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Sample records for supplemental aftertreatment systems

  1. Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, J.; West, B.; Toops, T.; Adelman, B. (Navistar, Inc.); Derybowski, E. (Navistar, Inc.)

    2011-09-30

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT, also known as NOx adsorber catalyst) regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  2. LPV gain-scheduled control of SCR aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisami-Azad, Mona; Mohammadpour, Javad; Grigoriadis, Karolos M.; Harold, Michael P.; Franchek, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and some of other polluting emissions produced by diesel engines are usually lower than those produced by gasoline engines. While great strides have been made in the exhaust aftertreatment of vehicular pollutants, the elimination of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) from diesel vehicles is still a challenge. The primary reason is that diesel combustion is a fuel-lean process, and hence there is significant unreacted oxygen in the exhaust. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a well-developed technology for power plants and has been recently employed for reducing NO x emissions from automotive sources and in particular, heavy-duty diesel engines. In this article, we develop a linear parameter-varying (LPV) feedforward/feedback control design method for the SCR aftertreatment system to decrease NO x emissions while keeping ammonia slippage to a desired low level downstream the catalyst. The performance of the closed-loop system obtained from the interconnection of the SCR system and the output feedback LPV control strategy is then compared with other control design methods including sliding mode, and observer-based static state-feedback parameter-varying control. To reduce the computational complexity involved in the control design process, the number of LPV parameters in the developed quasi-LPV (qLPV) model is reduced by applying the principal component analysis technique. An LPV feedback/feedforward controller is then designed for the qLPV model with reduced number of scheduling parameters. The designed full-order controller is further simplified to a first-order transfer function with a parameter-varying gain and pole. Finally, simulation results using both a low-order model and a high-fidelity and high-order model of SCR reactions in GT-POWER interfaced with MATLAB/SIMULINK illustrate the high NO x conversion efficiency of the closed-loop SCR system using the proposed parameter-varying control law.

  3. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  4. Pollutant emissions from vehicles with regenerating after-treatment systems in regulatory and real-world driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Novak, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    Regenerating exhaust after-treatment systems are increasingly employed in passenger cars in order to comply with regulatory emission standards. These systems include pollutant storage units that occasionally have to be regenerated. The regeneration strategy applied, the resultant emission levels and their share of the emission level during normal operation mode are key issues in determining realistic overall emission factors for these cars. In order to investigate these topics, test series with four cars featuring different types of such after-treatment systems were carried out. The emission performance in legislative and real-world cycles was monitored as well as at constant speeds. The extra emissions determined during regeneration stages are presented together with the methodology applied to calculate their impact on overall emissions. It can be concluded that exhaust after-treatment systems with storage units cause substantial overall extra emissions during regeneration mode and can appreciably affect the emission factors of cars equipped with such systems, depending on the frequency of regenerations. Considering that the fleet appearance of vehicles equipped with such after-treatment systems will increase due to the evolution of statutory pollutant emission levels, extra emissions originating from regenerations of pollutant storage units consequently need to be taken into account for fleet emission inventories. Accurately quantifying these extra emissions is achieved by either conducting sufficient repetitions of emission measurements with an individual car or by considerably increasing the size of the sample of cars with comparable after-treatment systems.

  5. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during

  6. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kesse, Mary L.

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  7. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Adelman, Brad [Navistar; Derybowski, Edward [Navistar

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure

  8. Phenomenological methodology for assessing the influence of flow conditions on the acoustic response of exhaust aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A. J.; Arnau, F. J.; Piqueras, P.; Sanchis, E. J.; Tartoussi, H.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing limits of standards on aerosol and gaseous emissions from internal combustion engines have led to the progressive inclusion of different exhaust aftertreatment systems (EATS) as a part of the powertrain. Regulated emissions are generally abated making use of devices based on monolithic structures with different chemical functions. As a side effect, wave transmission across the device is affected and so is the boundary at the exhaust line inlet, so that the design of the latter is in turn affected. While some models are available for the prediction of these effects, the geometrical complexity of many devices makes still necessary in many cases to rely on experimental measurements, which cannot cover all the diversity of flow conditions under which these devices operate. To overcome this limitation, a phenomenological methodology is proposed in this work that allows for the sound extrapolation of experimental results to flow conditions different from those used in the measurements. The transfer matrix is obtained from tests in an impulse rig for different excitation amplitudes and mean flows. The experimental coefficients of the transmission matrix of the device are fitted to Fourier series. It allows treating the influence of the flow conditions on the acoustic response, which is manifested on changes in the characteristic periods, separately from the specific properties of every device. In order to provide predictive capabilities to the method, the Fourier series approach is coupled to a gas dynamics model able to account for the sensitivity of propagation velocity to variations in the flow conditions.

  9. Modelling of NO{sub x} emission factors from heavy and light-duty vehicles equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L.M., E-mail: monalisa@unifor.br [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, C.M. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Moreno-Tost, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Farias, T.L. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Alternative SCR materials. {yields} Catalysts used in heavy-duty vehicles are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. {yields}Zeolites containing transition metal ions as catalysts for urea SCR has increased. {yields} FeZSM5 catalyst can be a possible candidate as far as pollutants regulation is considered. {yields} Regarding N{sub 2}O emissions mordenite based SCR do not emit this pollutant. - Abstract: NO{sub x} emission standards are becoming stringiest over the world especially for heavy-duty vehicles. To comply with current and future regulations some vehicle manufacturers are adopting exhaust aftertreatment systems known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The catalysts are based on Vanadium (Va) and the reductant agent based on ammonia. However, Va is listed on the California Proposition 65 List as potentially causing cancer and alternatives are being studied. This paper presents a model based on neural networks that integrated with a road vehicle simulator allows to estimate NO{sub x} emission factors for different powertrain configurations, along different driving conditions, and covering commercial, zeolite and mordenite alternatives as the base monolith for SCR. The research included the experimental study of copper based and iron based zeolites (ZSM5 and Cuban natural mordenite). The response of NO{sub x} conversion efficiency was monitored in a laboratory for varying space velocity, oxygen, sulfur, water, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emulating the conditions of a Diesel engine exhaust along a trip. The experimental data was used for training neural networks and obtaining a mathematical correlation between the outputs and inputs of the SCR system. The developed correlation was integrated with ADVISOR road vehicle simulator to obtain NO{sub x} emission factors and to test each SCR system installed on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles for standardized driving cycles and real measured driving cycles. Despite having lower NO

  10. Element pollution of exhaust aftertreatment systems by using biodiesel; Elementbelastungen von Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen durch Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Hendrik; Wilharm, Thomas [ASG Analytik-Service Gesellschaft mbH, Neusaess (Germany); Winkler, Markus [DEUTZ AG, Koeln (Germany); Knuth, Hans-Walter

    2012-06-15

    Biodiesel is a particularly attractive fuel for agricultural machinery. However, the introduction of new emission standards has made the use of exhaust gas treatment systems in agricultural vehicles essential. The combination of biodiesel and exhaust gas treatment causes problems, because the biodiesel contains traces of inorganic elements. These turn into ash during the combustion process in the engine, which can result in permanent damage to the components of the exhaust gas treatment system. Deutz and ASG have investigated the impact of current grades of biodiesel on the systems in real-life operation. (orig.)

  11. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

  12. Computer aided engineering in exhaust aftertreatment systems design. Pt. 1. Spark ignition engine; Computergestuetzter Entwurf von Abgas-Nachbehandlungskonzepten. T. 1. Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelos, A.M.; Koltsakis, G.C.; Kandylas, I.P. [Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-02-01

    At the Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Greece, an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) methodology assisting the design of SI-engine exhaust aftertreatment systems employing the following computational tools was developed: A computer code which models transient exhaust system heat transfer, a tuneable computer code which models the transient operation of a three-way catalytic converter, a database containing chemical kinetics data for a variety of catalyst formulations, and a methodology for ageing assessment calculations. Application of the CAE methodology, which aids the exhaust aftertreatment system design engineer to meet the upcoming, increasingly stringent emission standards, is high-lighted by referring to a number of representative case studies. (orig.) [Deutsch] An der Aristoteles-Universitaet Thessaloniki, Griechenland, wurde eine computergestuetzte Methode (CAE) entwickelt, die den Entwurf und die Konstruktion von Abgasnachbehandlungskonzepten unterstuetzt. Die Methode setzt auf die folgenden Rechenmodelle und Datenbanken: Ein Rechenmodell zur Berechnung des Waermeuebergangs in Motorabgassystemen, ein Rechenmodell zur Abschaetzung des Katalysatorgegendrucks, eine Datenbank mit den chemischen Kinetikdaten fuer die verschiedenen Typen von Dreiwegekatalysatoren und eine computergestuetzte Prozedur zur Abschaetzung des Alterungsverhaltens von Dreiwegekatalysatoren. Integrierte CAE-Methoden koennen beim Entwurf von modernen Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen angewandt werden, um die Entwicklungszeit und -kosten betraechtlich zu reduzieren. (orig.)

  13. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions.

  14. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadano, Yara S.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana Flávia L.; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Valebona, Fábio B.; Errera, Marcelo R. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas [Institute of Technology for Development, Lactec–Leme Division, 01 LothárioMeissner Ave., Curitiba, PR, 80210-170 (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NO{sub x} and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH{sub 3}, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NO{sub x} and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH{sub 3} concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. - Highlights: • Emission, dispersion and risk assessment

  15. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration

  16. Combining GTL fuel, reformed EGR and HC-SCR aftertreatment system to reduce diesel NO{sub x} emissions. A statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Dpto. Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Tsolakis, A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cracknell, R.F.; Clark, R.H. [Shell Global Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    An ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and a synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel, besides different types of standard and reformed EGR, were evaluated in a single-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine equipped with hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) aftertreatment system. The results obtained were statistically analysed (at 95% statistical significance) to identify the most significant factors that affect NO{sub x} emissions and to search for the optimum operation conditions in order to minimize these emissions. For that purpose, a fully crossed factorial experimental design was used, including two different engine speeds (1200 and 1500 rpm), two engine loads (25% and 50%), and four EGR/REGR ratios (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) resulting in almost one hundred tests. An optimal combination of fuel type, REGR type and REGR ratio was proved to reduce around 89-95% of the reference NO{sub x} emissions. In general, at 25% engine load GTL fuelling combined with the reformed EGR with the highest hydrogen content was found the most desirable, as the hydrogen sharply increased the NO{sub x} conversion in the SCR catalyst. Differently, at 50% load standard EGR was sufficient to reach high NO{sub x} reductions. These findings may be used for the implementation of a system on-board capable to switch from EGR to REGR, which will help engine manufacturers to meet the future emission regulations. (author)

  17. FreedomCAR - Aftertreatment Subsystem Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa A. Prentiss

    2005-09-30

    The primary objective of this program was to develop generic aftertreatment technologies applicable for LDV and LDT engines ranging from 55 kW to 200kW, to develop an optimized and integrated aftertreatment system for a LDT (Light Duty Truck) type vehicle, and to demonstrate the technology which will enable light duty diesel engines to meet Federal Tier II regulation with minimum impact on fuel economy. Specifically, the development targets for emissions reduction and fuel injection penalty are given below: (1) NOx conversion efficiency > 90% (hot), > 84% (combined); (2) PM conversion efficiency > 90% (hot), > 84% (combined); (3) Fuel penalty over FTP-75 Less than 5%; and (4) Fuel penalty at Cruise condition Less than 3%. Development of cost-effective, highly efficient diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems in combination with very low engine out emission combustion development are essential elements for realization of Federal Tier II emission standards for Light Duty Trucks and Vehicles. Evaluation of several aftertreatment technologies was completed as part of this program. A combination of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, NOx Adsorbing Catalyst and Catalyzed Soot Filter was found to provide the levels of conversion efficiency required to achieve the emission targets. While early systems required relatively large catalyst volumes, external dosing, sulfur traps, full bypass configurations and high levels of Platinum metals; the final system is a compact, scalable, flow-through, fully-integrated and engine-managed aftertreatment system capable of commercial application for Light Duty Vehicles and Trucks. NOx adsorber/particulate filter technology is particularly attractive for Light Duty applications due to the lower exhaust flow and temperature requirements as compared to Heavy Duty engines. Despite these strong positive aspects, NOx Adsorbers are challenged by their regeneration requirements and susceptibility to sulfur poisoning and thermal degradation. Capability was

  18. Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeePhD, John [Aramco Services Company; TzanetakisPhD, Tom [Aramco Services Company; Travers, Michael [Aramco Services Company; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles. Overall lower CO2 emissions and fuel consumption were also measured for naphtha due in part to its higher heating value and higher hydrogen to carbon ratio. Engine-out and tailpipe NOx emissions were lower for naphtha fuel at the same catalyst conversion levels and measured particulate matter (PM) emissions were also lower when using naphtha due to its higher volatility and lower aromatic content compared to ULSD. To help assess the potential impact on diesel particulate filter design and operation, engine-out PM samples were collected and characterized at the B50 operating point. A significant reduction in elemental carbon (EC) within the particulate emissions was found when using naphtha compared to ULSD.

  19. Towards Integrated Powertrain Control: exploiting synergy between a diesel hybrid and aftertreatment system in a distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, D.L.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demands on driveability, fuel efficiency and emissions, it becomes essential to optimize the overall performance of future powertrains. Therefore, a system approach is required. In this study, the Integrated Powertrain Control concept is presented, which exploits the synergy betw

  20. Towards Integrated Powertrain Control: exploiting synergy between a diesel hybrid and aftertreatment system in a distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, D.L.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demands on driveability, fuel efficiency and emissions, it becomes essential to optimize the overall performance of future powertrains. Therefore, a system approach is required. In this study, the Integrated Powertrain Control concept is presented, which exploits the synergy

  1. Evaluation of Exhaust Emissions from Three Diesel-Hybrid Cars and Simulation of After-Treatment Systems for Ultralow Real-World NOx Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vicente; Zacharopoulou, Theodora; Hammer, Jan; Schmidt, Helge; Mock, Peter; Weiss, Martin; Samaras, Zissis

    2016-12-06

    Hybridization offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the New European Driving Cycle and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. On the road, all three diesel-hybrids exceeded the regulatory NOx limits (average exceedance for all trips: +150% for the Volvo, +510% for the Peugeot, and +550% for the Mercedes-Benz) and also showed elevated on-road CO2 emissions (average exceedance of certification values: +178, +77, and +52%, respectively). These findings point to a wide discrepancy between certified and on-road CO2 and suggest that hybridization alone is insufficient to achieve low-NOx emissions of diesel powertrains. Instead, our simulation suggests that properly calibrated selective catalytic reduction filter and lean-NOx trap after-treatment technologies can reduce the on-road NOx emissions to 0.023 and 0.068 g/km on average, respectively, well below the Euro 6 limit (0.080 g/km).

  2. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  3. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  4. Integrated energy & emission management for hybrid electric truck with SCR aftertreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Schoot, W.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Energy management in hybrid vehicles typically relates to the vehicle powertrain, whereas emission management is associated with the combustion engine and aftertreatment system. To achieve maximum performance in fuel economy and regulated pollutants, the concept of (model-based) Integrated Powertrai

  5. Improved Automotive NO (x) Aftertreatment System: Metal Ammine Complexes as NH3 Source for SCR Using Fe-Containing Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Schmidt, Henning; Frey, Anne Mette

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia storage is a challenge in the selective catalytic reduction of NO (x) in vehicles. We propose a new system, based on metal ammines as the ammonia source. In combination with iron containing zeolites as the SCR catalyst it should be possible to obtain a low temperature system for NO (x...

