FR 48175 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Applications, Grants and Administration of Short...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Collection for Applications, Grants and Administration of Short Time Compensation (STC) Provisions, Extension... act'') contains Subtitle D, Short-Time Compensation Program, also known as the ``Layoff Prevention Act..., or wish to initiate a new program in, a layoff aversion program known as short time compensation (STC...

  14. 75 FR 35044 - Notice of Approval of a Supplemental New Animal Drug Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...] Notice of Approval of a Supplemental New Animal Drug Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension AGENCY... Laboratories, Ltd. The supplemental NADA provides for a revised formulation of penicillin G procaine injectable... of NOROCILLIN (penicillin G procaine) Injectable Suspension by intramuscular injection in cattle...

  15. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  16. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day(-1) per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not on a dry matter basis. Orange carrot treatment significantly reduced egg mass production, whereas yellow and purple carrot treatments did not differ from the control. Egg and yolk weights of all carrot-supplemented treatments were significantly lower than those of the control, but yolk percentages were similar. Yolk redness increased significantly in the order control 1.5-fold) and beta-carotene (>100-fold) compared with the control. Supplementing the feed of egg-laying hens with coloured carrots efficiently increased yolk colour parameters and carotenoid contents, which gives opportunities for improved nutritional value of eggs from forage material-supplemented hens.

  17. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, Sander; Potreck, Jens; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.

    2010-01-01

    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite

  18. Influence of fasting on circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Effect of short-term supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Molin, F; van Beusekom, CM; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of fasting on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, and on plasma beta-carotene. Six apparently healthy adults were subjected to 17-h feed-fasting experiments at various days before, during and after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol

  19. Application of short-time activation analysis in the sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1991-01-01

    Short-time activation analysis has proved to be a valuable tool in nearly all fields of science. To take full advantage of this technique, it is favorable to use a fast transfer system and a high resolution high rate gamma-spectroscopy system for short lived gamma-emitters and a Cherenkov detector for the determination of hard beta-emitters. It is then possible to utilize sub-minute nuclides Li-8 (740 ms), B-12 (20 ms), F-20 (11.1 s), Y-89m (16 s), and Pb-207m (800 ms) for the determination of these elements. Besides these sub-minute nuclides which constitute the only possibility for neutron activation analysis of these elements there are a number of other elements which form longer lived nuclides on short irradiation. The analysis of the halogenides F, Cl, Br, I in waste water of a sewage incineration plant can be achieved with a single 20 s irradiation and two consecutive measurement of 20 and 600 s using Cl-38m, F-20, Br-79m as well as the longer lived Cl-38, Br-80, I-128

  20. Short communication: Effect of fatty acid supplements on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-10-01

    The effect of fat supplements (FS) providing different proportions of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (UFA) fatty acids on supply, apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS), and duodenal flow (DF) of some B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6 , folates, and vitamin B 12 ) were evaluated in an experiment using 8 ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d treatment periods. The 4 treatments were a control diet without fatty acid supplement and 3 diets with 2.5% additional fatty acids from supplements containing (1) SFA, (2) an intermediate mixture of SFA and UFA, or (3) UFA. All diets were served as a total mixed ration once daily at 115% of the expected intake. B-vitamin concentrations were analyzed in feed and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis of each B vitamin was calculated as the DF minus the intake. B-vitamin concentrations were similar among the 4 treatments; consequently, daily intake of the vitamins followed the same pattern as dry matter intake. Adding FS decreased B-vitamin intakes (except vitamin B 12 ), as did increasing the proportion of UFA. Riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS, expressed as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake, were not affected by FS, but increasing the proportion of UFA decreased riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS. Fat supplements decreased DF of vitamin B 6 , expressed either as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake. No treatment effects were observed on total daily folate DF and ARS. However, when expressed per unit of dry matter intake, folate DF and ARS were greater when cows were fed FS and they increased linearly with the proportion of UFA in the supplement. Inclusion of fat supplements into the dairy cow diet had a limited effect on the fate of most B vitamins in the rumen although increasing the proportion of UFA in the FS linearly decreased apparent synthesis of riboflavin and niacin in the rumen

  1. Short-memory linear processes and econometric applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mynbaev, Kairat T

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive source of asymptotic results for econometric models with deterministic exogenous regressors. Such regressors include linear (more generally, piece-wise polynomial) trends, seasonally oscillating functions, and slowly varying functions including logarithmic trends, as well as some specifications of spatial matrices in the theory of spatial models. The book begins with central limit theorems (CLTs) for weighted sums of short memory linear processes. This part contains the analysis of certain operators in Lp spaces and their employment in the derivation of CLTs

  2. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; paltitude training (paltitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  3. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region

  4. Historical review of short-lived isotope applications in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Production of short-lived isotopes, nitrogen 13, fluorine 18 and carbon 11 with a small Van de Graaff accelerator. Applications of these isotopes in uptake and photosynthetic translocation studies in plants, and fluorine tracing in dental studies

  5. SOLAR ENERGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN NIGERIA: Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... make to our lives and economy, most especially during this time of erratic power supply by the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA). Some of the applications of solar energy in Nigeria are in Village electrification, residential / commercial building, water pumping and purification, agricultural utilization, heating sources, ...

  6. A short review of nanographenes: structures, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yafei; Liu, Yi; Ding, Kai; Yang, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has attracted great interest in the science and technology since it was exfoliated mechanically from the graphite in 2004. Although graphene has various potential applications, its practical applications are constrained enormously by its serious drawbacks, such as zero band gap, tendency of aggregation between layers and hydrophobicity, which mainly caused by the infinite planar hexagonal structure of graphene. Considering that the structural defects in the honeycomb lattice and the edges of graphene break the infinite structure and thus change the properties, which may improve the application efficiency, nanographene (NG) is proposed and attracts extensive attention. In this work, we review the structures of multifarious well-defined NGs synthesised in recent experiments. The effects of the shape, size, edges and substituents of NGs to the properties are discussed in detail and the regulation for various properties of NG is analysed. For the well-defined NGs, including planar and non-planar ones, the challenges and perspectives of their potential applications in nonlinear optical material, gas molecular detector and gas separation material, hydrogen storage material, and hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells are envisioned.

  7. A Short History of Probability Theory and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath; Basu, Kanadpriya

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a brief history of probability theory and its applications to Jacob Bernoulli's famous law of large numbers and theory of errors in observations or measurements. Included are the major contributions of Jacob Bernoulli and Laplace. It is written to pay the tricentennial tribute to Jacob Bernoulli, since the year 2013…

  8. Effects of short-term dietary restriction and glutamine supplementation in vitro on the modulation of inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C de Oliveira, Dalila; Santos, Ed Wilson; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Xavier, José Guilherme; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2018-04-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a nutritional intervention that exerts profound effects on biochemical and immunologic parameters, modulating some inflammatory properties. Glutamine (GLN) is a conditionally essential amino acid that can modulate inflammatory properties. However, there is a lack of data evaluating the effects of DR and GLN supplementation, especially in relation to inflammatory cytokine production and the expression of transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB. We subjected 3-mo-old male Balb/c mice to DR by reducing their food intake by 30%. DR animals lost weight and showed reduced levels of serum triacylglycerols, glucose, cholesterol, and calcium as well as a reduction in bone density. Additionally, blood, peritoneal, and spleen cellularity were reduced, lowering the number of peritoneal F4/80- and CD86-positive cells and the total number of splenic CD4- and CD8-positive cells. The production of interleukin (IL)-10 and the expression of NF-κB in splenic cells were not affected by DR or by GLN supplementation. However, peritoneal macrophages from DR animals showed reduced IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production and increased IL-10 production with reduced phosphorylation of NF-κB expression. Additionally, GLN was able to modulate cytokine production by peritoneal cells from the control group, although no effects were observed in cells from the DR group. DR induces biochemical and immunologic changes, in particular by reducing IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α production by macrophages and clearly upregulating IL-10 production, whereas GLN supplementation did not modify these parameters in cells from DR animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Short term mutagenicity tests and their application to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, B.J.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Although traditional long-term animal tests are likely to continue to be required, these are not only extremely costly but are coming more and more to be recognised as an imprecise and unsatisfactory method of testing the safety of irradiated foods for human consumption. It is therefore clearly advisable to include a selection of quicker and more direct testing methods in any toxicological assessment procedures. The International Project has therefore undertaken a study of the feasibility of using the newer systems for investigation of irradiated foodstuffs. Although some work in this field has already been carried out, some shortcomings in the published work can be identified which justify a more detailed and intensive research programme. As expected, little difficulty has been encountered in testing food by methods involving mammals, but considerable effort has been required to adapt in vitro systems. The use of enzymatic digestion in vitro to provide food samples for testing in mammalian cell cultures has never been attempted before and the procedures developed by the Project represent a positive contribution to methodology in this field. A series of foodstuffs is being tested by a wide spectrum of short-term tests and the first results are now being obtained. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Wireless energy transmission to supplement energy harvesters in sensor network applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Stuart G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for coupling wireless energy transmission with traditional energy harvesting techniques in order to power sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications. The goal of this study is to develop a system that can be permanently embedded within civil structures without the need for on-board power sources. Wireless energy transmission is included to supplement energy harvesting techniques that rely on ambient or environmental, energy sources. This approach combines several transducer types that harvest ambient energy with wireless transmission sources, providing a robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Experimental results from laboratory and field experiments are presented to address duty cycle limitations of conventional energy harvesting techniques, and the advantages gained by incorporating a wireless energy transmission subsystem. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  11. Running functional sport vest and short for e-textile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, H.; Acikgoz, H.; Atakan, R.; Eryuruk, H.; Akalın, N.; Kose, H.; Li, Y.; Kursun Bahadir, S.; Kalaoglu, F.

    2017-10-01

    Sports garments with functional properties have become crucial as well as comfort properties since they improve the wearer performance. For this reason, sport vest and short having high elastic recovery with fall detection sensor, were designed and produced by using flat-bed knitting machine. Comfort properties of short and vest were tested with several test instruments and; tensile strength of elastomeric yarn, air permeability, moisture management, drape and objective handle (FAST tests) of garments were achieved. It was proved that short and vest samples have good comfort properties as a functional sport garment. It was also tested that fall-detection sensor can work efficiently by using a mobile phone application.

  12. Supplementing an energy adequate, higher protein diet with protein does not enhance fat-free mass restoration after short-term severe negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, C E; Sepowitz, J J; McClung, H L; Lieberman, H R; Farina, E K; McClung, J P; Ferrando, A A; Pasiakos, S M

    2017-06-01

    Negative energy balance during military operations can be severe and result in significant reductions in fat-free mass (FFM). Consuming supplemental high-quality protein following such military operations may accelerate restoration of FFM. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and whole body protein turnover (single-pool [ 15 N]alanine method) were determined before (PRE) and after 7 days (POST) of severe negative energy balance during military training in 63 male US Marines (means ± SD, 25 ± 3 yr, 84 ± 9 kg). After POST measures were collected, volunteers were randomized to receive higher protein (HIGH: 1,103 kcal/day, 133 g protein/day), moderate protein (MOD: 974 kcal/day, 84 g protein/day), or carbohydrate-based low protein control (CON: 1,042 kcal/day, 7 g protein/day) supplements, in addition to a self-selected, ad libitum diet, for the 27-day intervention (REFED). Measurements were repeated POST-REFED. POST total body mass (TBM; -5.8 ± 1.0 kg, -7.0%), FFM (-3.1 ± 1.6 kg, -4.7%), and net protein balance (-1.7 ± 1.1 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) were lower and proteolysis (1.1 ± 1.9 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) was higher compared with PRE ( P energy (4,498 ± 725 kcal/day). All volunteers, independent of group assignment, achieved positive net protein balance (0.4 ± 1.0 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) and gained TBM (5.9 ± 1.7 kg, 7.8%) and FFM (3.6 ± 1.8 kg, 5.7%) POST-REFED compared with POST ( P energy-adequate, higher protein diets with additional protein may not be necessary to restore FFM after short-term severe negative energy balance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article demonstrates 1 ) the majority of physiological decrements incurred during military training (e.g., total and fat-free mass loss), with the exception of net protein balance, resolve and return to pretraining values after 27 days and 2 ) protein supplementation, in addition to an ad libitum, higher protein (~2.0 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ), energy adequate diet, is not necessary to

  13. Classification of calcium supplements through application of principal component analysis: a study by inaa and aas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2013-01-01

    Different types of Ca supplements are available in the local markets of Pakistan. It is sometimes difficult to classify these with respect to their composition. In the present work principal component analysis (PCA) technique was applied to classify different Ca supplements on the basis of their elemental data obtained using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. The graphical representation of principal component analysis (PCA) scores utilizing intricate analytical data successfully generated four different types of Ca supplements with compatible samples grouped together. These included Ca supplements with CaCO/sub 3/as Ca source along with vitamin C, the supplements with CaCO/sub 3/ as Ca source along with vitamin D, Supplements with Ca from bone meal and supplements with chelated calcium. (author)

  14. Short communication: calf body temperature following chemical disbudding with sedation: effects of milk allowance and supplemental heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2014-01-01

    The use of caustic paste combined with a sedative is one of the least painful methods for disbudding. It is recommended to disbud at as early as 5d of age. However, the sedative xylazine reportedly causes a decrease in core temperature. Furthermore, young calves do not thermoregulate efficiently. We investigated the effects of disbudding calves at 5d of age using caustic paste and xylazine sedation on body temperature, activity, and milk intake of 46 individually housed 5-d-old calves in a 2×2 factorial design, with milk fed at 4.5L/d (low-fed calves) versus 9L/d (high-fed calves), with or without a heat lamp. Body temperature, calf activity (standing time), and barn temperature were monitored continuously using automatic data loggers on the day of, before the day of, and the day after disbudding. All calves were injected intramuscularly with 0.25mL of 2mg/mL xylazine 20min before disbudding (dose: 0.12±0.003mL/kg of BW). We found that the body temperature of 5-d-old calves decreased immediately after the injection of the sedative xylazine. The body temperature of calves decreased 0.9±0.09°C and it took 3.8±0.32h to climb back to the preinjection body temperature. Calves that were fed the lower amount of milk, received a higher dose of xylazine (mL/kg BW), or were disbudded in a colder environment were more affected by body temperature variations (lower and longest decrease in body temperature and higher magnitude). Calf activity recovery followed the pattern of body temperature recovery. Milk allowance and supplemental heat did not help enhance recovery during the 6h following the procedure. The disbudding procedure did not affect milk intake but calves with less body temperature decrease or kept in a warmer environment drank more milk following disbudding. Low-fed calves were overall more affected by the procedure than high-fed calves during the disbudding day and the following day (greater decrease in body temperature and drank less in the colder

  15. Short-Range Noncontact Sensors for Healthcare and Other Emerging Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhan Gu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-range noncontact sensors are capable of remotely detecting the precise movements of the subjects or wirelessly estimating the distance from the sensor to the subject. They find wide applications in our day lives such as noncontact vital sign detection of heart beat and respiration, sleep monitoring, occupancy sensing, and gesture sensing. In recent years, short-range noncontact sensors are attracting more and more efforts from both academia and industry due to their vast applications. Compared to other radar architectures such as pulse radar and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW radar, Doppler radar is gaining more popularity in terms of system integration and low-power operation. This paper reviews the recent technical advances in Doppler radars for healthcare applications, including system hardware improvement, digital signal processing, and chip integration. This paper also discusses the hybrid FMCW-interferometry radars and the emerging applications and the future trends.

  16. Controllable thousand-port low-latency optical packet switch architecture for short link applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lucente, S.; Nazarathy, J.; Raz, O.; Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of a low-latency optical packet switch architecture that is controllable while scaling to over thousand ports is investigated in this paper. Optical packet switches with thousand of input/output ports are promising devices to improve the performance of short link applications in

  17. Short-term alpha- or gamma-delta-enriched tocopherol oil supplementation differentially effects the expression of proinflammatory mediators: selective impacts on characteristics of protein tyrosine nitration in vivo¿.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein 3’-nitrotyrosine (pNT) is an established biomarker of nitrosative cell stress in animals challenged with proinflammatory mediators like endotoxin (LPS). We determined that short-term feeding of diets supplemented with a-tocopherol- (a-T -96% a-isomer) or '- and d-enriched mixed tocopherol o...

  18. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the pattern of oxylipins: a short review about the modulation of hydroxy-, dihydroxy-, and epoxy-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-07-19

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of the long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n3, DHA) is linked to beneficial health effects, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Although the molecular mode of action of n3-PUFA is still not fully understood, it is not controversial that a significant portion of the (patho)-physiological effects of PUFA are mediated by their oxidative metabolites, i.e. eicosanoids and other oxylipins. Quantitative targeted oxylipin methods allow the comprehensive monitoring of n3-PUFA supplementation induced changes in the pattern of oxylipins in order to understand their biology. In this short review, results from intervention studies are summarized analyzing >30 oxylipins from different PUFAs in response to n3-PUFA supplementation. The results are not only qualitatively compared with respect to the study design, n3-PUFA dose and trends in the lipid mediators, but also quantitatively based on the relative change in the oxylipin level induced by n3-PUFA. The evaluation of the data from the studies shows that the change in oxylipins generally corresponded to the observed changes in their precursor PUFA, i.e. the lower the individual n3-status at the baseline, the higher the increase in EPA and DHA derived oxylipins. The strongest relative increases were found for EPA derived oxylipins, while changes in arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6, ARA) derived eicosanoids were heterogeneous. After 3-12 weeks of supplementation, similar relative changes were observed in free and total (free + esterified) oxylipins in plasma and serum. Regarding EPA derived oxylipins, the results indicate a trend for a linear increase with dose. However, the interpretation of the quantitative oxylipin patterns between studies is hampered by strong inter-individual variances in oxylipin levels between and also within the studies. In the

  19. Impact of short-term nutritional supplementation on surrogate markers of undernutrition in hemodialysis patients - prospective real-life interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Andreja; Bevc, Sebastjan; Ekart, Robert

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk for undernutrition, especially protein wasting. We present the results of a prospective study in HD patients after 4 months of intervention with oral nutritional supplements (ONS). After a 3-month wash-out period, 92 HD patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were tested for undernutrition with composite parameters, laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and hand-grip strength test (HGS). All patients fulfilling criteria for, or at high risk of, undernutrition were given ONS in addition to their regular diet. The impact of short-term ONS on surrogate markers of undernutrition was statistically analyzed. Data for 84 patients, 45 (53.6%) male, average age 63.3 years, were available for analysis after 4 months. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (n = 28), patients with normal nutritional status (NUS) at baseline not necessitating ONS; group B (n = 43), patients entitled to receive ONS; group C (n = 13), patients entitled to receive but refused to take ONS. In group B patients, received on average 4.1 bottles of ONS (902 mL; 1,623.6 kcal; 73.06 g protein) per week. Baseline results showed statistically-significant differences between groups in serum albumin levels and phase angle (PhA) but not in HGS. After 4 months of ONS, we noticed stagnation of observed markers in group B. Interestingly, in group A, significant deterioration of serum albumin and PhA was observed, but HGS improved. There was a trend towards worsening of serum albumin levels and HGS in group C not reaching statistical significance. In undernourished HD patients after ONS we did not find statistically-significant improvement of NUS evaluating surrogate markers. Nevertheless, in undernourished patients not receiving ONS, serum albumin and HGS showed a trend towards worsening, and even in well-nourished patients, nutritional markers (serum albumin and PhA) declined. We speculate that a certain positive

  20. Application of accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupsch, H.

    1986-01-01

    Several problems such as corrosion, catalysis, wear, process optimization and diagnosis, damage analysis, arising in idustry can be solved using short-lived radioisotopes. Some examples of technological target designs which have been developed are demonstrated for the radionuclide production based on p,n; d,α; α,n; α,2n; α,p; γ,n; γ,p nuclear reactions. Applications of short-lived radionuclides in plants and processes of electrodeposition and gas concrete production are described. (author)

  1. The application of reporter gene assays for the detection of endocrine disruptors in sport supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T. [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT95AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Scippo, Marie Louise [Department of Food Sciences, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Muller, Marc [Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering GIGA-R, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [LABERCA, ENVN, USC INRA 2013, BP 50707, 44 307, Nantes (France); Malone, Edward [The State Laboratory, Young' s Cross, Celbridge, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Bovee, Toine F.H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, AE Wageningen 6700 (Netherlands); Mitchell, Samuel [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT95AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-26

    The increasing availability and use of sports supplements is of concern as highlighted by a number of studies reporting endocrine disruptor contamination in such products. The health food supplement market, including sport supplements, is growing across the Developed World. Therefore, the need to ensure the quality and safety of sport supplements for the consumer is essential. The development and validation of two reporter gene assays coupled with solid phase sample preparation enabling the detection of estrogenic and androgenic constituents in sport supplements is reported. Both assays were shown to be of high sensitivity with the estrogen and androgen reporter gene assays having an EC{sub 50} of 0.01 ng mL{sup -1} and 0.16 ng mL{sup -1} respectively. The developed assays were applied in a survey of 63 sport supplements samples obtained across the Island of Ireland with an additional seven reference samples previously investigated using LC-MS/MS. Androgen and estrogen bio-activity was found in 71% of the investigated samples. Bio-activity profiling was further broken down into agonists, partial agonists and antagonists. Supplements (13) with the strongest estrogenic bio-activity were chosen for further investigation. LC-MS/MS analysis of these samples determined the presence of phytoestrogens in seven of them. Supplements (38) with androgen bio-activity were also selected for further investigation. Androgen agonist bio-activity was detected in 12 supplements, antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 16 and partial antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 10. A further group of supplements (7) did not present androgenic bio-activity when tested alone but enhanced the androgenic agonist bio-activity of dihydrotestosterone when combined. The developed assays offer advantages in detection of known, unknown and low-level mixtures of endocrine disruptors over existing analytical screening techniques. For the detection and identification of constituent hormonally

  2. The application of reporter gene assays for the detection of endocrine disruptors in sport supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T.; Scippo, Marie Louise; Muller, Marc; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Malone, Edward; Bovee, Toine F.H.; Mitchell, Samuel; Connolly, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability and use of sports supplements is of concern as highlighted by a number of studies reporting endocrine disruptor contamination in such products. The health food supplement market, including sport supplements, is growing across the Developed World. Therefore, the need to ensure the quality and safety of sport supplements for the consumer is essential. The development and validation of two reporter gene assays coupled with solid phase sample preparation enabling the detection of estrogenic and androgenic constituents in sport supplements is reported. Both assays were shown to be of high sensitivity with the estrogen and androgen reporter gene assays having an EC 50 of 0.01 ng mL -1 and 0.16 ng mL -1 respectively. The developed assays were applied in a survey of 63 sport supplements samples obtained across the Island of Ireland with an additional seven reference samples previously investigated using LC-MS/MS. Androgen and estrogen bio-activity was found in 71% of the investigated samples. Bio-activity profiling was further broken down into agonists, partial agonists and antagonists. Supplements (13) with the strongest estrogenic bio-activity were chosen for further investigation. LC-MS/MS analysis of these samples determined the presence of phytoestrogens in seven of them. Supplements (38) with androgen bio-activity were also selected for further investigation. Androgen agonist bio-activity was detected in 12 supplements, antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 16 and partial antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 10. A further group of supplements (7) did not present androgenic bio-activity when tested alone but enhanced the androgenic agonist bio-activity of dihydrotestosterone when combined. The developed assays offer advantages in detection of known, unknown and low-level mixtures of endocrine disruptors over existing analytical screening techniques. For the detection and identification of constituent hormonally active compounds the

  3. A short-term supranutritional vitamin E supplementation alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat stressed pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Heat stress (HS triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. Methods A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity or HS (35°C, 35% to 45% humidity, 8 h daily conditions for 7 d. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured three times daily during the thermal exposure. Blood gas variables and oxidative stress markers were studied in blood samples collected on d 7. Results Although HiVE diet did not affect the elevated rectal temperature or respiration rate observed during HS, it alleviated (all p<0.05 for diet×temperature the loss of blood CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate, as well as the increase in blood pH in the heat-stressed pigs. The HS reduced (p = 0.003 plasma biological antioxidant potential (BAP and tended to increase (p = 0.067 advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP in the heat-stressed pigs, suggesting HS triggers oxidative stress. The HiVE diet did not affect plasma BAP or AOPP. Only under TN conditions the HiVE diet reduced the plasma reactive oxygen metabolites (p<0.05 for diet× temperature. Conclusion A short-term supplementation with 200 IU/kg VE partially alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat-stressed pigs.

  4. The pattern of LH secretion and the ovarian response to the 'ram effect' in the anoestrous ewe is influenced by body condition but not by short-term nutritional supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzi, R J; Oujagir, L; Menassol, J-B; Freret, S; Piezel, A; Brown, H M; Cognié, J; Fabre Nys, C

    2014-10-01

    In sheep, the 'ram effect' induces out-of-season fertility and good nutrition increases prolificacy. This experiment determined if fatness or short-term nutritional supplementation modified the response to the 'ram effect'. A group of 48 Île-de-France ewes were fed diets that produced groups with body-condition scores (BCS) of >3.0 and <2.0. Within each BCS group animals were supplemented daily with 500g of lupins from Day -5 to Day 0 (ram introduction) resulting in four groups: low BCS, supplemented (n=7) and non-supplemented (n=8) and high BCS, supplemented (n=12) and non-supplemented (n=11). The blood concentrations of glucose and insulin and the LH response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were determined. After the 'ram effect' the pattern of LH pulsatility, the LH surge and ovarian responses were analysed. Low BCS ewes had lower glucose and insulin (P<0.001) and supplementation increased both (P≤0.001). The increase in LH induced by GnRH was reduced in low BCS ewes (P=0.015) but it was not affected by supplementation. Similarly, LH pulsatility was reduced in low BCS ewes (P<0.05). The LH surge and ovarian cyclicity were not affected but the follow-up cycle was delayed (P=0.034) and progesterone was reduced (P=0.029) in low BCS ewes. There was an effect of BCS on ovulation rate (P<0.05). These results show that the BCS can modify the response to the 'ram effect' and that supplementation has little effect on this response.

  5. Digital-circuit analysis of short-gate tunnel FETs for low-voltage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuge, Jing; Huang, Ru; Wang, Yangyuan; Verhulst, Anne S; Vandenberghe, William G; Dehaene, Wim; Groeseneken, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), with emphasis on short-gate TFETs, by simulation for low-power digital applications having a supply voltage lower than 0.5 V. A transient study shows that the tunneling current has a negligible contribution in charging and discharging the gate capacitance of TFETs. In spite of a higher resistance region in the short-gate TFET, the gate (dis)charging speed still meets low-voltage application requirements. A circuit analysis is performed on short-gate TFETs with different materials, such as Si, Ge and heterostructures in terms of voltage overshoot, delay, static power, energy consumption and energy delay product (EDP). These results are compared to MOSFET and full-gate TFET performance. It is concluded that short-gate heterostructure TFETs (Ge–source for nTFET, In 0.6 Ga 0.4 As–source for pTFET) are promising candidates to extend the supply voltage to lower than 0.5 V because they combine the advantage of a low Miller capacitance, due to the short-gate structures, and strong drive current in TFETs, due to the narrow bandgap material in the source. At a supply voltage of 0.4 V and for an EOT and channel length of 0.6 nm and 40 nm, respectively, a three-stage inverter chain based on short-gate heterostructure TFETs saves 40% energy consumption per cycle at the same delay and shows 60%–75% improvement of EDP at the same static power, compared to its full-gate counterpart. When compared to the MOSFET, better EDP can be achieved in the heterostructure TFET especially at low static power consumption

  6. [Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats: structure, function and application--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yujun; Li, Yanjun; Yan, Yanfeng; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-11-01

    CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), the basis of spoligotyping technology, can provide prokaryotes with heritable adaptive immunity against phages' invasion. Studies on CRISPR loci and their associated elements, including various CAS (CRISPR-associated) proteins and leader sequences, are still in its infant period. We introduce the brief history', structure, function, bioinformatics research and application of this amazing immunity system in prokaryotic organism for inspiring more scientists to find their interest in this developing topic.

  7. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications; Roentgenuntersuchungen fuer kurzzeitdynamische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik, Efringen-Kirchen (Germany). Ernst-Mach-Inst. (EMI)

    2017-08-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  8. Short term scheduling of multiple grid-parallel PEM fuel cells for microgrid applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkh, M.Y.; Rahman, A.; Alam, M.S. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a short term scheduling scheme for multiple grid-parallel PEM fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) connected to supply electrical and thermal energy to a microgrid community. As in the case of regular power plants, short term scheduling of FCPP is also a cost-based optimization problem that includes the cost of operation, thermal power recovery, and the power trade with the local utility grid. Due to the ability of the microgrid community to trade power with the local grid, the power balance constraint is not applicable, other constraints like the real power operating limits of the FCPP, and minimum up and down time are therefore used. To solve the short term scheduling problem of the FCPPs, a hybrid technique based on evolutionary programming (EP) and hill climbing technique (HC) is used. The EP is used to estimate the optimal schedule and the output power from each FCPP. The HC technique is used to monitor the feasibility of the solution during the search process. The short term scheduling problem is used to estimate the schedule and the electrical and thermal power output of five FCPPs supplying a maximum power of 300 kW. (author)

  9. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  10. [THE APPLICATION OF SHORT-TERM EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSING OCCUPATIONAL VOICE DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Just, Marcin; Tyc, Michał; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Morawska, Joanna; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men) diagnosed with occupational dysphonia throuigh videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men) with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR), as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel "a." The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00). The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00). Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Effliciency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larnx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology.