  6. Robust, Cost-Optimal and Compliant Engine and Aftertreatment Operation using Air-path Control and Tailpipe Emission Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, S.N.; Hommen, G.; Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Willems, F.; Kupper, F.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission legislation limits. Simultaneously, minimal fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitive

  7. Combustion driven ammonia generation strategies for passive ammonia SCR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Joel G.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Najt, Paul M.

    2016-12-06

    A method for controlling ammonia generation in an exhaust gas feedstream output from an internal combustion engine equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system including a first aftertreatment device includes executing an ammonia generation cycle to generate ammonia on the first aftertreatment device. A desired air-fuel ratio output from the engine and entering the exhaust aftertreatment system conducive for generating ammonia on the first aftertreatment device is determined. Operation of a selected combination of a plurality of cylinders of the engine is selectively altered to achieve the desired air-fuel ratio entering the exhaust aftertreatment system.

  8. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  9. 重型柴油机SCR后处理系统在线故障诊断功能的开发%Development of the On-board Diagnostics Function of SCR After-treatment System for Heavy-duty Diesel Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张人选; 张云龙; 帅石金

    2012-01-01

    According to the requirements of national regulation HJ 437-2008 on the on-board diagnostics ( OBD) of emissions for heavy-duty vehicle, the OBD functions of selective catalytic reduction after-treatment system based on both NO, and Adblue tests are developed for heavy-duty diesel engine, and verified by the hardware-in the-loop simulation test with its communication mode confirming to SAE J1939 standard.%根据国家法规HJ 437-2008中对重型车排放在线故障诊断(OBD)的要求,为重型柴油机分别开发了基于NOx检测和Adblue检测的尿素选择催化还原(SCR)后处理系统的OBD功能,并得到硬件在环仿真试验的验证,其通信模式符合SAE J1939标准.

  10. Diesel Exhaust After-Treatment by Silicon Carbide Fiber Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce particulate matter (PM in diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF has been developed. The thermal durability of existing platinum catalyst-supported DPFs is inadequate. We are focusing on a non-catalytic after-treatment of silicon carbide (SiC fibers with highly thermal durability. In this study, we simulated the processes of soot deposition and oxidation. Results show that even in exhaust gas without soot, a complex flow pattern is observed. The porosity of the filter is not constant along the flow direction, and the pressure gradient varies. The friction factor is slightly larger than the predicted value by the empirical equation in uniform porous media flow. Since the soot deposition occurs inside the filter, the depth filtration by SiC fibers was confirmed. In addition, the effects of filter temperature and oxygen concentration are clearly revealed. That is, comparing the oxidation at 700 °C, the deposited soot amount at 1200 and 1400 °C is decreased by 60% and 92%, respectively. Raising the oxygen concentration from 10% to 20% increases the oxidation efficiency from 42% to 64%. Although more work is needed over a wide range of operating conditions, a combination of these two parameters is important to achieve the non-catalytic exhaust after-treatment.

  11. Development of super-clean diesel engine and combustor using nonthermal plasma hybrid aftertreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    One of important and successful environmental applications of atmospheric-pressure corona discharge or plasma is electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which have been widely used for coal- or oil-fired boilers in electric power plants and particulate matter control emitted from industries such as glass melting furnace system, etc. In the ESPs, steady high voltage is usually applied to a pair of electrodes (at least, one of these has sharp edge). Unsteady pulsed high voltage is often applied for the collection of high-resistivity particulate matter (PM) to avoid reverse corona phenomena which reduce the collection efficiency of the ESPs. It was found that unsteady high voltage can treat hazardous gaseous components (NOx, SOx, hydrocarbon, and CO, etc.) in the exhaust gas, and researches were shifted from PM removal to hazardous gases aftertreatment with unsteady corona discharge induced plasmas. In the paper, recent results on diesel engine and industrial boiler emission controls are mainly reviewed among these our research topics.

  12. Aftertreatment of Conventional Direct Dyeings of Cotton with a Bis-reactive Cationic Fixing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHARIF Saima; SAEED Ahmad; MUHAMMAD Naeem Khan; MUHAMMAD Fauz-uI-Azeem

    2009-01-01

    A his-reactive cationic fixing agent,ethylenebis[N-(2,3-epoxypropyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride] has been used as an aftertreatment reagent to improve the wash fasmess of direct dyes on cotton.The effects of different pH conditions and concentrations on the effectiveness of this cationic fixing agent have been investigated.The results showed that aftertreatment at pH 11 produced dyeings with higher colour strength and better wash fastness than that at pH 7.In addition,the cationic agent at a low concentration was found to be more effective under both neutral and alkaline conditions.

  13. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Oregon Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    means of one or more washes in solvent, extraction of excess solvent by spinning, and dry- ing by tumbling in an airstream. The facility includes but...is not limited to any washer, dryer , filter, and purification systems, waste disposal systems, holding tanks, pumps, and attendant piping and valves...meets the following operating requirements: - vents the entire dryer exhaust through a properly functioning car- bon adsorption system or equally

  14. Integrated emission management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  15. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  16. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  17. Systems and methods for supplemental weather information presentation on a display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An embodiment of the supplemental weather display system presents supplemental weather information on a display in a craft. An exemplary embodiment receives the supplemental weather information from a remote source, determines a location of the supplemental weather information relative to the craft, receives weather information from an on-board radar system, and integrates the supplemental weather information with the weather information received from the on-board radar system.

  18. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Wisconsin Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    wastewater that are specifi- cally approved or have a pollution discharge permit - facilities used for the landspreading of whey - facilities used for the...waste oil recycling programs. "* Bureau of Wastewater Management, has the authority to run the Federal National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...more of the classifications of water- works or wastewater treatment plants. "* Classification - or class means a number assigned to the plant based on a

  19. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case... INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and...

  20. Supplemental mathematical formulations: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L.; Walter, M.B.; Knight, R.L.; Brown, S.M.

    1989-12-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a methodology for assessing relative health impacts from the release of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials. MEPAS is an enhanced version of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). This document, a supplement to the RAPS documentation, contains an overview of MEPAS followed by detailed discussions of enhancements. MEPAS provides outputs of health impact parameters for use in ranking and screening applications. Environmental contaminant concentrations are used to estimate potential health impacts based on major exposure pathways. Enhancements to the groundwater, surface water, overland, atmospheric, and exposure components are documented. These enhancements include a revision in the integration method for the waterborne pathway, a wetland component, a gaseous emission (volatilization) component, an atmospheric complex terrain component, mass budget formulations, and environmental decay of chemical constituents. Several new exposure components are described along with enhancements to the exposure pathways computations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Non-thermal plasma exhaust aftertreatment: Are all plasmas the same?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whealton, J.H.; Hanson, G.R.; Storey, J.M.; Raridon, R.J.; Armfield, J.S.; Bigelow, T.S.; Graves, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors describe initial experiments employing 5.5 GHz pulsed microwave power, which should result in enhanced chemistry compared to present state-of-the-art plasma aftertreatments by; reducing plasma electric field shielding, increasing availability of atomic nitrogen, exploiting surface charging of dielectrics, avoiding (low field) threshold initiated discharges, and achieving a higher high energy tail on the electron distribution function. As an example, the authors decided to test for NO reduction in N{sub 2}. While this reaction is not a complete description of the exhaust issues by any means, they thought it would demonstrate the technology proposed.

  2. An Interactive Online Education System for the Supplemental Nutrition Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Ohene-Opare

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health education is a key component in the variety of services provided by local health departments, particularly for the low-income demographic. In addition to helping the participants to live a healthier lifestyle, nutrition education sessions are a required component of a specific program for low-income mothers and children, entitled the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC. However, some women in the Utah County WIC program were not receiving the sessions because the inconvenient class times and scheduling difficulty. With the increasing availability of the internet access by WIC participants, we can increase the availability and effectiveness of the nutrition education by providing courses online via the Utah County's WIC website. We are designing a system consisting of a web interface and a database backend, where health workers can author and publish interactive content, track users' progress, and evaluate the outcome of the courses taken.

  3. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  4. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

  5. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitronaphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  6. 75 FR 57764 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference September 14, 2010. On August 19, 2010 the Federal Energy...

  7. 75 FR 59261 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference September 17, 2010. On August 19, 2010 the Federal...

  8. Secondary organic aerosol production from diesel vehicle exhaust: impact of aftertreatment, fuel chemistry and driving cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Robertson, W. H.; Na, K.; Sahay, K. N.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chamber ("smog chamber") experiments were conducted to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from dilute emissions from two medium-duty diesel vehicles (MDDVs) and three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under urban-like conditions. Some of the vehicles were equipped with emission control aftertreatment devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). Experiments were also performed with different fuels (100% biodiesel and low-, medium- or high-aromatic ultralow sulfur diesel) and driving cycles (Unified Cycle,~Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, and creep + idle). During normal operation, vehicles with a catalyzed DPF emitted very little primary particulate matter (PM). Furthermore, photooxidation of dilute emissions from these vehicles produced essentially no SOA (below detection limit). However, significant primary PM emissions and SOA production were measured during active DPF regeneration experiments. Nevertheless, under reasonable assumptions about DPF regeneration frequency, the contribution of regeneration emissions to the total vehicle emissions is negligible, reducing PM trapping efficiency by less than 2%. Therefore, catalyzed DPFs appear to be very effective in reducing both primary PM emissions and SOA production from diesel vehicles. For both MDDVs and HDDVs without aftertreatment substantial SOA formed in the smog chamber - with the emissions from some vehicles generating twice as much SOA as primary organic aerosol after 3 h of oxidation at typical urban VOC / NOx ratios (3 : 1). Comprehensive organic gas speciation was performed on these emissions, but less than half of the measured SOA could be explained by traditional (speciated) SOA precursors. The remainder presumably originates from the large fraction (~30%) of the nonmethane organic gas emissions that could not be speciated using traditional one-dimensional gas chromatography. The

  9. 76 FR 50808 - Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to cancel... Positioning System (GPS), and request for public comment. SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's intent to cancel TSO-C129a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS...

  10. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS... proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) in the Federal... contractor business systems, DoD has clarified the definition and administration of contractor...

  11. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038...D published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009... contractor business systems, DoD is considering a rule to clarify the definition and administration...

  12. 78 FR 28756 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: System for Award Management Name Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... 0750-AH87 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: System for Award Management Name Changes... System (EPLS) databases into the System for Award Management (SAM) database. DATES: Effective Date: May... effort to improve the management and promotion of electronic Government services and processes. The Act...

  13. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not accommodate the additional data... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS Case 2008-D027) AGENCY... Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and...

  14. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chirico

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diesel particulate matter (DPM is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC and the final vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF. The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC<0.5, while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23–0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, primary particles with a mobility diameter above 5 nm were 300±19 cm−3, and only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O

  15. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Tritscher, T.; Richter, R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Wehrle, G.; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2010-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA) and the corresponding SOA formation at atmospherically relevant concentrations for three in-use diesel vehicles with different exhaust aftertreatment systems. One vehicle lacked exhaust aftertreatment devices, one vehicle was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and the third vehicle used both a DOC and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The experiments presented here were obtained from the vehicles at conditions representative of idle mode, and for one car in addition at a speed of 60 km/h. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used to measure the organic aerosol (OA) concentration and to obtain information on the chemical composition. For the conditions explored in this paper, primary aerosols from vehicles without a particulate filter consisted mainly of black carbon (BC) with a low fraction of organic matter (OM, OM/BC < 0.5), while the subsequent aging by photooxidation resulted in a consistent production of SOA only for the vehicles without a DOC and with a deactivated DOC. After 5 h of aging ~80% of the total organic aerosol was on average secondary and the estimated "emission factor" for SOA was 0.23-0.56 g/kg fuel burned. In presence of both a DOC and a DPF, only 0.01 g SOA per kg fuel burned was produced within 5 h after lights on. The mass spectra indicate that POA was mostly a non-oxidized OA with an oxygen to carbon atomic ratio (O/C) ranging from 0.10 to 0.19. Five hours of oxidation led to a more oxidized OA with an O/C range of 0

  16. Foraminiferal shell structures: additional cavity systems produced by supplemental skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bassi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the article, published in Mus. Sci. Nat. vol. 2, which illustrates the larger foraminiferal shell structures. In this poster intercoluclar space, canal system, umbilical cavity system, enveloping canal system, and interlamellar cavity system are described and illustrated.

  17. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: review and critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.

    1980-04-15

    This document is intended as a supplement to the two-volume report entitled Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems that was submitted to Congress by the Department of Energy in February and April of 1980. This supplement contains review comments prepared by knowledgeable experts who reviewed early drafts of the Congressional report. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also included in this supplement. The Congressional report, mandated in the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), discusses various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels are examined.

  18. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende District, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, West District, Chiayi 60051, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  19. Effect of air supplement on the performance of continuous ethanol fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, D D; Kim, Y J; Kim, J H

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of improving ethanol productivity, the effect of air supplement on the performance of continuous ethanol fermentation system was studied. The effect of oxygen supplement on yeast concentration, cell yield, cell viability, extracellular ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, maintenance coefficient, specific rates of glucose assimilation, ethanol production, and ethanol productivity have been evaluated, using a high alcohol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae STV89 strain and employing a continuous fermentor equipped with an accurate air metering system in the flow rate range 0-11 mL air/L/h. It was found that, when a small amount of oxygen up to about 80mu mol oxygen/L/h was supplied, the ethanol productivity was significantly enhanced as compared to the productivity of the culture without any air supplement. It was also found that the oxygen supplement improved cell viability considerably as well as the ethanol tolerance level of yeast. As the air supply rate was increased, from 0 to 11 mL air/L/h while maintaining a constant dilution rate at about 0.06 h(-1), the cell concentration increased from 2.3 to 8.2 g/L and the ethanol productivity increased from 1.7 to 4.1 g ethanol/L/h, although the specific ethanol production rate decreased slightly from 0.75 to 0.5 g ethanol/g cell/h. The ethanol yield was slightly improved also with an increase in air supply rate, from about 0.37 to 0.45 ethanol/g glucose. The maintenance coefficient increased by only a small amount with the air supplement. This kind of air supplement technique may very well prove to be of practical importance to a development of a highly productive ethanol fermentation process system especially as a combined system with a high density cell culture technique.

  20. Fabrication of a glycerol from CO2 reaction system, supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The fabrication, installation, and testing of a glycerol hydrogenation and a CO2 hydrogenation - CH4 partial oxidation units are reported. The glycerol system proved to be operational while the CO2 system was installed but not bought on operational steam.

  1. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... reporting requirements that are essential for the DoD to estimate the cost of current and future weapon... and not cost allocations. The description will also show how the data from the offeror's accounting... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...

  2. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  3. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme which minimizes the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What distinguishes approach presented here from conventional strategies is that not only the price of electricity is considered...

  4. Oral probiotics supplementation can stimulate the immune system in a stress process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomar Martin Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a bifactorial stress mouse model we studied the effect of probiotic supplementation on biochemical parameter in serum, the intestinal impairment of the villi induced by stress, the systemic immune response and the susceptibility to intestinal infections. Probiotic effect was also evaluated on cells from the innate immunity. Mice were subjected to a stress protocol based on food deprivation and movement restrictions for 11 days. We analyzed the probiotic supplementation effect, as probiotic bacteria suspension or as a fermented milk, on the changes induced by stress: biochemical parameters as glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in serum, body weight and in the gut we determined the number of goblet cells, the length of the microvilli and bacterial translocation from the intestinal microbiota into deep tissues. Peritoneal and spleen macrophages activity, the immune response to ovalbumin immunization, the protection against Salmonella infection during the stress process in mice receiving probiotic, were also determined. We found that probiotic supplementation in the chronic stress model, improves the gut histological structure, increases phagocytic activity of peritoneal and spleen macrophages, enhance the humoral response to the OVA antigen and protect against Salmonella infection. Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation was able to act on the gut and systemic immunity by improvement of the length and cellularity of the villi, increasing the systemic immune response and protecting against Salmonella infection. The effectiveness on the immune system exerted by probiotic consumption suggests the use of these bacteria as an alternative to minimize the damage induced during stress situation.

  5. Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation On The Immune System of Futsal Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Echreshzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the effective supplements in proper functioning of immune system is carbohydrate supplements which can have a positive effect on athletes. An athlete who continues his training in carbohydrate depletion, experience more increase in circulating stress hormones in the blood, and more disorders n various indicators of safety performance. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of 4 periodic 90-minute sessions during carbohydrate supplementation on the response of immune system cells among futsal players in Iran. For this purpose, 12 professional futsal players were selected, divided into three groups who (1 consuming carbohydrates, (2 consuming placebo as well as(3 control group. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS. The results of descriptive statistics showed that the indicators of immune systems among athletes consuming carbohydrate and placebo were increased remarkably at the end of second and fourth sessions (after supplementation compared to the time before implementation, but on the other hand, immune systems indicators of control group at the end of second and fourth sessions had no significant changes compared to the time before implementation. Also there was not any significant difference in the number of white blood cells, neutrophil, and cortisol among the groups but a significant increase was observed in glucose in first group compared to the second group.

  6. Creatine supplementation: exploring the role of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Eijnde, B O; Derave, W; Richter, E A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of oral creatine supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance has been extensively studied over the past ten years and its ergogenic potential in young healthy subjects is now well documented. Recently, research has shifted from performance evaluation towards elucidating the mechanisms underlying enhanced muscle functional capacity after creatine supplementation. In this review, we attempt to summarise recent advances in the understanding of potential mechanisms of action of creatine supplementation at the level of skeletal muscle cells. By increasing intracellular creatine content, oral creatine ingestion conceivably stimulates operation of the creatine kinase (CK)/phosphocreatine (PCr) system, which in turn facilitates muscle relaxation. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that creatine supplementation can beneficially impact on muscle protein and glycogen synthesis. Thus, muscle hypertrophy and glycogen supercompensation are candidate factors to explain the ergogenic potential of creatine ingestion. Additional issues discussed in this review are the fibre-type specificity of muscle creatine metabolism, the identification of responders versus non-responders to creatine intake, and the scientific background concerning potential side effects of creatine supplementation.

  7. Diet supplemented with probiotic for Nile tilapia in polyculture system with marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatobá, Adolfo; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Buglione-Neto, Celso Carlos; Mouriño', José Luiz Pedreira; Silva, Bruno Corrêa; Seiftter, Walter Quadros; Andreatta, Edemar Roberto

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum) supplemented diet on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a polyculture system with marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as regards culture performance, hematology, and gut bacterial microbiota. Ten 20-m² pens were arranged in one earthen pond and stocked with 2 fish (41.9 g) m(-2) and 10 shrimp (2.3 g) m(-2), in total of 40 Nile tilapias and 200 shrimp per experimental unit. Tilapia groups in five of the experimental units were fed a commercial diet supplemented with L. plantarum and the other five with an unsupplemented commercial diet (control). After 12 weeks of culture, the tilapia groups fed the probiotic-supplemented diet presented values 13.6, 7.5, and 7.1% higher for feed efficiency, yield, and final weight, respectively. Viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts were reduced, and the number of lactic acid bacteria was increased in the gut of fish and shrimp fed the probiotic-supplemented diet. Hematological analyses showed higher number of thrombocytes and leukocytes in tilapia fed the supplemented diet. L. plantarum utilized in this study colonized the gut of tilapia and shrimp and resulted in reduced number of total bacteria and increased tilapia final weight and feed efficiency.

  8. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,422 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  9. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,313 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  10. Space Station Systems: a Bibliography with Indexes (Supplement 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 950 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  11. Space station systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1,158 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1988 and June 30, 1988. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to researchers, designers and managers engaged in Space Station technology development and mission design. Coverage includes documents that define major systems and subsystems related to structures and dynamic control, electronics and power supplies, propulsion, and payload integration. In addition, orbital construction methods, servicing and support requirements, procedures and operations, and missions for the current and future Space Station are included.

  12. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market... 20426. The filings in the above-referenced proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary...

  13. Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourn, G.; Callahan, T.; Dodge, L.; Mulik, J.; Naegeli, D.; Shouse, K.; Smith, L.; Whitney, K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this 3.5 year project is to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or ethanol blend) that can meet California`s ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. The definition of commercially competitive is independent of fuel cost, but does include technical requirements for competitive power, performance, refueling times, vehicle range, driveability, fuel handling safety, and overall emissions performance. This report summarizes a system design study completed after six months of effort on this project. The design study resulted in recommendations for ethanol-fuel blends that shall be tested for engine low-temperature cold-start performance and other criteria. The study also describes three changes to the engine, and two other changes to the vehicle to improve low-temperature starting, efficiency, and emissions. The three engine changes are to increase the compression ratio, to replace the standard fuel injectors with fine spray injectors, and to replace the powertrain controller. The two other vehicle changes involve the fuel tank and the aftertreatment system. The fuel tank will likely need to be replaced to reduce evaporative emissions. In addition to changes in the main catalyst, supplemental aftertreatment systems will be analyzed to reduce emissions before the main catalyst reaches operating temperature.

  14. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM OF MALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tofighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous exercise stress might be leading cause of immune system disorders and appearance of acute and chronic inflammation in human body. Caffeine supplementation prior to exercise can be effective on body immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term caffeine supplementation on immune response and stress index in male athletes after an exhaustive aerobic exercise. Materials and methods : In a double-blind study 24 male athletes (endurance runner and triathlon randomly divided in Caffeine supplementation (CAF and Placebo (CON groups. One hour prior to main exhaustive treadmill test (Bruce test CAF group consumed caffeine (6 Mg/BW and CON group received placebo. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise test from anticubital vein. After supplying serum; Cortisol, leukocyte and serum Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72 concentrations were determined using ELISA method. Paired and independent t student test was used for analysis of inter and intra group differences respectively. Results: serum cortisol and Hsp72 concentrations in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P0.05. In addition Mean of variation in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Based on study results caffeine supplementation prior to short-term exhaustive aerobic exercise has positive effect on innate immunity and body defensive system.

  15. Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders.

  16. Bovine whey protein concentrate supplementation modulates maturation of immune system in suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Marín-Gallén, Silvia; Castell, Margarida; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero, Montserrat; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina

    2007-10-01

    During neonatal life, challenges from breast milk and microbial flora promote immune system maturation. Immunonutrition in these stages may become an important way to increase natural defence systems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a daily bovine milk whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplement on the intestinal and systemic immune systems in suckling rats. The composition of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes (IEL and LPL) was analysed by flow cytometry. Systemic and intestinal humoral immune responses were determined by sera Ig levels and Ig-secreting cell quantification by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. From birth, suckling Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC or standard infant formula (SIF). The WPC group showed the same proportion of most of the main mucosal cell subsets as the reference animals. However, in the first days of life WPC enhanced the innate immunity by increasing the NK cell proportion in both epithelial and lamina propria (LP) compartments. A rise in intestinal CD8alphaalpha+ IEL was also induced by WPC supplementation. A time-course of sera Ig levels and spontaneous IgA, IgM and IgG production by LPL and mononuclear cells from blood and spleen, in the WPC group, exhibited a similar pattern to those pups fed only by dam's milk. In summary, the present results show the effects of WPC on enhancing mucosal innate immunity during early life.

  17. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the

  18. Experimental demonstration of a model-based control design and calibration method for cost optimal euro-VI engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the act

  19. Vitamin D supplementation and systemic inflammation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røsjø, Egil; Steffensen, Linn H; Jørgensen, Lone; Lindstrøm, Jonas C; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Michelsen, Annika E; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Kampman, Margitta T; Torkildsen, Øivind; Holmøy, Trygve

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies have suggested that vitamin D may reduce inflammation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), but this has not been clearly confirmed in randomized controlled trials. To further explore the possible anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D in RRMS, we examined the effect of high-dose oral vitamin D3 on eleven markers of systemic inflammation in 68 RRMS patients enrolled in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation (20,000 IU/week) (NCT00785473). Serum inflammation markers and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured at baseline and week 96, and no restrictions were set on additional standard immunomodulatory treatment for RRMS. The mean 25(OH)D level rose from 56 ± 29 to 123 ± 34 nmol/L among patients receiving vitamin D3 supplementation, whereas only a minor increase from 57 ± 22 to 63 ± 24 nmol/L was seen in the placebo group. However, no significant differences appeared between the vitamin D group and the placebo group for any of the inflammation markers. Patients on immunomodulatory therapy had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 than patients without immunomodulatory treatment, but there were no clear synergistic effects between immunomodulatory therapy and vitamin D3 supplementation on any of the inflammation markers. The rise in 25(OH)D levels after vitamin D3 supplementation was unaffected by immunomodulatory treatment. We conclude that in this study of RRMS patients, high-dose oral vitamin D3 supplementation prominently increased serum 25(OH)D levels without affecting markers of systemic inflammation, while a more anti-inflammatory phenotype was found among patients on immunomodulatory treatment.

  20. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  1. Development of a Naval Supply Systems Command Acquisition Supplement - A Business Practice Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    by delegation from the Secretary of Defense and the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology , and Logistics) (USD (AT&L)) is...ACQUISITIONS IN SUPPORT OF OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN Aug-09 N Obsolete 09-26 PASSIVE RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION ( RFID ) DFARS COMPLIANCE REPORTING...INFORMATION, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS OR PROTECTED HEALTH INFORMATION Sep-13 Y Incorporate policy into Acquisition Supplement 13-006

  2. A critical period for omega-3 nutritional supplementation in the development of the rodent visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Velasco, P C; Sandre, P C; Tavares Do Carmo, M G; Faria-Melibeu, A C; Campello-Costa, P; Ferraz, A C; Andrade Da Costa, B L S; Serfaty, C A

    2015-07-30

    Retinocollicular connections form precise topographical maps that are normally completed through the selective elimination of misplaced axons and the stabilization of topographically ordered axon terminals during early development. Omega-3 fatty acids, acquired exclusively through the diet, and its main metabolite, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are involved in brain development and synaptic maturation. We have previously shown that the nutritional restriction of omega-3/DHA results in abnormal retinocollicular topographical fine-tuning. Therefore, we studied the role of omega-3 fatty acids nutritional supplementation and the developmental time windows during which this postnatal supplementation would restore normal topographical maps in the visual system. Female rats and their litters were chronically fed with either control (soy oil) or restricted omega-3 (coconut oil) diets. Fish oil supplementation was introduced between either postnatal day (PND) 7-13, PND7-28 or PND21-42. At PND13, PND28 or PND42, animals received an anterograde eye injection of a neuronal tracer to visualize retinocollicular axons. Confirming previous observations we found that an omega-3/DHA deficiency resulted in an abnormally high innervation density of retinal axons at the visual layers of the superior colliculus (SC). Although a short-term fish oil supplementation between PND7-13 could not restore normal retinocollicular topography, an extended treatment between PND7-28 completely recovered normal innervation densities of retinotectal axons. However, a late onset supplementation protocol, between PND28-42, was no longer effective in the restoration of the abnormal topographical pattern induced by an early omega-3 nutritional malnutrition. The results suggest a critical period for omega3/DHA dietary intake for the proper development of visual topographical maps.

  3. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  4. Informatics System Design for the Management of Nutritional Supplementation in Body Modelling Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MANESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues regarding body modeling are debated. Facts regarding the nutrional oriented processes for body modeling are identified. The nutriments classes are presented and how the administration process is conducted based on several characteristics and which are the stages of succeeding these processes. An informatics system is designed for the management of nutritional supplementation in order to control the calories intake based on the intentisty of physical effort. The stages of development are presented, identifying optimization criteria for the security of the systems and its users.

  5. Apollo 12 mission report: Descent, propulsion system final flight evaluation (supplement 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, R. K. M.; Barrows, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the postflight analysis of the Descent propulsion system (DPS) performance during the Apollo 12 Mission. The primary objective of the analysis was to determine the steady-state performance of the DPS during the descent phase of the manned lunar landing. This is a supplement ot the Apollo 12 Mission Report. In addition to further analysis of the DPS, this report brings together information from other reports and memorandums analyzing specific anomalies and performance in order to present a comprehensive description of the DPS operation during the Apollo 12 Mission.

  6. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Vieira Barros; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Mário Luiz Chizzotti; Luciana Navajas Rennó; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Eriton Egídio Lisboa Valente;; Sidnei Antônio Lopes; Carla Heloisa Avelino Cabral; Nelcino Francisco de Paula; Felipe Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately ...

  7. The influence of after-treatments on dyeability of raw and bleached cotton with curcumin, and visibility of anthotype produced motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkič Nuša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing of raw and bleached cotton fabrics with a natural dye of curcumin was studied to implement the ancient and environmentally friendly technique of developing photos called anthotype. With the aim of achieving diff erent colours of dyed cotton fabrics, several modifi cations were performed, such as extraction of curcumin in hard and soft water, after-treatments of dyed cotton, i.e. with ferrous sulphate, zinc chloride and silver nitrate, aftertreatment in alkaline bath, and aftertreatment with other natural dyes (blueberry and raspberry. The colour values of dyed samples were determined using a refl ectance spectrophotometer. Colour stability to light was determined by the standard method in Xenotest. It was found that the use of various metal salts, natural dyes, alkalinity and hardness of water infl uenced the colour changes of the substrate. Yellow, red, greenish and brownish colours of fabrics were produced by diff erent treatments. Since the use of metal ions improved the stability of curcumin to light, the motifs produced by anthotype technique were hardly visible. It was found that the natural dye of blueberries and raspberries did not infl uence the light stability, therefore a larger colour contrast between exposed and unexposed areas of the fabric was visible, and consequently good visibility of the motifs was achieved.

  8. Periodic solutions of multispecies-competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a nonautonomous multispecies competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement. It is proved that the system is uniformly persistent under some conditions. Furthermore, we show that the system has a unique positive periodic solution which is globally asymptotically stable.