  11. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  12. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  13. Determination of selenium mineral in health supplement products: Applications of nuclear methods in pharmaceuticals fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titiek Martati; Mellawati

    2010-01-01

    Recently, many health supplement products that are useful as an antioxidant available in the market, and one of them is selenium (Se) tablet. Issue on the falsification of drug due to control to health supplement product becomes very important. There is also some problem in Se analysis, especially in chemical reagent preparation. In this research, determination of Se in health supplement tablet using neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out. The advantages of methods are due to nondestructive materials, simple sample preparation, and no chemical reagent for analysis. The sample was irradiated using thermal neutron with 10"1"3 neutron cm"-"2 seconds"-"1 fluxes during 15 minutes, and based on n, γ reaction "7"5Se isotope would be formed that could identified using gamma spectrometer on 136, 264, and 279 keV energies. The result showed that NAA method can be used for Se analysis contained in health supplement tablets with accuracy ranged between 101.81 and 102.29 % and precision 99.02-99.37 %. The recovery test of Se mineral concentration to the labeled attached showed 105.79-116.66 %, and this value still in the range described in the United States Pharmacopoeias 28 (90-125 %). (author)

  14. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme which minimizes the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What distinguishes approach presented here from conventional strategies is that not only the price of electricity is considered...

  15. Short Term Energy Storage for Grid Support in Wind Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina; Diosi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind power into the power system has been increasing in the recent years. Therefore, a lot of concerns related to the reliable operation of the power system have been addressed. An attractive solution to minimize the limitations faced by the wind power grid integration, and thus...... to increase the power system stability and the energy quality, is to integrate energy storage devices into wind power plants. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art short-term energy storage devices and presents several applications which can be provided by the energy storage device - wind power...

  16. Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya

    2007-06-11

    We propose a novel reconfigurable time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access application. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. The time domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. Proof-of-principle experiments of encoding with 16-chip, 20 GHz/chip binary-phase-shift-keying codes and 1.25 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with an arrayed-wave-guide decoder.

  17. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  18. Scan direction induced charging dynamics and the application for detection of gate to S/D shorts in logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Tian, Qing; Wu, Kevin; Zhao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Gate to source/drain (S/D) short is the most common and detrimental failure mechanism for advanced process technology development in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) device manufacturing. Especially for sub-1Xnm nodes, MOSFET device is more vulnerable to gate-S/D shorts due to the aggressive scaling. The detection of this kind of electrical short defect is always challenging for in-line electron beam inspection (EBI), especially new shorting mechanisms on atomic scale due to new material/process flow implementation. The second challenge comes from the characterization of the shorts including identification of the exact shorting location. In this paper, we demonstrate unique scan direction induced charging dynamics (SDCD) phenomenon which stems from the transistor level response from EBI scan at post metal contact chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) layers. We found that SDCD effect is exceptionally useful for gate-S/D short induced voltage contrast (VC) defect detection, especially for identification of shorting locations. The unique SDCD effect signatures of gate-S/D shorts can be used as fingerprint for ground true shorting defect detection. Correlation with other characterization methods on the same defective location from EBI scan shows consistent results from various shorting mechanism. A practical work flow to implement the application of SDCD effect for in-line EBI monitor of critical gate-S/D short defects is also proposed, together with examples of successful application use cases which mostly focus on static random-access memory (SRAM) array regions. Although the capability of gate-S/D short detection as well as expected device response is limited to passing transistors and pull-down transistors due to the design restriction from standard 6-cell SRAM structure, SDCD effect is proven to be very effective for gate-S/D short induced VC defect detection as well as yield learning for advanced technology development.

  19. [Simultaneous analysis of four diuretic drugs by HPLC and its application to health food supplements advertising weight reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomomi; Mikami, Eiichi; Ohno, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simultaneous analysis of triamterene, trichlormethiazide, furosemide and spironolactone is presented for application in the examination of health food supplements advertising weight reduction and in the analysis of pharmaceuticals. The HPLC assay was performed under gradient conditions using a Wakosil ODS 5C18 column (5 microns, 150 x 4.6 mm i.d.). The mobile phase consisted of a gradient program with a mixture of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% triethylamine adjusted with phosphoric acid to pH 3.0: from 0 to 6 min, 15% acetonitrile; from 6 to 20 min, linear gradient from 15 to 50% acetonitrile; and from 20 to 40 min, 50% acetonitrile. The column effluent was monitored from 0 to 20 min at 260 nm and from 20 to 40 min at 235 nm. The calibration curves of the four drugs showed good linearity and the correlation coefficients were better than 0.999 in all cases. The lower limits of detection were approximately 40 ng for each drug. Commercially available health food supplements and pharmaceuticals were analyzed after extraction with a mixture of methanol and acetic acid (99:1). The procedure described here is suitable for the screening of four diuretic drugs in adulterated supplements and for the quality control of pharmaceuticals with minimal sample preparation.

  20. Ultra-short X-ray sources generated through laser-matter interaction and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, A.

    2004-04-01

    This work is dedicated to the sources of ultra-short X-rays. The K α source, the non-linear Thomson source, the betatron source and the X-γ source are presented. We show that a pump-probe experiment where the pump is a laser excitation and the probe is the X-K α ultra-short radiation, can be used to study the dynamics of material structure with a time resolution of 100 femtosecond. We describe 2 applications that have been achieved in the field of solid physics by using the diffraction technique with a time resolution in the range of the femtosecond. The first application has permitted the observation and characterization of the ultra-quick solid-phase transition that occurs on the surface of a semiconductor crystal. The second experiment deals with the role of optical phonons in the antecedent processes that lead to such ultra-quick solid-phase transitions. (A.C.)

  1. Short message service (SMS) applications for disease prevention in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déglise, Carole; Suggs, L Suzanne; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-12

    The last decade has witnessed unprecedented growth in the number of mobile phones in the developing world, thus linking millions of previously unconnected people. The ubiquity of mobile phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention efforts. The aim of this review was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of SMS interventions for disease prevention in developing countries and provide recommendations for future work. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was performed for papers published in English, French, and German before May 2011 that describe SMS applications for disease prevention in developing countries. A total of 34 SMS applications were described, among which 5 had findings of an evaluation reported. The majority of SMS applications were pilot projects in various levels of sophistication; nearly all came from gray literature sources. Many applications were initiated by the project with modes of intervention varying between one-way or two-way communication, with or without incentives, and with educative games. Evaluated interventions were well accepted by the beneficiaries. The primary barriers identified were language, timing of messages, mobile network fluctuations, lack of financial incentives, data privacy, and mobile phone turnover. This review illustrates that while many SMS applications for disease prevention exist, few have been evaluated. The dearth of peer-reviewed studies and the limited evidence found in this systematic review highlight the need for high-quality efficacy studies examining behavioral, social, and economic outcomes of SMS applications and mobile phone interventions aimed to promote health in developing country contexts.

  2. VCSELs in short-pulse operation for time-of-flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Gudde, Ralph; Herper, Markus; Kolb, Johanna; Miller, Michael; Smeets, Michael; Weigl, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    VCSEL arrays are the ideal light source for 3D imaging applications. The narrow emission spectrum and the ability for short pulses make them superior to LEDs. Combined with fast photodiodes or special camera chips spatial information can be obtained which is needed in diverse applications like camera autofocus, indoor navigation, 3D-object recognition, augmented reality or autonomously driving vehicles. Pulse operation at the ns scale and at low duty cycle can work with significantly higher current than traditionally used for VCSELs in continuous wave operation. With reduced thermal limitations at low average heat dissipation very high currents become feasible and tens of Watts output power have been realized with small VCSEL chips. The optical emission pattern of VCSELs can be tailored to the desired field of view using beam shaping elements. Such optical elements also enable laser safe class 1 products. A detailed analysis of the complete system and the operation mode is required to calculate the maximum permitted power for a safe system. The good VCSEL properties like robustness, stability over temperature and the potential for integrated solutions open a huge potential for VCSELs in new mass applications in the consumer and automotive markets.

  3. Application of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al alloy matrix composite on piston for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenqing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite and it’s application on the piston for internal combustion engines are presented. Alumina or aluminosilicate fibers reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite has more excellent synthetical properties at elevated temperature than the matrix alloys. A partially reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite piston produced by squeeze casting technique has a firm interface between reinforced and unreinforced areas, low reject rate and good technical tolerance. As a new kind of piston material, it has been used for mass production of about 400,000 pieces of automobile engines piston. China has become one of a few countries in which aluminum alloy matrix composite materials have been used in automobile industry and attained industrialization.

  4. Application of the instructional congruence framework: Developing supplemental materials for English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Tina Skjerping

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation is a study of the instructional congruence framework as it was used to develop and pilot a supplemental science unit on energy and the environment for sixth grade students in Arizona. With the growing linguistic and cultural diversity of children in American schools, congruent materials are more important now than ever before. The supplemental materials were designed by the researcher and underwent a six person, three educator and three engineer, panel review. The revised materials were then piloted in two sixth grade classrooms in the Southwest with high numbers of English language learners. Classroom observation, teacher interviews, and the classroom observation protocol were utilized to understand the fidelity to the instructional congruence framework. The fidelity of implementation of materials was subject to the realities of varied educational contexts. Piloting materials in urban contexts with diverse students involved additional challenges. The results of the study explore the challenges in creating instructionally congruent materials for diverse students in urban contexts. Recommendations are provided for curriculum developers that undertake the task of creating instructionally congruent materials and emphasize the need to devise innovative methods of creation, while understanding that there is no perfect solution. The education community as a whole could benefit from incorporating and synthesizing the instructional congruence framework in order to provide maximum opportunities in science for all students.

  5. Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, J.H.; Baek, S.H.; Woo, Y.; Han, J.K.; Lee, van L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods - This study was designed for

  6. The effect of short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation and pre-cooling strategy on cardiac damage markers in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Ali; Tofighi, Asghar; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Bazargani-Gilani, Behnaz

    2018-02-01

    Strenuous physical exercise and hyperthermia may paradoxically induce oxidative stress and adverse effects on myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 14-d coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation and pre-cooling on serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (Mb), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and CoQ10 concentration in elite swimmers. In total, thirty-six healthy males (mean age 17 (sd 1) years) were randomly selected and divided into four groups of supplementation, supplementation with pre-cooling, pre-cooling and control. During an eighteen-session protocol in the morning and evening, subjects attended speed and endurance swimming training sessions for 5 km in each session. Blood sampling was done before (two stages) and after (two stages) administration of CoQ10 and pre-cooling. ANCOVA and repeated measurement tests with Bonferroni post hoc test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. There was no significant statistical difference among groups for the levels of CK-MB, cTnI, Mb, LD, TAC, LPO and CoQ10 at the presampling (stages 1 and 2) (P>0·05). However, pre-cooling and control groups show a significant increase in the levels of CK-MB, cTnI, Mb, LD and LPO compared with the supplementation and supplementation with pre-cooling groups in the post-sampling (stages 1 and 2) (Pcompetition phase. Meanwhile, the pre-cooling strategy individually has no desired effect on the levels of CK-MB, cTnI, Mb, LD, LPO, TAC and CoQ10.

  7. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael A.; Bailey, Alyssa M.; Rondon, Matthew J.; McNerny, Erin M.; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6–12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups–exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and

  8. Calcium- and Phosphorus-Supplemented Diet Increases Bone Mass after Short-Term Exercise and Increases Bone Mass and Structural Strength after Long-Term Exercise in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael A; Bailey, Alyssa M; Rondon, Matthew J; McNerny, Erin M; Sahar, Nadder D; Kohn, David H

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone health that may help prevent fractures by increasing bone mass, bone strength, and tissue quality. Long-term exercise of 6-12 weeks in rodents increases bone mass and bone strength. However, in growing mice, a short-term exercise program of 3 weeks can limit increases in bone mass and structural strength, compared to non-exercised controls. Short-term exercise can, however, increase tissue strength, suggesting that exercise may create competition for minerals that favors initially improving tissue-level properties over structural-level properties. It was therefore hypothesized that adding calcium and phosphorus supplements to the diet may prevent decreases in bone mass and structural strength during a short-term exercise program, while leading to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone after a long-term exercise program. A short-term exercise experiment was done for 3 weeks, and a long-term exercise experiment was done for 8 weeks. For each experiment, male 16-week old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 4 weight-matched groups-exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet. Exercise consisted of treadmill running at 12 m/min, 30 min/day for 7 days/week. After 3 weeks, exercised mice fed the supplemented diet had significantly increased tibial tissue mineral content (TMC) and cross-sectional area over exercised mice fed the control diet. After 8 weeks, tibial TMC, cross-sectional area, yield force, and ultimate force were greater from the combined treatments than from either exercise or supplemented diet alone. Serum markers of bone formation (PINP) and resorption (CTX) were both decreased by exercise on day 2. In exercised mice, day 2 PINP was significantly positively correlated with day 2 serum Ca, a correlation that was weaker and negative in non-exercised mice. Increasing dietary mineral consumption during an exercise program increases bone mass after 3 weeks and increases

  9. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  10. A short course on functional equations based upon recent applications to the social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Aczél, J

    1987-01-01

    Recently I taught short courses on functional equations at several universities (Barcelona, Bern, Graz, Hamburg, Milan, Waterloo). My aim was to introduce the most important equations and methods of solution through actual (not artifi­ cial) applications which were recent and with which I had something to do. Most of them happened to be related to the social or behavioral sciences. All were originally answers to questions posed by specialists in the respective applied fields. Here I give a somewhat extended version of these lectures, with more recent results and applications included. As previous knowledge just the basic facts of calculus and algebra are supposed. Parts where somewhat more (measure theory) is needed and sketches of lengthier calcula­ tions are set in fine print. I am grateful to Drs. J. Baker (Waterloo, Ont.), W. Forg-Rob (Innsbruck, Austria) and C. Wagner (Knoxville, Tenn.) for critical remarks and to Mrs. Brenda Law for care­ ful computer-typing of the manuscript (in several versions). A...

  11. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S; Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  12. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Simonsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia, a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community

  13. A Short Overview on the Biomedical Applications of Silica, Alumina and Calcium Phosphate-based Nanostructured Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellahioui, Younes; Prashar, Sanjiv; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the use of silica, alumina and calcium phosphate-based nanostructured materials with biomedical applications. A short introduction on the use of the materials in Science, Nanotechnology and Health is included followed by a revision of each of the selected materials. A description of the principal synthetic methods used in the preparation of the materials in nanostructured form is included. The most widely used applications in biomedicine are reviewed including, for example drug-delivery, bone regeneration, imaging, sensoring amongst others. Finally, a short description of the toxicity and cytotoxicity associated with each of the materials of this revision is presented. This short literature revision serves to demonstrate the very promising future ahead of nanosystems based on silica, alumina and calcium phosphate for biological and biomedical applications.

  14. Short-Term Effects of Lupin vs. Whey Supplementation on Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Standardized Meal in a Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopen, Kathrin; Ewald, Ann C; Johannes, Bernd W; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn; Frings-Meuthen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whey protein is known to reduce postprandial glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lupin as a vegetable source of protein could be considered as an alternative, as the percentage of vegetarian and vegan consumers is raising. The present study compares the acute glycemic effects of whey and lupin in healthy volunteers following a carbohydrate-rich reference meal. Methods In cross-over design, three standardized meals (reference meal; reference meal + whey; reference meal + lupin) were provided to 12 healthy male and female volunteers, aged between 23 and 33, in a balanced, randomized order. Volunteers' blood glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed at baseline and at seven time points following the ingestion of the meals. Results: The supplementation of whey or lupin significantly blunted the postprandial increase in blood glucose concentrations compared to the reference meal ( p AUC whey-lupin = 8%, 0-60 min area under the curve (0-60 min AUC), p = 0.937], with a blunting effect of -46% by whey ( p = 0.005, 0-60 min AUC) and of -54% by lupin ( p AUC). When comparing whey and lupin data only, the insulin increase was found to be more pronounced for whey protein than for lupin supplementation (Δ AUC whey-lupin = 39%, 0-60 min AUC, p = 0.022). However, when comparing the insulin response of each supplementation to the one of the reference meal, no differences could be detected (whey p = 0.259, 0-60 min AUC; lupin p = 0.275, 0-60 min AUC). Conclusions: Results suggest that lupin and whey can both lower the increase of postprandial blood glucose concentrations to a comparable extent, implying the usability of lupin to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, the insulin response following the supplementations to a carbohydrate-rich meal seems to differ for these two protein sources.

  15. Vitamin D supplementation during short-term caloric restriction in healthy overweight/obese older women: Effect on glycemic indices and serum osteocalcin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, D; Shapses, S A; Schneider, S H

    2015-07-15

    The effect of vitamin D supplementation and caloric restriction (CR) on glycemic indices and osteocalcin (OC) is not clear. In this randomized controlled double blind trial, we examined whether vitamin D3 supplementation at 2500 IU/d (D) or placebo has differential effects on markers of insulin sensitivity and bone turnover in overweight/obese postmenopausal women during 6 weeks of caloric restriction (weight loss; WL, n = 39) compared to weight maintenance (WM, n = 37). Seventy-six women (57 ± 6 years) completed this study and the WL groups lost 4 ± 1% of body weight. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was 24.8 ± 5.6 ng/mL at baseline; the rise was greatest in WL-D group (p < 0.05). There was an interaction between vitamin D intake and weight on serum OC, insulin, glucose and markers of insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). The change in OC was explained by changes in serum 25OHD and insulin (model R(2) = 25.6%). Overall, vitamin D supplementation and CR influence serum osteocalcin levels and modestly favor improvements in insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Salse-Ubach, Nuria; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Gayton-Toyoshima, Sayaka; Jiya, Nma Mohammed; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shanks, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rates. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of supplementation with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) and a micronutrient powder (MNP) on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at an outpatient clinic in Goronyo during February to September 2012. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed as having malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of RUTF; two sachets/d of micronutrients or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate occurrence of malnutrition; it was defined as low weight-for-height z-score (malnutrition. The lack of effect in Goronyo may be due to a high frequency of morbidity, which probably further affects a child’s nutritional status and children’s ability to escape from the illness–malnutrition cycle. The duration of the supplementation may have been too short or the doses of the supplements may have been too low to mitigate the effects of high morbidity and pre-existing malnutrition. An integrated approach combining prevention and treatment of diseases and treatment of moderate malnutrition, rather than prevention of malnutrition by nutritional

  17. Development of the dense plasma focus for short-pulse applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, N.; Blasco, M.; Breeding, K.; Constantino, D.; DeYoung, A.; DiPuccio, V.; Friedman, J.; Gall, B.; Gardner, S.; Gatling, J.; Hagen, E. C.; Luttman, A.; Meehan, B. T.; Misch, M.; Molnar, S.; Morgan, G.; O'Brien, R.; Robbins, L.; Rundberg, R.; Sipe, N.; Welch, D. R.; Yuan, V.

    2017-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) has long been considered a compact source for pulsed neutrons and has traditionally been optimized for the total neutron yield. In this paper, we describe the efforts to optimize the DPF for short-pulse applications by introducing a reentrant cathode at the end of the coaxial plasma gun. The resulting neutron pulse widths are reduced by an average of 21 ±9 % from the traditional long-drift DPF design. Pulse widths and yields achieved from deuterium-tritium fusion at 2 MA are 61.8 ±30.7 ns FWHM and 1.84 ±0.49 ×1012 neutrons per shot. Simulations were conducted concurrently to elucidate the DPF operation and confirm the role of the reentrant cathode. A hybrid fluid-kinetic particle-in-cell modeling capability demonstrates correct sheath velocities, plasma instabilities, and fusion yield rates. Consistent with previous findings that the DPF is dominated by beam-target fusion from superthermal ions, we estimate that the thermonuclear contribution is at the 1% level.

  18. An Application of the Short-Term Forecasting with Limited Data in the Healthcare Traveling Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Sa Dang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In real practice, forecasting under the limited data has attracted more attention in business activities, especially in the healthcare traveling industry in its current stage. However, there are only a few research studies focusing on this issue. Thus, the purposes of this paper were to determine the forecasted performance of several current forecasting methods as well as to examine their applications. Taking advantage of the small data requirement for model construction, three models including the exponential smoothing model, the Grey model GM(1,1, and the modified Lotka-Volterra model (L.V., were used to conduct forecasting analyses based on the data of foreign patients from 2001 to 2013 in six destinations. The results indicated that the L.V. model had higher prediction power than the other two models, and it obtained the best forecasting performance with an 89.7% precision rate. In conclusion, the L.V. model is the best model for estimating the market size of the healthcare traveling industry, followed by the GM(1,1 model. The contribution of this study is to offer a useful statistical tool for short-term planning, which can be applied to the healthcare traveling industry in particular, and for other business forecasting under the conditions of limited data in general.

  19. Application of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System in Short Term Load Forecasting on Special Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Dharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Interval Type-2 fuzzy logic systems (Interval Type-2 FLS in short term load forecasting (STLF on special days, study case in Bali Indonesia. Type-2 FLS is characterized by a concept called footprint of uncertainty (FOU that provides the extra mathematical dimension that equips Type-2 FLS with the potential to outperform their Type-1 counterparts. While a Type-2 FLS has the capability to model more complex relationships, the output of a Type-2 fuzzy inference engine needs to be type-reduced. Type reduction is used by applying the Karnik-Mendel (KM iterative algorithm. This type reduction maps the output of Type-2 FSs into Type-1 FSs then the defuzzification with centroid method converts that Type-1 reduced FSs into a number. The proposed method was tested with the actual load data of special days using 4 days peak load before special days and at the time of special day for the year 2002-2006. There are 20 items of special days in Bali that are used to be forecasted in the year 2005 and 2006 respectively. The test results showed an accurate forecasting with the mean average percentage error of 1.0335% and 1.5683% in the year 2005 and 2006 respectively.

  20. Detrended fluctuation analysis of short datasets: An application to fetal cardiac data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Preißl, H.; Eswaran, H.; Campbell, J. Q.; Lowery, C. L.

    2007-02-01

    Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) we perform scaling analysis of short datasets of length 500-1500 data points. We quantify the long range correlation (exponent α) by computing the mean value of the local exponents αL (in the asymptotic regime). The local exponents are obtained as the (numerical) derivative of the logarithm of the fluctuation function F(s) with respect to the logarithm of the scale factor s:αL=dlog10F(s)/dlog10s. These local exponents display huge variations and complicate the correct quantification of the underlying correlations. We propose the use of the phase randomized surrogate (PRS), which preserves the long range correlations of the original data, to minimize the variations in the local exponents. Using the numerically generated uncorrelated and long range correlated data, we show that performing DFA on several realizations of PRS and estimating αL from the averaged fluctuation functions (of all realizations) can minimize the variations in αL. The application of this approach to the fetal cardiac data (RR intervals) is discussed and we show that there is a statistically significant correlation between α and the gestation age.

  1. Extremely short light pulses: generation; diagnostics, and application in attosecond spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, V.

    2003-06-01

    The scope of the thesis includes the design of chirped mirrors, as well as theoretical investigations in the fields of high-harmonic generation and laser-dressed Auger decay, the unifying aspect being the presence of extremely short light pulses and physical processes taking place on a femtosecond scale. The main results of the research are the following: 1) It was shown that efficient global optimization of chirped mirrors is possible with an adapted version of the memetic algorithm (also known as hybrid genetic algorithm). 2) The analysis of high-harmonic spectra generated by a few-cycle laser pulse can reveal the electric field of the pulse in the vicinity of its envelope peak. The method developed for this purpose can also be regarded as a method to measure the carrier-envelope phase of laser pulses, which is more robust and has a larger range of applicability compared to the simple analysis of the cut-off region of high-harmonic spectra. 3) A quantum theory of time-resolved Auger spectroscopy was developed. Based on the essential states method, closed-form expressions for probability amplitudes were derived. The theory lays the foundation for the interpretation of experiments that probe electronic motion during atomic excitation, deexcitation, and ionization. (author)

  2. Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies.

  3. A short-term ensemble wind speed forecasting system for wind power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, S.; Traiteur, J. J.; Callicutt, D.; Smith, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study develops an adaptive, blended forecasting system to provide accurate wind speed forecasts 1 hour ahead of time for wind power applications. The system consists of an ensemble of 21 forecasts with different configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Single Column Model (WRFSCM) and a persistence model. The ensemble is calibrated against observations for a 2 month period (June-July, 2008) at a potential wind farm site in Illinois using the Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) technique. The forecasting system is evaluated against observations for August 2008 at the same site. The calibrated ensemble forecasts significantly outperform the forecasts from the uncalibrated ensemble while significantly reducing forecast uncertainty under all environmental stability conditions. The system also generates significantly better forecasts than persistence, autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models during the morning transition and the diurnal convective regimes. This forecasting system is computationally more efficient than traditional numerical weather prediction models and can generate a calibrated forecast, including model runs and calibration, in approximately 1 minute. Currently, hour-ahead wind speed forecasts are almost exclusively produced using statistical models. However, numerical models have several distinct advantages over statistical models including the potential to provide turbulence forecasts. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore the role of numerical models in short-term wind speed forecasting. This work is a step in that direction and is likely to trigger a debate within the wind speed forecasting community.

  4. Improvement in blood pressure after short-term inorganic nitrate supplementation is attenuated in cigarette smokers compared to non-smoking controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Wylie, Lee J; Holland, Terezia; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-12-30

    Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO 3 - ) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN - ), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO 3 - ) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO 3 - metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO 3 - supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite concentration ([NO 2 - ]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS). Nine healthy smokers and eight healthy non-smoking controls reported to the laboratory at baseline (CON) and following six day supplementation periods with 140 mL day -1 NO 3 - -rich (8.4 mmol NO 3 -  day -1 ; NIT) and NO 3 - -depleted (0.08 mmol NO 3 -  day -1 ; PLA) beetroot juice in a cross-over experiment. Plasma and salivary [SCN - ] were elevated in smokers compared to non-smokers in all experimental conditions (P smokers and non-smokers (P vs. NS: 7.5 ± 4.4 mM), plasma [NO 3 - ] (S: 484 ± 198 vs. NS: 802 ± 199 μM) and plasma [NO 2 - ] (S: 218 ± 128 vs. NS: 559 ± 419 nM) between the CON and NIT conditions was lower in the smokers compared to the non-smokers (P smokers and non-smokers (P > 0.05). Systolic blood pressure was lowered compared to PLA with NIT in non-smokers (P smokers (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that dietary NO 3 - metabolism is compromised in smokers leading to an attenuated blood pressure reduction compared to non-smokers after NO 3 - supplementation. These observations may provide novel insights into the cardiovascular risks associated with cigarette smoking and suggest that this population may be less likely to benefit from improved cardiovascular health if they increase dietary NO 3 - intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot evaluation of short-term changes in macular pigment and retinal sensitivity in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration after carotenoid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvi, Federico; Souied, Eric H; Falfoul, Yousra; Georges, Anouk; Jung, Camille; Querques, Lea; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the response of carotenoid supplementation in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and retinal sensitivity. Consecutive patients with only medium/large drusen and only reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched and sex-matched controls were enrolled. At baseline, participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), MPOD and retinal sensitivity. Patients were put on vitamin supplementation (lutein 10 mg/day, zeaxanthin 2 mg/day) and 3 months later underwent a repeated ophthalmological examination. Twenty patients with medium/large drusen, 19 with RPD and 15 control subjects were included. At baseline, in controls, mean MPOD and BCVA were significantly higher compared with RPD (p=0.001 and p=0.01) but similar to medium/large drusen (p=0.9 and p=0.4). Mean retinal sensitivity was significantly higher in controls compared with RPD and medium/large drusen (for all p<0.0001). After 3 months of carotenoid supplementation the mean MPOD significantly increased in RPD (p=0.002), thus showing no more difference compared with controls (p=0.3); no significant changes were found in mean retinal sensitivity and BCVA (p=0.3 and p=0.7). Medium/large drusen did not show significant changes on MPOD, retinal sensitivity and BCVA (p=0.5, p=0.7 and p=0.7, respectively). Patients with early AMD, especially RPD phenotype, show lower macular sensitivity and MPOD than controls. After supplementation, MPOD significantly increased in RPD. These results suggest different pathophysiology for RPD as compared with medium/large drusen and may open new ways to identifying further therapeutic targets in this phenotype of early AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. 77 FR 39141 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... final rule was published, DoD became aware of a drafting oversight and the need to correct the text of... Act, 5 U.S.C. 601, et seq., because this rule is just correcting a drafting oversight in rule 2009..., Technical Data--Commercial Items (DEC 2011), if applicable (see 227.7102-4(a)), if flow down is required in...

  7. 47 CFR 90.129 - Supplemental information to be routinely submitted with applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under this part that is received by the Commission, through the application process outlined in part 1... required in connection with developmental operation, as specified in § 90.505. (g) The environmental... following information: (1) A system network/system use diagram including a showing of emergency power and...