  9. l-Arginine supplementation improves rats' antioxidant system and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E P; Borges, L S; Mendes-da-Silva, C; Hirabara, S M; Lambertucci, R H

    2017-03-01

    Reactive species have great importance in sports performance, once they can directly regulate energy production, muscular contraction, inflammation, and fatigue. Therefore, the redox control is essential for athletes' performance. Studies demonstrated that l-arginine has an important role in the synthesis of urea, cell growth and production of nitric oxide, moreover, there are indications that it is also able to induce benefits to muscle antioxidant system through the upregulation of some antioxidant enzymes, and by inhibiting some pathways of reactive species production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of l-arginine supplementation on performance and oxidative stress of male rats (trained or not), submitted to a single session of high intensity exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, control (C), control+l-arginine (C + A), trained (T), and trained+l-arginine (T + A). The aerobic training was conducted for 8 weeks. Data of maximum speed and time from tests were used as indicators of performance. Variables related to oxidative stress and antioxidant system were also evaluated. Aerobic training was capable to induce enhancements on animals' exercise performance and on their redox state. Additionally, supplementation improved rats' physical performance on both groups, control and trained. Different improvements between groups on the antioxidant capacity were observed. Nevertheless, considering the ergogenic effect of l-arginine and the lack of all positive adaptations promoted by the exercise training, untrained animals may be more exposed to oxidative damages after the practice of intense exercises.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and enzymes on the haematology of rabbits reared under two housing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Chandra Amaravadhi

    Full Text Available Aim : To study the influence of housing system and dietary supplementation of probiotics and enzymes on haematological parameters of rabbits. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 weaned rabbits were divided into 2 groups of 72 in each group and housed under conventional cage system and backyard system. The rabbits in each housing system were divided into 4 groups of 18 in each group and the diets were supplemented with probiotics, enzymes and both. Results: The housing system and supplementation of probiotics and enzymes did not exert significant influence on any of the haematological parameters studied. However, there was slight positive influence of probiotic and enzyme supplementation on the health status of rabbits as revealed by haematological parameters. The overall mean Total erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, haemoglobin and packed cell volume were 7.52, 6.29 (103/mm3, 60.27%, 35.71%, 1.35%, 1.92%, 10.67 g/dl and 34.25%, respectively. Conclusion: Rabbits can be reared on low input backyard system without any adverse effect on health and supplementation of probiotics and enzymes had a positive influence on health status of rabbits. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 748-753

  11. Investigation of SCR After-Treatment Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel to Meet the Emission Regulations above Euro 5%重型柴油机满足欧吁、欧遇排放法规的SCR后处理技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国莹; 付海燕; 于红胜; 仲蕾; 程秀围; 任庆霜; 董江峰

    2014-01-01

    The technical roadmaps of emission regulations of foreign heavy duty diesel are investigated. The technical characteristics of SCR system are analyzed. SCR after-treatment technologies meeting the emission regulations above Euro V are discussed. It's pointed out that the design conception of SCR has been renewed,the temperature window of SCR has been enlarged,and the volume of SCR has been reduced continuously. The operating cost of engine and after-treatment is being optimized constantly.%研究了国外重型柴油机排放法规的技术路线,分析了SCR系统的技术特点,并在此基础上探讨了满足欧吁以上排放法规的SCR后处理技术。指出SCR的设计理念在不断地更新换代,SCR的温度窗口不断扩大,SCR的体积不断缩小。发动机及后处理系统运行成本也在不断优化。

  12. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost--Supplement. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…

  13. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  14. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  15. Supplement analysis for a container system for the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel located at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-12

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the NEPA, 40 CFR 1502.9 (c), directs federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement when an agency makes substantial changes in the Proposed Action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the Proposed Action or impacts. When it is unclear whether a supplemental environmental impact statement is required, DOE regulations (10 CFR 1021.314) direct the preparation of a supplement analysis to assist in making that determination. This supplement analysis evaluates the impacts of employing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) to prepare DOE SNF located at the INEEL for interim onsite storage and transport outside the State of Idaho. Impacts associated with DPC manufacturing, loading and storage of DOE-ID SNF into DPCs, transport of loaded DPCs outside Idaho, and the cumulative impacts are compared with the impacts previously analyzed in the SNF and INEL EIS and the Navy Container System EIS. This SA provides information to determine whether: (1) an existing EIS should be supplemented; (2) a new EIS should be prepared; or (3) no further NEPA documentation is required.

  16. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase

  17. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  18. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  19. Bone mineral density reduction in adolescents with systemic erythematosus lupus: association with lack of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, M; Terreri, M T; Ortiz, T; Pinheiro, M; Souza, F; Sarni, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate body composition and the bone mineral density in female adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. Body composition (BC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in an observational cohort study with 35 postmenarcheal adolescent females. The variables studied were as follows: current and cumulative corticosteroid dose, intake of supplements containing calcium and vitamin D, 24-h proteinuria, body mass index (BMI), and height for age (Z-score). BC was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at two time points (median interval of 1.2 years). The fat mass index (FMI = fat mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) and lean mass index (LMI = lean mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) were calculated based on the DXA results. BMD was classified according to the International Society of Clinical Densitometry (low BMD for chronological age vitamin D. There was no significant difference between the two time points with respect to FMI, LMI, or body mass index Z-score (ZBMI); however, BMD has decreased significantly (p = 0.011). There was an association between not taking a vitamin D supplement and decreased BMD (p = 0.027). Almost half of the patients had altered nutritional status. The BMD decrease in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) was associated with the lack of vitamin D supplementation, highlighting the importance of well-defined vitamin D supplementation protocols.

  20. Pathogenetic justification of dietary supplement TestogenonTM for complex impact on men's reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Liflyandsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonable complex preparation TestogenonTM for prevention and treatment of frustration of reproductive system of men including extracts of plants (bark of a pidzheum, a dioskorea, a yokhimba, a ginseng root and biologically active agents (L-arginin, vitamins C and E, B5, B6 and B12 is created pathogenetic. Harmlessness and safety of a preparation are confirmed in pilot studies. Preclinical researches of specific pharmacological activity of dietary supplement to food TestogenonTM, allowed to establish stimulation at experimental animals of production of own testosterone which concentration was authentically above, than at control animals. Besides, at the rats receiving TestogenonTM activation of all indicators of sexual behavior was observed: average frequency a cage on females was 82 % higher, the quantity of intromissiya exceeded that control animals at 12–15 times, the latent period a cage and an interval between sessions authentically decreased. The preparation is recommended for strengthening of a libido, increase in duration of sexual intercourse, elimination of erektilny dysfunction, simplification of age manifestations of a man's climax, and also within complex therapy of a good-quality hyperplasiya of a prostate gland, chronic not bacterial prostatitis, man's infertility, an incontience of urine, testosterone synthesis stimulation. TestogenonTM is contraindicated at the increased nervous excitability, sleeplessness, arterial hypertension, decrease in coagulability of blood, arrhythmia, the expressed dysfunction of a liver and kidneys. 

  1. Supplement to “Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2013-12-01

    , some selected explanatory applications to the theory are presented in the areas of biology, ecology, life sciences, medicine, materials engineering, psychiatry, religion, sociology and humanities. It is recommended that many of the related conventional techniques and approaches reported in the literature have to be mathematically reformulated once more and be applied for the pathway change analysis of the everywhere real life systems following the presented new generic stack-based representations. This could provide cutting-edge tools for the complete understanding of systems change pathways behavior in various sciences and disciplines all combined in a single global theory. Finally, the supplement leads to the very important finding that the universe by all means is not left unattended, but in fact is amazingly self-monitored since its creation through very high precision intelligent autonomous stack-based internal recordings with the given classifications and categorizations of self-events (or activities inside each oneself (or itself.

  2. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  3. Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in supplemented and non-supplemented women with systemic lupus erythematosus in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Almirall, M; Corzo, Patricia; Mojal, Sergi; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously reported that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among SLE patients than in the general population. We sought to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and their related factors, its relationship to SLE symptoms and disease activity on a group of supplemented and non-supplemented female SLE patients from the Mediterranean region. We performed a cross-sectional study including female SLE patients who regularly attended the outpatient Lupus Unit at Parc de Salut Mar-IMAS in Barcelona, from January 2012 to May 2014. Collected data were sociodemographics, vitamin D supplementation, fatigue degree visual analog scale, pharmacological treatment, main SLE serological markers, indexes, scales and plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. One hundred and two consecutive female SLE patients were included. Vitamin D overall insufficiency and deficiency were exhibited by 46 and 22.5 % of patients, respectively. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 50 % of supplemented and 60 % of non-supplemented patients. Among non-supplemented female SLE patients, it was found that patients with vitamin D insufficiency showed more fatigue (p = 0.009) and received more oral corticosteroids (p = 0.02) than those with normal levels. Patients with vitamin D insufficiency (supplemented and non-supplemented) received more oral corticosteroids than those without insufficiency (p = 0.008). Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent among female SLE patients, even in southern regions. Non-supplemented female SLE patients showed more fatigue and received more oral corticosteroids than those with normal levels of vitamin D. These data were not found in supplemented patients although having a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (up to 50 %). Further studies with longer follow-up and larger population are needed to confirm our observations.

  4. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  5. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  6. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status.

  7. A New Approach for NOx Soft Sensors for the Aftertreatment of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, S.; Kajiwara, I.; Sato, J.; Hanamura, Y.

    2016-09-01

    To maintain the NOX concentration at an appropriate level, traditionally an air-path control that regulates the intake and exhaust system of diesel engines aims to control the mass air flow and the manifold absolute pressure, which influence the production of NOX. To improve the control accuracy, a more recent approach takes the NOX concentration directly as a controlled output variable, but the sensors monitoring the NOX concentration are slow to respond. Consequently, a direct sensor is inappropriate as a feedback controller. Instead a mechanism called a soft sensor, which computes the NOX concentration from state quantities of diesel engines, is used. Because the prediction accuracy from the sensor model greatly affects the control performance, it is important to improve the model accuracy. However, deviations in the steady state indicate an insufficient model accuracy. This study proposes a method to construct an adaptive NOX soft sensor that corrects the parameters of the sensor model sequentially using the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation while comparing the values computed by the software to actual measurements as well as examines the effectiveness of the proposed method experimentally.

  8. A new model for simulating supplemental irrigation and the hydro-economic potential of a rainwater harvesting system in humid subtropical climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, P.K.; Van der Zaag, P.; Soupir, M.L.; Singh, V.P.

    2013-01-01

    Here we have developed a new model to simulate supplemental irrigation and the hydro-economic potential of a rainwater harvesting system in rainfed agricultural areas. Using the model, soil moisture in rainfed crop land, supplemental irrigation requirements, rainwater storage in an on-farm reservoir

  9. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  10. Glutamine and nucleotide supplementation in broiler diets in alternative breeding system

    OpenAIRE

    Zavarize, K C [UNESP; Sartori,José Roberto; Pelícia, V C [UNESP; Pezzato, Antonio Celso [UNESP; Araujo, P C; Stradiotti, A C [UNESP; Madeira, L A [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing glutamine and nucleotides on growth performance and development intestinal morphology in broiler chicks. In the trial, 600 male broiler chicks distributed in randomized blocks in a 3x2 factorial arrangement (consisting of a uniform basal diet supplemented with: 0.0, 0.5 or 1.0% glutamine, and 0.0 or 0.04% nucleotides), for a total of 6 treatments with 25 birds each. Means of performance (weight, weight gain, feed intake, fee...

  11. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild

  12. Supplementation with l-carnitine downregulates genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the skeletal muscle and liver of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J; Ringseis, R; Koc, A; Lukas, I; Kluge, H; Eder, K

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation of carnitine has been shown to improve performance characteristics such as protein accretion in growing pigs. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Based on recent results from DNA microchip analysis, we hypothesized that carnitine supplementation leads to a downregulation of genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). The UPS is the most important system for protein breakdown in tissues, which in turn could be an explanation for increased protein accretion. To test this hypothesis, we fed sixteen male, four-week-old piglets either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with carnitine and determined the expression of several genes involved in the UPS in the liver and skeletal muscle. To further determine whether the effects of carnitine on the expression of genes of the UPS are mediated directly or indirectly, we also investigated the effect of carnitine on the expression of genes of the UPS in cultured C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 liver cells. In the liver of piglets fed the carnitine-supplemented diet, the relative mRNA levels of atrogin-1, E214k and Psma1 were lower than in those of the control piglets (P carnitine-supplemented diet than that in control piglets (P carnitine had no effect on basal and/or hydrocortisone-stimulated mRNA levels of genes of the UPS. In conclusion, this study shows that dietary carnitine decreases the transcript levels of several genes involved in the UPS in skeletal muscle and liver of piglets, whereas carnitine has no effect on the transcript levels of these genes in cultivated HepG2 liver cells and C2C12 myotubes. These data suggest that the inhibitory effect of carnitine on the expression of genes of the UPS is mediated indirectly, probably via modulating the release of inhibitors of the UPS such as IGF-1. The inhibitory effect of carnitine on the expression of genes of the UPS might explain, at least partially, the increased protein accretion in piglets supplemented with

  13. 75 FR 32635 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Regulation Supplement; Balance of Payments Program Exemption for Commercial Information Technology... implement in the clauses at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program--Construction Material, and 252.225-7045, Balance of Payments Program--Construction Material under Trade Agreements, the exemption from...

  14. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endogenous antioxidant systems and heat shock proteins in response to endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Kristoffer T; Raastad, Truls; Holden, Geir; Bastani, Nasser E; Schneeberger, Damaris; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Mercatelli, Neri; Ostgaard, Hege N; Ugelstad, Ingrid; Caporossi, Daniela; Blomhoff, Rune; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important signal molecules for adaptations to training. Due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C and E, supplementation has been shown to blunt adaptations to endurance training. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation and endurance training on adaptations in endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSP). Thirty seven males and females were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin C and E (C + E; C: 1000 mg, E: 235 mg daily) or placebo (PLA), and underwent endurance training for 11 weeks. After 5 weeks, a subgroup conducted a high intensity interval session to investigate acute stress responses. Muscle and blood samples were obtained to investigate changes in proteins and mRNA related to the antioxidant and HSP system. The acute response to the interval session revealed no effects of C + E supplementation on NFκB activation. However, higher stress responses to exercise in C + E group was indicated by larger translocation of HSPs and a more pronounced gene expression compared to PLA. Eleven weeks of endurance training decreased muscle GPx1, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, while mnSOD, HSP70 and GSH remained unchanged, with no influence of supplementation. Plasma GSH increased in both groups, while uric acid decreased in the C + E group only. Our results showed that C + E did not affect long-term training adaptations in the antioxidant- and HSP systems. However, the greater stress responses to exercise in the C + E group might indicate that long-term adaptations occurs through different mechanisms in the two groups. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-142- KeelerOregon City #2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barndt, Shawn L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-04-04

    Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-142- KeelerOregon #2). Bonneville Power Administration proposes to remove vegetation alongside Transmission Right-of-Ways

  16. EFFECTS OF HOUSING SYSTEMS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL LAYERS FOLLOWING INDUCED MOLTING BY ALUMINIUM OXIDE SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. YOUSAF AND N. AHMAD1

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The project was carried out to compare the performance of molted layers by aluminium oxide supplementation in cages and on litter floor system. Seventy two Single Comb White Leghorn commercial layers (60 weeks old were divided into six experimental units of 12 layers each. These experimental units were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of three experimental units, one group was reared on litter floor and the other in cages. The layers were provided with 35 gm feed containing 4 gm aluminium oxide/kg of feed for first 14 days of molting period (66-67 weeks of age. The layers showed significant reduction in body weight following induced molting by aluminium oxide under both housing systems. Body weight loss was higher, while feed consumption was lower, in the cages as compared to litter floor system. The layers molted by aluminium oxide showed significantly higher egg production in the cages (P≤0.05 than in litter floor system (P≤0.05. The layers in the subsequent production cycle showed improvement in egg weight, egg shell thickness and Haugh Unit Score. The egg weight and egg shell thickness were higher in the birds kept on litter floor system than those kept in cages (P≥0.05. However, Haugh unit score was higher in the cage system. It was concluded that aluminium oxide can be effectively supplemented for better production performance and improved egg quality in the second production cycle preferably in the cages.

  17. Mercedes-Benz medium-duty commercial engines. Pt. 1. Engine concept and exhaust aftertreatment; Mittelschwerer NFZ-Motor von Mercedes-Benz. T. 1. Motor- und Abgasreinigungkonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Hans-Otto; Nielsen, Boerge; Gropp, Christian; Lehmann, Juergen [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Daimler Trucks will launch a generation of fully newly developed Mercedes-Benz diesel engines for medium-duty commercial vehicles with the coming into effect of the Euro VI emissions standard. The new engines, with the model series designation OM 93x, will gradually replace the successful Series 900, which has been on the market for over 15 years. Similar to the previous model series, the new engines are available in four- and six-cylinder versions (OM 934 and OM 936). In the following the concept of the engine and the exhaust aftertreatment are described, the operational strategies and the development process will be dealt with in a second part in MTZ 11. (orig.)