  8. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  9. The effect of zinc supplementation of lactating rats on short-term and long-term memory of their male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mohammad; Ehsanivostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats' offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (Plong-term) memory of all groups. Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  10. Short communication: Effects of increasing protein and energy in the milk replacer with or without direct-fed microbial supplementation on growth and performance of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Ward, S H; Williams, C C; Rude, B J; Cabrera, C J; Kalestch, K N; Voelz, B E

    2014-11-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves were fed a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and 1 of 2 milk replacers to evaluate calf performance and growth. Treatments were (1) a control milk replacer [22:20; 22% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat], (2) an accelerated milk replacer (27:10; 27% CP and 10% fat), (3) the control milk replacer with added DFM (22:20+D), and (4) the accelerated milk replacer with added DFM (27:10+D). Dry matter intake, rectal temperatures, respiration scores and rates, and fecal scores were collected daily. Body weight, hip and withers height, heart girth, blood, and rumen fluid samples were collected weekly. Effects of treatment, sex, week, and their interactions were analyzed. Calves fed an accelerated milk replacer, regardless of DFM supplementation, consumed more CP and metabolizable energy in the milk replacer. No treatment differences were found for starter intake or intake of neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the starter. Calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had greater preweaning and weaning body weight compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Average daily gain was greater during the preweaning period for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but the same pattern did not hold true during the postweaning period. Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Hip height tended to be and withers height and heart girth were greater at weaning for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Fecal scores were greatest in calves fed DFM. Overall acetate, propionate, butyrate, and n-valerate concentrations were lower in calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but DFM did not have an effect. Rumen pH was not different. Blood metabolites were unaffected by DFM supplementation, but calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had increased partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, and total bicarbonate in the blood. Direct-fed microbial supplementation did not appear to benefit the calf

  11. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of 165 Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm 2 can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of 165 Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of 165 Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal's renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning

  12. Analyzing Short Message Services Application Effect on Diabetic Patients' Self-caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Abolhassan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Zhyanifard, Akram; Jafari Makrani, Zoreh; Yazdani Cherati, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic disease with a growing spread rate in word wide. Short message service (SMS) is of the most common public communication networks, which have brought about a broad spectrum of applications like social, cultural and service products in the late decade. The objective of this research is, the investigate of using SMS on diabetes patients self-caring. In an interventional study, 228 diabetes patients have been selected from a community charity. With using of random sampling method, they were divided into two groups of 114 subjects as the control and case. The case group was sent messages reminding them about sports, caring foot, taking insulin and oral tablet for 4 weeks via mobile phone. After 4 weeks, a posttest questionnaire was completed. The data analysis was performed using a descriptive statistic, Chi-square, independent t-test, and paired t-test. There are not significant differences between case and control groups before intervention by studied dependent variables (P > 0.05). Performance score mean of taking care of foot, sport and taking oral tablet and insulin in case group before intervention were 29.90, 10, 11.16 and 3.75 respectively and after intervention were 20.11, 41.36, 13.09 and 4.90, respectively. Furthermore, the performance scores mean difference after intervention, taking care of foot (P tablet (P = 0.020) was meaningful in case and control groups. Regarding the study results on using cell phone, to utilize virtual training methods is recommended as an appropriate procedure for different health care, self-caring and follow-up training plans for various groups in society, especially diabetic and chronic patients.

  13. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G. [Medical Radiological Research Centre RAMS, Kaluga Region, (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm{sup 2} can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal`s renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning 25 refs.

  14. Detector with internal gain for short-wave infrared ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman

    2017-09-01

    Abstarct.Highly sensitive photon detectors are regarded as the key enabling elements in many applications. Due to the low photon energy at the short-wave infrared (SWIR), photon detection and imaging at this band are very challenging. As such, many efforts in photon detector research are directed toward improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range. To solve these problems, we have developed an electron-injection (EI) technique. The significance of this detection mechanism is that it can provide both high efficiency and high sensitivity at room temperature, a condition that is very difficult to achieve in conventional SWIR detectors. An EI detector offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement due to a feedback stabilized internal avalanche-free gain. Devices exhibit an excess noise of unity, operate in linear mode, require bias voltage of a few volts, and have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. We review the material system, operating principle, and development of EI detectors. The shortcomings of the first-generation devices were addressed in the second-generation detectors. Measurement on second-generation devices showed a high-speed response of ˜6 ns rise time, low jitter of less than 20 ps, high amplification of more than 2000 (at optical power levels larger than a few nW), unity excess noise factor, and low leakage current (amplified dark current ˜10 nA at a bias voltage of -3 V and at room temperature. These characteristics make EI detectors a good candidate for high-resolution flash light detection and ranging (LiDAR) applications with millimeter scale depth resolution at longer ranges compared with conventional p-i-n diodes. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, we compare the performance of the EI detector with commercially available linear mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) as well as a p-i-n diode using a theoretical model. Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model show that the EI

  15. Short- and long-term effects of dietary l-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Krogdahl, T.; Scholden, J.

    2013-01-01

    . Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10. days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2. days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed...... as well as habituation to seawater involves the neuroendocrine stress response, suggesting that such environmental factors may modulate the stress-reducing effects of Trp. To date, studies that have investigated the neuroendocrine effects of dietary Trp have only been conducted in rainbow trout...... (. Oncorhynchus mykiss), a salmonid species, under conditions featuring social isolation in the freshwater environment. Here, we address the effects of dietary Trp on post-stress plasma cortisol and hypothalamic monoamines in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (. Salmo salar), reared at densities relevant...

  16. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  17. Application of induced short-term hyperglycemia in comprehensive treatment of locally disseminated cancer of mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letyagin, V.P.; Poddubnyj, I.K.; Sokolova, I.G.; Ermilova, V.D.; Ajtakova, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with an analysis of the results of treatment of 12 patients with mammary gland cancer receiving preoperative radiation and chemotherapy and in whom short-term hyperglycemia was simultaneously induced. The peculiarities of the said modality and advantages offered by its application are discussed. The cases given the same treatment unaccompanied by hyperglycemia were in control. Since short-term hyperglycemia as a component of comprehensive treatment of mammary gland cancer resulted in a higher effectiveness of the latter, it merits attention and further studies

  18. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  19. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  20. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Salse-Ubach, Nuria; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Gayton-Toyoshima, Sayaka; Jiya, Nma Mohammed; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shanks, Leslie

    2016-02-01

    , which probably further affects a child's nutritional status and children's ability to escape from the illness-malnutrition cycle. The duration of the supplementation may have been too short or the doses of the supplements may have been too low to mitigate the effects of high morbidity and pre-existing malnutrition. An integrated approach combining prevention and treatment of diseases and treatment of moderate malnutrition, rather than prevention of malnutrition by nutritional supplementation alone, might be more effective in reducing the incidence of acute malnutrition in ill children. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154803.

  1. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants' effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site

  2. Postprandial PYY increase by resistant starch supplementation is independent of net portal appearance of short-chain fatty acids in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Jagalur Mutt, Shivaprakash; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) fermentation and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production may stimulate peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) secretion. In this study, the effects of hindgut SCFA production on postprandial PYY plasma levels were assessed using different experimental diets in a porto.......001), but similar among diets (P > 0.10). In conclusion, the increased postprandial PYY responses in pigs fed with different levels and sources of DF are not caused by an increased SCFA absorption and suggest that other mechanisms such as neural reflexes and possibly an increased flow of digesta in the small...

  3. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  4. Application of Elovich equation on uptake kinetics of 137Cs by living freshwater macrophytes - a short duration laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, T.J.; Patra, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Application of Elovich equation on uptake kinetics of 137 Cs by two living macrophytes during controlled experiments on short duration exposure is studied. Compliance to 2 nd order kinetics indicates the mechanism could be chemi-sorption, involving polar functional groups present on the extracelluar surface of the macrophytes. Data analysis suggests that Myriophyllum s. exhibits faster adsorption rate than Hydrilla v. As Myriophyllum s. exhibits better kinetics than Hydrilla v., former could be a better natural adsorbing media for 137 Cs. (author)

  5. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.A.; Thorson, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  6. Short-range wireless communication fundamentals of RF system design and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bensky, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Complete "Tool Kit” for the Hottest Area in RF/Wireless Design!Short-range wireless-communications over distances of less than 100 meters-is the most rapidly growing segment of RF/wireless engineering. Alan Bensky is an internationally recognized expert in short-range wireless, and this new edition of his bestselling book is completely revised to cover the latest developments in this fast moving field.You'll find coverage of such cutting-edge topics as: architectural trends in RF/wireless integrated circuits compatibility and conflict issues between differen

  7. End-shorting and electric field in edge plasmas with application to field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2002-01-01

    The shorting of open field lines where they intersect external boundaries strongly modifies the transverse electric field all along the field lines. The modified electric field is found by an extension of the familiar Boltzmann relation for the electric potential. This leads to a prediction of the electric drift. Flow generation by electrical shorting is applied here to three aspects of elongated field-reversed configurations: plasma rotation rate; the particle-loss spin-up mechanism; and the sustainability of the rotating magnetic field current drive method

  8. Short Project-Based Learning with MATLAB Applications to Support the Learning of Video-Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    University courses concerning Computer Vision and Image Processing are generally taught using a traditional methodology that is focused on the teacher rather than on the students. This approach is consequently not effective when teachers seek to attain cognitive objectives involving their students' critical thinking. This manuscript covers the development, implementation and assessment of a short project-based engineering course with MATLAB applications Multimedia Engineering being taken by Bachelor's degree students. The principal goal of all course lectures and hands-on laboratory activities was for the students to not only acquire image-specific technical skills but also a general knowledge of data analysis so as to locate phenomena in pixel regions of images and video frames. This would hopefully enable the students to develop skills regarding the implementation of the filters, operators, methods and techniques used for image processing and computer vision software libraries. Our teaching-learning process thus permits the accomplishment of knowledge assimilation, student motivation and skill development through the use of a continuous evaluation strategy to solve practical and real problems by means of short projects designed using MATLAB applications. Project-based learning is not new. This approach has been used in STEM learning in recent decades. But there are many types of projects. The aim of the current study is to analyse the efficacy of short projects as a learning tool when compared to long projects during which the students work with more independence. This work additionally presents the impact of different types of activities, and not only short projects, on students' overall results in this subject. Moreover, a statistical study has allowed the author to suggest a link between the students' success ratio and the type of content covered and activities completed on the course. The results described in this paper show that those students who took part

  9. Applications of short-lived isotopes in agricultural research in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, G.J.; More, R.D.; McNaughton, G.S.; Minchin, P.E.H.; Presland, M.R.; Stout, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the short-lived isotopes 11 C and 13 N in agricultural research studies in New Zealand is reviewed. The methods employed to produce these radioisotopes using a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator are given. Experiments on transport processes and the uptake of nutrient by plants, and the study of soil processes are described. (Auth.)

  10. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  11. Status of the dedicated short-range communications technology and applications : report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report responds to a Congressional request for an assessment of the 5.9 Gigahertz (GHz) Dedicated Short Range : Communications (DSRC) in accordance with the requirements provided by Congress in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the : 21st Century...

  12. Short-Circuit Robustness Assessment in Power Electronic Modules for Megawatt Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, threats and opportunities in testing of megawatt power electronic modules under short circuit are presented and discussed, together with the introduction of some basic principles of non-destructive testing, a key technique to allow post-failure analysis. The non-destructive testing...

  13. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure

  14. Application of antioxidants during short-path distillation of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm-Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2007-01-01

    A specific structured lipid was produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid. The antioxidative effect of adding alpha-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate or citric acid (each in three different concentrations) was investigated before and after the purification process (short-path distillation...

  15. Applications of short lived nuclides in activation analysis, problems and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, F [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Short lived nuclides or isomeric transitions, respectively would have some advantages over long lived ones. Although we published a paper concerning a germanium-determination in iron meteorites some years ago, only few laboratories use this technique, the main reason being that the high matrix activity disturbs the measurement of energy-spectra. A multichannel analyzer in the time sequence mode enables Li-8 determination by a purely instrumental method which is therefore used more frequently. In the time sequence mode much higher counting rates up to 10 - 50 MHz are processed then by taking energy-spectra. This is the reason why activation analysis with short lived isomeric states is seldom applied when counting rate and pulse height are to be detected simultaneously. Exceptional difficulties are encountered in measurement of samples activated by a reactor pulse. Further difficulties arise from the fact that an optimal expelling time depends on the half life of the nuclide, and is more critical if the half life is short and the full width half maximum of the reactor pulse is small. Commercial Ge-Li-detectors can be used only at low counting rates, so that samples with high matrix activities cannot be measured. Modifying the electronic system enables registration of samples with high matrix activities. For short lived nuclides emitting hard beta-rays, e.g. B-12 or Li-8, a Cerenkov-detector is optimal. These problems are discussed in examples. (author)

  16. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  17. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  18. Exogenous short-term silicon application regulates macro-nutrients, endogenous phytohormones, and protein expression in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soo-Won; Kim, Yoonha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Na, Chae-In; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-04

    Silicon (Si) has been known to regulate plant growth; however, the underlying mechanisms of short-term exogenous Si application on the regulation of calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N), endogenous phytohormones, and expression of essential proteins have been little understood. Exogenous Si application significantly increased Si content as compared to the control. Among Si treatments, 1.0 mM Si application showed increased phosphorus content as compared to other Si treatments (0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 mM). However, Ca accumulation was significantly reduced (1.8- to 2.0-fold) at the third-leaf stage in the control, whereas all Si treatments exhibited a dose-dependent increase in Ca as determined by radioisotope 45 Ca analysis. Similarly, the radioisotope 15 N for nitrogen localization and uptake showed a varying but reduced response (ranging from 1.03-10.8%) to different Si concentrations as compared to 15 N application alone. Physiologically active endogenous gibberellin (GA 1 ) was also significantly higher with exogenous Si (1.0 mM) as compared to GA 20 and the control plants. A similar response was noted for endogenous jasmonic and salicylic acid synthesis in rice plants with Si application. Proteomic analysis revealed the activation of several essential proteins, such as Fe-S precursor protein, putative thioredoxin, Ser/Thr phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6P), and importin alpha-1b (Imp3), with Si application. Among the most-expressed proteins, confirmatory gene expression analysis for G6P and Imp3 showed a similar response to those of the Si treatments. In conclusion, the current results suggest that short-term exogenous Si can significantly regulate rice plant physiology by influencing Ca, N, endogenous phytohormones, and proteins, and that 1.0 mM Si application is more beneficial to plants than higher concentrations.

  19. A short-term supranutritional vitamin E supplementation alleviated respiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat stressed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Celi, Pietro; Chauhan, Surinder Singh; Cottrell, Jeremy James; Leury, Brian Joseph; Dunshea, Frank Rowland

    2018-02-01

    Heat stress (HS) triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE) can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE) or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE) diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity) or HS (35°C, 35% to 45% humidity, 8 h daily) conditions for 7 d. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were measured three times daily during the thermal exposure. Blood gas variables and oxidative stress markers were studied in blood samples collected on d 7. Although HiVE diet did not affect the elevated rectal temperature or respiration rate observed during HS, it alleviated (all prespiratory alkalosis but did not reduce oxidative stress in heat-stressed pigs.

  20. Handbook of ultra-wideband short-range sensing theory, sensors, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sachs, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from the theoretical basis of UWB sensors via implementation issues to applications, this much-needed book bridges the gap between designers and appliers working in civil engineering, biotechnology, medical engineering, robotic, mechanical engineering, safety and homeland security. From the contents: * History * Signal and systems in time and frequency domain * Propagation of electromagnetic waves (in frequency and time domain) * UWB-Principles * UWB-antennas and applicators * Data processing * Applications.

  1. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosse, K.P.M., E-mail: kim.mosse@monash.edu [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia); Centre for Green Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Patti, A.F. [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia); Centre for Green Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Smernik, R.J. [School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Urrbrae SA 5064 (Australia); Christen, E.W. [CSIRO Land and Water PMB No. 3, Griffith, NSW, 2680 (Australia); Cavagnaro, T.R. [School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Australian Centre for Biodiversity, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of winery wastewater to soils increased soil respiration and nitrogen cycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Untreated and treated winery wastewaters affected microbial community composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term application to soils impacted only minimally on soil OM composition. - Abstract: Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. {sup 13}C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal.

  3. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, K.P.M.; Patti, A.F.; Smernik, R.J.; Christen, E.W.; Cavagnaro, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Application of winery wastewater to soils increased soil respiration and nitrogen cycling. ► Untreated and treated winery wastewaters affected microbial community composition. ► Long-term application to soils impacted only minimally on soil OM composition. - Abstract: Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. 13 C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal.

  4. Short-Term Wind Speed Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Bias Correcting Study and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mingfei Niu; Shaolong Sun; Jie Wu; Yuanlei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of wind speed forecasting is becoming increasingly important to improve and optimize renewable wind power generation. In particular, reliable short-term wind speed forecasting can enable model predictive control of wind turbines and real-time optimization of wind farm operation. However, due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty of wind speed, the forecasting of wind speed data using different patterns is difficult. This paper proposes a novel combination bias c...

  5. Application of Quantitative Models, MNLR and ANN in Short Term Forecasting of Ship Data

    OpenAIRE

    P.Oliver Jayaprakash; K. Gunasekaran

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting has been the trouble-free way for the port authorities to derive the future expected values of service time of Bulk cargo ships handled at ports of South India. The short term forecasting could be an effective tool for estimating the resource requirements of recurring ships of similar tonnage and Cargo. Forecasting the arrival data related to port based ship operations customarily done using the standard algorithms and assumptions. The regular forecasting methods were decompositio...

  6. Accurate typing of short tandem repeats from genome-wide sequencing data and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Sun, Chen; Harris, Robert; Medvedev, Paul; Eckert, Kristin; Makova, Kateryna D

    2015-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are implicated in dozens of human genetic diseases and contribute significantly to genome variation and instability. Yet profiling STRs from short-read sequencing data is challenging because of their high sequencing error rates. Here, we developed STR-FM, short tandem repeat profiling using flank-based mapping, a computational pipeline that can detect the full spectrum of STR alleles from short-read data, can adapt to emerging read-mapping algorithms, and can be applied to heterogeneous genetic samples (e.g., tumors, viruses, and genomes of organelles). We used STR-FM to study STR error rates and patterns in publicly available human and in-house generated ultradeep plasmid sequencing data sets. We discovered that STRs sequenced with a PCR-free protocol have up to ninefold fewer errors than those sequenced with a PCR-containing protocol. We constructed an error correction model for genotyping STRs that can distinguish heterozygous alleles containing STRs with consecutive repeat numbers. Applying our model and pipeline to Illumina sequencing data with 100-bp reads, we could confidently genotype several disease-related long trinucleotide STRs. Utilizing this pipeline, for the first time we determined the genome-wide STR germline mutation rate from a deeply sequenced human pedigree. Additionally, we built a tool that recommends minimal sequencing depth for accurate STR genotyping, depending on repeat length and sequencing read length. The required read depth increases with STR length and is lower for a PCR-free protocol. This suite of tools addresses the pressing challenges surrounding STR genotyping, and thus is of wide interest to researchers investigating disease-related STRs and STR evolution. © 2015 Fungtammasan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  8. Clinical application of automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Deusch, Dorothee; Schweizer, Roland; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B.; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Bone age (BA) rating is time consuming and highly rater dependent. To adjust the fully automated BoneXpert method to agree with the manual Greulich and Pyle BA (GP BA) ratings of five raters and to validate the accuracy for short children. A total of 1,097 left hand radiographs from 188 children with short stature, including growth hormone deficiency (44%) and Turner syndrome (29%) were evaluated. BoneXpert rejected 14 of the 1,097 radiographs, and deviated by more than 1.9 years from the operator BA for 27 radiographs. These were rerated blindly by four operators. Of the 27 new ratings, 26 were within 1.9 years of the automatic BA values. The root mean square deviation between manual and automatic rating was 0.72 years (95% CI 0.69-0.75). BoneXpert's ability to process 99% of images automatically without errors, and to obtain good agreement with an operator suggests that the method is efficient and reliable for short children. (orig.)

  9. Development and application of the generator for the short-living nuclides production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsejner, A.

    1979-01-01

    The results are stated of investigations by means of radioisotopes on the substance transfer in technological equipment. For these purposes, in most cases, nuclides with high gamma-activity are used and, if possible, having short half-life because the short half-life gives certain advantages in the cases when it is impossible to store radioactive substances in the technological equipment for a long time. It is noted that in connection with short half-life of the nucludes used for labelling and for the economic and radiation safety reasons, activity of these nuclides can not be high. It has been established that the most suitable nuclide for the labelling purpose is lanthanum-140 produced either in a nuclear reactor, or by means of separation from barium=-140 transforming into lanthanum-140 in an isotopic generator. Some methods of lanthanum separation from barium are described, in particular, in the isotopic generator described, barium is adsorbed on the cation-exchanger KPS-200 having high enough stability with respect to the ionozing radiations. As an eluent the 10 -2 M solution of the complexone (Na 2 - EDTA) was used. The complexone solution can be easely obtained and, because of the hydrolysis, it serves as a buffer solution. The data are given for radiation purity and yield of lanthanum-=140 [ru

  10. Clinical application of automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D.; Deusch, Dorothee; Schweizer, Roland; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B. [University Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Endocrinology Section, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2009-06-15

    Bone age (BA) rating is time consuming and highly rater dependent. To adjust the fully automated BoneXpert method to agree with the manual Greulich and Pyle BA (GP BA) ratings of five raters and to validate the accuracy for short children. A total of 1,097 left hand radiographs from 188 children with short stature, including growth hormone deficiency (44%) and Turner syndrome (29%) were evaluated. BoneXpert rejected 14 of the 1,097 radiographs, and deviated by more than 1.9 years from the operator BA for 27 radiographs. These were rerated blindly by four operators. Of the 27 new ratings, 26 were within 1.9 years of the automatic BA values. The root mean square deviation between manual and automatic rating was 0.72 years (95% CI 0.69-0.75). BoneXpert's ability to process 99% of images automatically without errors, and to obtain good agreement with an operator suggests that the method is efficient and reliable for short children. (orig.)

  11. COTS low-cost 622-Mb/s free-space laser communications link for short-distance commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kenneth A.

    2000-05-01

    The results from a low cost 622 Mb/s, free-space laser communication link operating at 850 nm for short distance commercial applications is presented. The test results demonstrate the use of a free-space laser communications transceiver for building to building applications such as LAN, WAN and ATM operations, etc. This illustrates the potential for wide-use commercial computer network applications. The transceiver is constructed of commercial off-the-shelf materials for the development of a low-cost laser communications data link. The test system configuration utilizes standard Personal Computers with network cards and signal conversion cards for the copper to optical medical conversion. These tests precede the development of an increased data rate device operating at 2.5 Gb/s.

  12. Design of a Short/Open-Ended Slot Antenna with Capacitive Coupling Feed Strips for Hepta-Band Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoseung Keum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a planar printed hybrid short/open-ended slot antenna with capacitive coupling feed strips is proposed for hepta-band mobile applications. The proposed antenna is comprised of a slotted ground plane on the top plane and two capacitive coupling feed strips with a chip inductor on the bottom plane. At the low frequency band, the short-ended long slot fed by strip 1 generates its half-wavelength resonance mode, whereas the T-shaped open ended slot fed by strip 2 generates its quarter-wavelength resonance mode for the high frequency band. The antenna provides a wide bandwidth covering GSM850/GSM900/DCS/PCS/UMTS/LTE2300/LTE2500 operation bands. Moreover, the antenna occupies a small volume of 15 mm × 50 mm × 1 mm. The operating principle of the proposed antenna and the simulation/measurement results are presented and discussed.

  13. The application of knemometry to measure childhood short-term growth among the indigenous Shuar of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Knemometry, the precise measurement of lower leg (LL) length, suggests that childhood short-term (e.g., weekly) growth is a dynamic, nonlinear process. However, owing to the large size and complexity of the traditional knemometer device, previous study of short-term growth among children has been restricted predominantly to clinical settings in industrialized Western nations. The aim of the present study is to address this limitation and promote broader understandings of global variation in childhood development by: (1) describing a custom-built portable knemometer and assessing its performance in the field; and (2) demonstrating the potential application of such a device by characterizing childhood short-term LL growth among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Mixed-longitudinal LL length data were collected weekly from 336 Shuar children age 5-12 years old using the custom portable knemometer (n = 1,145 total observations). Device performance and Shuar short-term LL growth were explored using linear mixed effects models and descriptive statistics. The portable knemometer performed well across a range of participant characteristics and possesses a low technical error of measurement of 0.18 mm. Shuar childhood LL growth averages 0.47 mm/week (SD = 0.75 mm/week), but exhibits large between- and within-individual variation. Knemometry can be reliably performed in the field, providing a means for evaluating childhood short-term growth among genetically and ecologically diverse populations. Preliminary findings suggest that Shuar weekly LL growth is comparable in mean magnitude but likely more variable than reported for healthy Western children. Future work will further explore these patterns. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:353-357, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, K P M; Patti, A F; Smernik, R J; Christen, E W; Cavagnaro, T R

    2012-01-30

    Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. (13)C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of Short Message Service and WAP in Operating Remotely Triggered Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Maiti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are becoming more powerful, reliable and common every year. Hence we can use mobile devices for conducting laboratory sessions in distance education. This paper discusses issues of integrating Short Message Service (SMS to operate instruments of hardware-based remotely triggered laboratories. Components of the system include searching an experiment, performing experiment, result handling, error handling and method of exchanging information. It is designed using the National Instruments (NI Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW development system and web services. The scheme will enable students to conduct hardware experiments with mobile devices using SMS from anywhere and anytime.

  16. Application of bridging-law concepts to short-fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhagen, J.E.; Gamstedt, Kristofer; Berglund, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the third paper in a series of four where notch sensitivity, fracture energy and bridging laws are studied in short-fibre polymer composites. Here, bridging laws are derived from experimental crack-opening profiles in centre-hole notched tensile specimens. The materials studied are three...... types of commercial glass-mat composites with different reinforcement structures and matrices. The materials have softening bridging laws and the calculated fracture energies from bridging laws are in good agreement with values determined directly by experiment. The calculated maximum local bridging...

  17. A short synthesis and its application to the preparation of radio labelled leukotriene inhibitor Sch 37224

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duelfer, T.; Gala, D.

    1991-01-01

    A new, short synthesis of 1-(1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxyl-1-phenyl-2-oxo-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)-pyrrolidinium hydroxide, inner salt, 1, was achieved by condensing methyl 2-phenylamino-3-pyridine carboxylate 2 with ethyl 1-pyrrolidine acetate 4. This gave highly pure product in 60% yield. This synthesis was applied to the preparation of 14 C labelled 1. Radiolabelled 1 was synthesized from u-[ 14 C]-aniline in three steps at 97% radiochemical purity and 27.3% radiochemical yield. (author)

  18. IEEE NSS 2008 Short Course: How to use the Grid for Physics and Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, J T; Lechner, A

    2008-01-01

    This course is intended to introduce the Grid technology to scientists and engineers with no experience in this field. Participants will gain practical skills on how to quickly make use of distributed computing resources for their applications. The class begins will an introduction to the Grid technology and an overview of existing Grid applications. A case study will show the details of a real medical Geant 4 simulation running on the Grid. Hands-on exercises will give practical experience with using the application oriented tools such as Ganga (http://cern.ch/ganga) and DIANE (http://cern.ch/diane) to support solving scientific problems. The participants will have an opportunity to get involved into using the Grid beyond the scope of the course and get further support for their applications.

  19. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  20. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  1. Application of Copper Cladding Aluminum Composites in UHV Portable Earthing and Short-circuiting Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the heavy weight and inconvenience when carrying and installing copper earthing wires on the UHV transmission lines, in this paper, we present the use of copper clad aluminum(CCA composite materials as a lightweight method for UHV earthing wire conductor. Theoretical calculations and tests of the fusing current in a short time for copper and CCA material are conducted. The results show that the theoretical value of the earthing wire conductor's fusing current corresponds with the test value on condition of the conductor cross section greater than 4mm2 as well as fusing time less than 1.5s. The CCA-10 earthing wires get 36.2% weight reduction compared with copper wires.

  2. Very Short-term Nonparametric Probabilistic Forecasting of Renewable Energy Generation - with Application to Solar Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Gooi, Hoay Beng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in renewable energy forecasting, uncertainty quantification is a key input to maintain acceptable levels of reliability and profitability in power system operation. A proposal is formulated and evaluated here for the case of solar power generation, when only...... approach to generate very short-term predictive densities, i.e., for lead times between a few minutes to one hour ahead, with fast frequency updates. We rely on an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) as a fast regression model, trained in varied ways to obtain both point and quantile forecasts of solar power...... generation. Four probabilistic methods are implemented as benchmarks. Rival approaches are evaluated based on a number of test cases for two solar power generation sites in different climatic regions, allowing us to show that our approach results in generation of skilful and reliable probabilistic forecasts...