  18. Sward canopy structure and performance of beef heifers under supplementation in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained with three grazing intensities in a continuous stocking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rume Casagrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the sward canopy structure of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained in three grazing intensities under continuous stocking system during the rainy season, along with the behavior and performance of grazing beef heifers supplemented with mineral salt or an energy/protein supplement. Three levels of forage allowance were assessed: 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kg of forage/kg of live weight, combined with two supplements (ad libitum mineral salt, and an energy/protein supplement at 0.3% of live weight/day, supplied daily. The experiment was designed as a randomized block study with two replications. The supplements did not influence the variables related to the canopy structure. Canopy height was greater at higher forage allowances during the late summer and early fall. Similarly, the stem mass was greater in pastures with higher forage allowances. Animals fed protein supplement spent less time grazing than animals supplemented with mineral salt. Stocking rate was higher in pastures with lower forage allowance levels, which increased the live weight gain per grazing area. Daily weight gain did not vary according to the forage allowance levels. The use of an energy/protein supplement did not affect the stocking rate; however, it increased individual live weight gain and live weight gain per grazing area compared with mineral salt supplementation. The use of energy/protein supplements is an efficient alternative to enhance animal performance and production under grazing systems during the rainy season

  19. Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on antioxidant defense system in cardiovascular disease patients in Zahedan, southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajibani, Mansour; Hashemi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggest that antioxidant vitamins might reduce the risk of disease outcomes by their ability to scavenge free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the supplementation of vitamins E and C on oxidant and antioxidant status in CVD patients. We conducted a case-control study with vitamin E (400 IU/d) and vitamin C (500 mg/d) supplementation in 40 CVD patients for 2 mo. Antioxidant (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) and oxidant status were analyzed pre and post supplementation. In the initial stage the activity of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were lower, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was elevated (pvitamin E (83.7%), C (145.3%), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (62.8%) and a significant decrease in MDA (40%) value were observed (pvitamins E and C reduced lipid peroxidation and strengthened the antioxidant defense system. Hence, there will be beneficial effects on the heart by reducing oxidative stress in CVD patients.

  20. Effects of different strategies of mineral supplementation (marine algae alone or combined with rumen boluses) in organic dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Orjales, I; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, R; Miranda, M

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of marine algae supplementation alone or in combination with a regular mineral supplement (rumen boluses) to improve the mineral status in organic dairy cattle and their effect on the milk mineral composition, milk production, composition (% of fat and protein) and quality (SCC). Thirty-two Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the algae (A), boluses (B), algae+boluses (AB) and control group (C). For the algae groups (A, AB), a supplement composed of Sea Lettuce (80%), Japanese Wireweed (17.5%) and Furbelows (2.5%) was formulated to be given to the cows at the rate of 100 g/animal per day (A1) for the length of 4 weeks. In the second half of the experiment (weeks 5-8), the algae mixture was reformulated and the proportion of Furbelows was increased from 2.5% to 5.0% with a subsequent decrease of Lettuce to 77.5% (A2). In the boluses group (B), each cow received 2 boluses after calving. Blood (serum) and milk samples were collected at 2 and 4 week intervals, respectively, and analysed for trace element concentrations by ICP-MS. Information related to the milk composition and SCC during a 305-day lactation for each animal were obtained from the Dairy Records Management System. The supplementation with algae, boluses or the combination of both treatments showed a statistically significant effect on the iodine (algae), selenium (boluses) and cobalt (algae+boluses) status of the animals. In milk, treatments had a statistical significant increase on iodine, and a tendency to increase selenium concentrations. The assayed algae mixture combined with another source of selenium could be an effective tool to improve the mineral status in serum and milk. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism. PMID:26104400

  2. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05. The levels of TG (p<0.001 and LDL-C (p<0.001 were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01. Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01. Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05, and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05. The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly and SOD (p<0.001, linearly. Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  3. Evaluation of oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis patients following systemic antioxidant supplementation: A clinical and biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Manasa; Rani, Koduganti Rekha; Reddy, Panthula Veerendranath; Suryaprasanna, Jammula; Dasari, Rajashree; Gireddy, Himabindu

    2017-01-01

    Context: Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of many systemic diseases including chronic periodontitis. Periodontal pathogen activated neutrophils liberate the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes the destruction of periodontal tissues. Antioxidants modulate the ROS production and inhibit the tissue destruction. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in chronic periodontitis patients following scaling and root planing (SRP) after systemic lycopene supplementation. Materials and Methods: This was an interventional single arm study. Twenty systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Clinical parameters modified gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment loss were recorded, and serum MDA levels were assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. Patients were supplemented with 8 mg lycopene daily for 2 months following SRP treatment. All the parameters were assessed at pretreatment and 2 months and 6 months posttreatment. Results: From pretreatment to posttreatment at 2 months, the mean values of all parameters were reduced. While from 2 to 6 months when lycopene was not administered, an increase in the mean values of all the parameters was observed; however, these values were still below baseline values. Conclusion: There was a reduction in oxidative stress and improvement in clinical parameters following systemic antioxidant therapy along with SRP, which was maintained up to 4 months after discontinuation of lycopene treatment. PMID:28250683

  4. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  5. Simplified seismic collapse capacity-based evaluation and design of frame buildings with and without supplemental damping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidia, Mohammad Javad

    A simplified procedure is developed for estimating the seismic sidesway collapse capacity of frame building structures. The procedure is then extended to quantify the seismic collapse capacity of buildings incorporating supplemental damping systems. The proposed procedure is based on a robust database of seismic peak displacement responses of viscously damped nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom systems for various seismic intensities and uses nonlinear static (pushover) analysis without the need for nonlinear time history dynamic analysis. The proposed procedure is assessed by comparing its collapse capacity predictions on 1470 different building models with those obtained from incremental nonlinear dynamic analyses. A straightforward unifying collapse capacity based design procedure aimed at achieving a pre-determined probability of collapse under maximum considered earthquake event is also introduced for structures equipped with viscous dampers (linear and nonlinear) and hysteretic dampers. The proposed simplified procedure offers a simple, yet efficient, computational/analytical tool that is capable of predicting collapse capacities with acceptable accuracy for a wide variety of frame building structures incorporate several types of supplemental damping systems.

  6. Effects of Supplemental Zinc in a Wheat-Based Diet on Performance, Intestinal Viscosity, Immune System and Lipid Peroxidation of 21-Day Old Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibaiee-nia G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a wheat-based diet (WBD supplemented with different levels of zinc on the performance, intestinal viscosity, immune system and lipid peroxidation of broiler chickens. A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks were weighed and assigned to six dietary treatments with four replicates (floor pens of ten birds per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a WBD without Zn supplement in mineral premix (control, or with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg of Zn in the diet. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were recorded after 21 days. On day 21, blood serum malondialdehyde concentration, intestinal digesta viscosity, and some internal organs were measured. Antibody titer against Sheep red blood cells (SRBC were measured on days 7 and 14 after injection. For evaluation of cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity (CBH response, on d 20, phytohemagglutinin was injected subcutaneously into toe web and 12 and 24 hrs after injection, the thickness of the web was measured. Supplementation of the WBD with 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg Zn/kg significantly improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05. Supplementation of Zn significantly decreased the relative weight of abdominal fat pad as well as jejunal viscosity (P < 0.05. Also, Zn supplementation (at all concentrations except 20 mg/kg significantly decreased serum malondialdehyde concentration (P< 0.05. Anti-SRBC titer was significantly increased by supplementation of the WBD with 20 mg/kg Zn (P < 0.05. Supplementation of the WBD with 40 mg/kg Zn significantly increased CBH response (P < 0.05. Overall, the results of this study indicate the importance of Zn supplementation in WBD for improvement of FCR and physicochemical properties of the intestinal contents. Also, supplementation of Zn in the WBD is effective in enhancing immune system responses and antioxidative defense.

  7. Systemic inflammation in morbidly obese subjects: response to oral supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faintuch, Joel; Horie, Lilian M; Barbeiro, Hermes V; Barbeiro, Denise F; Soriano, Francisco G; Ishida, Robson K; Cecconello, Ivan

    2007-03-01

    Morbidly obese patients frequently display asymptomatic chronic activation of acute phase response, with potentially adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Nutritional preparations to improve this phenomenon have rarely been administered. Aiming to investigate the supplementation of flaxseed flour, a source of omega-3 fatty acids, a prospective randomized double-blind cross-over study was designed. Outpatient obese subjects (n=41) were clinically and biochemically screened, and results for 24 randomized subjects are shown. Age was 40.8 +/- 11.6 years (83.3% females) and body mass index (BMI) was 47.1 +/- 7.2 kg/m2. Flaxseed flour (Farinha de Linhaca Dourada LinoLive, Cisbra, Brazil) in the amount of 30 g/day (5 g of alpha-linolenic acid - omega-3) and an equal mass of placebo (manioc flour) were administered for 2 weeks each. Variables included general biochemical investigation, white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibronectin. No intolerance was registered. Body weight and general biochemical indices remained stable. Initial CRP and SAA were elevated (13.7 +/- 9.9 and 17.4 +/- 8.0 ). WBC (8100 +/- 2100/mm3) and fibronectin (463.2 +/- 61.3 mg/dL) were acceptable but in the upper normal range. Corresponding findings after supplementation of flaxseed were 10.6 +/- 6.2 mg/L, 14.3 +/- 9.2 mg/L, 7300 +/- 1800/mm3 and 412.8 +/- 38.6 respectively (Pchange during the control period regarding baseline occurred when placebo was randomized to be given first; however, when it followed omega-3 supplementation, CRP and SAA recovered, whereas WBC and fibronection remained depressed during those 2 weeks (7500 +/- 2100/mm3 and 393.2 +/- 75.8 mg/dL, P<0.05). 1) Various inflammatory markers were elevated in the studied population, although not necessarily exceeding the normal range; 2) Significant reduction could be demonstrated; 3) Some persistent effects of flaxseed supplement 2 weeks after discontinuation were observed.

  8. Effect of Early Overfeeding on Palatable Food Preference and Brain Dopaminergic Reward System at Adulthood: Role of Calcium Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E P S; Carvalho, J C; Manhães, A C; Guarda, D S; Figueiredo, M S; Quitete, F T; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2016-05-01

    Rats raised in small litters (SL) are obese and hyperphagic. In the present study, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic reward system in these animals at adulthood. We also assessed the anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium supplementation. To induce early overfeeding, litters were adjusted to three pups on postnatal day (PN)3 (SL group). Control litters were kept with 10 pups each until weaning (NL group). On PN120, SL animals were subdivided into two groups: SL (standard diet) and SL-Ca [SL with calcium supplementation (10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow) for 60 days]. On PN175, animals were subjected to a food challenge: animals could choose between a high-fat (HFD) or a high-sugar diet (HSD). Food intake was recorded after 30 min and 12 h. Euthanasia occurred on PN180. SL rats had higher food intake, body mass and central adiposity. Sixty days of dietary calcium supplementation (SL-Ca) prevented these changes. Only SL animals preferred the HFD at 12 h. Both SL groups had lower tyrosine hydroxylase content in the ventral tegmental area, lower dopaminergic transporter content in the nucleus accumbens, and higher type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). They also had higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower pro-opiomelanocortin contents in the ARC. Calcium treatment normalised only D2R and NPY contents. Precocious obesity induces long-term effects in the brain dopaminergic system, which can be associated with an increased preference for fat at adulthood. Calcium treatment prevents this last alteration, partially through its actions on ARC D2R and NPY proteins. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Calcium supplementation improves Na+/K+ ratio, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in salt-stressed rice seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur eRahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-d-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47 seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger for three days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt-induced stress caused oxidative stress in rice seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS production and methylglyoxal (MG formation. The salt-stressed rice seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the rice seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system.

  10. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Szu-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1 on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20 and Rg1 (N = 20 groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Effect of genotype, housing system and hay supplementation on carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, K; Gerencsér, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Matics, Zs

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of genotype (Pannon Large × Pannon Ka/Large/or Hungarian Giant × Pannon Ka/Hung), housing system (Cage or small Pen) and hay supplementation (Pellet without or with Hay/P+Hay/) on carcass and meat (Longissimus dorsi/LD/ and hind leg/HL/) quality of growing rabbits. Large rabbits showed higher carcass weights, as well as higher fatness and meatiness compared to Hung rabbits. Caged rabbits were heavier, with higher prevalence of the mid part of the carcass, and showed higher fatness and lower meat toughness than Penned rabbits. Caged rabbits meat was richer in MUFA, but poorer in PUFA and Σ n-6 FA. Hay supplementation impaired carcass weight, carcass fatness, L* and a* color, and lipids content. P+Hay increased the HL meat content of C18:3 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 FA. Overall results offer further information on how alternative breeds, housing systems and feeding strategies can affect carcass traits and meat quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  13. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not getting the whole story about how supplements work, if they are really effective, and the risks you take by using them. Androstenedione and DHEA ... like testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart ... height. Natural steroid supplements can also cause breast development ...

  14. Maternal Omega-3 Supplement Improves Dopaminergic System in Pre- and Postnatal Inflammation-Induced Neurotoxicity in Parkinson's Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Ana Marcia; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Kempe, Paula G; Rizzo de Souza, Luiz E; Zanata, Silvio M; Machado, Ricardo B; Suchecki, Deborah; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L S; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is the consequence of a neurodevelopmental disruption, rather than strictly a consequence of aging. Thus, we hypothesized that maternal supplement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) may be associated with neuroprotection mechanisms in a self-sustaining cycle of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-model of PD. To test this hypothesis, behavioral and neurochemical assay were performed in prenatally LPS-exposed offspring at postnatal day 21. To further determine whether prenatal LPS exposure and maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation had persisting effects, brain injury was induced on PN 90 rats, following bilateral intranigral LPS injection. Pre- and postnatal inflammation damage not only affected dopaminergic neurons directly, but it also modified critical features, such as activated microglia and astrocyte cells, disrupting the support provided by the microenvironment. Unexpectedly, our results failed to show any involvement of caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis pathway in neuronal death mechanisms. On the other hand, learning and memory deficits detected with a second toxic exposure were significantly attenuated in maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation group. In addition, ω-3 PUFAs promote beneficial effect on synaptic function, maintaining the neurochemical integrity in remaining neurons, without necessarily protect them from neuronal death. Thus, our results suggest that ω-3 PUFAs affect the functional ability of the central nervous system in a complex way in a multiple inflammation-induced neurotoxicity animal model of PD and they disclose new ways of understanding how these fatty acids control responses of the brain to different challenges.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus on the hematology and immunology systems of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana VALADARES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with cancer tend to develop hematological and immunological alterations during the disease process. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the immune and hematopoietic systems, promoting improvements in the prognosis and physiological response. In this trial it is aimed to evaluate changes in hematological and immunological parameters in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out. 46 patients (stadiums II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either: nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day or placebo. Patients received three cycles (n=26 and six cycles (n=20 of chemotherapy. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed. The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and R-version 2.11.1, significant results at p≤ 0.05. Results: The A. sylvaticus group showed an increase of hematocrits (p=0.04, red blood count (p=0.03, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.001, leukocytes (p=0.03, monocytes (p=0.001, and total lymphocyte count (p=0.009 after three months. Those changes were not observed in the placebo group. After six months, patients receiving A. sylvaticus showed increased levels of red blood count (p=0.02, hemoglobin (p=0.02, hematocrits (p=0.02, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p=0.02, leukocytes (p=0.02; lymphocytes (p=0.02, neutrophils (p=0.02 and TLC (p=0.02. The placebo group showed a reduction in leukocytes (p=0.004, basophiles (p=0.005 and TLC (p=0.01. Conclusion: The results suggest the usefulness of dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

  16. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Young-Sool; Chung, Hye Jin; Sontakke, Sneha B; Chung, In-Young; Ju, Sunmi; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2017-07-11

    To measure ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor of patients with cataract after oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with senile cataract who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients (n = 14 each) were administered oral vitamin C (2 g), intravenous vitamin C (20 g) or no treatment (control group) on the day before surgery. Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 cm(3)) were obtained by anterior chamber aspiration at the beginning of surgery and stored at -80 °C. Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean age at surgery was 62.5 years, with no difference among the three groups. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor in the control and oral and intravenous vitamin C groups were 1347 ± 331 μmol/L, 1859 ± 408 μmol/L and 2387 ± 445 μmol/L, respectively. Ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in the control than in the oral (P humor is increased by systemic vitamin C supplementation, with intravenous administration being more effective than oral administration.

  17. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  18. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  19. Do different cow types respond differently to a reduction on concentrate supplementation in an Alpine low-input dairy system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Steinwidder, Andreas; Pfister, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    of concentrate supplementation decreased energy balance (−10%; Pdiet=0.002) in both cow types, but HFL seemed to be able to support milk production primarily by increasing mobilisation of body fat reserves in early lactation. In contrast BS tended to reduce ECM yield, sustain blood glucose, and increase plasma...... from 20 HFL cows. No significant interactions between cow type and dietary treatment were found for most traits investigated. However, there was a tendency (Pcow type×diet=0.096) for energy-corrected-milk (ECM) yield to be reduced at the Low compared with the Con concentrate level in BS but not in HFL......Forage based low-input dairy systems include a certain risk of a temporary undersupply with nutrients and energy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the productive, reproductive and metabolic response of two different dairy cow types to a reduction of concentrate...

  20. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  1. Stress Hormone and Reproductive System in Response to Honey Supplementation Combined with Different Jumping Exercise Intensities in Female Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosavat, Maryam; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2014-01-01

      This study was performed to determine the effects of 8-week honey supplementation combined with different jumping exercise intensities on serum cortisol, progesterone, estradiol, and reproductive organs...

  2. Technology for large space systems: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 1077 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System between July 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989. Its purpose is to provide helpful information to the researcher or manager engaged in the development of technologies related to large space systems. Subject areas include mission and program definition, design techniques, structural and thermal analysis, structural dynamics and control systems, electronics, advanced materials, assembly concepts, and propulsion.

  3. Large space structures and systems in the space station era: A bibliography with indexes (supplement 03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Bibliographies and abstracts are listed for 1221 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between January 1, 1991 and June 30, 1991. Topics covered include large space structures and systems, space stations, extravehicular activity, thermal environments and control, tethering, spacecraft power supplies, structural concepts and control systems, electronics, advanced materials, propulsion, policies and international cooperation, vibration and dynamic controls, robotics and remote operations, data and communication systems, electric power generation, space commercialization, orbital transfer, and human factors engineering.

  4. 75 FR 65439 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ...-602-0350. Mail: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Attn: Ms. Cassandra R. Freeman, OUSD (AT&L... be posted to http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cassandra R. Freeman... procurement. Clare M. Zebrowski, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Therefore, 48 CFR parts 219...

  5. Utah System of Higher Education Data Book (Supplement to Operating Budget Request) 1998-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Board of Higher Education, Salt Lake City.

    This report provides detailed statistical data on the Utah System of Higher Education (USHE), including institution-specific data on the system's four universities and five community colleges. The institutions include the University of Utah, Utah State University, Weber State University, Southern Utah University, Snow College, Dixie College,…

  6. Utah System of Higher Education Data Book (Supplement to Operating Budget Request) 1997-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Board of Higher Education, Salt Lake City.

    This report provides detailed statistical data on the Utah System of Higher Education (USHE), including institution-specific data on the system's four universities and five community colleges. The institutions include the University of Utah, Utah State University, Weber State University, Southern Utah University, Snow College, Dixie College,…

  7. Computer Supported Indexing: A History and Evaluation of NASA's MAI System. Supplement 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, June P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer supported indexing systems may be categorized in several ways. One classification scheme refers to them as statistical, syntactic, semantic or knowledge-based. While a system may emphasize one of these aspects, most systems actually combine two or more of these mechanisms to maximize system efficiency. Statistical systems can be based on counts of words or word stems, statistical association, and correlation techniques that assign weights to word locations or provide lexical disambiguation, calculations regarding the likelihood of word co-occurrences, clustering of word stems and transformations, or any other computational method used to identify pertinent terms. If words are counted, the ones of median frequency become candidate index terms. Syntactical systems stress grammar and identify parts of speech. Concepts found in designated grammatical combinations, such as noun phrases, generate the suggested terms. Semantic systems are concerned with the context sensitivity of words in text. The primary goal of this type of indexing is to identify without regard to syntax the subject matter and the context-bearing words in the text being indexed. Knowledge-based systems provide a conceptual network that goes past thesaurus or equivalent relationships to knowing (e.g., in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) system) that because the tibia is part of the leg, a document relating to injuries to the tibia should he indexed to LEG INJURIES, not the broader MeSH term INJURIES, or knowing that the term FEMALE should automatically be added when the term PREGNANCY is assigned, and also that the indexer should be prompted to add either HUMAN or ANIMAL. Another way of categorizing indexing systems is to identify them as producing either assigned- or derived-term indexes.

  8. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  9. Timing growth and development of Campanula by daily light integral and supplemental light level in a cost-efficient light control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    light control system (DynaLight desktop) automatically defines the most cost-efficient use of supplemental light based on predefined setpoints for daily photosynthesis integral (DPI), forecasted solar irradiance and the market price on electricity. It saves energy in high-cost periods of electricity...... mol m−2 s−1). We found that differences in supplemental light levels, daily light hours or DLI had no effect on leaf area expansion and stem elongation, but there was a linear relation between dry matter accumulation and cumulative light integral (CLI) in both species, and a linear relation between...

  10. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... they have the requisite skills in contracting. When specialized expertise is required, contracting... Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the system criteria are applicable equally to DoD, NASA, and...

  11. 76 FR 22091 - California Independent System, Operator Corporation; Supplemental Notice of Agenda and Discussion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... California Independent System Operator Corporation's (CAISO) Capacity Procurement Mechanism (CPM... interested parties an opportunity to discuss the CPM compensation methodology and exceptional dispatch..., 2011. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. Agenda for the CAISO CPM Compensation Methodology and...

  12. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  13. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  14. Technology for Large Space Systems: A Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    materials were qualified and used on antenna reflector Naval Sea Systems Command. The objective of this contract was structures. The outstanding in-orbit...14374"# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Sea Systems Dept. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. DEVELOPMENT OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE POWER...p 41 1467 17845 p 42 N867-19755 NATAT 4~SA F49620-85-C-0094 ......... .-p38 N87’ 16671 506-43-51-04 p 21 N87-1 1966 NMENUBR ACCESSION MOESC-56460102

  15. Optimal Planning and Operation of Hybrid Energy System Supplemented by Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two-stage model for optimal planning and operation of a distribution network. Optimal siting and sizing of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as electrical energy storage (EES) systems are considered in the proposed hybrid energy system. In this context, the planning...... problem is considered as a master problem, while there are different sub-problems associated with the short-term operational problem. To properly handle the uncertainties of forecasted load as well as renewable power generations, fair stochastic models are involved in the sub-problems based on historical...

  16. [Evaluation of the API ZYM system and RPMI agar plates supplemented with Tween 40 for detection of lipolytic enzymes of Candida spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Wróblewska, Joanna; Białucha, Agata; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Lipolytic activity of 40 strains of Candida spp. was tested on API ZYM system and on RPMI agar plates supplemented with 1% Tween 40. Lipolytic activity was indicated by opaque zones around the inoculum cylindrical holes were punched in the medium. Clearing of the medium around the bacterial colonies indicated that an isolate produce lipase. Only 4 (21.1%) strains of C. albicans, and 3 (14.1%) strains of non-C. albicans which hydrolyzed 2-naftylomirystylan by use of the API ZYM system was observed. In contrast, 16 (78.9%) strains of C. albicans and 17 (80.7%) strains of non-C. albicans produced lipases on the agar plate using RPMI agar plates supplemented with 1.0% Tween 40. Determination oflipase activities with the API ZYM system were in no agreement with lipase tests in RPMI supplemented with Tween 40. Our study verify greater usefulness of RPMI supplemented with Tween 40 for detection of lipolytic enzymes of Candida species in comparison to the API ZYM.

  17. 75 FR 2457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... withholding payments. (e) System review matrix. Refer to the matrix at PGI 242.70X1(e) to cross-reference DCAA... estimates; (ii) Provide a written description of the organization and duties of the personnel responsible..., including but not limited to providing, as applicable-- (1) A basic structure that defines the form and...

  18. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  19. Integrated powertrain control for optimal CO2-NOx tradeoff in an Euro-VI diesel engine with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy which minimizes the operational costs over the study test cycle. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy deals with high system complexity and exploits the synergy between engine-aftertreatment systems by following a

  20. The System-Supplementing Effect of the Interaction between Innovative Capacity and Institutional Environment Factors of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Nikolayevich Ovchinnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the effect of interaction between the development level of regional innovative capacity and its innovative and institutional infrastructure is traced. The research objective is to prove the hypothesis of the essential impact of the regional institutional and information environment on its innovative capacity, the identification of the effect of their systemsupplementing interaction. From the standpoint of the methodology of system-structural research its components are allocated within the innovative capacity of the regional innovative system (RIS, they are presented by a corporate sector, the structures of small and medium business, and also by the subjects of ethnic economy. The use of essential-analytical and functional approaches has revealed the leading role of intangible assets of the corporate sector of the economy in region’s innovative development. The correlation and regression analysis has confirmed the essential dependence of the innovative activity of the region on the systemic completeness of the development of its institutional and infrastructure environment. The results of the research have shown that to ensure the system-supplementing effect of the interaction between innovative capacity and the factors of its activation in the sphere of institutional infrastructure, it is necessary to consistently develop its operational base — the institutions of RIS. The recommendations reasoned in the article may be used for the development of regional innovation strategies, the formation of innovation clusters. The three-component structure of the innovation cluster of the region is offered; its integrating function in relation to the innovative components of the regional sectoral clusters is determined. The factors constraining the growth of innovation activity of the regional economic subjects are revealed and the recommendations on the development of the institutional and infrastructural environment of the Rostov

  1. Portable Handheld Laser Small Area Supplemental Coatings Removal System, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-17

    ADA214946, September 1989. 25. Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan AFB , CA, “USAF PRAM Project – Flashlamp De-Paint System," Air Force...document was conducted by SAIC and Anteon at the LHMEL facility at Wright Patterson AFB . Fire and safety clearances were obtained prior to conducting the...CITY-BASE TEXAS 11 March 2004 MEMORANDUM FOR HQ AFMC/SGBE 4225 Logistics Ave., N209 Wright Patterson AFB , OH 45433 FROM

  2. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. Quantitative sustainability and qualitative concerns in an irrigations system using recycled water to supplement limited groundwater supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, John; Alataway, Abed

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation in a country facing water scarcity depends upon adoption of best management practices to deliver 'more crop per drop' together with use of recycled waste-water from urban sewage systems. Saudi Arabia is a country facing extreme water scarcity and in this paper we report on research conducted at an extensive irrigation system where a concerted effort over several years has been devoted to achieving a high level of water productivity. Al-Ahsa oasis is located about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf and has been inhabited since prehistoric times, due to the abundance of water in an otherwise arid region. It is one of the largest oases in the world with 12,000 hectares of irrigated land and more than 2 million palm trees. Historically the oasis was watered by over 60 artesian springs, but water is now pumped from the aquifer. To supplement this groundwater source, treated waste-water reuse has been practiced since 1992 and now comprises 30% of total supply. In addition, a comparable amount of agricultural drainage water is collected and recycled, so that the 'first-use' water represents only 40% of total irrigation supply. While this re-use system permits sustained irrigation with greatly reduced groundwater abstraction, there is a potential down-side in that fertilizers and contaminants applied with irrigation water move through the soil and return to the irrigation supply enhancing the risk for human and animal health. We investigated this problem using E coli and helminth eggs as indicators of human health risk. We sampled each of the three sources which are delivered separately to the head of the main irrigation canal where they are blended. The groundwater was free from E coli and helminths and the treated wastewater source was generally within designated quality standards. The recycled drainage water was delivered untreated into the canal system and was found to be contaminated with both E coli and helminths above acceptable

  5. Integrated powertrain control to meet future CO2 and Euro-6 emissions targets for a diesel hybrid with SCR-deNOx system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Foster, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    A new concept is introduced to optimize the performance of the entire powertrain: Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC). In this concept, the synergy between engine, driveline and aftertreatment system is exploited by integrated energy and emission management. As a result, fuel efficiency and drivabil

  6. Exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts for meeting future emission requirements; Abgasnachbehandlungs-Konzepte zur Erfuellung zukuenftiger Emissionsrichtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Tobias; Weiskirch, Christian; Behnk, Kai [IAV GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Nutzfahrzeuge; Mueller, Raimund [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Technischer Vertrieb Nutzfahrzeuge und Non-road Anwendungen

    2011-02-15

    Proceeding from a modern two-stage supercharged commercial-vehicle engine employing measures inside the engine to satisfy the NO{sub x} limit values for Euro V and EEV as well as a partial-flow particulate filter system for meeting the particulate limit values prescribed under Euro V and EEV, the IAV investigated potential approaches to complying with future emission standards in the on-road and off-road segments. (orig.)

  7. The Audi ultra low emission system: requirements for development and system integration; Das Audi Ultra Low Emission System: Anforderungen an Entwicklung und Systemintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middelhauve, Georg; Meister, Alexander; Halbei, Julia [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Based on a combination of engine modifications and the introduction of a new technology into the exhaust aftertreatment the Audi ultra low emission system achieves a very efficient minimization of the exhaust emissions and a reduction of the fuel consumption. The new technology sets a new standard in the successful history of TDI engines. The present article focuses on the NOx reduction in the exhaust aftertreatment and the related AdBlue registered -tank system of the Audi A4 3,0 I V6-TDI with ultra low emission system. In the centre of the attention is the integration of a complex system containing hydraulic, electr(on)ic and mechatronic components into the package and system control of an existing vehicle. (orig.)

  8. Daily sesame oil supplementation attenuates local renin-angiotensin system via inhibiting MAPK activation and oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2017-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by which increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and oxidative stress are important in RAS-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Sesame oil, a potent antioxidant, attenuates hypertension-dependent LVH. We examined the protective role of sesame oil on RAS-mediated MAPK activation and oxidative stress in rats. We induced LVH using a hypertensive model by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/ml/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats. Sesame oil was gavaged (0.5 or 1 ml/kg/day for 7 days) after 4 weeks of DOCA/salt treatment. Cardiac histopathology, RAS parameters, expression of MAPKs, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were assessed 24 h after the last dose of sesame oil. Sesame oil significantly decreased the size of cardiomyocytes and the levels of cardiac renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II. In addition, sesame oil down-regulated the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor, JNK and p38 MAPK and apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1, c-Fos and c-Jun in rats receiving DOCA/salt. Furthermore, the induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation by DOCA/salt were inhibited by sesame oil. Sesame oil modulates cardiac RAS to ameliorate LVH by inhibiting MAPK activation and lowering oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Added Value via SPI supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T....