  3. Evaluation of 13 short tandem repeated loci for use in personal identification applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, H.A.; Caskey, C.T. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Jin, L.; Zhong, Y.; Chakraborty, R. (Univ. of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Personal identification by using DNA typing methodologies has been an issue in the popular and scientific press for several years. The authors present a PCR-based DNA-typing method using 13 unlinked short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Validation of the loci and methodology has been performed to meet standards set by the forensic community and the accrediting organization for parentage testing. Extensive statistical analysis has addressed the issues surrounding the presentation of [open quotes]match[close quotes] statistics. The authors have found STR loci to provide a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method of DNA typing for parentage testing, forensic identification, and medical diagnostics. Valid statistical analysis is generally simpler than similar analysis of RFLP-VNTR results and provides powerful statistical evidence of the low frequency of random multilocus genotype matching. 54 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Structure factor of polymers interacting via a short range repulsive potential: Application to hairy wormlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiera, Gladys; Ramos, Laurence; Ligoure, Christian; Pitard, Estelle

    2003-01-01

    We use the random phase approximation to compute the structure factor S(q) of a solution of chains interacting through a soft and short range repulsive potential V. Above a threshold polymer concentration, whose magnitude is essentially controlled by the range of the potential, S(q) exhibits a peak whose position depends on the concentration. We take advantage of the close analogy between polymers and wormlike micelles and apply our model, using a Gaussian function for V, to quantitatively analyze experimental small angle neutron scattering profiles of solutions of hairy wormlike micelles. These samples, which consist in surfactant self-assembled flexible cylinders decorated by amphiphilic copolymer, provide indeed an appropriate experimental model system to study the structure of sterically interacting polymer solutions

  5. Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Pivovaroff, Mike J.; Soufli, Regina; Alameda, Jennifer; Mirkarimi, Paul; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Baker, Sherry L.; McCarville, Tom; Ziock, Klaus; Hornback, Donald; Romaine, Suzanne; Bruni, Ric; Zhong, Zhong; Honkimäki, Veijo; Ziegler, Eric; Christensen, Finn E.; Jakobsen, Anders C.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings enhance x-ray mirror performance at incidence angles steeper than the critical angle, allowing for improved flux, design flexibility and facilitating alignment. In an attempt to extend the use of multilayer coatings to photon energies higher than previously achieved, we have developed multilayers with ultra-short periods between 1 and 2 nm based on the material system WC/SiC. This material system was selected because it possesses very sharp and stable interfaces. In this article, we show highlights from a series of experiments performed in order to characterize the stress, microstructure and morphology of the multilayer films, as well as their reflective performance at photon energies from 8 to 384 keV

  6. Complex Lyapunov exponents from short and noisy sets of data. Application to stability analysis of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Ginestar, D.; Bovea, M.D.; Jimenez, P.; Pena, J.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics reconstruction techniques have been applied to systems as BWRs with a big amount of noise. The success of this methodology was limited due to the noise in the signals. Recently, new techniques have been introduced for short and noisy data sets based on a global fit of the signal by means of orthonormal polynomials. In this paper, we revisit these ideas in order to adapt them for the analysis of the neutronic power signals to characterize the stability regime of BWR reactors. To check the performance of the methodology, we have analyzed simulated noisy signals, observing that the method works well, even with a big amount of noise. Also, we have analyzed experimental signals from Ringhals 1 BWR. In this case, the reconstructed phase space for the system is not very good. A modal decomposition treatment for the signals is proposed producing signals with better behaviour. (author)

  7. Sequential Injection Chromatography with an Ultra-short Monolithic Column for the Low-Pressure Separation of α-Tocopherol and γ-Oryzanol in Vegetable Oils and Nutrition Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaithet, Sujitra; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    A low-pressure separation procedure of α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol was developed based on a sequential injection chromatography (SIC) system coupled with an ultra-short (5 mm) C-18 monolithic column, as a lower cost and more compact alternative to the HPLC system. A green sample preparation, dilution with a small amount of hexane followed by liquid-liquid extraction with 80% ethanol, was proposed. Very good separation resolution (R s = 3.26), a satisfactory separation time (10 min) and a total run time including column equilibration (16 min) were achieved. The linear working range was found to be 0.4 - 40 μg with R 2 being more than 0.99. The detection limits of both analytes were 0.28 μg with the repeatability within 5% RSD (n = 7). Quantitative analyses of the two analytes in vegetable oil and nutrition supplement samples, using the proposed SIC method, agree well with the results from HPLC.

  8. [Advances in application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 system in stem cells research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S J; Huo, J H; Geng, Z J; Sun, X Y; Fu, X B

    2018-04-20

    Gene engineering has attracted worldwide attention because of its ability of precise location of disease mutations in genome. As a new gene editing technology, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system is simple, fast, and accurate to operate at a specific gene site. It overcomes the long-standing problem of conventional operation. At the same time, stem cells are a good foundation for establishing disease model in vitro. Therefore, it has great significance to combine stem cells with the rapidly developing gene manipulation techniques. In this review, we mainly focus on the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its application in stem cell genomic editing, so as to pave the way for promoting rapid application and development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

  9. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  10. TDMA X-band FMCW MIMO radar for short range surveillance applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Maas, A.P.M.; Hoogeboom, P.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was aimed at the design of a compact radar device to be used for private area surveillance applications. The radar is connected to a pan tilt zoom camera and it provides the camera system with high accuracy position information (bearing and range) of moving targets;

  11. Short-peptide-based molecular hydrogels: novel gelation strategies and applications for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaimin; Yang, Zhimou

    2012-08-01

    Molecular hydrogels hold big potential for tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery. Our lab focuses on short-peptide-based molecular hydrogels formed by biocompatible methods and their applications in tissue engineering (especially, 3D cell culture) and controlled drug delivery. This feature article firstly describes our recent progresses of the development of novel methods to form hydrogels, including the strategy of disulfide bond reduction and assistance with specific protein-peptide interactions. We then introduce the applications of our hydrogels in fields of controlled stem cell differentiation, cell culture, surface modifications of polyester materials by molecular self-assembly, and anti-degradation of recombinant complex proteins. A novel molecular hydrogel system of hydrophobic compounds that are only formed by hydrolysis processes was also included in this article. The hydrogels of hydrophobic compounds, especially those of hydrophobic therapeutic agents, may be developed into a carrier-free delivery system for long term delivery of therapeutic agents. With the efforts in this field, we believe that molecular hydrogels formed by short peptides and hydrophobic therapeutic agents can be practically applied for 3D cell culture and long term drug delivery in near future, respectively.

  12. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  13. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. A Short Introduction to Arterial Spin Labeling and its Application to Flow Territory Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, T; Helle, M; Jansen, O

    2015-10-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an emerging method for the assessment of perfusion in various diseases of the brain. In ASL, the magnetization of arterial blood water spins is manipulated in a complete non-invasive way before flowing into the tissue of interest. This allows absolute quantification of cerebral blood flow, thereby, presenting an alternative to contrast-enhanced methods based on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, its potential application for flow territory mapping can provide additional information of the individual configuration of intracerebral blood flow. This article gives a brief overview of the basic ASL methodology and its approaches to image individual perfusion territories. Additionally, the utilization of ASL in a variety of cerebrovascular diseases is presented to provide examples of potential applications of (territorial) ASL in clinical routine.

  15. Application of a Shallow Neural Network to Short-Term Stock Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Madahar, Abhinav; Ma, Yuze; Patel, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is increasingly prevalent in stock market trading. Though neural networks have seen success in computer vision and natural language processing, they have not been as useful in stock market trading. To demonstrate the applicability of a neural network in stock trading, we made a single-layer neural network that recommends buying or selling shares of a stock by comparing the highest high of 10 consecutive days with that of the next 10 days, a process repeated for the stock's ye...

  16. Time-Series Prediction: Application to the Short-Term Electric Energy Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso Lora, Alicia; Riquelme Santos, Jesús Manuel; Riquelme Santos, José Cristóbal; Gómez Expósito, Antonio; Martínez Ramos, José Luis

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a time-series prediction method based on the kNN technique. The proposed methodology is applied to the 24-hour load forecasting problem. Also, based on recorded data, an alternative model is developed by means of a conventional dynamic regression technique, where the parameters are estimated by solving a least squares problem. Finally, results obtained from the application of both techniques to the Spanish transmission system are compared in terms of maximum, average and ...

  17. Efficacy and cytotoxicity of a bleaching gel after short application times on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; da Silveira Vargas, Fernanda; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and correlate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of a 35 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gel after different application times on dental enamel. Enamel/dentin disks in artificial pulp chambers were placed in wells containing culture medium. The following groups were formed: G1, control (no bleaching); G2 and G3, three or one 15-min bleaching applications, respectively; and G4 and G5, three or one 5-min bleaching applications, respectively. Extracts (culture medium with bleaching gel components) were applied for 60 min on cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Cell metabolism (methyl tetrazolium assay) (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %) and cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) were analyzed immediately after the bleaching procedures and the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal HP diffusion quantified (one-way analysis of variance/Tukey's test; α = 5 %). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was evaluated 24 h after the contact time of the extracts with the cells (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %). Tooth color was analyzed before and 24 h after bleaching using a spectrophotometer according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* system (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 0.05). Significant difference (p 0.05). The lowest amount of HP diffusion was observed in G5 (p 0.05). HP diffusion through dental tissues and its cytotoxic effects were proportional to the contact time of the bleaching gel with enamel. However, shorter bleaching times reduced bleaching efficacy. Shortening the in-office tooth bleaching time could be an alternative to minimize the cytotoxic effects of this clinical procedure to pulp tissue. However, the reduced time of bleaching agent application on enamel may not provide adequate esthetic outcome.

  18. A simple model for predicting solute concentration in agricultural tile lines shortly after application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Steenhuis

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tile drainage lines have been implicated as a source of pesticide contamination of surface waters. Field experiments were conducted and a simple model was developed to examine preferential transport of applied chemicals to agricultural tile lines. The conceptual model consists of two linear reservoirs, one near the soil surface and one near the tile drain. The connection between the two reservoirs is via preferential flow paths with very little interaction with the soil matrix. The model assumes that only part of the field contributes solutes to the tile drain. The model was evaluated with data from the field experiments in which chloride, 2,4-D, and atrazine concentrations were measured on eight tile-drained plots that were irrigated twice. Atrazine was applied two months prior to the experiment, 2,4-D was sprayed just before the first irrigation, and chloride before the second irrigation. All three chemicals were found in the tile effluent shortly after the rainfall began. Generally, the concentration increased with increased flow rates and decreased exponentially after the rainfall ceased. Although the simple model could simulate the observed chloride concentration patterns in the tile outflow for six of the eight plots, strict validation was not possible because of the difficulty with independent measurement of the data needed for a preferential flow model applied to field conditions. The results show that, to simulate pesticide concentration in tile lines, methods that can measure field averaged preferential flow characteristics need to be developed.

  19. Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas

    2016-01-01

    Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during...... four days in May 2014 to monitor the wind field in the horizontal plane upstream of the bridge deck. Wind records obtained by five sonic anemometers mounted on the West side of the bridge are used as reference data. Single- and two-point statistics of wind turbulence are studied, with special emphasis...

  20. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao; Liang, Liheng

    2014-01-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300∼2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R 2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R 2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil

  1. A tunable continuous wave (CW) and short-pulse optical source for THz brain imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakopoulos, P; Karanasiou, I; Zakynthinos, P; Uzunoglu, N; Avramopoulos, H; Pleros, N

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate recent advances toward the development of a novel 2D THz imaging system for brain imaging applications both at the macroscopic and at the bimolecular level. A frequency-synthesized THz source based on difference frequency generation between optical wavelengths is presented, utilizing supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear optical fiber with subsequent spectral carving by means of a fiber Fabry–Perot filter. Experimental results confirm the successful generation of THz radiation in the range of 0.2–2 THz, verifying the enhanced frequency tunability properties of the proposed system. Finally, the roadmap toward capturing functional brain information by exploiting THz imaging technologies is discussed, outlining the unique advantages offered by THz frequencies and their complementarity with existing brain imaging techniques

  2. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-01-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino, and Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems

  3. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  4. Development of a coherent THz radiation source based on the ultra-short electron beam and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, R.; Yasumoto, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Sei, N.; Koike, M.; Yamada, K.

    2011-01-01

    At the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), a coherent terahertz (THz) radiation source has been developed based on an ultra-short electron beam using an S-band compact electron linac. The designed THz pulse has a high peak power of more than 1 kW in the frequency range 0.1-2 THz. The entire system is located in one research room of about 10 m square. The linac consists of a laser photocathode rf gun (BNL type) with a Cs 2 Te photocathode load-lock system and two 1.5-m-long S-band accelerator tubes. The electron beam can be accelerated up to approximately 42 MeV. The electron bunch was compressed to less than 1 ps (rms) with a magnetic bunch compressor. The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of the THz region was generated from the ultra-short electron bunch at the 90 o bending magnet, and it was extracted from a z-cut quartz window for THz applications. In this work, the THz scanning transmission imaging was successfully demonstrated for measuring the freshness of a vegetable leaf over a period of time.

  5. Visible, Very Near IR and Short Wave IR Hyperspectral Drone Imaging System for Agriculture and Natural Water Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, H.; Akujärvi, A.; Holmlund, C.; Ojanen, H.; Kaivosoja, J.; Nissinen, A.; Niemeläinen, O.

    2017-10-01

    The accurate determination of the quality parameters of crops requires a spectral range from 400 nm to 2500 nm (Kawamura et al., 2010, Thenkabail et al., 2002). Presently the hyperspectral imaging systems that cover this wavelength range consist of several separate hyperspectral imagers and the system weight is from 5 to 15 kg. In addition the cost of the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) cameras is high (  50 k€). VTT has previously developed compact hyperspectral imagers for drones and Cubesats for Visible and Very near Infrared (VNIR) spectral ranges (Saari et al., 2013, Mannila et al., 2013, Näsilä et al., 2016). Recently VTT has started to develop a hyperspectral imaging system that will enable imaging simultaneously in the Visible, VNIR, and SWIR spectral bands. The system can be operated from a drone, on a camera stand, or attached to a tractor. The targeted main applications of the DroneKnowledge hyperspectral system are grass, peas, and cereals. In this paper the characteristics of the built system are shortly described. The system was used for spectral measurements of wheat, several grass species and pea plants fixed to the camera mount in the test fields in Southern Finland and in the green house. The wheat, grass and pea field measurements were also carried out using the system mounted on the tractor. The work is part of the Finnish nationally funded DroneKnowledge - Towards knowledge based export of small UAS remote sensing technology project.

  6. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  7. Noise model based ν-support vector regression with its application to short-term wind speed forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinghua; Zhang, Shiguang; Xie, Zongxia; Mi, Jusheng; Wan, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Support vector regression (SVR) techniques are aimed at discovering a linear or nonlinear structure hidden in sample data. Most existing regression techniques take the assumption that the error distribution is Gaussian. However, it was observed that the noise in some real-world applications, such as wind power forecasting and direction of the arrival estimation problem, does not satisfy Gaussian distribution, but a beta distribution, Laplacian distribution, or other models. In these cases the current regression techniques are not optimal. According to the Bayesian approach, we derive a general loss function and develop a technique of the uniform model of ν-support vector regression for the general noise model (N-SVR). The Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method is introduced to solve N-SVR. Numerical experiments on artificial data sets, UCI data and short-term wind speed prediction are conducted. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. One-level modeling for diagnosing surface winds over complex terrain. II - Applicability to short-range forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Getenio, B.; Zak-Rosenthal, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Alpert and Getenio (1988) modification of the Mass and Dempsey (1985) one-level sigma-surface model was used to study four synoptic events that included two winter cases (a Cyprus low and a Siberian high) and two summer cases. Results of statistical verification showed that the model is not only capable of diagnosing many details of surface mesoscale flow, but might also be useful for various applications which require operative short-range prediction of the diurnal changes of high-resolution surface flow over complex terrain, for example, in locating wildland fires, determining the dispersion of air pollutants, and predicting changes in wind energy or of surface wind for low-level air flights.

  9. Applications of ultra-short pulsed laser ablation: thin films deposition and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R; De Bonis, A; Galasso, A; Santagata, A; Albano, G; Villani, P; Spera, D; Parisi, G P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report a survey of two of the large number of possible practical applications of the laser ablation performed by an ultra-short pulse laser, namely pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). These applications differ from those using just longer pulsed lasers as a consequence of the distinctive characteristics of the plasma produced by ultra-short laser beams. The most important feature of this plasma is the large presence of particles with nanometric size which plays a fundamental role in both applications.

  10. A Thermal Energy Recovery System and its Applications in Building (A Short Comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Chavoshani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a heat recovery system from oil heater as a water heater is proposed and analyzed. The potential of heat recovery is studied technically and economically. A model was built and experiments on it are discussed. Recovery of waste heat from the oil heater stack and its application in building is proven to be economically beneficial. The most part of this apparatus was a double-walled tanks and oil heater stack act as firebox for water heater. This tank with 200 liters volume was made of galvanized iron sheets and painted with black color for adsorption of solar radiation. The tank of water heater was filled with 12-15○C water. Sampling was performed at 8 in the morning to 8 at night during one week. The analysis results show that the heat recovery system is recognized as a well option for the examined residential building from both economic and environmental points of view. With the operation considering optimal economic benefits, cost is reduced by about 50%. With maximizing the environmental advantages, CO2 emissions are decreased.

  11. Short term serum pharmacokinetics of diammine silver fluoride after oral application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elsa; Zegarra, Graciela; Chirinos, Edgar; Castillo, Jorge L; Taves, Donald R; Watson, Gene E; Dills, Russell; Mancl, Lloyd L; Milgrom, Peter

    2012-12-31

    There is growing interest in the use of diammine silver fluoride (DSF) as a topical agent to treat dentin hypersensitivity and dental caries as gauged by increasing published research from many parts of the world. While DSF has been available in various formulations for many years, most of its pharmacokinetic aspects within the therapeutic concentration range have never been fully characterized. This preliminary study determined the applied doses (3 teeth treated), maximum serum concentrations, and time to maximum serum concentration for fluoride and silver in 6 adults over 4 h. Fluoride was determined using the indirect diffusion method with a fluoride selective electrode, and silver was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The mean amount of DSF solution applied to the 3 teeth was 7.57 mg (6.04 μL). Over the 4 hour observation period, the mean maximum serum concentrations were 1.86 μmol/L for fluoride and 206 nmol/L for silver. These maximums were reached 3.0 h and 2.5 h for fluoride and silver, respectively. Fluoride exposure was below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) oral reference dose. Silver exposure exceeded the EPA oral reference dose for cumulative daily exposure over a lifetime, but for occasional use was well below concentrations associated with toxicity. This preliminary study suggests that serum concentrations of fluoride and silver after topical application of DSF should pose little toxicity risk when used in adults. NCT01664871.

  12. Application of short-range photogrammetry for monitoring seepage erosion of riverbank by laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, A.; Noorzad, A.; Majdzadeh Tabatabai, M. R.; Samadi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Temporal and spatial monitoring play a significant role in evaluating and examining the riverbank morphology and its spatiotemporal changes. Unlike the terrestrial laser scanners, other previously used methods such as satellite images, total station surveying, and erosion pins have limited application to quantify the small-scale bank variations due to the lack of rapid survey and resolution in data acquisition. High cost, lack of availability, specialized equipment and hard movement of laser scanners make it necessary to develop new accurate, economical and easily available methods. The present study aims to test the Kinect photogrametric technology for measuring and assessing riverbank variations in laboratory environment. For this purpose, three models of layered soil blocks for three different levels of groundwater (i.e. 24, 34 and 44 cm) were designed to investigate the seepage erosion behavior experimentally. The results indicate the high accuracy of Kinect in measuring the bank erosion cavity dimensions (i.e., 0.5% error) with high spatial resolution data (i.e. 300,000 points per frame). The high speed of Kinect in riverbank scanning enables the analysis of time variations of mechanisms such as seepage erosion which occurs rather rapidly. The results confirmed that there is a power relationship between the seepage gradient and the time of the bank failure with a determination coefficient of 0.97. Moreover, an increase in the level of groundwater on the riverbank increases the rate of undercutting retreat that caused more rapid failure of the riverbank.

  13. Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob; Hansen, Per; Angelou, Nikolas; Svardal, Benny

    2016-12-01

    Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during four days in May 2014 to monitor the wind field in the horizontal plane upstream of the bridge deck. Wind records obtained by five sonic anemometers mounted on the West side of the bridge are used as reference data. Single- and two-point statistics of wind turbulence are studied, with special emphasis on the root-coherence and the co-coherence of turbulence. A four-parameter decaying exponential function has been fitted to the measured co-coherence, and a good agreement is observed between data obtained by the sonic anemometers and the lidars. The root-coherence of turbulence is compared to theoretical models. The analytical predictions agree rather well with the measured coherence for the along-wind component. For increasing wavenumbers, larger discrepancies are, however, noticeable between the measured coherence and the theoretical predictions. The WindScanners are observed to slightly overestimate the integral length scales, which could not be explained by the laser beam averaging effect alone. On the other hand, the spatial averaging effect does not seem to have any significant effect on the coherence.

  14. Efficacy and safety of short-term application of pranoprofen eye drops for senile patients with dry eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chan Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the efficacy and safety of short-term application of pranoprofen eye drops in the treatment of dry eyes in senile patients. METHODS: Totally 100 elderly patients with dry eyes treated in our hospital from June 2016 to May 2017 were randomly divided into 2 groups. All cases were bilateral onset, and the right eyes were marked as the observation eyes. The 50 eyes in the observation group were treated with 1g/L pranoprofen eye drops combined with 1g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops, while 50 in the control group were treated with 1g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops. The results of Schirmer Ⅰ, ocular surface disease index(OSDI, break-up time(BUT, ocular surface staining(OSS, human leukocyte antigen-DR(HLA-DRand CD11b in conjunctival epithelial cells before and at 2wk after treatment, and adverse reactions in 2 groups were observed. RESULTS: Before treatment, results of Schirmer I, OSDI, BUT, OSS, HLA-DR and CD11b in the two groups were similar, there were no statistically significant differences(P>0.05. After treatment, OSDI, OSS, HLA-DR, CD11b significantly decreased, BUT significantly increased in both groups, the differences were statistically significant(PPPCONCLUSION: Short term application of pranoprofen eye drops can effectively enhance the efficacy in treating elderly patients with dry eyes, release clinical symptoms, and the therapeutic mechanism may be related to the inhibitory effect on HLA-DR.

  15. Short term serum pharmacokinetics of diammine silver fluoride after oral application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasquez Elsa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the use of diammine silver fluoride (DSF as a topical agent to treat dentin hypersensitivity and dental caries as gauged by increasing published research from many parts of the world. While DSF has been available in various formulations for many years, most of its pharmacokinetic aspects within the therapeutic concentration range have never been fully characterized. Methods This preliminary study determined the applied doses (3 teeth treated, maximum serum concentrations, and time to maximum serum concentration for fluoride and silver in 6 adults over 4 h. Fluoride was determined using the indirect diffusion method with a fluoride selective electrode, and silver was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The mean amount of DSF solution applied to the 3 teeth was 7.57 mg (6.04 μL. Results Over the 4 hour observation period, the mean maximum serum concentrations were 1.86 μmol/L for fluoride and 206 nmol/L for silver. These maximums were reached 3.0 h and 2.5 h for fluoride and silver, respectively. Conclusions Fluoride exposure was below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA oral reference dose. Silver exposure exceeded the EPA oral reference dose for cumulative daily exposure over a lifetime, but for occasional use was well below concentrations associated with toxicity. This preliminary study suggests that serum concentrations of fluoride and silver after topical application of DSF should pose little toxicity risk when used in adults. Clinical trials registration NCT01664871.

  16. Application of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography for the determination of carotenoids in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhao, Haiyan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Fan, Sai; Wu, Guohua; Zhao, Rong

    2015-12-18

    A quick and simple ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-photodiode array detector method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 9 carotenoids in dietary supplements. The influences of stationary phase, co-solvent, pressure, temperature and flow rate on the separation of carotenoids were evaluated. The separation of the carotenoids was carried out using an Acquity UPC(2) HSS C18 SB column (150mm×3.0mm, 1.8μm) by gradient elution with carbon dioxide and a 1:2 (v:v) methanol/ethanol mixture. The column temperature was set to 35°C and the backpressure was 15.2MPa. Under these conditions, 9 carotenoids and the internal standard, β-apo-8'-carotenal, were successfully separated within 10min. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) of the calibration curves were all above 0.997, the limits of detection for the 9 carotenoids were in the range of 0.33-1.08μg/mL, and the limits of quantification were in the range of 1.09-3.58μg/mL. The mean recoveries were from 93.4% to 109.5% at different spiking levels, and the relative standard deviations were between 0.8% and 6.0%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of 9 carotenoids in commercial dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards Development of Clustering Applications for Large-Scale Comparative Genotyping and Kinship Analysis Using Y-Short Tandem Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Ali; Sapawi, Azizian Mohd; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2015-06-01

    Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification. However, where mass identification is required (e.g., in the aftermath of disasters with significant fatalities), the efficiency of the process could be improved with new statistical approaches. Clustering applications are relatively new tools for large-scale comparative genotyping, and the k-Approximate Modal Haplotype (k-AMH), an efficient algorithm for clustering large-scale Y-STR data, represents a promising method for developing these tools. In this study we improved the k-AMH and produced three new algorithms: the Nk-AMH I (including a new initial cluster center selection), the Nk-AMH II (including a new dominant weighting value), and the Nk-AMH III (combining I and II). The Nk-AMH III was the superior algorithm, with mean clustering accuracy that increased in four out of six datasets and remained at 100% in the other two. Additionally, the Nk-AMH III achieved a 2% higher overall mean clustering accuracy score than the k-AMH, as well as optimal accuracy for all datasets (0.84-1.00). With inclusion of the two new methods, the Nk-AMH III produced an optimal solution for clustering Y-STR data; thus, the algorithm has potential for further development towards fully automatic clustering of any large-scale genotypic data.

  18. Definition of the applicability domain of the Short Time Exposure (STE) test for predicting the eye irritation of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Abo, Takayuki; Nukada, Yuko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    The Short Time Exposure (STE) test is a simple and easy-to-perform in vitro eye irritation test, that uses the viability of SIRC cells (a rabbit corneal cell line) treated for five minutes as the endpoint. In this study, our goal was to define the applicability domain of the STE test, based on the results obtained with a set of 113 substances. To achieve this goal, chemicals were selected to represent both different chemical classes and different chemical properties, as well as to cover, in a balanced manner, the categories of eye irritation potential according to the Globally Harmonised System (GHS). Accuracy analysis indicated that the rates of false negatives for organic/inorganic salts (75.0%), hydrocarbons (33.3%) and alcohols (23.5%) were high. Many of the false negative results were for solid substances. It is noteworthy that no surfactant resulted in a false negative result in the STE test. Further examination of the physical property data and performance showed a significant improvement in the predictive accuracy, when substances with vapour pressures over 6kPa were excluded from the analyses. Our results indicate that several substances - i.e. certain solids such as salts, alcohols, hydrocarbons, and volatile substances with a vapour pressure over 6kPa - do not fall within the applicability domain of the STE test. Overall, we are encouraged by the performance and improved accuracy of the STE test. 2013 FRAME.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  20. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C. [Colorado State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  1. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Rosell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p < 0.05 increase of the specific volume, crust darkening, and crumb lightness, depending on the dairy supplementation level, rather than the protein type. Dairy proteins incorporated at a 12% level, significantly (p < 0.05 decreased the hardness; nevertheless, the highest amount of proteins tested led to the opposite effect. These results indicate that milk proteins tested could be successfully added to gluten-free bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties.

  2. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  3. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    concerns surrounding allocation concealment. There were no significant differences between people receiving supplements or dietary advice alone for change in weight, height, body mass index, z score or other indices of nutrition or growth. Changes in weight (kg) at three, six and 12 months respectively were: mean difference (MD) 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09 to 0.72); MD 0.47 (95% CI -0.07 to 1.02 ); and MD 0.16 (-0.68 to 1.00). Total calorie intake was greater in people taking supplements at 12 months, MD 265.70 (95% CI 42.94 to 488.46). There were no significant differences between the groups for anthropometric measures of body composition, lung function, gastro-intestinal adverse effects or activity levels. Moderate quality evidence exists for the outcomes of changes in weight and height and low quality evidence exists for the outcomes of change in total calories, total fat and total protein intake as results are applicable only to children between the ages of 2 and 15 years and many post-treatment diet diaries were not returned. Evidence for the rate of adverse events in the treatment groups was extremely limited and judged to be of very low quality AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Oral calorie supplements do not confer any additional benefit in the nutritional management of moderately malnourished children with cystic fibrosis over and above the use of dietary advice and monitoring alone. While nutritional supplements may be used, they should not be regarded as essential. Further randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the role of short-term oral protein energy supplements in people with cystic fibrosis and acute weight loss and also for the long-term nutritional management of adults with cystic fibrosis or advanced lung disease, or both.

  4. The effectiveness of a mobile application for the development of palpation and ultrasound imaging skills to supplement the traditional learning of physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Caro-Morán, Elena; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-19

    Mobile learning (m-learning) has becoming very popular in education due to the rapidly advancing technology in our society. The potentials of the mobile applications should be used to enhance the education process. Few mobile applications have been designed to complement the study of physical therapy skills for physiotherapy students. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile application, as a supplement to traditional learning, is useful for physiotherapy students in the acquisition of palpation and ultrasound skills in the shoulder area. Forty-nine students participated in this single-blinded, randomized controlled study. They were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental, with free access to the mobile application; and control, with access to traditional learning materials on the topic. Objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) and multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) were used to assess the educational intervention. Then, we also assessed the time taken to get a reliable ultrasound image and to localize a specific shoulder structure by palpation. There was no significant intergroup difference in the acquisition of theoretical knowledge (p = .089). Scores were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group for the majority items in the ultrasound assessment; positioning of patient (p physiotherapy students.

  5. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  6. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-03-15

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  7. Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low power radio frequency (RF transceivers used in short-range application such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs require efficient, reliable and fully integrated transmitter architectures with minimal building blocks. This paper presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of single-chip, fully integrated 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz RF transmitters using direct-modulation power voltage-controlled oscillators (PVCOs in addition to a 2.0 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL based transmitter. All three RF transmitters have been fabricated in a standard mixed-signal CMOS 0.18 µm technology. Measurement results of the 2.4 GHz transmitter show an improvement in drain efficiency from 27% to 36%. The 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz transmitters deliver an output power of 8 dBm with a phase noise of −122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 15.4 mA of current and an output power of 6.5 dBm with a phase noise of −120 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 20.8 mA of current from 1.5 V power supplies, respectively. The PLL transmitter delivers an output power of 9 mW with a locking range of 128 MHz and consumes 26 mA from 1.8 V power supply. The experimental results demonstrate that the RF transmitters can be efficiently used in low power WSN applications.

  8. Alignment of Short Reads: A Crucial Step for Application of Next-Generation Sequencing Data in Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision medicine or personalized medicine has been proposed as a modernized and promising medical strategy. Genetic variants of patients are the key information for implementation of precision medicine. Next-generation sequencing (NGS is an emerging technology for deciphering genetic variants. Alignment of raw reads to a reference genome is one of the key steps in NGS data analysis. Many algorithms have been developed for alignment of short read sequences since 2008. Users have to make a decision on which alignment algorithm to use in their studies. Selection of the right alignment algorithm determines not only the alignment algorithm but also the set of suitable parameters to be used by the algorithm. Understanding these algorithms helps in selecting the appropriate alignment algorithm for different applications in precision medicine. Here, we review current available algorithms and their major strategies such as seed-and-extend and q-gram filter. We also discuss the challenges in current alignment algorithms, including alignment in multiple repeated regions, long reads alignment and alignment facilitated with known genetic variants.

  9. Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent and non-linear fractal extrapolation algorithm to short-term load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianzhou; Jia Ruiling; Zhao Weigang; Wu Jie; Dong Yao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The maximal predictive step size is determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent. ► A proper forecasting step size is applied to load demand forecasting. ► The improved approach is validated by the actual load demand data. ► Non-linear fractal extrapolation method is compared with three forecasting models. ► Performance of the models is evaluated by three different error measures. - Abstract: Precise short-term load forecasting (STLF) plays a key role in unit commitment, maintenance and economic dispatch problems. Employing a subjective and arbitrary predictive step size is one of the most important factors causing the low forecasting accuracy. To solve this problem, the largest Lyapunov exponent is adopted to estimate the maximal predictive step size so that the step size in the forecasting is no more than this maximal one. In addition, in this paper a seldom used forecasting model, which is based on the non-linear fractal extrapolation (NLFE) algorithm, is considered to develop the accuracy of predictions. The suitability and superiority of the two solutions are illustrated through an application to real load forecasting using New South Wales electricity load data from the Australian National Electricity Market. Meanwhile, three forecasting models: the gray model, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average approach and the support vector machine method, which received high approval in STLF, are selected to compare with the NLFE algorithm. Comparison results also show that the NLFE model is outstanding, effective, practical and feasible.

  10. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06).

  11. Application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ali; Araghi, Mahmood Tavakoli; Shamsabadi, Fatemeh; Bayat, Mahdiye; Dabirkhani, Fatemeh; Moradpour, Farhad; Mansori, Kamyar; Moradi, Yousef; Rajabi, Abdolhalim

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a prevalent disease in the elderly, and negatively influences patients' quality of life. This study was conducted to study the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. In this cross-sectional study, 300 patients with cataract were studied in Neyshabur, Iran from July to October 2014. The Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age of the participants was 68.11±11.98 years, and most were female (53%). The overall observed Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the WHOQOL-BREF was 0.889, ranging from 0.714 to 0.810 in its four domains. The total mean score of the respondents on the WHOQOL-BREF was 13.19. The highest and lowest mean scores were observed in the social relationship domain (14.11) and the physical health domain (12.29), respectively. A backward multiple linear regression model found that duration of disease and marital status were associated with total WHOQOL scores, while age, duration of disease, marital status, and income level were associated with domains one through four, respectively (pmeasurement of the quality of life of patients with cataract. It was also found that the patients with cataract who were surveyed reported a relatively moderate quality of life.

  12. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Projected Applications of a "Weather in a Box" Computing System at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT)'s new "Weather in a Box" resources will provide weather research and forecast modeling capabilities for real-time application. Model output will provide additional forecast guidance and research into the impacts of new NASA satellite data sets and software capabilities. By combining several research tools and satellite products, SPoRT can generate model guidance that is strongly influenced by unique NASA contributions.

  10. Ecotoxicological evaluation of the short term effects of fresh and stabilized textile sludges before application in forest soil restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Edson V.C.; Giuradelli, Thayse M.; Correa, Albertina X.R.; Roerig, Leonardo R.; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Resgalla, Charrid; Radetski, Claudemir M.

    2007-01-01

    The short term (eco)toxicity potential of fresh and stabilized textile sludges, as well as the short term (eco)toxicity of leachates obtained from both fresh and stabilized textile sludges, was evaluated by a battery of toxicity tests carried out with bacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, earthworms, and higher plants. The (eco)toxicological results showed that, after 120 d of stabilization, the experimental loading ratio of 25% sludge:75% soil (v/v) (equivalent to 64.4 ton/ha) did not significantly increase toxicity effects and increased significantly the biomass yield for earthworms and higher plants. The rank of biological sensitivity endpoints was: Algae ∼ Plant biomass > Plant germination ∼ Daphnids > Bacteria ∼ Fish > Annelids. The lack of short term toxicity effects and the stimulant effect observed with higher plants and earthworms are good indications of the fertilizer/conditioner potential of this industrial waste, which after stabilization can be used in the restoration of a non-productive forest soil. - Short term ecotoxicity evaluation of textile sludge showed that stabilized sludge can be used in the restoration of a non-productive forest soil

  11. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  12. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  13. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  14. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Edyegu-Otelu, Grace; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kasujja, Francis Xavier; Casademont, Cristian; Shanks, Leslie; Salse-Ubach, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58%) of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP), or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was defined as weight-for-height z-score malnutrition in eastern Uganda. The low incidence of malnutrition in this population may warrant a more targeted intervention to improve cost effectiveness. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01497236 PMID:26859481

  15. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Edyegu-Otelu, Grace; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kasujja, Francis Xavier; Casademont, Cristian; Shanks, Leslie; Salse-Ubach, Nuria

    2016-02-01

    Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58%) of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure. We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP), or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was defined as weight-for-height z-score children who died in the RUTF, MNP, and control groups were 0%, 0.8%, and 0.4%. The findings apply to ill but not malnourished children and cannot be generalised to a general population including children who are not necessarily ill or who are already malnourished. A 2-wk nutrition supplementation programme with RUTF

  16. Study and development of 22 kW peak power fiber coupled short pulse Nd:YAG laser for cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Vachhani, D. M.; Singh, Ravindra; Misra, Pushkar; Jain, R. K.; Arya, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    Free running short pulse Nd:YAG laser of microsecond pulse duration and high peak power has a unique capability to ablate material from the surface without heat propagation into the bulk. Applications of short pulse Nd:YAG lasers include cleaning and restoration of marble, stones, and a variety of metals for conservation. A study on the development of high peak power short pulses from Nd:YAG laser along with its cleaning and conservation applications has been performed. A pulse energy of 1.25 J with 55 μs pulse duration and a maximum peak power of 22 kW has been achieved. Laser beam has an M2 value of ~28 and a pulse-to-pulse stability of ±2.5%. A lower value of M2 means a better beam quality of the laser in multimode operation. A top hat spatial profile of the laser beam was achieved at the exit end of 200 μm core diameter optical fiber, which is desirable for uniform cleaning. This laser system has been evaluated for efficient cleaning of surface contaminations on marble, zircaloy, and inconel materials for conservation with cleaning efficiency as high as 98%. Laser's cleaning quality and efficiency have been analysed by using a microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) measurements.

  17. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI, the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, Z Index (ZIND, the Soil Moisture Index (SMI with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI, the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI, the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  18. On the applicability of short time measurements to the determination of annual average of radon concentration in dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskiewicz, J.; Olko, P.; Swakon, J.; Bogacz, J.; Janik, M.; Mazur, D.; Mazur, J.

    1998-01-01

    The variation of radon concentration in some houses in the Krakow region was investigated in order to compare results obtained using various measuring techniques. It is concluded that short-term measurements should last at least 4 days to avoid errors exceeding 30%; that weather parameters and human activity during the measurement should be recorded; that measurements should be repeated several times under various weather conditions; that seasonal variation in the region should be taken into account. (A.K.)

  19. Final report for Fundamental study of long-short interfacial wave interactions with application for flow regime development

    CERN Document Server

    McCready, M

    2000-01-01

    The long waves that cause slugs almost always form more slowly than short waves, and linear stability always predicts that the growth rate for long waves is much less than that for short waves. However, at many conditions above neutral stability, long waves dominate the wave field. Three different studies were undertaken as part of the funded work: (1) linear interaction for unsteady flows; (2) wave evolution in oil-water channel flows; (3) retrograde stability and subcritical bifurcations. The oil-water system was used as a surrogate for gas-liquid systems because the gas phase is usually turbulent, and this complication is thus avoided although the phenomena involved are similar. The following overall conclusions about flow regime development were reached: (a) Oscillations in pressure and flow rate, due to interfacial waves or a malfunctioning pump, can cause significant growth rate changes in short waves within narrow FR-equency ranges, but probably do not have a large effect on long waves and thus regime ...

  20. Influence of Short Austenitization Treatments on the Mechanical Properties of Low-Alloy Steels for Hot Forming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweissig, Martin Joachim; Lackmann, Jan; Konrad, Stefan; Schaper, Mirko; Niendorf, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The current work elucidates an improvement of the mechanical properties of tool-quenched low-alloy steel by employing extremely short austenitization durations utilizing a press heating arrangement. Specifically, the influence of different austenitization treatments—involving austenitization durations ranging from three to 15 seconds—on the mechanical properties of low-alloy steel in comparison to an industrial standard furnace process was examined. A thorough set of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of different austenitization durations and temperatures on the resulting mechanical properties such as hardness, bending angle, tensile strength, and strain at fracture. The most important finding is that the hardness, the bending angle as well as the tensile strength increase with shortened austenitization durations. Furthermore, the ductility of the steels exhibits almost no difference following the short austenitization durations and the standard furnace process. The enhancement of the mechanical properties imposed by the short heat treatments investigated, is related to a refinement of microstructural features as compared to the standard furnace process.

  1. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project: Short Project Overview of Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation in the Upper Yakima Basin; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.; Bosch, William J.

    2005-09-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is on schedule to ascertain whether new artificial production techniques can be used to increase harvest and natural production of spring Chinook salmon while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the fish population being supplemented and keeping adverse genetic and ecological interactions with non-target species or stocks within acceptable limits. The Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility (CESRF) collected its first spring chinook brood stock in 1997, released its first fish in 1999, and age-4 adults have been returning since 2001. In these initial years of CESRF operation, recruitment of hatchery origin fish has exceeded that of fish spawning in the natural environment, but early indications are that hatchery origin fish are not as successful at spawning in the natural environment as natural origin fish when competition is relatively high. When competition is reduced, hatchery fish produced similar numbers of progeny as their wild counterparts. Most demographic variables are similar between natural and hatchery origin fish, however hatchery origin fish were smaller-at-age than natural origin fish. Long-term fitness of the target population is being evaluated by a large-scale test of domestication. Slight changes in predation vulnerability and competitive dominance, caused by domestication, were documented. Distribution of spawners has increased as a result of acclimation site location and salmon homing fidelity. Semi-natural rearing and predator avoidance training have not resulted in significant increases in survival of hatchery fish. However, growth manipulations in the hatchery appear to be reducing the number of precocious males produced by the YKFP and consequently increasing the number of migrants. Genetic impacts to non-target populations appear to be low because of the low stray rates of YKFP fish. Ecological impacts to valued non-target taxa were within containment objectives or impacts that

  2. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Fehrmann-Cartes, K.; Íiguez-González, G.

    2015-01-01

    with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169 ± 24. d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n = 3) 3 × 3 Latin square design that included 3...... periods of 21. d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500. g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500. g/d per cow...

  3. [Quality control in herbal supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelker, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Quality and safety of food and herbal supplements are the result of a whole of different elements as good manufacturing practice and process control. The process control must be active and able to individuate and correct all possible hazards. The main and most utilized instrument is the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system the correct application of which can guarantee the safety of the product. Herbal supplements need, in addition to standard quality control, a set of checks to assure the harmlessness and safety of the plants used.

  4. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  5. Quantifying the Impact of Seasonal and Short-term Manure Application Decisions on Phosphorus Loss in Surface Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter A; Good, Laura W; Jokela, William E; Karthikeyan, K G; Arriaga, Francisco J; Stock, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) management is a research and policy issue due to P loss from fields and water quality degradation. Better information is needed on the risk of P loss from dairy manure applied in winter or when runoff is imminent. We used the SurPhos computer model and 108 site-years of weather and runoff data to assess the impact of these two practices on dissolved P loss. Model results showed that winter manure application can increase P loss by 2.5 to 3.6 times compared with non-winter applications, with the amount increasing as the average runoff from a field increases. Increased P loss is true for manure applied any time from late November through early March, with a maximum P loss from application in late January and early February. Shifting manure application to fields with less runoff can reduce P loss by 3.4 to 7.5 times. Delaying manure application when runoff is imminent can reduce P loss any time of the year, and sometimes quite significantly, but the number of times that application delays will reduce P loss is limited to only 3 to 9% of possible spreading days, and average P loss may be reduced by only 15% for winter-applied manure and 6% for non-winter-applied manure. Overall, long-term strategies of shifting manure applications to low runoff seasons and fields can potentially reduce dissolved P loss in runoff much more compared with near-term, tactical application decisions of avoiding manure application when runoff is imminent. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Analysis of a short beam with application to solder joints: could larger stand-off heights relieve stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-08-01

    Physically meaningful and easy-to-use analytical (mathematical) stress model is developed for a short beam with clamped and known-in-advance offset ends. The analysis is limited to elastic deformations. While the classical Timoshenko short-beam theory seeks the beam's deflection caused by the combined bending and shear deformations for the given loading, an inverse problem is considered here: the lateral force is sought for the given ends offset. In short beams this force is larger than in long beams, since, in order to achieve the given displacement (offset), the applied force has to overcome both bending and shear resistance of the beam. It is envisioned that short beams could adequately mimic the state of stress in solder joint interconnections, including ball-grid-array (BGA) systems, with large, compared to conventional joints, stand-off heights. When the package/printed-circuit-board (PCB) assembly is subjected to the change in temperature, the thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and the PCB results in an easily predictable relative displacement (offset) of the ends of the solder joint. This offset can be determined from the known external thermal mismatch strain (determined as the product of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion and the change in temperature) and the position of the joint with respect to the mid-cross-section of the assembly. The maximum normal and shearing stresses could be viewed as suitable criteria of the beam's (joint's) material long-term reliability. It is shown that these stresses can be brought down by employing beam-like joints, i.e., joints with an increased stand-off height compared to conventional joints. It is imperative, of course, that, if such joints are employed, there is still enough interfacial real estate, so that the BGA bonding strength is not compromised. On the other hand, owing to the lower stress level, reliability assurance might be much less of a challenge than in the case of

  7. Analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms by the powerplex 16 system and capillary electrophoresis: application to forensic practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Inagaki, Sachiyo; Yoshitome, Kei; ishikawa, Takaki; Imabayashi, Kiyomi; Miyaishi, Satoru; Ishizu, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms--D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX and FGA--in a Japanese population were estimated. No deviations of the observed allele frequency from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were found for any of the systems studied. Between 2 new pentanucleotide STR loci, Penta E and Penta D, for which there is only limited data regarding the allelic di...

  8. Application of dynamic and transition magnetic fields for determination of magnetic moments of short-lived nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgov, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Problem of measuring magnetic momenta of short-living nuclear states is discussed. Different methods for measuring magnetic momenta using interionic and transient magnetic fields were considered. Possibility for determining a value g by means of measuring correlation attenuation is investigated as well as measuring magnetic momenta by means of inclined foils. At present 2 + level magnetic momenta for many odd-odd nuclei have been determined by means of the above methods. The methods are only ones for determining magnetic momenta of nuclear levels with small lifetimes up to tenth and hundredth of shares of picoseconds

  9. Application of rat mast cell incubates as a possible short-time test for sensitizing occupational chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, F.; Neidhart, B.; Opree, W.

    1981-08-01

    The direct action of sensitizing occupational chemicals (formaldehyde, phenol, phenylhydrazine, p-aminophenol) on rat mast cells was investigated by determination of histamine using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection. It turned out that dispersed mast cells from immunized and non-immunized Wistar-rats are more sensitive than small-cut lung tissue slices. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was negative after a fortnight sensitizing experiment with the here described occupational chemicals. Short-time tests with rat mast cells reflect anaphylactoid response and are suitable for the screening of sensitizing chemicals.

  10. Machine learning techniques for the optimization of joint replacements: Application to a short-stem hip implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Myriam; Borgiani, Edoardo; Martínez, Javier; Duda, Georg N; Checa, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Today, different implant designs exist in the market; however, there is not a clear understanding of which are the best implant design parameters to achieve mechanical optimal conditions. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate if the geometry of a commercial short stem hip prosthesis can be further optimized to reduce stress shielding effects and achieve better short-stemmed implant performance. To reach this aim, the potential of machine learning techniques combined with parametric Finite Element analysis was used. The selected implant geometrical parameters were: total stem length (L), thickness in the lateral (R1) and medial (R2) and the distance between the implant neck and the central stem surface (D). The results show that the total stem length was not the only parameter playing a role in stress shielding. An optimized implant should aim for a decreased stem length and a reduced length of the surface in contact with the bone. The two radiuses that characterize the stem width at the distal cross-section in contact with the bone were less influential in the reduction of stress shielding compared with the other two parameters; but they also play a role where thinner stems present better results.

  11. Determination of k0-factors of short-lived nuclides and application of k0-NAA to selected trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the standardization program of k 0 -based NAA (k 0 -NAA) methods at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility, the k 0 -factors of 15 analytically important short-lived nuclides (half-life 197 Au). The elemental standards used were prepared mostly from their primary standard solutions. The samples were irradiated in both inner and outer pneumatic sites of the DUSR facility and counted using an HPGe-detector coupled to an ORTEC’s digital gamma-ray spectrometer. The k 0 -factors determined using both inner and outer irradiation sites were found to be within ±5% with respect to either recommended or literature values in most cases. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level were found to be in the range of ±0.03–1.6. The k 0 -NAA method was applied to three different NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and concentrations of six elements, namely Ag, F, Hf, Rb, Sc, and Se were determined using their short-lived nuclides. The concentrations of these elements were also determined by relative NAA method for comparison purposes.

  12. Application of artificial neural network to search for gravitational-wave signals associated with short gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Harry, Ian W; Hodge, Kari A; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Oh, John J; Oh, Sang Hoon; Son, Edwin J

    2015-01-01

    We apply a machine learning algorithm, the artificial neural network, to the search for gravitational-wave signals associated with short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-dimensional samples consisting of data corresponding to the statistical and physical quantities from the coherent search pipeline are fed into the artificial neural network to distinguish simulated gravitational-wave signals from background noise artifacts. Our result shows that the data classification efficiency at a fixed false alarm probability (FAP) is improved by the artificial neural network in comparison to the conventional detection statistic. Specifically, the distance at 50% detection probability at a fixed false positive rate is increased about 8%–14% for the considered waveform models. We also evaluate a few seconds of the gravitational-wave data segment using the trained networks and obtain the FAP. We suggest that the artificial neural network can be a complementary method to the conventional detection statistic for identifying gravitational-wave signals related to the short GRBs. (paper)

  13. Application effects of dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane for anesthesia in short operations in children with burn injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-xin WANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane for anesthesia in short operations in pediatric burn patients. Methods  Forty hospitalized children undergoing short operation for burn injury were allocated to sevoflurane group (S group or sevoflurane combined dexmedetomidine group (group D(20 patients each. Children in group D inhaled 8% sevoflurane in the beginning until loss of eyelash reflex, and then the density of sevoflurane was reduced to 3% for maintenance, 5μg/(kg.h of dexmedetomidine was pumped for 10 mins, then the density was reduced to 0.5μg/(kg.h. Then operation was started herewith till to the end. Children in group S received sevoflurane anethesia alone, and dexmedetomidine was replaced by the same volume of physiological saline. Additional 3mg/kg propofol was injected when anesthesia was inadequate. During the procedure, HR, MAP, SpO2 and Ramsay scale were recorded at baseline (T1, loss of eyelash reflex (T2, 5min after the start of operation (T4, 10min (T5 and the end of operation (T6. The operation time, anethesia time, propofol consumption, case of respiratory depression and pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale (PAED in pediatric anesthesia care unit (PACU were recorded. Results  There was no significant difference in operation time between the two groups. Intraoperative SpO2 was higher in group D than in group S (P<0.05, respiratory inhibition occurred in 4 cases of group D and 10 cases of group S (P<0.05. Propofol consumption was less and the operation time was longer in group D than in group S (P<0.05. At T3-T6, the MAP and HR were lower, but the Ramsay scale was higher in group D than in group S (P<0.05. In PACU, PAED scale was lower in group D than in group S (P<0.05. Conclusions  Dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane for anesthesia for short burn surgery in children not only stabilize hemodynamic parameters but also reduce the impact to respiration

  14. The Applicability of a Short-term Test for Detection of Modifying Effects of Dietary Factors in Rodent Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Eva

    The present studies were initiated to develop a short-term rodent model to assess the influence of different dietary components on the development of colon cancer. Diets with different dietary components, i.e. dietary fibre, fat, sucrose, and starches were tested in male rats initiated with DMH-2......HCl or AOM for their modulating effect on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Furthermore the heterocyclic amines IQ and PhIP were introduced in the assay as inducers of ACF in mice and rats and their role in colon carcinogenesis in mice was investigated. ACF were found to be induced...... in rodent colon by the colon carcinogens DMH-2HC1, AOM, IQ, and PhIP and it was shown that the incidence of the induced ACF could be modulated by dietary components such as sucrose, dietary fibre, and starch....

  15. Methods for the evaluation of quench temperature profiles and their application for LHC superconducting short dipole magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, S.; Siemko, A.

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents a study of the thermal effects on quench performance for several large Hadron collider (LHC) single aperture short dipole models. The analysis is based on the temperature profile in a superconducting magnet evaluated after a quench. Peak temperatures and temperature gradients in the magnet coil are estimated for different thicknesses of insulation layer between the quench heaters and the coil and different powering and protection parameters. The results show clear correlation between the thermo-mechanical response of the magnet and quench performance. They also display that the optimisation of the position of quench heaters can reduce the decrease of training performance caused by the coexistence of a mechanical weak region and of a local temperature rise.

  16. Competition between crystallization and glassification for particles with short-ranged attraction. Possible applications to protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarelli, E.; Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.; Foffi, G.; McCullagh, G. D.; Lawlor, A.; Dawson, K. A.

    2002-11-01

    We discuss the phase behaviour of spherical hard-core particles, with an attractive potential, as described by a hard-core Yukawa model. The ratio of the range of the attraction to the diameter of the particles is an important control parameter of the problem. Upon decreasing the range of the attraction, the phase diagram changes quite significantly, with the liquid-gas transition becoming metastable, and the crystal being in equilibrium with the fluid, with no intervening liquid. We also study the glass transition lines and, crucially, find that the situation, being very simple for pure repulsive potentials, becomes much richer in competition between glass and crystal phases for short-range attractions. Also a transition between attractive and repulsive glass appears somewhat in analogy with the isostructural equilibrium transition between two crystals.

  17. Is the Short Version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-S Applicable for Use in Telephone Surveys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust Oliver A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of psychological indicators in survey research has become more common because they offer the possibility of explaining much of the variance in sociological variables. The Big Five personality dimensions in particular are often used to explain opinions, attitudes, and behavior. However, the short versions of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-S were developed for face-to-face surveys. Studies have shown distortions in the identification of the Big Five factor structure in subsamples of older respondents in landline telephone surveys. We applied the same BFI-S but with a shorter rating scale in a telephone survey with two subsamples (landline and mobile phone. Using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM, we identified the Big Five structure in the subsamples and the age groups. This finding leads us to conclude that the BFI-S is a powerful means of including personality characteristics in telephone surveys.

  18. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  19. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  20. Ultra-short pulse delivery at high average power with low-loss hollow core fibers coupled to TRUMPF's TruMicro laser platforms for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, S.; Pricking, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Nutsch, S.; Kleinbauer, J.; Gebs, R.; Tan, C.; Scelle, R.; Kahmann, M.; Budnicki, A.; Sutter, D. H.; Killi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-megawatt ultrafast laser systems at micrometer wavelength are commonly used for material processing applications, including ablation, cutting and drilling of various materials or cleaving of display glass with excellent quality. There is a need for flexible and efficient beam guidance, avoiding free space propagation of light between the laser head and the processing unit. Solid core step index fibers are only feasible for delivering laser pulses with peak powers in the kW-regime due to the optical damage threshold in bulk silica. In contrast, hollow core fibers are capable of guiding ultra-short laser pulses with orders of magnitude higher peak powers. This is possible since a micro-structured cladding confines the light within the hollow core and therefore minimizes the spatial overlap between silica and the electro-magnetic field. We report on recent results of single-mode ultra-short pulse delivery over several meters in a lowloss hollow core fiber packaged with industrial connectors. TRUMPF's ultrafast TruMicro laser platforms equipped with advanced temperature control and precisely engineered opto-mechanical components provide excellent position and pointing stability. They are thus perfectly suited for passive coupling of ultra-short laser pulses into hollow core fibers. Neither active beam launching components nor beam trackers are necessary for a reliable beam delivery in a space and cost saving packaging. Long term tests with weeks of stable operation, excellent beam quality and an overall transmission efficiency of above 85 percent even at high average power confirm the reliability for industrial applications.

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED. SUPPLEMENT III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED. APPROXIMATELY 220 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1963 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS, NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS, SHORT-TERM GROUP COUNSELING,…

  2. Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Rungwe district in Tanzania, to assess the effect of concentrate supplementation on reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cattle. Cattle used were crossbreds, mainly between Friesian (Bos taurus) and indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (Bos indicus). All animals were managed under ...

  3. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia van der Kam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food but also by illnesses and by poor infant and child feeding practices. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period. Two trials, one in Nigeria and one in Uganda, were conducted; here, we report on the trial that took place in Kaabong, a poor agropastoral region of Karamoja, in east Uganda. While the region of Karamoja shows an acute malnutrition rate between 8.4% and 11.5% of which 2% to 3% severe malnutrition, more than half (58% of the population in the district of Kaabong is considered food insecure.We investigated the effect of two types of nutritional supplementation on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at outpatient clinics during March 2011 to April 2012 in Kaabong, Karamoja region, Uganda, a resource-poor region where malnutrition is a chronic problem for its seminomadic population. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed with malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Non-malnourished children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF, two sachets/d of micronutrient powder (MNP, or no supplement (control for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate progression to moderate or severe acute malnutrition; it was

  4. Development and application of a water calorimeter for the absolute dosimetry of short-range particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, J.; Rossomme, S.; Sarfehnia, A.; Vynckier, S.; Palmans, H.; Kacperek, A.; Seuntjens, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe a new design of water calorimeter built to measure absorbed dose in non-standard radiation fields with reference depths in the range of 6-20 mm, and its initial testing in clinical electron and proton beams. A functioning calorimeter prototype with a total water equivalent thickness of less than 30 mm was constructed in-house and used to obtain measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams and cyclotron-based 60 MeV monoenergetic and modulated proton beams. Corrections for the conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and non-water materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Absorbed dose to water was measured with an associated type A standard uncertainty of approximately 0.4% and 0.2% for the electron and proton beam experiments, respectively. In terms of thermal stability, drifts were on the order of a couple of hundred µK min-1, with a short-term variation of 5-10 µK. Heat transfer correction factors ranged between 1.021 and 1.049. The overall combined standard uncertainty on the absorbed dose to water was estimated to be 0.6% for the 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams, as well as for the 60 MeV monoenergetic protons, and 0.7% for the modulated 60 MeV proton beam. This study establishes the feasibility of developing an absorbed dose transfer standard for short-range clinical electrons and protons and forms the basis for a transportable dose standard for direct calibration of ionization chambers in the user’s beam. The largest contributions to the combined standard uncertainty were the positioning (⩽0.5%) and the correction due to conductive heat transfer (⩽0.4%). This is the first time that water calorimetry has been used in such a low energy proton beam.

  5. Benefits of up-wave measurements in linear short-term wave forecasting for wave energy applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, Miguel; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John

    2014-01-01

    The real-time control of wave energy converters requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation upwave of the wave energy converter. As an application example, the paper focuses on the prediction of the wave eleva...