  10. MDCT after-treatment to assess the hypopharyngeal carcinoma%多层螺旋CT后处理技术对下咽癌评估的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹汉海; 丁海霞; 彭洪娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨多层螺旋CT后处理技术对下咽癌诊断及周围组织侵犯的评估价值.方法 回顾性分析23例经病理证实的下咽癌CT横轴住图像及其多平面重建(MPR)和透明化容积重组技术(VRT)重建图像的病历资料,对下咽癌的浸润范围进行评估.结果 23例轴位图像下咽部均可见异常软组织影,其中8例可见喉软骨破坏,13例可见颈部淋巴结转移,MPR和透明化VRT重建显示17例梨状窝扭曲、变窄甚至消失.结论 CT轴位图像结合MPR和透明化VRT重建图像能更加准确、直观地显示下咽癌的浸润范围,更准确的评估下咽癌.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of MDCT after-treatment technology in the evaluation of hypopharyngeal carcinoma and its invasibility. Methods Twenty-three patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma confirmed by pathology underwent CT scans. Images of axial, multiplaner reconstruction (MPR) and transparent 3D volume rendering technique (VRT) of all patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of 23 cases, there was abnormal soft tissue shown in axial images, including 8 cases of visible laryngeal cartilage destruction and 13 cases of visible cervical lymph node metastases. Also, MPR and transparent VRT reconstruction demonstrated 17 cases of distorted, narrowed,or even an absent piriform sinus. Conclusion CT axial images combining MPR and transparent VRT reconstruction can accurately and directly show infiltrations of hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

  11. Supplement B: Research Networking Systems Characteristics Profiles. A Companion to the OCLC Research Report, Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hill, Amanda; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    The OCLC Research Report, "Registering Researchers in Authority Files", [Accessible in ERIC as ED564924] summarizes the results of the research conducted by the OCLC Research Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group in 2012-2014. Details of this research are in supplementary data sets: (1) "Supplement A: Use Cases. A…

  12. Xbox Kinect Gaming Systems as a Supplemental Tool within a Physical Education Setting: Third and Fourth Grade Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmake, Cole J.; Merrie, Michael D.; Calleja, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates that technology, including exergaming, is popular among adolescents and can be used as a supplemental tool in the physical education classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine third and fourth grade students' perceived enjoyment and exertion levels toward exergaming in relation to traditional physical…

  13. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  14. Supplemental topics on voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Nogiec

    Full Text Available Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  11. Supplementing managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  12. Design, development, and characterization of lipid nanocarriers-based epigallocatechin gallate delivery system for preventive and therapeutic supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frias I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iúri Frias, Ana Rute Neves, Marina Pinheiro, Salette Reis Research Unit on Applied Molecular Biosciences, Rede de Química e Tecnologia, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal Abstract: Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of Camellia sinensis and has been shown to possess, among other properties, anticancer, antiobesity, antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. The beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG. This catechin is very unstable, undergoing degradation and epimerization, which is responsible for the loss of its health benefits. Encapsulation in nanoparticles (NPs is an effective method to protect EGCG from adverse environmental conditions. In this work, solid lipid NPs (SLN and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC were successfully developed to be used as biocompatible nanocarriers, enhancing the stability of EGCG. The mean diameter of the NPs was found to be around 300–400 nm, which is suitable for oral administration. Moreover, EGCG was effectively encapsulated with a remarkable efficiency of encapsulation of 80% and 90% for SLN and NLC, respectively. In addition, high storage stability of the formulations is expected as they maintain the initial characteristics for 3 months. Limited release of EGCG from the NPs was observed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays demonstrated that NPs possess low toxicity, and so have potential to be used for preventive and therapeutic EGCG supplementation. Keywords: EGCG, lipid nanoparticles, nanoparticles, nutraceuticals, supplementation

  13. Media scanning and verification system as a supplemental tool to disease outbreak detection & reporting at National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Karad, A B; Dash, B; Dhariwal, A C; Chauhan, L S; Lal, S

    2012-03-01

    Media scanning for unusual health events can efficiently supplement conventional communicable disease surveillance systems for early detection and response to outbreaks. There is a need to rapidly process and appropriately disseminate the media reports on unusual health events for timely action. Hence to address this need in India a Media Scanning & Verification Cell (MSVC) was established in July 2008 at the National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi. MSVC is supervised by Epidemiologists working in Central Surveillance Unit of IDSP. This unique system monitors Global and National Media sources such as National and Regional print media, news on internet, news wires and websites, news channels and news shared by partners like Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), Canada, WHO and other International and national agencies. The information is shared to the districts affected and District Surveillance Officer (DSO) and his team is expected to investigate and revert through the internet about the correctness and action taken. A mean number of 4 Media Alert reports are generated each day. A total of 1685 alerts were reported in a period between July 2008 to December 2011. Of these 1241 (73.7%) were verified as real events and 183 (10.9%) were considered outbreaks by local health officials. Most events were captured through internet (57%) followed by the print media (24%). The most common disease events identified were food-borne and diarrhea (29.1%), dengue (10.68%), influenza & respiratory disease (8.1%) and malaria (7.4%). The sensitivity of MSVC to detect outbreaks was 14.8% with more than half of outbreaks detected before they were identified by the conventional surveillance system. It has proven to be a highly effective supplemental tool to official surveillance system in the detection of early warning signals and hence timely detection and management of public health threats in India.

  14. 柴油机尿素-SCR后处理系统设计研究%Design of diesel Urea-SCR after-treatment system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璞; 余志兵

    2012-01-01

    柴油机尿素-SCR系统主要由硬件系统和控制系统组成.自主开发了一套包括尿素储存模块、计量模块、喷射模块和催化反应模块的SCR硬件系统和SCR电控单元的柴油机尿素-SCR系统.该系统的台架试验表明,自主开发的SCR系统在ESC测试循环中,NOx降低了55%,HC降低65%,CO略有增加,达到了预期效果.

  15. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  16. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  17. Design, development, and characterization of lipid nanocarriers-based epigallocatechin gallate delivery system for preventive and therapeutic supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Iúri; Neves, Ana Rute; Pinheiro, Marina; Reis, Salette

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of Camellia sinensis and has been shown to possess, among other properties, anticancer, antiobesity, antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. The beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). This catechin is very unstable, undergoing degradation and epimerization, which is responsible for the loss of its health benefits. Encapsulation in nanoparticles (NPs) is an effective method to protect EGCG from adverse environmental conditions. In this work, solid lipid NPs (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were successfully developed to be used as biocompatible nanocarriers, enhancing the stability of EGCG. The mean diameter of the NPs was found to be around 300–400 nm, which is suitable for oral administration. Moreover, EGCG was effectively encapsulated with a remarkable efficiency of encapsulation of 80% and 90% for SLN and NLC, respectively. In addition, high storage stability of the formulations is expected as they maintain the initial characteristics for 3 months. Limited release of EGCG from the NPs was observed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays demonstrated that NPs possess low toxicity, and so have potential to be used for preventive and therapeutic EGCG supplementation. PMID:27826184

  18. Insights into how nucleotide supplements enhance the peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme activity of the G-quadruplex/hemin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Loic; Denat, Franck; Monchaud, David

    2012-09-01

    Since the initial discovery of the catalytic capability of short DNA fragments, this peculiar enzyme-like property (termed DNAzyme) has continued to garner much interest in the scientific community because of the virtually unlimited applications in developing new molecular devices. Alongside the exponential rise in the number of DNAzyme applications in the last past years, the search for convenient ways to improve its overall efficiency has only started to emerge. Credence has been lent to this strategy by the recent demonstration that the quadruplex-based DNAzyme proficiency can be enhanced by ATP supplements. Herein, we have made a further leap along this path, trying first of all to decipher the actual DNAzyme catalytic cycle (to gain insights into the steps ATP may influence), and subsequently investigating in detail the influence of all the parameters that govern the catalytic efficiency. We have extended this study to other nucleotides and quadruplexes, thus demonstrating the versatility and broad applicability of such an approach. The defined exquisitely efficient DNAzyme protocols were exploited to highlight the enticing advantages of this method via a 96-well plate experiment that enables the detection of nanomolar DNA concentrations in real-time with the naked-eye (see movie as Supplementary Data).

  19. Stress Hormone and Reproductive System in Response to Honey Supplementation Combined with Different Jumping Exercise Intensities in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mosavat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the effects of 8-week honey supplementation combined with different jumping exercise intensities on serum cortisol, progesterone, estradiol, and reproductive organs. Eighty-four 9-week-old female rats were divided into 7 groups: baseline controls (C0, sedentary group (C, 20 and 80 jumps per day (Ex20J, Ex80J, honey (H, and combined honey with 20 and 80 jumps per day (HEx20J, HEx80J groups. Jumping exercise was performed at 5 days/week and honey was given at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/day for 7 days/week. The level of serum cortisol was higher in Ex20J and Ex80J compared to C. There was significantly lower value of serum cortisol in HEx20J compared to Ex80J. Serum progesterone levels were significantly lower in Ex20J and Ex80J compared to C. However, serum progesterone levels were significantly higher in HEx20J and HEx80J compared to Ex20J and Ex80J. Relative uterine weights were significantly greater in HEx20J compared to C and HEx80J, respectively. There was no significant difference in estradiol level and relative ovarian weights among all the groups. Therefore, honey elicited beneficial effects in reducing the increase of cortisol and in increasing the reduce of progesterone levels induced by different intensities jumping exercise in female rats.

  20. Design, development, and characterization of lipid nanocarriers-based epigallocatechin gallate delivery system for preventive and therapeutic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Iúri; Neves, Ana Rute; Pinheiro, Marina; Reis, Salette

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of Camellia sinensis and has been shown to possess, among other properties, anticancer, antiobesity, antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. The beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). This catechin is very unstable, undergoing degradation and epimerization, which is responsible for the loss of its health benefits. Encapsulation in nanoparticles (NPs) is an effective method to protect EGCG from adverse environmental conditions. In this work, solid lipid NPs (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were successfully developed to be used as biocompatible nanocarriers, enhancing the stability of EGCG. The mean diameter of the NPs was found to be around 300-400 nm, which is suitable for oral administration. Moreover, EGCG was effectively encapsulated with a remarkable efficiency of encapsulation of 80% and 90% for SLN and NLC, respectively. In addition, high storage stability of the formulations is expected as they maintain the initial characteristics for 3 months. Limited release of EGCG from the NPs was observed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays demonstrated that NPs possess low toxicity, and so have potential to be used for preventive and therapeutic EGCG supplementation.

  1. The role of antioxidant supplement in immune system, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative disorders: a point of view for an assessment of the risk/benefit profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Benedetto Giulia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review will discuss some issues related to the risk/benefit profile of the use of dietary antioxidants. Thus, recent progress regarding the potential benefit of dietary antioxidants in the treatment of chronic diseases with a special focus on immune system and neurodegenerative disorders will be discussed here. It is well established that reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. Among the physiological defense system of the cell, the relevance of antioxidant molecules, such as glutathione and vitamins is quite well established. Recently, the interest of researchers has, for example, been conveyed on antioxidant enzyme systems, such as the heme oxygenase/biliverdin reductase system, which appears modulated by dietary antioxidant molecules, including polyphenols and beta-carotene. These systems possibly counteract oxidative damage very efficiently and finally modulate the activity of oxidative phenomena occurring, for instance, during pathophysiological processes. Although evidence shows that antioxidant treatment results in cytoprotection, the potential clinical benefit deriving from both nutritional and supplemental antioxidants is still under wide debate. In this line, the inappropriate assumption of some lipophylic vitamins has been associated with increased incidence of cancer rather than with beneficial effects.

  2. Added Value via SPI supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T. Spero , and C. Nolte. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index. ADVANCES IN METEOROLOGY. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 2016(8432064): 14 pages, (2016).

  3. Effect of a bovine colostrum whey supplementation on growth performance, faecal Escherichia coli population and systemic immune response of piglets at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, C; Dehoux, J-P; Wavreille, J; Portetelle, D; Théwis, A; Buldgen, A

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the effect of a bovine colostrum whey supplementation on growth performance, feed intake, faecal Escherichia coli population and systemic immune response of piglets at weaning. A total of 96 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were assigned for 4 weeks to one of the two treatments: (1) the control (commercial diet with bovine milk whey powder) and (2) the colostrum (commercial diet with freeze-dried bovine colostrum whey) treatments. The two supplements were incorporated in the diet at a level of 20 g/kg during the first 2 weeks after weaning and lowered to a level of 10 g/kg for the next 2 weeks. BW and feed intake were measured weekly. Faecal E. coli counts were determined weekly on specific culture media. Blood samples were collected weekly and submitted to a cell counter analyser for their main components (red and white blood cells, platelets) and flow cytometry was used to determine the lymphocyte population (B, T, Th and Tc). Finally, total seric immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG and IgA) concentrations were determined by the ELISA method. During the first week of the trial, the piglets from the colostrum treatment had improved average daily gain (170 g/day v. 81 g/day, P IgA (P = 0.03) compared with the control treatment the first week. It is concluded that a distribution of bovine colostrum whey (20 g/kg diet) during the first week post-weaning induces a systemic IgA response and has a beneficial action on growth performances and feed efficiency.

  4. Environmental Report 2000 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A H; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Larson, J M; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B; Ring Peterson, S; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Williams, R A

    2001-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 2000'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air surveillance, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  5. Environmental Report 1999 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J M; Biermann, A H; Harrach, R J; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brandstetter, E R; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Christofferson, E; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Garcia, L M; Giesing, T A; Grayson, A R; Hall, L C; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, R J; Williams, R A

    2000-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 1999'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  6. Refined biokinetic model for humans exposed to cobalt dietary supplements and other sources of systemic cobalt exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unice, Kenneth M; Kerger, Brent D; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L; Tvermoes, Brooke E

    2014-06-05

    An updated biokinetic model for human exposures to cobalt (Co) was developed based on a comprehensive set of human pharmacokinetics data collected from five male and five female volunteers who ingested ∼1 mg Co/day of a Co supplement for 3 months. Three key experimental observations from the human dosing studies were incorporated into the model: (1) an increase in the measured fraction of large molecular serum protein bound Co from 95% during dosing to 99% after dosing; (2) a linear decrease in Co red blood cell concentration after dosing; and (3) Co renal clearance consistent with estimated glomerular filtration rates and free Co²⁺ concentration. The model was refined by adding compartments accounting for (1) albumin bound Co in intravascular fluid (serum); (2) albumin bound Co in extravascular fluid with physiologic exchange rates of albumin bound Co between extravascular and intravascular fluid; and (3) a novel sequential cascade of compartments representing red blood cell ages between 1 and 120 days. Reasonable agreement between the modeled and measured urine, serum, and whole blood concentrations were observed (r>0.84, slope=0.79-1.0) with gastrointestinal absorption rates between 9% and 66%. In addition, model predictions agreed well with data from several external studies representing healthy human volunteers, dialysis patients, anephric patients, a Co-poisoning incident and whole body retention studies. Our revised model considerably improves the state of knowledge on human Co kinetics, and should be helpful for evaluating elevated blood Co concentrations in currently exposed populations, such as metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implant patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Development and evaluation of an internet-based educational system about herbs and dietary supplements through periodical distribution of information to health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Yasuko; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2009-06-01

    Herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) are widely used, and health professionals are in an ideal position to educate patients about them. However, it is sometimes difficult to evaluate their risks and benefits with limited information and what is worse, many health professionals in Japan are unconcerned with HDS. Therefore, we aimed to develop an internet-based educational system to periodically provide information about HDS to medical doctors and pharmacists in order to increase their awareness. Monographs about selected HDS, accompanied with educational quizzes, were prepared to meet pharmacists' needs. Examples of clinical Q&A cases about drug interactions involving HDS were prepared. The material was distributed weekly to registered health professionals by e-mail and via WWW pages. Two hundred and forty-four health professionals evaluated the system by questionnaire. The questionnaire results revealed that 1) more than 75% of responders evaluated the system as useful, 2) compilation of information into educational quizzes and cases encouraged health professionals to learn about HDS with less difficulty, and 3) e-mails led them to learn periodically and to be more concerned about the safety of HDS. In conclusion, the developed information system for HDS was proved to be useful and should serve to improve the understanding of health professionals about this issue.