  6. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, M.; Lanata, C.; Butron, B.; Haskell, M.; Brown, K.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author)

  7. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  9. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  10. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penny, M; Lanata, C; Butron, B [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, Lima (Peru); Haskell, M; Brown, K [Programme in International Nutrition, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  11. A low cost short wave near infrared spectrophotometer: application for determination of quality parameters of diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Pasquini, Celio

    2010-06-18

    A low cost absorption spectrophotometer for the short wave near infrared spectral region (850-1050 nm) is described. The spectrophotometer is basically composed of a conventional dichroic lamp, a long-pass filter, a sample cell and a Czerny-Turner type polychromator coupled to a 1024 pixel non-cooled photodiode array. A preliminary evaluation of the spectrophotometer showed good repeatability of the first derivative of the spectra at a constant room temperature and the possibility of assigning some spectral regions to different C-H stretching third overtones. Finally, the spectrophotometer was successfully applied for the analysis of diesel samples and the determination of some of their quality parameters using partial least squares calibration models. The values found for the root mean square error of prediction using external validation were 0.5 for the cetane index and from 2.5 to 5.0 degrees C for the temperatures achieved during distillation when obtaining 10, 50, 85, and 90% (v/v) of the distilled sample, respectively. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport and deposition of nano-particles. Application to the free action of short-lived radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Short-lived radon daughters ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, and 214 Po) are important contributors to the natural average annual individual dose. The models describing the evolution of these aerosol in a house depend critically on a parameter, the 218 Po deposition velocity, which, although aerosol deposition has been extensively studied, is poorly known. A numerical and experimental study is thus carried out for a simple case: deposition in a cylindrical tube under laminar flow condition. The numerical results help understanding the difference between the transport and deposition of these radionuclides and those of non radioactive aerosols. Comparison of these well environment does not give satisfactory correlation, requiring the study of phenomena that may affect deposition. The first of these is the possible variation in the e 218 Po diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, experiments coupled with numerical calculations show that this variation could be due to 218 Po neutralization. The second phenomenon concerns the effect of the surface type, which is also shown experimentally. By modelling the neutralization and using results with a piratically smooth surface, good numerical/experimental correlations are obtained. Understanding this simple case than makes possible studying a more complex case: deposition in controlled turbulent flow. Two theories are thus experimentally validated. In addition, a 218 Po deposition velocity representative of our experimental conditions is determined. Finally, we report a feasibility study of radon daughters transport and deposition in a ventilated chamber taking into account all the involved phenomena. (author)

  13. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  14. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  16. The application of nonlinear metrics to assess organization differences in short recordings of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice. In the first stages of the disease, AF may terminate spontaneously and it is referred to as paroxysmal AF. The arrhythmia is called persistent AF when external intervention is required to its termination. In the present work, a method to non-invasively assess AF organization has been applied to discern between paroxysmal and persistent AF episodes at any time. Previous works have suggested that the probability of AF termination is inversely related to the number of reentries wandering throughout the atrial tissue. Given that it has also been hypothesized that the number of reentries is directly correlated with AF organization, a fast and robust method able to assess organization differences in AF could be of great interest. In fact, the distinction between paroxysmal and persistent episodes in patients without previously known AF history, making use of short ECG recordings, could contribute to taking earlier decisions on AF management in daily clinical practice, without the need to require 24 h or 48 h Holter recordings. The method was based on a nonlinear regularity index, such as sample entropy (SampEn), and evidenced to be a significant discriminator of the AF type. Its diagnostic accuracy of 91.80% was demonstrated to be superior to previously proposed parameters, such as dominant atrial frequency (DAF) and fibrillatory waves amplitude, and to others analyzed for the first time in this context, such as atrial activity mean power, 3 dB bandwidth around the DAF, first harmonic frequency, harmonic exponential decay, etc. Additionally, according to previous invasive works, paroxysmal AF episodes (0.0716 ± 0.0143) presented lower SampEn values and, consequently, more organized activity, than persistent episodes (0.1080 ± 0.0145)

  17. Short term physiological implications of NBPT application on the N metabolism of Pisum sativum and Spinacea oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruchaga, Saioa; Artola, Ekhiñe; Lasa, Berta; Ariz, Idoia; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Moran, Jose Fernando; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2011-03-01

    The application of urease inhibitors in conjunction with urea fertilizers as a means of reducing N loss due to ammonia volatilization requires an in-depth study of the physiological effects of these inhibitors on plants. The aim of this study was to determine how the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) affects N metabolism in pea and spinach. Plants were cultivated in pure hydroponic culture with urea as the sole N source. After 2 weeks of growth for pea, and 3 weeks for spinach, half of the plants received NBPT in their nutrient solution. Urease activity, urea and ammonium content, free amino acid composition and soluble protein were determined in leaves and roots at days 0, 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9, and the NBPT content in these tissues was determined 48h after inhibitor application. The results suggest that the effects of NBPT on spinach and pea urease activity differ, with pea being most affected by this treatment, and that the NBPT absorbed by the plant caused a clear inhibition of the urease activity in pea leaf and roots. The high urea concentration observed in leaves was associated with the development of necrotic leaf margins, and was further evidence of NBPT inhibition in these plants. A decrease in the ammonium content in roots, where N assimilation mainly takes place, was also observed. Consequently, total amino acid contents were drastically reduced upon NBPT treatment, indicating a strong alteration of the N metabolism. Furthermore, the amino acid profile showed that amidic amino acids were major components of the reduced pool of amino acids. In contrast, NBPT was absorbed to a much lesser degree by spinach plants than pea plants (35% less) and did not produce a clear inhibition of urease activity in this species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, T.; Sewell, D.; Casey, A.; Steenge, G.; Greenhaff, P.

    2000-01-01

    Background—The use of creatine (Cr) as a nutritional supplement to aid athletic performance has gained widespread popularity among athletes. However, concerns have recently been expressed over potentially harmful effects of short and long term Cr supplementation on health.

  19. Application of MCPA herbicide on soils amended with biostimulants: short-time effects on soil biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Manuel; García-Martínez, Ana M; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we studied in the laboratory the effect of MCPA herbicide at a rate of 1.5lha(-1) (manufactures rate recommended) on biological properties of a Plagic Antrosol amended with four biostimulants (WCDS, wheat condensed distillers soluble; PA-HE, hydrolyzed poultry feathers; CGHE, carob germ enzymatic extract; and RB, rice bran extract). Seven hundred grams of soil were mixed with WCDS at a rate of 10%, CGHE at a rate of 4.7%, PA-HE at a rate of 4.3%, and RB at a rate of 4.4%, respectively, in order to applying the same amount of organic matter to the soil (16.38 g organic matter). An unamended polluted and amended non-polluted soil were used as control. For all treatments, the soil ergosterol, dehydrogenase, urease, and phosphatase activities were measured at two incubation times (0 and 60 d). The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles in all treatments were determined at the beginning and end of the incubation period. The results indicated that at the end of the incubation period and compared with the control soil, the dehydrogenase, urease and phosphatase activities and ergosterol decreased 39.3%, 20%, 15.7% and 56.5%, respectively in the non-organic amended polluted soil. The application of organic matter to unpolluted soil increased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB, followed by PA-HE, WCDS and CGHE. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol content. However, this decrease was lower than for the non-amended herbicide polluted soil. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the adsorption capacity of humic substances are responsible for less inhibition of these enzyme activities and soil ergosterol. The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles indicated that herbicide did not negatively affect soil bacterial biodiversity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical trial simulations in pediatric patients using realistic covariates: application to teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-2 analog in neonates and infants with short-bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouksassi, M S; Marier, J F; Cyran, J; Vinks, A A

    2009-12-01

    Teduglutide, a synthetic glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analog with activity relating to the regeneration, maintenance, and repair of the intestinal epithelium, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of short-bowel syndrome (SBS), Crohn's disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. On the basis of promising results from teduglutide studies in adults with SBS and from studies in neonatal and juvenile animal models, a pediatric multiple-dose phase I clinical study was designed to determine the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of teduglutide in pediatric patients with SBS who have undergone resection for necrotizing enterocolitis, malrotation, or intestinal atresia. This report details the application of clinical trial simulations coupled with a novel approach using generalized additive modeling for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) that facilitates the simulation of demographic covariates specific to the targeted patient populations. The goal was to optimize phase I dosing strategies and the likelihood of achieving target exposure and therapeutic effect.

  1. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  2. Military-specific application of nutritional supplements: a brief overview [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/548

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Hoedebecke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Soldiers of America's military endure numerous physical and mental challenges that demand strict physical fitness regimens, extreme mental agility, and a perpetual readiness to deploy at a moment's notice. The chronicity of these stressors has the potential to dramatically reduce performance - both directly and indirectly.  Because of this risk, many Soldiers turn to nutritional supplements with hopes of optimizing performance. Increasing amounts of research have demonstrated that various supplements may enhance overall physical prowess, health, and offer quicker recovery in the face of corporal or psychological extremes. Most individuals, including many medical and nutrition professionals, possess only an elementary comprehension of nutritional supplements and their effect on Soldiers in training or combat environments. Nevertheless, a grasp of these details is required for safety and optimal benefits. Various compounds have been evaluated - to include evidence within the military setting - and found to augment endurance, increase cognitive function, decrease knee pain, or offer hearing or lung protection in the face of high-energy impulses. These efficacious outcomes may serve to augment the health and longevity of these Soldiers; however, continued research is needed for efficacy and long-term safety within specific environments.

  3. A novel sol-gel-derived calcium silicate cement with short setting time for application in endodontic repair of perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lin, Hong-Ping; Chan, Jerry Chun-Chung; Wang, Wei-Chuan; Hung, Ping-Hsuan; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Yuan-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most frequently used repair material in endodontics, but the long setting time and reduced mechanical strength in acidic environments are major shortcomings. In this study, a novel sol-gel-derived calcium silicate cement (sCSC) was developed using an initial Ca/Si molar ratio of 3, with the most effective mixing orders of reactants and optimal HNO 3 catalyst volumes. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometer were used for material characterization. The setting time, compressive strength, and microhardness of sCSC after hydration in neutral and pH 5 environments were compared with that of MTA. Results showed that sCSC demonstrated porous microstructures with a setting time of ~30 min, and the major components of sCSC were tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, and calcium oxide. The optimal formula of sCSC was sn200, which exhibited significantly higher compressive strength and microhardness than MTA, irrespective of neutral or pH 5 environments. In addition, both sn200 and MTA demonstrated good biocompatibility because cell viability was similar to that of the control. These findings suggest that sn200 merits further clinical study for potential application in endodontic repair of perforations.

  4. Development of a Short-term Failure Assessment of High Density Polyethylene Pipe Welds - Application of the Limit Load Analysis -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho-Wan; Han, Jae-Jun; Kim, Yun-Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Sung [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Jang, Chang-Heui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In the US, the number of cases of subterranean water contamination from tritium leaking through a damaged buried nuclear power plant pipe continues to increase, and the degradation of the buried metal piping is emerging as a major issue. A pipe blocked from corrosion and/or degradation can lead to loss of cooling capacity in safety-related piping resulting in critical issues related to the safety and integrity of nuclear power plant operation. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes Committee (BPVC) has recently approved Code Case N-755 that describes the requirements for the use of polyethylene (PE) pipe for the construction of Section III, Division 1 Class 3 buried piping systems for service water applications in nuclear power plants. This paper contains tensile and slow crack growth (SCG) test results for high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe welds under the environmental conditions of a nuclear power plant. Based on these tests, the fracture surface of the PENT specimen was analyzed, and the fracture mechanisms of each fracture area were determined. Finally, by using 3D finite element analysis, limit loads of HDPE related to premature failure were verified.

  5. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Study and Its Application Using a Hybrid Model Optimized by Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The support vector regression (SVR and neural network (NN are both new tools from the artificial intelligence field, which have been successfully exploited to solve various problems especially for time series forecasting. However, traditional SVR and NN cannot accurately describe intricate time series with the characteristics of high volatility, nonstationarity, and nonlinearity, such as wind speed and electricity price time series. This study proposes an ensemble approach on the basis of 5-3 Hanning filter (5-3H and wavelet denoising (WD techniques, in conjunction with artificial intelligence optimization based SVR and NN model. So as to confirm the validity of the proposed model, two applicative case studies are conducted in terms of wind speed series from Gansu Province in China and electricity price from New South Wales in Australia. The computational results reveal that cuckoo search (CS outperforms both PSO and GA with respect to convergence and global searching capacity, and the proposed CS-based hybrid model is effective and feasible in generating more reliable and skillful forecasts.

  6. Short communication. Response of bacterial community composition to long-term applications of different composts in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, M; Knapp, B A; Peintner, U; Insam, H

    2011-07-01

    Differences in the bacterial community composition of agricultural soils caused by a long-term (12 year) application of different composts were identified by cultivation-dependent and -independent methods (PCR-DGGE and 16S rRNA clone libraries). The number of colony forming units indicated that the successive incorporation of organic amendments increased the bacterial abundance (6.41-5.66 log10 cfu g-1dry soil) compared to control and mineral soils (5.54-3.74 log10 cfu g-1 dry soil). Isolated bacteria were dominated by Actinobacteria, whereby compost-amended soils and green compost-amended soils showed, respectively, higher number of members of Actinobacteria (100% and 64%) than control and mineral soils (50% and 40%). The 16S rRNA clone libraries were dominated by Proteobacteria (43%), Acidobacteria (21%) and Actinobacteria (13%). Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were most abundant in compost amended soils while Acidobacteria were more frequently found in mineral fertilizer and control soils. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed a higher bacterial diversity than cultivation. In conclusion, we found differences of bacterial community composition with a cultivation approach and clone libraries between compost amended soils and control and mineral soil. (Author) 31 refs.

  7. Projected Applications of a ``Climate in a Box'' Computing System at the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; Molthan, A.; Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; Lafontaine, F.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community, with a goal of improving short-term forecasts on a regional scale. Advances in research computing have lead to “Climate in a Box” systems, with hardware configurations capable of producing high resolution, near real-time weather forecasts, but with footprints, power, and cooling requirements that are comparable to desktop systems. The SPoRT Center has developed several capabilities for incorporating unique NASA research capabilities and observations with real-time weather forecasts. Planned utilization includes the development of a fully-cycled data assimilation system used to drive 36-48 hour forecasts produced by the NASA Unified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (NU-WRF). The horsepower provided by the “Climate in a Box” system is expected to facilitate the assimilation of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture provided by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA’s Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution sea surface temperatures and vegetation characteristics. The development of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NVDI) composites for use within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) will assist in the characterization of vegetation, and subsequently the surface albedo and processes related to soil moisture. Through application of satellite simulators, NASA satellite instruments can be used to examine forecast model errors in cloud cover and other characteristics. Through the aforementioned application of the “Climate in a Box” system and NU-WRF capabilities, an end goal is the establishment of a real-time forecast system that fully integrates modeling and analysis capabilities developed

  8. Projected Applications of a "Climate in a Box" Computing System at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community, with a goal of improving short-term forecasts on a regional scale. Advances in research computing have lead to "Climate in a Box" systems, with hardware configurations capable of producing high resolution, near real-time weather forecasts, but with footprints, power, and cooling requirements that are comparable to desktop systems. The SPoRT Center has developed several capabilities for incorporating unique NASA research capabilities and observations with real-time weather forecasts. Planned utilization includes the development of a fully-cycled data assimilation system used to drive 36-48 hour forecasts produced by the NASA Unified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (NU-WRF). The horsepower provided by the "Climate in a Box" system is expected to facilitate the assimilation of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture provided by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution sea surface temperatures and vegetation characteristics. The development of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NVDI) composites for use within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) will assist in the characterization of vegetation, and subsequently the surface albedo and processes related to soil moisture. Through application of satellite simulators, NASA satellite instruments can be used to examine forecast model errors in cloud cover and other characteristics. Through the aforementioned application of the "Climate in a Box" system and NU-WRF capabilities, an end goal is the establishment of a real-time forecast system that fully integrates modeling and analysis capabilities developed within the NASA SPo

  9. Factors affecting initial disability allowance rates for the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs: the role of the demographic and diagnostic composition of applicants and local labor market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    Various factors outside the control of decision makers may affect the rate at which disability applications are allowed or denied during the initial step of eligibility determination in the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. In this article, using individual-level data on applications, I estimate the role of three important factors--the demographic characteristics of applicants, the diagnostic mix of applicants, and the local unemployment rate--in affecting the probability of an initial allowance and state allowance rates. I use a random sample of initial determinations from 1993 through 2008 and a fixed-effects multiple regression framework. The empirical results show that the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of applicants and the local unemployment rate substantially affect the initial allowance rate. An increase in the local unemployment rate tends to be associated with a decrease in the initial allowance rate. This negative relationship holds for adult DI and SSI applicants and for SSI childhood applicants.

  10. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  11. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  12. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  14. Static and Dynamic Accuracy of an Innovative Miniaturized Wearable Platform for Short Range Distance Measurements for Human Movement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bertuletti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-inertial measurement units (MIMU are a suitable solution to assess human motor performance both indoors and outdoors. However, relevant quantities such as step width and base of support, which play an important role in gait stability, cannot be directly measured using MIMU alone. To overcome this limitation, we developed a wearable platform specifically designed for human movement analysis applications, which integrates a MIMU and an Infrared Time-of-Flight proximity sensor (IR-ToF, allowing for the estimate of inter-object distance. We proposed a thorough testing protocol for evaluating the IR-ToF sensor performances under experimental conditions resembling those encountered during gait. In particular, we tested the sensor performance for different (i target colors; (ii sensor-target distances (up to 200 mm and (iii sensor-target angles of incidence (AoI (up to 60 ∘ . Both static and dynamic conditions were analyzed. A pendulum, simulating the oscillation of a human leg, was used to generate highly repeatable oscillations with a maximum angular velocity of 6 rad/s. Results showed that the IR-ToF proximity sensor was not sensitive to variations of both distance and target color (except for black. Conversely, a relationship between error magnitude and AoI values was found. For AoI equal to 0 ∘ , the IR-ToF sensor performed equally well both in static and dynamic acquisitions with a distance mean absolute error <1.5 mm. Errors increased up to 3.6 mm (static and 11.9 mm (dynamic for AoI equal to ± 30 ∘ , and up to 7.8 mm (static and 25.6 mm (dynamic for AoI equal to ± 60 ∘ . In addition, the wearable platform was used during a preliminary experiment for the estimation of the inter-foot distance on a single healthy subject while walking. In conclusion, the combination of magneto-inertial unit and IR-ToF technology represents a valuable alternative solution in terms of accuracy, sampling frequency, dimension and power consumption

  15. Validation of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for First-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Lisa Pericola; Speece, Deborah L.; Silverman, Rebecca; Ritchey, Kristen D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Cooper, David H.; Montanaro, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was designed to validate a short-term supplemental reading intervention for at-risk first-grade children. Although substantial research on long-term supplemental reading interventions exists, less is known about short-term interventions. Thirty first-grade children were randomly assigned to intervention or control…

  16. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves reaction time in type 2 diabetes: development and application of a novel nitrate-depleted beetroot juice placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Mark; Winyard, Paul G; Fulford, Jon; Anning, Christine; Shore, Angela C; Benjamin, Nigel

    2014-08-31

    In this substudy of the effect of dietary nitrate on blood pressure, endothelial function, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, we report the development of a novel nitrate depleted beetroot juice for use clinical trials and determine if dietary nitrate supplementation improved cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Beetroot juice was treated with the anion exchange resin Purolite A520e. UV-vis-spectrophotometry, and a blind taste test were performed along with determination of sugar content, measurement of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, the ionic composition of juice and Proton NMR. Subsequently, 27 patients, age 67.2±4.9 years, (18 male) were recruited for a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were randomised to begin in either order beetroot juice (nitrate content 7.5 mmol per 250 ml) or placebo (nitrate depleted beetroot juice nitrate content 0.002 mmol per 250 ml). At the end of each 2 week supplementation period cognitive function was assessed using E-prime, E-Studio software with 5 separate tests being performed. The tests utilised in the present study have been adapted from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The differences in the UV-vis spectra were comparable to the natural variation found in differing cultivars. There were no discernable differences in taste, sugar content, or Proton NMR. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbate were undetectable in either juice. After 2 weeks of beetroot juice simple reaction time was significantly quicker in the active arm at 327±40 ms versus 341.8±52.7 ms in the placebo arm, mean difference 13.9±25.6 ms (95% CI 3.8-24.0 ms), p=0.009. No other measures of cognitive function differed between treatment arms. We have developed an effective placebo beetroot juice for use in trials of supplementation of dietary nitrate. Two weeks supplementation of the diet with 7.5 mmol of nitrate per day caused a significant improvement in

  17. Short Comm.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OGECHI

    mainframe-based applications, incompatible proprietary hardware platforms, disparate software, ... responding to changing organizational structures; ... (2) The various technologies and equipment that manipulate these resources, and.

  18. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  19. Ultra-short X-ray sources generated through laser-matter interaction and their applications; Sources de rayonnement X ultrabref generees par interaction laser-matiere et leurs applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, A

    2004-04-15

    This work is dedicated to the sources of ultra-short X-rays. The K{sub {alpha}} source, the non-linear Thomson source, the betatron source and the X-{gamma} source are presented. We show that a pump-probe experiment where the pump is a laser excitation and the probe is the X-K{sub {alpha}} ultra-short radiation, can be used to study the dynamics of material structure with a time resolution of 100 femtosecond. We describe 2 applications that have been achieved in the field of solid physics by using the diffraction technique with a time resolution in the range of the femtosecond. The first application has permitted the observation and characterization of the ultra-quick solid-phase transition that occurs on the surface of a semiconductor crystal. The second experiment deals with the role of optical phonons in the antecedent processes that lead to such ultra-quick solid-phase transitions. (A.C.)

  20. Novel point estimation from a semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE): long-term health outcomes from short-term linear data, with application to weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Miller, Deborah

    2013-11-02

    Point estimation is particularly important in predicting weight loss in individuals or small groups. In this analysis, a new health response function is based on a model of human response over time to estimate long-term health outcomes from a change point in short-term linear regression. This important estimation capability is addressed for small groups and single-subject designs in pilot studies for clinical trials, medical and therapeutic clinical practice. These estimations are based on a change point given by parameters derived from short-term participant data in ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The development of the change point in initial OLS data and the point estimations are given in a new semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE) model. The new response function is taken as a ratio of two-parameter Weibull distributions times a prior outcome value that steps estimated outcomes forward in time, where the shape and scale parameters are estimated at the change point. The Weibull distributions used in this ratio are derived from a Kelvin model in mechanics taken here to represent human beings. A distinct feature of the SPRE model in this article is that initial treatment response for a small group or a single subject is reflected in long-term response to treatment. This model is applied to weight loss in obesity in a secondary analysis of data from a classic weight loss study, which has been selected due to the dramatic increase in obesity in the United States over the past 20 years. A very small relative error of estimated to test data is shown for obesity treatment with the weight loss medication phentermine or placebo for the test dataset. An application of SPRE in clinical medicine or occupational therapy is to estimate long-term weight loss for a single subject or a small group near the beginning of treatment.

  1. Effect of Lifestyle Modification Using a Smartphone Application on Obesity With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Short-term, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Wee, Jee Hye; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eunyoung; Ryu, Borim; Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Joong Seek; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2018-01-30

    To investigate the short-term effects of a lifestyle modification intervention based on a mobile application (app) linked to a hospital electronic medical record (EMR) system on weight reduction and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We prospectively enrolled adults (aged >20 years) with witnessed snoring or sleep apnea from a sleep clinic. The patients were randomized into the app user (n=24) and control (n=23) groups. The mobile app was designed to collect daily lifestyle data by wearing a wrist activity tracker and reporting dietary intake. A summary of the lifestyle data was displayed on the hospital EMR and was reviewed. In the control group, the lifestyle modification was performed as per usual practice. All participants underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (WatchPAT) and body mass index (BMI) measurements at baseline and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Age and BMI did not differ significantly between the two groups. While we observed a significant decrease in the BMI of both groups, the decrease was greater in the app user group (P sleep spent snoring at >45 dB was significantly improved in the app user group alone (P =0.014). In either group, among the participants with successful weight reduction, the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly reduced after 4 weeks (P =0.015). Multiple regression analyses showed that a reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly associated with BMI. Although a short-term lifestyle modification approach using a mobile app was more effective in achieving weight reduction, improvement in OSA was not so significant. Long-term efficacy of this mobile app should be evaluated in the future studies.

  2. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of mulch application to store carbon belowground: Short-term effects of mulch application on soluble soil and microbial C and N in agricultural soils with low and high organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janet; Heiling, Maria; Resch, Christian; Gruber, Roman; Dercon, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural soils have the potential to contain a large pool of carbon and, depending on the farming techniques applied, can either effectively store carbon belowground, or further release carbon, in the form of CO2, into the atmosphere. Farming techniques, such as mulch application, are frequently proposed to increase carbon content belowground and improve soil quality and can be used in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas levels, such as in the "4 per 1000" Initiative. To test the effectiveness of mulch application to store carbon belowground in the short term and improve soil nutrient quality, we maintained agricultural soils with low and high organic carbon content (disturbed top soil from local Cambisols and Chernozems) in greenhouse mesocosms (70 cm deep with a radius of 25 cm) with controlled moisture for 4 years. Over the 4 years, maize and soybean were grown yearly in rotation and mulch was removed or applied to soils once plant material was harvested at 2 ton/ha dry matter. In addition, soil disturbance was kept to a minimum, with only surface disturbance of a few centimeters to keep soil free from weeds. After 4 years, we measured effects of mulch application on soluble soil and microbial carbon and nitrogen in the mesocosms and compared effects of mulch application versus no mulch on soils from 0-5 cm and 5-15 cm with low and high organic matter. We predicted that mulch would increase soil carbon and nitrogen content and mulch application would have a greater effect on soils with low organic matter than soils with high organic matter. In soils with low organic carbon content and larger predicted potential to increase soil carbon, mulch application did not increase soluble soil or microbial carbon or nitrogen compared to the treatments without mulch application. However, mulch application significantly increased the δ13C of both microbial and soluble soil carbon in these soils by 1 ‰ each, indicating a shift in belowground processes, such as increased

  4. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  5. Surface decoration of short-cut polyimide fibers with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application for reinforcement of lightweight PC/ABS composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Han, Enlin; Wu, Yulun; Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dezhen

    2018-06-01

    The surface decoration of short-cut polyimide (PI) fibers with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was performed by fabricating a polydopamine (PDA) coating layer on the fiber surface and then immobilizing MWCNTs onto the coating layer via covalent bonding. This successful surface decoration was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared microscopy and static water contact angle. The application of the surface-decorated PI fibers as reinforcing fibers for reinforcement of polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) alloy was investigated, which indicated that the MWCNTs-decorated PI fibers not only could effectively reinforce the PC/ABS alloy but also generated a significant lightweighting effect on the resulting composites. The maximum mechanical properties were achieved for the composites at a fiber content of 20 wt.% and a fiber length of 3 mm. This significant reinforcement effect is attributed to the enhancement of interaction bonding strength between the fibers and matrix as a result of the surface decoration of PI fibers with MWCNTs. The morphological investigation suggested that fiber rupture was the major energy dissipation mechanism in the tensile and impact failures, whereas fiber debonding and pullout were partly involved in the fracture energy dissipation. In addition, the presence of surface-decorated PI fibers slightly enhanced the thermal stability and load bearing capability of composites. This work can provide a type of high-performance lightweight composite material for automobile and aviation industries.

  6. Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Picascia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early 2000 a new in vivo, less invasive, approach was established aimed to evaluate the adaptive gliadin-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood of celiac patients on a gluten free diet. In fact, it has been demonstrated that three days of ingestion of wheat-containing food induces the mobilization of memory T lymphocytes reactive against gliadin from gut-associated lymphoid tissue into peripheral blood of CD patients. Such antigen-specific T-cells releasing interferon-γ can be transiently detected by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assays or by flow cytometry tetramer technology. This paper discusses the suitability of this in vivo tool to investigate the repertoire of gluten pathogenic peptides, to support CD diagnosis, and to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of all potential applications of short oral gluten challenge is provided.

  7. Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1 easily soluble in cold water, 2 the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3 having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4 no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

  8. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  9. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables.

  10. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  11. Validation of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for First-Grade Children

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Lisa Pericola; Speece, Deborah L.; Silverman, Rebecca; Ritchey, Kristen D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Cooper, David H.; Montanaro, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was designed to validate a short-term supplemental reading intervention for at-risk first-grade children. Although substantial research on long-term supplemental reading interventions exists, less is known about short-term interventions. Thirty first-grade children were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Students in the intervention received 16 hours of instruction. Analyses of pre- and posttest data and growth measures suggest that short-term sup...

  12. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  13. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  14. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  15. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  16. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  17. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements, making it hard to identify any benefits from the MVMs. Should I take an MVM? MVMs cannot take the place of eating a variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. Foods ...

  18. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  19. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  20. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  1. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  2. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  4. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  5. Fast prediction of the fatigue behavior of short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on heat build-up measurements: application to heterogeneous cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Leonell; Marco, Yann; Le Saux, Vincent; Robert, Gilles; Charrier, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics components for structural applications are usually very complex parts as stiffeners, ribs and thickness variations are used to compensate the quite low material intrinsic stiffness. These complex geometries induce complex local mechanical fields but also complex microstructures due to the injection process. Accounting for these two aspects is crucial for the design in regard to fatigue of these parts, especially for automotive industry. The aim of this paper is to challenge an energetic approach, defined to evaluate quickly the fatigue lifetime, on three different heterogeneous cases: a classic dog-bone sample with a skin-core microstructure and two structural samples representative of the thickness variations observed for industrial components. First, a method to evaluate dissipated energy fields from thermal measurements is described and is applied to the three samples in order to relate the cyclic loading amplitude to the fields of cyclic dissipated energy. Then, a local analysis is detailed in order to link the energy dissipated at the failure location to the fatigue lifetime and to predict the fatigue curve from the thermomechanical response of one single sample. The predictions obtained for the three cases are compared successfully to the Wöhler curves obtained with classic fatigue tests. Finally, a discussion is proposed to compare results for the three samples in terms of dissipation fields and fatigue lifetime. This comparison illustrates that, if the approach is leading to a very relevant diagnosis on each case, the dissipated energy field is not giving a straightforward access to the lifetime cartography as the relation between fatigue failure and dissipated energy seems to be dependent on the local mechanical and microstructural state.

  6. [Application of the concetrations ratio of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1, and placental growth factor for short-term prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeníková, Š; Cíchová, A; Roubalová, L; Durdová, V; Vlk, R

    Bring a comprehensive overview of the available information about applications of the concetration ratio of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1 (sFlt-1), and placental growth factor for short-term prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia. Overview study. Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Olomouc; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Olomouc; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Olomouc; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital. Analysis of literary sources and databases Ovid, Medline (2001-2016). Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease with not fully understood etiology. This disease occurs in 2-5% of pregnant women. Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of global maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It manifests itself as a newborn hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy in previously normotensive women. The only effective treatment is the delivery of the child. Diagnosis of preeclampsia comprises measuring blood pressure and proteinuria. These indicators have low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In preeclampsia, there is a decrease of serum levels of placental growth factor (PlGF). Soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1 (sFlt-1) is an antagonist of PlGF. Increased levels of sFlt-1 in proportion to the reduced level of PlGF are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio can be a better predictive marker in the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation.

  7. Inszenierung eines Supplements / Staging a Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas-M. Seibert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter Adam, Anwalt Liebling und William, der Detektiv. Die Rechtspraxis setzt etwas voraus, das sie nicht nur begründet oder ergänzt, sondern grundsätzlich in Frage stellt. So macht der Zwang, in einem Verfahren zu entscheiden und zu begründen, zugleich deutlich, dass jede Form der Entscheidung unangemessen, unbegründet und in ganz anderer Weise neu herzustellen ist. Das ist das juridische Supplement im Geiste von Jacques Derrida. Supplementiert wird die Wahrheit des Rechts in anderen Medien: in Drama, Film und Literatur etwa. Dort wird in Szene gesetzt, was in der real erlebbaren Rechtswelt nicht wirklich erlebt werden kann, was aber doch – wie kein Amtsträger bestreiten würde – zum Verfahrensergebnis gehört. Judge Adam, Advocate “Liebling” and William, the Detective. Legal practice is based on something that is not only an integral part of it and complements it, but also puts it into question generally. The compulsion to argue and reach decisions in a legal trial clarifies simultaneously that all forms of decision are inapproprate, unreasonable, and can be recreated in an entirely new manner [to suit the needs of the trial]. This is the legalistic supplement in the spirit of Jacques Derrida. The legal truth is supplemented by other forms of media such as drama, film and literature, which are able to stage scenes that cannot be experienced in a real life legal world, but – as no legal official would deny – are an integral part of the trial and verdict procedure.

  8. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin : Summary Report Series : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-12-01

    supplementation projects (11) application of the spreadsheet model to supplementation planning; and (12) experimental design and decision making with uncertainty.

  9. AGU Cinema: Festival of short science films at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas A.

    2012-11-01

    New technologies have revolutionized the use of video as a means of science communication and have made it easier to create, distribute, and view. With video having become omnipresent in our culture, it sometime supplements or even replaces writing in many science and education applications. An inaugural science film festival sponsored by AGU at the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., in December will showcase short videos—30 minutes or less in length—developed to disseminate scientific results to various audiences and to enhance learning in the classroom. AGU Cinema will feature professionally produced, big budget films alongside low-budget videos aimed at niche audiences and made by amateurs. The latter category includes videos made by governmental agency scientists, educators, communications specialists within scientific organizations, and Fall Meeting oral and poster presenters.

  10. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharis eOuzounis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. ’Batavia’ (green and cv. ‘Lollo Rossa’ (red] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T lamps yielding 90 (±10 µmol m-2 s-1 for up to 20 hr, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED light treatments were Control (no blue addition, 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 06:00 to 08:00, 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 21:00 to 08:00, 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 µmol m-2 s-1 from 17:00 to 19:00, and (1B 17-19 Blue at 45 µmol m-2 s-1from 17:00 to 19:00. Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  11. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  12. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  13. 32 CFR 199.16 - Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty... (CHAMPUS) § 199.16 Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members. (a) Purpose and applicability... the supplemental health care program for active duty members of the uniformed services, the provision...

  14. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    levels to the normal range after one month of daily supplementation with 1 mg of vitamin K. Evidence from randomised controlled trials on the benefits of routine vitamin K supplementation for people with CF is currently weak and limited to two small trials of short duration. However, no harm was found and until further evidence is available, the present recommendations should be adhered to.

  15. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2014-06-29

    events but a small minority of children were reported to have vomited shortly after ingestion of the supplements. The trial evidence included is generally of good quality, with a low risk of bias. Evidence on whether zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence of otitis media in healthy children under the age of five years living in low- and middle-income countries is mixed. There is some evidence of benefit in children being treated for marasmus (severe malnutrition), but this is based on one small trial and should therefore be treated with caution.

  16. Design and Fabrication of Large Diameter Gradient-Index Lenses for Dual-Band Visible to Short-Wave Infrared Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Anthony Joseph

    The fabrication of gradient-index (GRIN) optical elements is quite challenging, which has traditionally restricted their use in many imaging systems; consequently, commercial-level GRIN components usually exist in one particular market or niche application space. One such fabrication technique, ion exchange, is a well-known process used in the chemical strengthening of glass, the fabrication of waveguide devices, and the production of small diameter GRIN optical relay systems. However, the manufacturing of large diameter ion-exchanged GRIN elements has historically been limited by long diffusion times. For example, the diffusion time for a 20 mm diameter radial GRIN lens in commercially available ion exchange glass for small diameter relays, is on the order of a year. The diffusion time can be dramatically reduced by addressing three key ion exchange process parameters; the composition of the glass, the diffusion temperature, and the composition of the salt bath. Experimental work throughout this thesis aims to (1) scale up the ion exchange diffusion process to 20 mm diameters for a fast-diffusing titania silicate glass family in both (2) sodium ion for lithium ion (Na+ for Li+) and lithium ion for sodium ion (Li+ for Na+) exchange directions, while (3) utilizing manufacturing friendly salt bath compositions. In addition, optical design studies have demonstrated that an important benefit of gradient-index elements in imaging systems is the added degree of freedom introduced with a gradient's optical power. However, these studies have not investigated the potential usefulness of GRIN materials in dual-band visible to short-wave infrared (vis-SWIR) imaging systems. The unique chromatic properties of the titania silicate ion exchange glass become a significant degree of freedom in the design process for these color-limited, broadband imaging applications. A single GRIN element can replace a cemented doublet or even a cemented triplet, without loss in overall system

  17. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Richard B; Kalman, Douglas S; Antonio, Jose; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Wildman, Robert; Collins, Rick; Candow, Darren G; Kleiner, Susan M; Almada, Anthony L; Lopez, Hector L

    2017-01-01

    Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection. Additionally, a number of clinical applications of creatine supplementation have been studied involving neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease), diabetes, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, aging, brain and heart ischemia, adolescent depression, and pregnancy. These studies provide a large body of evidence that creatine can not only improve exercise performance, but can play a role in preventing and/or reducing the severity of injury, enhancing rehabilitation from injuries, and helping athletes tolerate heavy training loads. Additionally, researchers have identified a number of potentially beneficial clinical uses of creatine supplementation. These studies show that short and long-term supplementation (up to 30 g/day for 5 years) is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals and in a number of patient populations ranging from infants to the elderly. Moreover, significant health benefits may be provided by ensuring habitual low dietary creatine ingestion (e.g., 3 g/day) throughout the lifespan. The purpose of this review is to provide an update to the current literature regarding the role and safety of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine and to update the position stand of International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).

  18. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  19. Supplementation in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    We therefore designed this study to measure thoracic aortic ring .... contraction obtained from pilot study (1 x 10-6. M for control and 1 x .... muscle cell hyperpolarisation20. Similarly, several reports have suggested that potassium supplementation enhances endothelium- dependent relaxations, increased vascular activity of ...

  20. Hydrogeologic applications for historical records and images from rock samples collected at the Nevada National Security Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada - A supplement to Data Series 297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David B.

    2018-03-14

    Rock samples have been collected, analyzed, and interpreted from drilling and mining operations at the Nevada National Security Site for over one-half of a century. Records containing geologic and hydrologic analyses and interpretations have been compiled into a series of databases. Rock samples have been photographed and thin sections scanned. Records and images are preserved and available for public viewing and downloading at the U.S. Geological Survey ScienceBase, Mercury Core Library and Data Center Web site at https://www.sciencebase.gov/mercury/ and documented in U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 297. Example applications of these data and images are provided in this report.

  1. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  2. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  3. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  4. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Mok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  5. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  6. Application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the concentrations and study the synthesis of short chain fatty acids following stable isotope infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, R.J.W.; Eijk, H.M.H. van; Have, G.A.M. ten; Graaf, A.A. de; Venema, K.; Rossum, B.E.J. van; Deutz, N.E.P.

    2007-01-01

    A new method involving zinc sulphate deproteinization was developed to study short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production in the colon and subsequent occurrence of SCFA in blood. SCFA were baseline separated in a 30 min cycle using ion-exclusion chromatography and detected by mass spectrometry.

  7. Comprehensive in Vitro Analysis of Acyltransferase Domain Exchanges in Modular Polyketide Synthases and Its Application for Short-Chain Ketone Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Deng, Kai; Wang, George

    2017-01-01

    AT domain replacements in most type I PKS modules. To further demonstrate the utility of the optimized AT domain boundary, we have constructed hybrid PKSs to produce industrially important short-chain ketones. Our in vitro and in vivo analysis demonstrated production of predicted ketones without significant...

  8. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  9. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  10. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  11. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  12. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  13. Ada developers' supplement to the recommended approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Rush; Landis, Linda

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of guidelines for programmers and managers who are responsible for the development of flight dynamics applications in Ada. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the Recommended Approach to Software Development (SEL-81-305), which describes the software development life cycle, its products, reviews, methods, tools, and measures. The Ada Developers' Supplement provides additional detail on such topics as reuse, object-oriented analysis, and object-oriented design.

  14. Investigating the Possibilities of Reading Literary Texts in Light of a Sociolinguistic Perspective: Applications on the Case of Alice Walker’s Selected Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Masiha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research tries to show how race, class, and gender and intersectionality in general, have their decisive impact on the black- American women; and how Alice Walker as a womanist, in her selected short stories, tries to show that black women in the U.S. suffer two-fold acts of oppression and discrimination, i.e. male violence affects all women in social life, irrespective of age or social standing, and at the same time being black has exacerbated the black American women’s situation. In the present study, the mentioned socio-political, socio-cultural and institutionalized intersectionality have been analyzed from the perspective of Alice Walker’s selected short stories. Full analysis have been carried out, from applied linguistic point of view,  in Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use” and “Roselily” while Alice Walker’s other short stories have been consulted for further analysis and discussion. The method used to analyze the data is descriptive research method.

  15. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pain Interference Short Form Items: Application to Ethnically Diverse Cancer and Palliative Care Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Cook, Karon F; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ramirez, Mildred; Reid, M Carrington; Siu, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the response burden of standardized pain measures is desirable, particularly for individuals who are frail or live with chronic illness, e.g., those suffering from cancer and those in palliative care. The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) project addressed this issue with the provision of computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and short form measures that can be used clinically and in research. Although there has been substantial evaluation of PROMIS item banks, little is known about the performance of PROMIS short forms, particularly in ethnically diverse groups. Reviewed in this article are findings related to the differential item functioning (DIF) and reliability of the PROMIS pain interference short forms across diverse sociodemographic groups. DIF hypotheses were generated for the PROMIS short form pain interference items. Initial analyses tested item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence. Dimensionality was evaluated using factor analytic methods; local dependence (LD) was tested using IRT-based LD indices. Wald tests were used to examine group differences in IRT parameters, and to test DIF hypotheses. A second DIF-detection method used in sensitivity analyses was based on ordinal logistic regression with a latent IRT-derived conditioning variable. Magnitude and impact of DIF were investigated, and reliability and item and scale information statistics were estimated. The reliability of the short form item set was excellent. However, there were a few items with high local dependency, which affected the estimation of the final discrimination parameters. As a result, the item, "How much did pain interfere with enjoyment of social activities?" was excluded in the DIF analyses for all subgroup comparisons. No items were hypothesized to show DIF for race and ethnicity; however, five items showed DIF after adjustment for multiple comparisons in both primary and sensitivity

  16. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pain Interference Short Form Items: Application to Ethnically Diverse Cancer and Palliative Care Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Cook, Karon F.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ramirez, Mildred; Reid, M. Carrington; Siu, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the response burden of standardized pain measures is desirable, particularly for individuals who are frail or live with chronic illness, e.g., those suffering from cancer and those in palliative care. The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) project addressed this issue with the provision of computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and short form measures that can be used clinically and in research. Although there has been substantial evaluation of PROMIS item banks, little is known about the performance of PROMIS short forms, particularly in ethnically diverse groups. Reviewed in this article are findings related to the differential item functioning (DIF) and reliability of the PROMIS pain interference short forms across diverse sociodemographic groups. Methods DIF hypotheses were generated for the PROMIS short form pain interference items. Initial analyses tested item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence. Dimensionality was evaluated using factor analytic methods; local dependence (LD) was tested using IRT-based LD indices. Wald tests were used to examine group differences in IRT parameters, and to test DIF hypotheses. A second DIF-detection method used in sensitivity analyses was based on ordinal logistic regression with a latent IRT-derived conditioning variable. Magnitude and impact of DIF were investigated, and reliability and item and scale information statistics were estimated. Results The reliability of the short form item set was excellent. However, there were a few items with high local dependency, which affected the estimation of the final discrimination parameters. As a result, the item, “How much did pain interfere with enjoyment of social activities?” was excluded in the DIF analyses for all subgroup comparisons. No items were hypothesized to show DIF for race and ethnicity; however, five items showed DIF after adjustment for multiple comparisons in both primary and

  17. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  18. Combined application of sub-toxic level of silver nanoparticles with low powers of 2450 MHz microwave radiation lead to kill Escherichia coli in a short time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Varastehmoradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Electromagnetic radiations which have lethal effects on the living cells are currently also considered as a disinfective physical agent.   Materials and Methods: In this investigation, silver nanoparticles were applied to enhance the lethal action of low powers (100 and 180 W of 2450 MHZ electromagnetic radiation especially against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. Silver nanoparticles were biologically prepared and used for next experiments. Sterile normal saline solution was prepared and supplemented by silver nanoparticles to reach the sub-inhibitory concentration (6.25 μg/mL. Such diluted silver colloid as well as free-silver nanoparticles solution was inoculated along with test microorganisms, particularly E. coli. These suspensions were separately treated by 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation for different time intervals in a microwave oven operated at low powers (100 W and 180 W. The viable counts of bacteria before and after each radiation time were determined by colony-forming unit (CFU method. Results: Results showed that the addition of silver nanoparticles significantly decreased the required radiation time to kill vegetative forms of microorganisms. However, these nanoparticles had no combined effect with low power electromagnetic radiation when used against Bacillus subtilis spores. Conclusion: The cumulative effect of silver nanoparticles and low powers electromagnetic radiation may be useful in medical centers to reduce contamination in polluted derange and liquid wastes materials and some devices.

  19. Application of a short term air quality action plan in Madrid (Spain) under a high-pollution episode - Part I: Diagnostic and analysis from observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Rafael; Artíñano, Begoña; Yagüe, Carlos; Gomez-Moreno, Francisco Javier; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Sastre, Mariano; Narros, Adolfo; García-Nieto, David; Benavent, Nuria; Maqueda, Gregorio; Barreiro, Marcos; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Cristóbal, Ángeles

    2018-03-28

    Exceedances of NO 2 hourly limit value (200 μg·m -3 ) imply the need to implement short term action plans to avoid adverse effects on human health in urban areas. The Madrid City Council applied the stage 3 of the NO 2 protocol during a high-pollution episode under stable meteorological conditions on December 2016 for the first time. This included road traffic access restrictions to the city centre (50% of conventional private vehicles based on plate numbers). In this contribution we analyse different meteorological and air quality observations, including non-standard parameters (such as number of ultrafine particles and remote sensing techniques MAXDOAS) for a better understanding of the effectivity of short-term emission abatement measures under real conditions and to identify options to improve the NO 2 protocol in the future. According to our results, the inversion base height computed from vertical temperature soundings is a meaningful index to anticipate very unfavourable conditions and trigger the actions included in the protocol. The analysis of the concentration levels of the main pollutants from the Madrid air quality monitoring network indicate that only stage 3 of the protocol had a significant effect on NO 2 maximum concentrations. The restrictions applied may have prevented NO 2 concentrations to further increase in the city centre (up to 15%) although pollution levels in the city outskirts, outside the area directly affected by the traffic restrictions, remained unchanged or may have been slightly increased. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to estimate more precisely the effect of the measures taken and to assess potential trade-offs. Our results suggest that emissions play an important role also under very strong stability conditions although drastic measures are needed to achieve a significant impact. This highlights the importance of an appropriate timing for short-term actions and the need of permanent abatement measures related to air

  20. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority. Supplement number 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), Supplement No. 16 (September 1995), Supplement No. 17 (October 1995), Supplement No. 18 (October 1995), and Supplement No. 19 (November 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the issues identified in the SER

  1. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  2. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Short- and long-term temporal changes in soil concentrations of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) following single or multiple applications of sewage sludge to pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhind, S.M.; Kyle, C.E.; Ruffie, H.; Calmettes, E.; Osprey, M.; Zhang, Z.L.; Hamilton, D.; McKenzie, C.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal changes in soil burdens of selected endocrine disrupting compounds were determined following application to pasture of either sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizer. Soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were not altered. Changes in concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and PBDEs 47 and 99 differed with season but concentrations remained elevated for more than three weeks after application, when grazing animals are normally excluded from pasture. It is concluded that single applications of sewage sludge can increase soil concentrations of some, but not all classes of EDCs, possibly to concentrations sufficient to exert biological effects when different chemicals act in combination, but patterns of change depend on season and soil temperature. Analysis of soil from pasture subjected to repeated sludge applications, over 13 years, provided preliminary evidence of greater increases in soil burdens of all of the EDC groups measured, including all of the PBDE congeners measured. -- Highlights: •Sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizer was applied to pasture. •Soil PAH and PCB concentrations were not altered by sludge treatment. •Temporal changes in soil phthalate and PBDE differed with season. •Some soil EDC levels were elevated for more than three weeks after application. -- Effects of sewage sludge application to pastures on temporal changes in soil concentrations of endocrine disrupting compounds differ with chemical class and season

  4. A Hull and White Formula for a General Stochastic Volatility Jump-Diffusion Model with Applications to the Study of the Short-Time Behavior of the Implied Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alòs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a Hull and White type formula for a general jump-diffusion stochastic volatility model, where the involved stochastic volatility process is correlated not only with the Brownian motion driving the asset price but also with the asset price jumps. Towards this end, we establish an anticipative Itô's formula, using Malliavin calculus techniques for Lévy processes on the canonical space. As an application, we show that the dependence of the volatility process on the asset price jumps has no effect on the short-time behavior of the at-the-money implied volatility skew.

  5. A short note on the paper of Liu et al. (2012). A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences. Chemical Physics Letters, volume 530, 19 March 2012, pages 107-112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arit, Turkan; Keskin, Burak; Firuzan, Esin; Cavas, Cagin Kandemir; Liu, Liwei; Cavas, Levent

    2018-04-01

    The report entitled "L. Liu, D. Li, F. Bai, A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences, Chem. Phys. Lett. 530 (2012) 107-112" mentions on the powerful construction of phylogenetic trees based on Lempel-Ziv algorithm. On the other hand, the method explained in the paper does not give promising result on the data set on invasive Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea. The phylogenetic trees are obtained by the proposed method of the aforementioned paper in this short note.

  6. Application of Short-Range LIDAR in Early Alerting for Low-Level Windshear and Turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Hon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong Observatory currently uses a series of meteorological instruments, including long-range LIDAR (light detection and ranging systems, to provide alerting services of low-level windshear and turbulence for Hong Kong International Airport. For some events that are smaller in spatial dimensions and are rapidly changing, such as low altitude windshear and turbulence associated with buildings or man-made structures, it would be necessary to involve meteorological instruments that offer greater spatial resolution. Therefore, the Observatory has set up a short-range LIDAR on the roof of the AsiaWorld-Expo during the summers over the past several years, conducting field research on the feasibility of strengthening early alerting for windshear and turbulence over the north runway’s eastern arrival runway (Runway 25RA and developing an automated early alerting algorithm. This paper takes the pilot reports for Runway 25RA during the 2013 field research as verification samples, using different thresholds for radial wind velocity spatial and temporal changes detected by the short-range LIDAR to calculate the relative operating characteristic (ROC curve, and analyzes its early alerting performance.

  7. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  9. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  10. 21 CFR 812.35 - Supplemental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... soundness of the investigational plan; or (C) The rights, safety, or welfare of the human subjects involved... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... (including manufacturing changes) that do not constitute a significant change in design or basic principles...

  11. Development of technical marginal conditions for the application of hydrogen as storage for renewable energies. Short version of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Due to the present experiences gained in pilot projects and by the application of hydrogen in the industry it can be expected that an equivalent safety standard will be achieved for a manifold application of hydrogen as energy carrier as e.g. in the case of natural gas or liquid gas. A decentral generation and storage of hydrogen in detached houses is not recommended in conurbation because of necessary structural measurements and safety requirements. Small supply networks on the level of municipalities shall be erected instead. The use of hydrogen in the traffic seems to be useful in utility vehicles (e.g. buses) because the vehicle construction is more suitable for a safe integration of the tank system than in case of a car. The regulation shall be extended for a broader use of hydrogen and contain minimum requirements for the equipment and design of each application in terms of safety technology. (orig./MM) [de

  12. Cracking of reinforced concrete short walls submitted to seismic solicitations - estimation of cracks openings: contribution to the improvement of knowledge, of experimental data to engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallitre, E.

    2008-01-01

    Until now, the codified methods of crack opening estimation of reinforced concrete structures are based on formulations taking into account stresses of steels supposed to take again the whole stresses which have led to crack: these methods are not valid in the case of shear solicitations in short walls. With the detailed exploitation of the SAFE campaign, it has been possible to establish a global deformation formulated law. The problem being thus reported on the determination of the distortion, different methods have been tested, the more realistic being those in which non linear calculations involve. This work has ended by a return on the codified methods for nuclear power plants design revealing thus the points able to be improved or adapted. (O.M.)

  13. Applications of the KKR-DCA: A Finite-Temperature Density Functional Theory to Predict Chemical Short-Range Order Effects in Disordered Metallic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biava, D. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2009-03-01

    Short-range order (SRO) is ubiquitous in metallic alloys, affecting changes in their electronic, thermodynamic, mechanical, magnetic, and structural properties. For example, SRO is responsible for the yield-strength anomalies observed in Cu-Al at high temperatures, i.e., the materials is more resistant to dislocation motion at high temperature than it is at room temperature. Within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostorker (KKR) electronic-structure method, we present results using the dynamical cluster approximations (DCA) to obtain the temperature-dependent SRO in disordered alloys. We obtain the KKR-DCA SRO energetics versus local neighbor SRO parameters and minimize it at fixed temperature to predict the SRO. We show that the calculated SRO at fixed temperature compares well with available experimental results, and then correlate the results to the electronic structure. We discuss how an accurate analytic estimate can be made for the SRO in most metals due to the dependence of the grand potential on SRO.

  14. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  15. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Supplement 3 to Digest No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This is the third of a series of Supplements to the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest. This Supplement updates the Digest by including pertinent Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board rulings for the period October 1, 1977 to December 31, 1977. The Supplement also adds several new topics. The Supplement is structured in the same manner as the Digest. For the convenience of users, the text of the Supplement is preceded by an index which lists the Digest topic headings which are supplemented. In using the main Digest, this index to Supplement 3 as well as those to Supplements 1 and 2 should be consulted to assure that the Digest discussion has not been superseded or updated by information in the Supplements. Supplement 3 is intended for use as a ''pocket part''. It should be inserted after Supplements 1 and 2, following the main Digest. Notice is hereby given that all disclaimers with respect to content, accuracy and completeness of information, express or implied warranties, and use of or reliance upon information presented, set forth in regard to the Digest itself, are equally applicable to this Supplement

  16. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    of a high phytooestrogens containing diet can prolong the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle by suppressing FSH and LH secretion. Unfortunately, little it is known about the endocrinological and reproductive side effects of the mentioned herbal preparations, and even less is known when considering that the used dosages for increasing physical performances have not been studied at all. Given the risks of both short and long term toxicity, side effects and drug interaction, studies regarding the use of herbal supplements are essential (Glover and Assinder, 2006. Athletes should be aware that the safety of these supplements is still unproven, their effect as performance enhancers has not been shown, and the long term effects are unknown

  17. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  18. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  19. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, T W; Rhodes, E C

    1999-07-01

    While creatine has been known to man since 1835, when a French scientist reported finding this constitutent of meat, its presence in athletics as a performance enhancer is relatively new. Amid claims of increased power and strength, decreased performance time and increased muscle mass, creatine is being hailed as a true ergogenic aid. Creatinine is synthesised from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine in the kidneys, liver and pancreas, and is predominantly found in skeletal muscle, where it exists in 2 forms. Approximately 40% is in the free creatine form (Crfree), while the remaining 60% is in the phosphorylated form, creatine phosphate (CP). The daily turnover rate of approximately 2 g per day is equally met via exogenous intake and endogenous synthesis. Although creatine concentration (Cr) is greater in fast twitch muscle fibres, slow twitch fibres have a greater resynthesis capability due to their increased aerobic capacity. There appears to be no significant difference between males and females in Cr, and training does not appear to effect Cr. The 4 roles in which creatine is involved during performance are temporal energy buffering, spatial energy buffering, proton buffering and glycolysis regulation. Creatine supplementation of 20 g per day for at least 3 days has resulted in significant increases in total Cr for some individuals but not others, suggesting that there are 'responders' and 'nonresponders'. These increases in total concentration among responders is greatest in individuals who have the lowest initial total Cr, such as vegetarians. Increased concentrations of both Crfree and CP are believed to aid performance by providing more short term energy, as well as increase the rate of resynthesis during rest intervals. Creatine supplementation does not appear to aid endurance and incremental type exercises, and may even be detrimental. Studies investigating the effects of creatine supplementation on short term, high intensity exercises have

  20. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Leza Salord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the brood cell percentage evolution, which can be used as an indicator of queen health and brood development breeding rates. To achieve it, the brood cell surface was photographed in every sampling, and data were analyzed using a method based on image treatment software. A total of 480 pictures were examined from two groups of four nucleus hives in two areas, one receiving aerial spraying with Btk and the other without treatment. A mixed factorial design was realized to analyse the data showing no differences in colony performance between the two groups of colonies either before the treatment, during and at the end of the assay. Furthermore, the brood surface ratio of Btk-treated/untreated increased along the experiment. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that Btk aerial applications did not affect the brood development of honeybees under natural conditions. Nevertheless further field studies are required to ascertain a safe use of Btk in forest pest management.

  1. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  2. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report

  3. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  4. On the orbit calculation of visual binaries with a very short arc: application to the PMS binary system, FW Tau AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docobo, J. A.; Tamazian, V. S.; Campo, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    In the vast majority of cases when available astrometric measurements of a visual binary cover a very short orbital arc, it is practically impossible to calculate a good quality orbit. It is especially important for systems with pre-main-sequence components where standard mass-spectrum calibrations cannot be applied nor can a dynamical parallax be calculated. We have shown that the analytical method of Docobo allows us to put certain constraints on the most likely orbital solutions, using an available realistic estimate of the global mass of the system. As an example, we studied the interesting PMS binary, FW Tau AB, located in the Taurus-Auriga as well as investigated a range of its possible orbital solutions combined with an assumed distance between 120 and 160 pc. To maintain the total mass of FW Tau AB in a realistic range between 0.2 and 0.6M_{⊙}, minimal orbital periods should begin at 105, 150, 335, and 2300 yr for distances of 120, 130, 140, and 150 pc, respectively (no plausible orbits were found assuming a distance of 160 pc). An original criterion to establish the upper limit of the orbital period is applied. When the position angle in some astrometric measurements was flipped by 180°, orbits with periods close to 45 yr are also plausible. Three example orbits with periods of 44.6, 180, and 310 yr are presented.

  5. Application of electron-beam irradiation on the production of salted and seasoned short-necked clam, Tapes Pilippinarum, for safe distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.; Song, H.P.; Choe, J.H.; Jung, S. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J. [Food Safety Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Salted and seasoned short-necked clam (Tapes Philippinarum; SNC) and its major ingredients, red hot pepper powder, ginger, garlic and onion were irradiated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy, respectively, and the microbiological and sensory quality were evaluated. The water activities of SNC and red pepper powder were 0.91 and 0.56, respectively, and others were higher than 0.97. The initial microbial populations of SNC were approximately 3.99, 4.38 and 2.22 log CFU/g for total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and coliform bacteria. The highest contamination of total aerobic bacteria was detected from ground ginger among ingredients at 5.51 log CFU/g. Electron-beam irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy) significantly reduced the initial microbial level of SNC and its ingredients not only immediately after irradiation, but also during storage at 10 {sup o}C for 4 weeks (p<0.05). There was no adverse change of sensory score except for the color of onion irradiated at 5 kGy, which results in a lower score than control. From the results electron-beam irradiation is a useful tool to enhance the storage stability and safe distribution of SNC.

  6. Research and Application of a Novel Hybrid Model Based on Data Selection and Artificial Intelligence Algorithm for Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning plays a vital role in several modern economic and industrial fields, and selecting an optimized machine learning method to improve time series’ forecasting accuracy is challenging. Advanced machine learning methods, e.g., the support vector regression (SVR model, are widely employed in forecasting fields, but the individual SVR pays no attention to the significance of data selection, signal processing and optimization, which cannot always satisfy the requirements of time series forecasting. By preprocessing and analyzing the original time series, in this paper, a hybrid SVR model is developed, considering periodicity, trend and randomness, and combined with data selection, signal processing and an optimization algorithm for short-term load forecasting. Case studies of electricity power data from New South Wales and Singapore are regarded as exemplifications to estimate the performance of the developed novel model. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid method is not only robust but also capable of achieving significant improvement compared with the traditional single models and can be an effective and efficient tool for power load forecasting.

  7. Comprehensive in Vitro Analysis of Acyltransferase Domain Exchanges in Modular Polyketide Synthases and Its Application for Short-Chain Ketone Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deng, Kai [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, George [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Northen, Trent R. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Synthetic Biology Research Center, Emeryville, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Synthetic Biology Research Center, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) are polymerases that utilize acyl-CoAs as substrates. Each polyketide elongation reaction is catalyzed by a set of protein domains called a module. Each module usually contains an acyltransferase (AT) domain, which determines the specific acyl-CoA incorporated into each condensation reaction. Although a successful exchange of individual AT domains can lead to the biosynthesis of a large variety of novel compounds, hybrid PKS modules often show significantly decreased activities. Using monomodular PKSs as models, we have systematically analyzed in this paper the segments of AT domains and associated linkers in AT exchanges in vitro and have identified the boundaries within a module that can be used to exchange AT domains while maintaining protein stability and enzyme activity. Importantly, the optimized domain boundary is highly conserved, which facilitates AT domain replacements in most type I PKS modules. To further demonstrate the utility of the optimized AT domain boundary, we have constructed hybrid PKSs to produce industrially important short-chain ketones. Our in vitro and in vivo analysis demonstrated production of predicted ketones without significant loss of activities of the hybrid enzymes. Finally, these results greatly enhance the mechanistic understanding of PKS modules and prove the benefit of using engineered PKSs as a synthetic biology tool for chemical production.

  8. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  9. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  10. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  11. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a

  12. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  13. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  14. Source of ultra-short laser pulses at 1,55μm in vertical-external-cavity for linear optical sampling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadour, A.

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this thesis were, in a first step, to develop and implement VECSEL structures containing an active zone formed by GaAlInAs/InP quantum wells located at the anti-nodes of the resonant electric field, positioned on a Bragg mirror, all this being bonded to a substrate of good thermal conductivity. For this, we have designed structures optimizing the evacuation of heat generated in the active zone. This has greatly improved the VECSEL performances, especially their output power. The VECSEL performances were evaluated in a simple cavity with two mirrors (plane-concave). The second point was to develop and implement SESAM structures which, owing to their nonlinear characteristics, would allow a passively mode-locked laser operation. The structures contained InGaAsN/GaAs quantum wells. The studied parameters were the number of quantum wells, and the resonant or anti-resonant behavior of the structure. The linear and nonlinear optical characterizations were used to optimize the SESAM structure and estimate their performances. Finally, the compatibility between the VECSEL and SESAM structures, in terms of modulation depth and resonance wavelength, made it possible to obtain the passive mode locking operation. The obtained pulses show two different behaviors depending on the dispersion properties of the structures. With low dispersion, we have made the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked VECSEL at 1550 nm, operating at room temperature. An all-optical sampling device implementing the linear optical sampling technique using short laser pulses has been realized and tested. This device will allow displaying eye diagrams and constellation diagrams with an expected sensitivity around -20 dBm of average power. Testing the device allowed to visualize the acquisition of very high repetition rate signals (40 Gb/s). (author)

  15. Short-time Asymptotics of the Heat Kernel on Bounded Domain with Piecewise Smooth Boundary Conditions and Its Applications to an Ideal Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.M.E. ZAYED

    2004-01-01

    The asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel Θ(t)(∞∑=(i=0))exp (-λi) where({λi}∞i=1) Are the eigen-values of negative Laplacian( -△n=-n∑k=1(θ/θxk)2)in Rn(n=2 or 3) is studied for short-time t for a general bounded domainθΩwith a smooth boundary θΩ.In this paper, we consider the case of a finite number of the Dirichlet conditions φ=0 on Γi (i = J +1,….,J)and the Neumann conditions and (θφ/θ vi) = 0 on Γi (i = J+1,…,k) and the Robin condition (θφ/θ vi+γi) θ=(I=k+1,… m) where γi are piecewise smooth positive impedancem(θφ=mUi=1Γi. )We construct the required asymptotics in the form of a power series over t. The senior coe.cients inthis series are speci.ed as functionals of the geometric shape of the domain Ω.This result is applied to calculatethe one-particle partition function of a "special ideal gas", i.e., the set of non-interacting particles set up in abox with Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions for the appropriate wave function. Calculationof the thermodynamic quantities for the ideal gas such as the internal energy, pressure and speci.c heat revealsthat these quantities alone are incapable of distinguishing between two di.erent shapes of the domain. Thisconclusion seems to be intuitively clear because it is based on a limited information given by a one-particlepartition function; nevertheless, its formal theoretical motivation is of some interest.

  16. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF MOBILIZATION-WITH-MOVEMENT (MWM AND AUTO-MWM APPLICATION IN RECREATIONAL RUNNERS WITH ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Zemadanis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS is the most frequent overuse injury in recreational runners. Given the fact that there are no clear guidelines on the optimal conservative treatment approach regarding ITBS rehabilitation, manual therapy effect by a functional joint mobilization is still unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether implementation of mobilization-with-movement (MWM and auto-mobilization had a significant short-term improvement in pain and functionality of recreational runners with ITBS. Methods: Participants: thirty ITBS patients, were randomly assigned into two groups. Design and Settings: One group pre-test /post-test with the control group. Interventions: Runners on the treatment group followed an MWM protocol of six sessions with an additive program of auto-MWM, while the control group received a SHAM form of MWM. Outcome measurements: Pain and functionality were measured at baseline and post-treatment, via Numeric Pain Rating scale and Lower Extremity Functional Scale respectively. Mixed-ANOVA test detected possible differences among treatment phases and between groups, but also interactions among factors. Result: The present findings revealed significant interactions between factors and significant main effects of each TIME and GROUP factors on pain and functionality. MWM-treatment group showed significant improvement in post-intervention NPRT and LEFS scores, compared to baseline scores (p.001. Differences between groups were significant in post-treatment scores (p<.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MWM and auto-MWM are a significant treatment approach, improving pain and functionality in recreational runners suffering from ITBS.

  17. Short-distance expansion for the electromagnetic half-space Green's tensor: general results and an application to radiative lifetime computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, George Y; Schotland, John C; Markel, Vadim A

    2009-01-01

    We obtain a short-distance expansion for the half-space, frequency domain electromagnetic Green's tensor. The small parameter of the theory is ωε 1 L/c, where ω is the frequency, ε 1 is the permittivity of the upper half-space, in which both the source and the point of observation are located, and which is assumed to be transparent, c is the speed of light in vacuum and L is a characteristic length, defined as the distance from the point of observation to the reflected (with respect to the planar interface) position of the source. In the case when the lower half-space (the substrate) is characterized by a complex permittivity ε 2 , we compute the expansion to third order. For the case when the substrate is a transparent dielectric, we compute the imaginary part of the Green's tensor to seventh order. The analytical calculations are verified numerically. The practical utility of the obtained expansion is demonstrated by computing the radiative lifetime of two electromagnetically interacting molecules in the vicinity of a transparent dielectric substrate. The computation is performed in the strong interaction regime when the quasi-particle pole approximation is inapplicable. In this regime, the integral representation for the half-space Green's tensor is difficult to use while its electrostatic limiting expression is grossly inadequate. However, the analytical expansion derived in this paper can be used directly and efficiently. The results of this study are also relevant to nano-optics and near-field imaging, especially when tomographic image reconstruction is involved

  18. Prevalence of protein supplement use at gyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Oliver, A; Miranda León, Ma T; Guerra-Hernández, E

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, the abuse of all class of sport nutritional supplements (NS) has extended the people who go regularly to gymnasiums. Between these substances there are the Protein Powder Supplements (PPS). The purpose of this study is to examine the consumption of PPS in 415 individuals from Seville fitness centers. All individuals were evaluated with anthropometric measurements and completed a questionnaire previously reviewed, evaluating the validity of the content, application, structure and presentation. 28% of the individuals were using or used PPS. Of the total, 42.7% of male individuals compared to 3.2% of the females. The use of PPS was higher than what has been reported in previous studies about supplement use in fitness center, 28% vs 10-14% aprox. The SPP use is associated with sex, age, and time of sport practiced. More than a 25% of the total individuals that attend a gym use PPS. The total individuals that attend a gym and use PPS far exceed the RDA of protein for general population and/or athletes, being able to cause problems of health.

  19. In Vivo Short-Term Topical Application of BAY 11-7082 Prevents the Acidic Bile–Induced mRNA and miRNA Oncogenic Phenotypes in Exposed Murine Hypopharyngeal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence T. Sasaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bile-containing gastroesophageal reflux may promote cancer at extraesophageal sites. Acidic bile can accelerate NF-κB activation and molecular events, linked to premalignant changes in murine hypopharyngeal mucosa (HM. We hypothesize that short-term in vivo topical application of NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 can prevent acidic bile–induced early preneoplastic molecular events, suggesting its potential role in disease prevention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We topically exposed HM (C57Bl/6j wild-type to a mixture of bile acids at pH 3.0 with and without BAY 11-7082 3 times/day for 7 days. We used immunofluorescence, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and polymerase chain reaction microarrays to identify NF-κB activation and its associated oncogenic mRNA and miRNA phenotypes, in murine hypopharyngeal cells in vitro and in murine HM in vivo. RESULTS: Short-term exposure of HM to acidic bile is a potent stimulus accelerating the expression of NF-κB signaling (70 out of 84 genes and oncogenic molecules. Topical application of BAY 11-7082 sufficiently blocks the effect of acidic bile. BAY 11-7082 eliminates NF-κB activation in regenerating basal cells of acidic bile–treated HM and prevents overexpression of molecules central to head and neck cancer, including bcl-2, STAT3, EGFR, TNF-α, and WNT5A. NF-κB inhibitor reverses the upregulated “oncomirs” miR-155 and miR-192 and the downregulated “tumor suppressors” miR-451a and miR-375 phenotypes in HM affected by acidic bile. CONCLUSION: There is novel evidence that acidic bile–induced NF-κB–related oncogenic mRNA and miRNA phenotypes are generated after short-term 7-day mucosal exposure and that topical mucosal application of BAY 11-7082 can prevent the acidic bile–induced molecular alterations associated with unregulated cell growth and proliferation of hypopharyngeal cells.

  20. The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate short and medium lived elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayivor, J. E.; Okine, L. K. N.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Debrah, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The epithermal neutron shape factor, α of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The α values used in Westcott Formalism k0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by short and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 s-1. Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest common

  1. The effectiveness of a high output/short duration radiofrequency current application technique in segmental pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen

    2006-01-01

    groups. In the conventional group (Group 1, 45 patients), the power output was limited to 30 W with a target temperature of 50 degrees C and an RF preset duration of 120 s. In the novel group (Group 2, 45 patients), the maximum power output was preset to 45 W, with a target temperature of 55 degrees C......AIMS: Segmental pulmonary vein (PV) isolation by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has become a curative therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long procedure time limits the wide application of this procedure. The aim of the current study was to compare a novel ablation technique...... and duration of 20 s. In Group 2, a significant reduction in the PV isolation time (127+/-57 vs. 94+/-33 min, P

  2. 324 building safety analysis report supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, A.O.; Wittenbrock, N.G.

    1977-01-01

    Process engineering designs, major equipment and plant facilities to be utilized in commercial nuclear waste preparation and vitrification in the 324 Radiochemical Engineering Building are reviewed with regard to accident potential and consequences. This Safety Analysis Report Supplement compares calculated environmental doses anticipated from the Commercial Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (CNWVP) routine operations with the average doses from past waste management operations conducted at the Hanford Project and finds them to be significantly less. The calculated CNWVP environmental doses are found to be far below presently applicable ERDA standards and standards proposed by the EPA for nuclear power operations

  3. The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate short and medium lived elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayivor, J.E.; Okine, L.K.N.; Dampare, S.B.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Debrah, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The epithermal neutron shape factor, α of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The α values used in Westcott Formalism k 0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by short and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×10 11 ncm −2 s −1 . Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest

  4. Short-time asymptotics of the two-dimensional wave equation for an annular vibrating membrane with applications in the mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, E.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    We study the influence of a finite container on an ideal gas using the wave equation approach. The asymptotic expansion of the trace of the wave kernel μ-circumflex(t)=Σ υ=1 ∞ exp(-itμ υ 1/2 ) for small vertical bar t vertical bar and i=√-1, where {μ ν } ν=1 ∞ are the eigenvalues of the negative Laplacian -Δ=-Σ k=1 2 (((∂)/(∂x k ))) 2 in the (x 1 ,x 2 )-plane, is studied for an annular vibrating membrane Ω in R 2 together with its smooth inner boundary ∂Ω 1 and its smooth outer boundary ∂Ω 2 , where a finite number of Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions on the piecewise smooth components Γ j (j=1,...,m) of ∂Ω 1 and on the piecewise smooth components Γ j (j=m+1,...,n) of ∂Ω 2 such that ∂Ω 1 =union j=1 m Γ j and ∂Ω 2 =union j=m+1 n Γ j is considered. The basic problem is to extract information on the geometry of the annular vibrating membrane Ω from complete knowledge of its eigenvalues using the wave equation approach by analyzing the asymptotic expansions of the spectral function μ-circumflex(t) for small vertical bar t vertical bar. Some applications of μ-circumflex(t) for an ideal gas enclosed in the general annular bounded domain Ω are given.

  5. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  6. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  7. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  8. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  9. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Ivanova

    Full Text Available DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious.We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components.All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS. NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components.Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should

  10. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Natalia V; Kuzmina, Maria L; Braukmann, Thomas W A; Borisenko, Alex V; Zakharov, Evgeny V

    2016-01-01

    DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should involve an

  11. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  13. Electrical impedance scanning as a new imaging modality in breast cancer detection - a short review of clinical value on breast application, limitations and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malich, A.; Boehm, T.; Facius, M.; Kleinteich, I.; Fleck, M.; Sauner, D.; Anderson, R.; Kaiser, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Cancer cells exhibit altered local dielectric properties compared to normal cells, measurable as different electrical conductance and capacitance using electrical impedance scanning (EIS). Therefore, active biocompatible current is applied to the patient for calculation of both parameters taking into account frequency, voltage and current flow. Subjects and methods. 240 women with 280 sonographically and/or mammographically suspicious findings were examined using EIS. All lesions were histologically proven. A lesion was scored as positive, when a focal increased conductance and/or capacitance was measurable using EIS. The lesion was visible as a bright area in a 256 grey-scale computer output. Due to system limitations patients having a pacemaker or pregnant had to be excluded from the study. Results. 91/113 malignant and 108/167 benign lesions were correctly identified using EIS (80.5% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity). NPV and PPV of 83.1% and 60.7% were observed, respectively. Accuracy was 0.73. A wide range of factors can induce false positive results, although by an experienced observer a number of these findings can be detected such as scars, skin alterations, contact artefacts, air bubbles and naevi, hairs and interfering bone. Based upon visibility on ultrasound (194 lesions visible, 86 not visible) significant differences in the detection rate occurred. Histology-dependent detectability rate varied significantly with lowest rate in CIS-cases (50%). Specificity values varied histology-depending, too; probably depending on the rate of proliferation between 75% (inflammatory lesions) and papillomata (50%). Best detectability was observed in malignant lesions with a size between 20 and 30 mm. Further possible applications will be discussed regarding the currently available literature (lymph nodes, salivary glands, mathematical and animal based models). Conclusion. EIS appears to be a promising new additional technology providing a rather high

  14. 7 CFR 1955.22 - State supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.22 Section 1955.22 Agriculture... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.22 State supplements. State Supplements will be prepared with the... supplements will be submitted to the National Office for post approval in accordance with FmHA or its...

  15. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...

  16. 47 CFR 80.651 - Supplemental eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 80.651 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Maritime Support Stations § 80.651 Supplemental eligibility requirements. (a) An applicant for a maritime support station must demonstrate a requirement for training...

  17. Study of the desintegration of short-life fission products. Application to the mass distribution in the fission of 238U and 233U induced by 14MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallini, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear spectrometry of short-life fission products was investigated, together with direct applications to the study of mass and charge distribution in fission reactions. It is shown that, by choosing judiciously the target in which the fission product is created and owing to the differences in stabilities and evaporation temperatures of the compounds obtained, it is possible to separate some elements. For example, niobium was separated by heating after irradiation of a mixture of UC and RuCl 3 , and sublimation in a tube with temperature gradient. It was thus possible to study the 99 Nb isotope. Other classical chemical separation processes were used for yttrium and strontium. The half-lifes beta and gamma spectra, decay schemes of 93 Sr, 94 Y and 95 Y were studied. It was shown how to obtain mass distribution in fission using a nondestructive gamma analysis method. As an application, results obtained in the fission of 233 U and 238 U at 14 MeV are given [fr

  18. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  19. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  20. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  1. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  2. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  3. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  4. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  5. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC's extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA's operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation

  6. Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Jafari, Afshar

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers. In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g/kg/day) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in one week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of one-repetition maximum for whole-body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P0.05). These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.

  7. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L R; Ryan Borchers, T A; Robison, L M; Wiediger, M; Park, J S; Chew, B P; McGuire, M K; Sclar, D A; Skaer, T L; Beerman, K A

    2007-01-01

    The decline in estrogen concentrations in women after menopause can contribute to health related changes including impairments in cognition, especially memory. Because of the health concerns related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alternative approaches to treat menopausal symptoms, such as nutritional supplements and/or diet containing isoflavones, are of interest. This study investigated whether soy isoflavones (soy milk and supplement) could improve cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION AND DESIGN: A total of 79 postmenopausal women, 48-65 years of age, completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: cow's milk and a placebo supplement (control); soy milk and placebo supplement (soy milk, 72 mg isoflavones/day); or cow's milk and isoflavone supplement (isoflavone supplement, 70 mg isoflavones/day). Cognitive functioning was assessed using various cognitive tasks before the intervention (baseline) and after the intervention (test). In contrast to predictions, soy isoflavones did not improve selective attention (Stroop task), visual long-term memory (pattern recognition), short-term visuospatial memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), or visuo-spatial working memory (color match task). Also, the soy milk group showed a decline in verbal working memory (Digit Ordering Task) compared to the soy supplement and control groups. Soy isoflavones consumed as a food or supplement over a 16-week period did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women.

  8. 75 FR 66077 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12555-004-PA] Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Supplemental Environmental Assessment... Energy Projects has reviewed the application for an original license for the Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric...

  9. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  10. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  12. Application of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for identification, confirmation and quantitation of illegal adulterated weight-loss drugs in plant dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaoyuan; Shou, Linjun; Chen, Cen; Shi, Shi; Zhou, Minghao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS) method was developed and validated for identification, confirmation and quantitation of illegal adulterated weight-loss drugs in plant dietary supplements. 13 wt-loss drugs were well separated by the gradient elution of 10mmol/L ammonium acetate - 0.05% formic acid H 2 O and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min within 12min. The MS analysis was operated under the positive ion and in full MS/dd-MS 2 (data-dependent MS 2 ) mode. The full MS scan with resolution at 60 000 FWHM and narrow mass windows at 5ppm acquired data for identification and quantitation, and dd-MS 2 scan with resolution at 15 000 FWHM obtained product ions for confirmation. The method validation showed good linearity with coefficients of determination (r 2 ) higher than 0.9951 for all analytes. Meantime, all the LOD and LLOQ values were in the respective range of 0.3-2 and 1-9ng/g. The accuracy, intra- and inter-day precision were in the ranges of -1.7 to 3.4%, 1.7-5.0% and 1.9-4.4%, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from 85.4 to 107.1%, while the absolute and relative matrix effect were in the corresponding range of 98.2-108.6% and 2.6-8.7%. Among 120 batches of weight loss plant dietary supplements, sibutramine and fluoxertine or both were positive in 29 samples. In general, LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS technology was a powerful tool for the analysis of illegal ingredients in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transport and deposition of nano-particles. Application to the free action of short-lived radon daughters; Transport et depot des aerosols nanometriques. Application a la fraction libre des descendants a vie courte du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J

    1997-10-10

    Short-lived radon daughters ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 214}Po) are important contributors to the natural average annual individual dose. The models describing the evolution of these aerosol in a house depend critically on a parameter, the {sup 218}Po deposition velocity, which, although aerosol deposition has been extensively studied, is poorly known. A numerical and experimental study is thus carried out for a simple case: deposition in a cylindrical tube under laminar flow condition. The numerical results help understanding the difference between the transport and deposition of these radionuclides and those of non radioactive aerosols. Comparison of these well environment does not give satisfactory correlation, requiring the study of phenomena that may affect deposition. The first of these is the possible variation in the e {sup 218}Po diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, experiments coupled with numerical calculations show that this variation could be due to {sup 218}Po neutralization. The second phenomenon concerns the effect of the surface type, which is also shown experimentally. By modelling the neutralization and using results with a piratically smooth surface, good numerical/experimental correlations are obtained. Understanding this simple case than makes possible studying a more complex case: deposition in controlled turbulent flow. Two theories are thus experimentally validated. In addition, a {sup 218}Po deposition velocity representative of our experimental conditions is determined. Finally, we report a feasibility study of radon daughters transport and deposition in a ventilated chamber taking into account all the involved phenomena. (author)

  14. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Bird

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been gaining popularity exponentially. Introduced to the general public in the early 1990s, shortly after the Barcelona Olympic Games, creatine (Cr has become one of the most widely used nutritional supplements or ergogenic aids, with loading doses as high as 20-30 g·day-1 for 5-7 days typical among athletes. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation (CrS on exercise performance and training adaptations. Short-term CrS has been reported to improve maximal power/strength, work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions, single-effort sprint performance, and work performed during repetitive sprint performance. During training CrS has been reported to promote significantly greater gains in strength, fat free mass, and exercise performance primarily of high intensity tasks. However, not all studies demonstrate a beneficial effect on exercise performance, as CrS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. CrS appears to pose no serious health risks when taken at doses described in the literature and may enhance exercise performance in individuals that require maximal single effort and/or repetitive sprint bouts

  15. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-09-14

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  16. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  17. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  18. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  19. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-424 and 50-425): Supplement 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    In June 1985, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-1137) regarding the application of Georgia Power Corporation, and the City of Dalton, Georgia, for licenses to operate the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-424 and 50-425). Supplement 1 to NUREG-1137 was issued by the Staff in October 1985, Supplement 2 was issued in May 1986, Supplement 3 was issued in August 1986, Supplement 4 was issued in December 1986, Supplement 5 was issued in January 1987, Supplement 6 was issued in March 1987, and Supplement 7 was issued in January 1988. The facility is located in Burke County, Georgia, approximately 26 miles south-southeast of Augusta, Georgia, and on the Savannah River. This eighth supplement to NUREG-1137 provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the open and confirmatory items that remained unresolved following issuance of Supplement 7. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3x2x2 factorial experiment, involving an intake and in vivo digestibility trial with 48 adult S.A. Mutton Merino wethers. Straw dry matter (OM) intake on ammoniated wheat-straw diets was 27 and 22% higher (P ';;0,01) than on untreated and urea-supplemented diets, respectively. No significant difference was found between ...

  1. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  2. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  4. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  5. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  6. Basal testosterone concentrations after the application of a slow-release GnRH agonist implant are associated with a loss of response to buserelin, a short-term GnRH agonist, in the tom cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Fasulkov, Ivan; Vodenicharov, Angel; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-07-01

    Slow-release GnRH agonist implants are considered an effective, reversible alternative to surgical castration in male tom cats. Individual differences exist regarding the onset of efficacy and might be delayed in some animals. Single measurements of testosterone (T) might result in basal concentrations also in intact male cats. Consequently, GnRH stimulation tests are performed to measure T increase in intact animals and to differentiate castrated from intact male cats. In this study, five tom cats were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant and GnRH stimulation tests using buserelin were performed before treatment and at 4-week intervals afterward until Week 20. After the last test in Week 20 all animals were castrated. Four of five animals had basal T after 4 weeks and-in contrast to pretreatment-application of buserelin did not result in any further T increase. In one animal, T was low after implant insertion, but not basal; however, a GnRH stimulation test induced a slight increase of T in Week 8 and 16 only and no response in Weeks 4, 12, and 20. Testicular volume was significantly decreased and penile spines disappeared in all cats. Testicular histology showed mixed atrophy, but also fully elongated spermatids in three of five male cats making infertility questionable. Because of the loss of the stimulatory effect of short-term GnRH application (buserelin), it can be assumed that long-term GnRH agonists also act by some mechanisms of downregulation of pituitary GnRH receptors in the tom cat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient’s health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products.

  8. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  9. Synthesis and tissue distribution studies of two novel esters of haloperidol and the application of radiolabelling techniques using short-lived radionuclides in the study of the deposition characteristics of suspended aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the present work, the Schotten-Baumann reaction conditions were modified to esterify the tertiary hydroxyl group of haloperidol. The rapid synthesis (less than 20 min) makes this procedure applicable to the preparation of esters of haloperidol containing fluorine-18 (t/sup (1/2)/ 110 min), a γ-emitting radioisotope useful in external scintigraphy. In vivo distribution studies of the synthesized tritiated esters and haloperidol in the rat demonstrated that neither ester prodrug achieved overall higher brain concentration levels than haloperidol. In this study, radiotracer techniques were developed to examine parameters that characterize pressurized aerosols designed to utilize insoluble particles suspended in the aerosol formulation. The suspended micro-aggregated bovine albumin microspheres were labelled with iodine-131 (t/sup (1/2)/ 8 days). The techniques developed illustrate the use of short-lived radionuclides for: 1) quantitation of each metered dose; 2) characterization of particle size distribution by the aerosol; and 3) determination of the extent of deposition of the particles in the aerosol and all of its components

  10. Ultra-short laser pulses. Petawatt and femtosecond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with a series of new results obtained thanks to the use of ultra-short laser pulses. This branch of physics has made incredible progresses during the last 25 years. Ultra-short laser pulses offer the opportunity to explore the domain of ultra-high energies and of ultra-short duration events. Applications are various, from controlled nuclear fusion to eye surgery and to more familiar industrial applications such as electronics. (J.S.)

  11. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 60 REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1961 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, UNDERACHIEVERS, PROBABILITY ESTIMATES, AND…

  13. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  14. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  15. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  16. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  17. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  18. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  19. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  20. Determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-28

    Jan 28, 2014 ... practice of routine iron supplementation in pregnancy. The major problem with .... elemental iron and 350 μg of folic acid per tablet. Definition of ..... Determinants of adherence to iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy.

  1. Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ...

  2. Site Decommissioning Management Plan. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauver, D.N.; Weber, M.F.; Johnson, T.C.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 51 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety, they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC stairs strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 51 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites. This is supplement number one to NUREG-1444, which was published in October 1993

  3. Application of Health Belief Model\\'s constructs for predicting regular consumption of folic acid supplements in pregnant women referred to Borazjan’s health centers in 2014-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre kafaee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common disorders in pregnancy is Folic Acid deficiency and its complications. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of regular use of folic acid supplements based on HBM in pregnant women referred to Borazjan’s health centers. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 228 pregnant women or women with planning of pregnancy referred to health centers of Borazjan with random sampling method evaluated. Data was collected with questionnaire in 4 parts included demographic characteristics, knowledge, health belief model constructs and questions about folic acid supplement use. Data was analyzed by SPSS software with using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The mean age of samples was 27.4±5.41. 144 patients (63.2% consumed Folic Acid pills regularly, and 84 patients (36.8% had irregular use. The awareness of folic acid in 22.8% of women was good, 59.6%  and 17.5% of samples had intermediate and poor awareness, respectively. The perceived barriers (P<0.001, perceived benefits (P=0.002 and self-efficacy (P<0.001 had relation with consumption of folic acid and among demographic variables, only education level (P=0.04 had relation with the consumption of pills. In logistic regression perceived barriers was only predictor. Age and educational level had indirect effect in regular consume pill. Conclusion: Perceived barriers was strongest predictors of folic acid use, therefore intervention based on health belief model, with emphasis on reducing barriers is necessary for improving the use of this medicine during pregnancy.

  4. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment. 141.809... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and...

  5. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural importance...

  6. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  7. 47 CFR 61.86 - Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplements. 61.86 Section 61.86... Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.86 Supplements. A carrier may not file a supplement except to suspend or cancel a tariff publication, or to defer the effective date...

  8. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an MA organization may...

  9. 20 CFR 226.16 - Supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental annuity. 226.16 Section 226.16... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.16 Supplemental annuity. A supplemental annuity is payable in addition to tiers I and II and the vested dual benefit to an...

  10. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) into a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In the present study, weanling pigs (5 or 6-wk old) were f...

  11. Response on Pneumococcal Vaccine in Preterm Infants After Neutral and Acidic Oligosaccharides Supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of oligosaccharides in premature infants was shown to influence the immune system. We determined the effect of combined short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on antibody

  12. Response on Pneumococcal Vaccine in Preterm Infants After Neutral and Acidic Oligosaccharides Supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of oligosaccharides in premature infants was shown to influence the immune system. We determined the effect of combined short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on antibody

  13. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  14. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  15. Supplement to the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The methodology for evaluating criticality potential for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel after the repository is sealed and permanently closed is described in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report (DOE 1998b). The topical report provides a process for validating various models that are contained in the methodology and states that validation will be performed to support License Application. The Supplement to the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology provides a summary of data and analyses that will be used for validating these models and will be included in the model validation reports. The supplement also summarizes the process that will be followed in developing the model validation reports. These reports will satisfy commitments made in the topical report, and thus support the use of the methodology for Site Recommendation and License Application. It is concluded that this report meets the objective of presenting additional information along with references that support the methodology presented in the topical report and can be used both in validation reports and in answering request for additional information received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning the topical report. The data and analyses summarized in this report and presented in the references are not sufficient to complete a validation report. However, this information will provide a basis for several of the validation reports. Data from several references in this report have been identified with TBV-1349. Release of the TBV governing this data is required prior to its use in quality affecting activities and for use in analyses affecting procurement, construction, or fabrication. Subsequent to the initiation of TBV-1349, DOE issued a concurrence letter (Mellington 1999) approving the request to identify information taken from the references specified in Section 1.4 as accepted data

  16. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas; Wong, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    U.S. nutrition surveys find that intakes of many nutrients fall short of recommendations. The majority of U.S. adults use multivitamins and other dietary supplements as one means of improving nutrient intakes. Some policy makers and health professionals appear reluctant to recommend routine use of dietary supplements to fill nutrient gaps in the diet, in part because they are concerned that people will view the supplements as a substitute for dietary improvement and that the use of supplements may lead to overconsumption of micronutrients. Surveys find that in fact users of dietary supplements tend to have better diets and adopt other healthy habits, suggesting that the supplements are viewed as one aspect of an overall effort to improve wellness. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that the incidence of excess micronutrient intake is low. We report the results of a survey probing consumer attitudes about the role of dietary supplements. The Council for Responsible Nutrition funded a survey to measure consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, and other supplements in improving dietary intakes. The research was designed and analyzed by FoodMinds and was fielded using Toluna's On-line Omnibus. The weighted sample of 2159 respondents is representative of U.S. adults. Nearly 90% of the survey respondents agreed that multivitamins and supplements of calcium and/or vitamin D can help meet nutrient needs when desirable intakes are not achieved through food alone. At the same time, 80% agreed that dietary supplements should not be used to replace healthy dietary or lifestyle habits, and 82% agreed that people considering taking a high dose, single nutrient supplement should talk with their physician. These results provide additional support for the conclusion that the vast majority of consumers recognize that multivitamins and other supplements can help fill nutrient gaps but should not be viewed as replacements for a healthy

  17. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  18. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  19. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1