  8. Milk supplemented with immune colostrum: protection against rotavirus diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves experimentally challenged with bovine rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreño, V; Marcoppido, G; Vega, C; Garaicoechea, L; Rodriguez, D; Saif, L; Fernández, F

    2010-07-01

    Group A bovine rotavirus (BRV) is the major cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide. As a preventive strategy, we evaluated the protection and immunomodulation in two groups of BRV-inoculated calves. All calves received control colostrum (CC; VN=65,536; IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure followed by the milk supplemented with immune colostrum (VN=1,048,576; IgG(1)=262,144), twice a day, for 14 days. Calves received milk supplemented with 0.8% immune colostrum [(Gp 1) VN=16,384; IgG(1)=4096] or milk supplemented with 0.4% immune colostrum [(Gp 2) VN=1024; IgG(1)=1024]. Calves receiving CC or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4). Calves were inoculated with virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Group 1 calves (milk IgG(1) 4096) showed 80% protection against BRV diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. At 21 post-inoculation days (PID), the antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses of Gp 1 calves were limited mainly to duodenal and jejunal lamina propria (LP) with limited or no responses in systemic sites (spleen and PBL) and mesenteric lymph nodes. The profile of serum and fecal Ab responses as well as the ASC responses was also modulated by the presence of passive IgG(1) Abs and probably other colostrum components, toward higher titers of IgA Ab in serum and feces and a greater number of IgA ASC in the proximal intestine, reflecting positive modulation by colostrum toward this isotype associated with optimal protection of the intestinal mucosa. After challenge, at PID 21, all calves in Gp 1 and 2 were fully protected against diarrhea and only 1 of 5 calves in Gp 1 shed virus asymptomatically, indicating that the passive Ab treatment for 14 days was effective in protecting most of the animals after a first and a second virus exposure. The final outcome was a positive modulation of the mucosal immune responses and a high protection rate against diarrhea and virus shedding during the period of peak

  9. Protective effect of zinc supplementation against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance in the bone tissue of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M., E-mail: Malgorzata.Brzoska@umb.edu.pl; Rogalska, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    It was investigated whether protective influence of zinc (Zn) against cadmium (Cd)-induced disorders in bone metabolism may be related to its antioxidative properties and impact on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κΒ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Numerous indices of oxidative/antioxidative status, and Cd and Zn were determined in the distal femur of the rats administered Zn (30 and 60 mg/l) or/and Cd (5 and 50 mg/l) for 6 months. Soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured in the bone and serum. Zn supplementation importantly protected from Cd-induced oxidative stress preventing protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation in the bone. Moreover, Zn protected from the Cd-induced increase in sRANKL concentration and the sRANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease in OPG concentration in the bone and serum. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status, concentrations of sRANKL and OPG in the bone and serum, as well as the bone concentrations of Zn and Cd, and previously reported by us in these animals (Brzóska et al., 2007) indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density. The results allow us to conclude that the ability of Zn to prevent from oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance may be implicated in the mechanisms of its protective impact against Cd-induced bone damage. This paper is the first report from an in vivo study providing evidence that beneficial Zn impact on the skeleton under exposure to Cd is related to the improvement of the bone tissue oxidative/antioxidative status and mediating the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. - Highlights: • Cd induces oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Cd disturbs bone metabolism via disorder of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system balance. • Zn supplementation protects from Cd-induced oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Zn protects from the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance caused by Cd in the bone tissue. • Enhanced Zn intake protects from Cd

  10. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Umatilla Hatchery: Task 1-Review and Evaluation of Supplemental O2 Systems, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Factory

    1991-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council has established a goal of doubling the size of salmon runs in the Columbia River Basin. The achievement of this important goal is largely dependent upon expanding the production of hatchery fish. Pure oxygen has been commonly used to increase the carrying capacity of private sector salmonid hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. The use of supplemental oxygen to increase hatchery production is significantly less expensive than the construction of new hatcheries and might save up to $500 million in construction costs.

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-151-Big Eddy-Ostrander 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Elaine [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-05-08

    Removal of danger trees along the Big Eddy-Ostrander-1 transmission line corridor. This corridor also includes segments of the Big Eddy-Troutdale, Ostrander-Troutdale, Big Eddy-McLoughlin and Bid Eddy-Chemawa transmission lines. Referencing the Big-Eddy-Ostrander-1 transmission line, the project extends from tower 39/3 to 72/2. The portion of the ROW extending from 39/3 west to 44/5+313 falls within the Zigzag Ranger District of the Mt. Hood National Forest, Clackamas County, Oregon. All work conducted within the Mt. Hood National Forest has been previously addressed in the Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-113-1) dated 12/02/2002 and will conform to the requirements therein. This Supplement Analysis evaluates that portion of the project proposed for the remainder of the transmission line corridor extending from 44/5+313 west to 72/2. BPA proposes to manually remove danger trees located along the indicated transmission line rights-of-ways that are approaching electrical clearance zones defined in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA Standards. Manual removal involves chainsaws, brush cutters, or hand tools. BPA would then treat the associated hardwood stumps with herbicides using spot and localized treatments to ensure that the roots are killed and to prevent new sprouts. Spot treatments and localized treatments consist of direct applications of herbicide to an individual target plant or small group of plants using minimal amounts of herbicide. See Section 1.1 of the attached checklist for pertinent information on each section of referenced transmission line included in the proposal.

  12. Anesthetic effectiveness of the supplemental intraligamentary injection, administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system, in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John; Claffey, Elizabeth; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic effectiveness of the supplemental intraligamentary injection, administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system, in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block failed. Fifty-four emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate to severe pain upon endodontic access. A computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system was then used to administer intraligamentary injections of 1.4 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Success of the intraligamentary injection was defined as none or mild pain upon endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The results demonstrated that anesthetic success was obtained in 56% (30 of 54) of the patients. We concluded that when the inferior alveolar nerve block failed to provide profound pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis, the intraligamentary injection administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system was successful approximately 56% of the time.

  13. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  14. Water Sensitive Urban Design: An Investigation of Current Systems, Implementation Drivers, Community Perceptions and Potential to Supplement Urban Water Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale centralised water, wastewater and stormwater systems have been implemented for over 100 years. These systems have provided a safe drinking water supply, efficient collection and disposal of wastewater to protect human health, and the mitigation of urban flood risk. The sustainability of current urban water systems is under pressure from a range of challenges which include: rapid population growth and resulting urbanisation, climate change impacts, and infrastructure that is ageing and reaching capacity constraints. To address these issues, urban water services are now being implemented with Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM and Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD approaches. WSUD systems can deliver multiple benefits including water conservation, stormwater quality improvement, flood control, landscape amenity and a healthy living environment. These systems can be provided as stand-alone systems or in combination with centralised systems. These systems are still novel and thus face knowledge gaps that are impeding their mainstream uptake. Knowledge gaps cover technical, economic, social, and institutional aspects of their implementation. This paper is based on the outcomes of a comprehensive study conducted in South Australia which investigated impediments for mainstream uptake of WSUD, community perceptions of WSUD and potential of WSUD to achieve water conservation through the application of alternative resources, and in flood management. The outcomes are discussed in this paper for the benefit of water professionals engaged with WSUD planning, implementation, community consultation and regulation. Although the paper is based on a study conducted in South Australia, the comprehensive framework developed to conduct this detailed study and investigation can be adopted in any part of the world.

  15. Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; SUN, BO; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    of dedicated flywheel energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station and compensating some of the adverse effects of high power charging is explored in this paper. Although sharing some similarities with vehicle to grid (V2G) technology, the principal advantage of this strategy is the fact that many...

  16. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  17. Role of Ginkgo Biloba Extract Supplement in Regulation of Rat Hepatic Tissue Antioxidant System after Chronic Ethanol Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚平; 宋方方; 周绍良; 李柯; 孙秀发; 刘烈刚

    2004-01-01

    THE FORMATION OF REACTIVE oxygen spe-cies (ROS) is a naturally occurring intracellular meta-bolic process. These harmful species are known tocause oxidative damage to a number of moleculesin cells, including membrane lipids, proteins, andnucleic acids.1 The potential harmful effects of thesespecies are controlled by the cellular antioxidant de-fense system.2 In addition, antioxidant enzymes, suchas superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glu-tathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathionereductase, are essen...

  18. Influence of Iron Supplementation on DMT1 (IRE)-induced Transport of Lead by Brain Barrier Systems in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Dai Zhi; AI Jun Tao; FANG Hong Juan; SUN Ru Bao; SHI Yun; WANG Li Li; WANG Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential involvement of DMT1 (IRE) protein in the brain vascular system in vivo during Pb exposure. Methods Three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the same time, the group only supplied with high Fe was also set as a reference. The animals were decapitated, then brain capillary-rich fraction was isolate from cerebral cortex. Western blot method was used to identify protein expression, and RT-PCR to detect the change of the mRNA. Results Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in cerebral cortex. Low Fe dose significantly reduced the cortex Pb levels, However, high Fe dose increased the cortex Pb levels. Interestingly, changes of DMT1 (IRE) protein in brain capillary-rich fraction were highly related to the Pb level, but those of DMT1 (IRE) mRNA were not significantly different. Moreover, the consistent changes in the levels of p-ERK1/2 or IRP1 with the changes in the levels of DMT1 (IRE). Conclusion These results suggest that Pb is transported into the brain through DMT1 (IRE), and the ERK MAPK pathway is involved in DMT1 (IRE)-mediated transport regulation in brain vascular system in vivo.

  19. Impact of venous systemic oxygen persufflation supplemented with nitric oxide gas on cold-stored, warm ischemia-damaged experimental liver grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Pramod Kadaba; Yagi, Shintaro; Doorschodt, Benedict; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Afify, Mamdouh; Uemoto, Shinji; Tolba, Rene

    2012-02-01

    The increasing shortage of donor organs has led to the increasing use of organs from non-heart-beating donors. We aimed to assess the impact of venous systemic oxygen persufflation (VSOP) supplemented with nitric oxide (NO) gas during the cold storage (CS) of warm ischemia (WI)-damaged experimental liver grafts. Rat livers (n = 5 per group) were retrieved after 30 minutes of WI induced by cardiac arrest (the WI group) and were thereafter preserved for 24 hours by CS in histidine tryptophan ketoglutarate solution. During CS, gaseous oxygen was insufflated via the caval vein with 40 ppm NO (the VSOP-NO group) or without NO (the VSOP group). Cold-stored livers without WI served as controls. Liver viability was assessed after the preservation period by normothermic isolated reperfusion for 45 minutes with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer. After 45 minutes of reperfusion, the VSOP-NO-treated livers showed significantly lower alanine aminotransferase values than the WI-damaged livers (10.2 ± 0.2 versus 78.2 ± 14.6 IU/L), whereas the control livers showed no differences from the VSOP-NO-treated livers. The mitochondrial enzyme release was lower in the VSOP-NO group (4.0 ± 0.7 IU/L) versus the WI group (18.2 ± 4.9 IU/L). An increased portal vein pressure was observed throughout reperfusion (45 minutes) in the WI group (21.7 ± 0.2 mm Hg) versus the VSOP-NO group (12.2 ± 0.8 mm Hg) and the control group (19.9 ± 0.4 mm Hg). Furthermore, the NO concentration in the perfusate after 5 minutes of reperfusion was highest in the VSOP-NO group. The release of malondialdehyde into the perfusate was significantly reduced in the VSOP-NO group (0.9 ± 0.1 nmol/mL) versus the WI group (31.3 ± 5.3 nmol/mL). In conclusion, the resuscitation of livers after 30 minutes of WI to a level comparable to that of nonischemically damaged livers is possible with VSOP supplemented with NO gas. Moreover, the application of VSOP with NO minimizes the extent of injuries caused by oxygen free

  20. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  1. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...

  2. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  3. The Euro 6 engines in the modular diesel engine system of Volkswagen; Die Euro-6-Motoren des modularen Dieselbaukastens von Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Kahrstedt, Joern; Dorenkamp, Richard; Jelden, Hanno [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Following the introduction of the Euro 5 engines in the Volkswagen modular diesel engine system, the next step will be to implement additional internal engine measures and to integrate the deNO{sub x} exhaust emissions aftertreatment for Euro 6 engines. The modular basis was already designed with the additional engine measures in mind and also permits the choice of using the NO{sub x} storage catalytic converter or SCR technology. (orig.)

  4. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  5. Systems and methods to reduce reductant consumption in exhaust aftertreament systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2017-02-14

    Systems, apparatus and methods are provided for reducing reductant consumption in an exhaust aftertreatment system that includes a first SCR device and a downstream second SCR device, a first reductant injector upstream of the first SCR device, and a second reductant injector between the first and second SCR devices. NOx conversion occurs with reductant injection by the first reductant injector to the first SCR device in a first temperature range and with reductant injection by the second reductant injector to the second SCR device when the temperature of the first SCR device is above a reductant oxidation conversion threshold.

  6. Systems and methods to reduce reductant consumption in exhaust aftertreament systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2017-02-14

    Systems, apparatus and methods are provided for reducing reductant consumption in an exhaust aftertreatment system that includes a first SCR device and a downstream second SCR device, a first reductant injector upstream of the first SCR device, and a second reductant injector between the first and second SCR devices. NOx conversion occurs with reductant injection by the first reductant injector to the first SCR device in a first temperature range and with reductant injection by the second reductant injector to the second SCR device when the temperature of the first SCR device is above a reductant oxidation conversion threshold.

  7. Supplements for exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.

  8. Specialty Engineering Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING SPECIALTY ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...IS UNLIMITED 1 Tailoring of IEEE 15288.1: Specialty Engineering Supplement. 1. Intent of this Tailoring Document This tailoring document is...historically deemed valuable to mission assurance/success of high-reliability space systems. This tailoring document supplements IEEE 15288.1-2015 Annex E

  9. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  10. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements to be proven safe to FDA's satisfaction before they are marketed. For most claims made ... the manufacturer or seller to prove to FDA's satisfaction that the claim is accurate or truthful before ...

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  12. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  13. Herbal Products and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs ... not work the way it should. For example, St. John's wort reduces the amount of certain drugs absorbed by ...

  14. Folate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy has long-term effects on the attention system of 8.5-y-old offspring: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Andrés; Muñoz-Machicao, J Angela; Torres-Espínola, Francisco J; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Gil, Angel; Haile, Gudrun; Györei, Eszter; Molloy, Anne M; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    During fetal and perinatal periods, many nutrients, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [contained in fish oil (FO)] and folate, are important in achieving normal brain development. Several studies have shown the benefits of early nutrition on children's neurocognitive development. However, the evidence with regard to the attention system is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term effects of FO, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), or FO+5-MTHF prenatal supplementation on attention networks. Participants were 136 children born to mothers from the NUHEAL (Nutraceuticals for a Healthy Life) project (randomly assigned to receive FO and/or 5-MTHF or placebo prenatal supplementation) who were recalled for a new examination 8.5 y later. The response conflict-resolution ability (using congruent and incongruent conditions)), alerting, and spatial orienting of attention were evaluated with behavioral measures (Attention Network Test), electroencephalography/event-related potentials (ERPs), and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Children born to mothers supplemented with 5-MTHF alone solved the response conflict more quickly than did the placebo and the FO+5-MTHF groups (all P ERP amplitudes for the conflict conditions were also observed. sLORETA analysis showed higher activation of the right midcingulate cortex for the incongruent condition. In addition, a significant slowing down of response speed depending on the warning cue in the 5-MTHF and FO groups was observed. Folate supplementation during pregnancy, rather than FO or FO+5-MTHF supplementation, improves children's ability to solve response conflicts. This advantage seems to be based on the higher activation of the midcingulate cortex, indicating that early nutrition influences the functionality of specific brain areas involved in executive functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01180933. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  16. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  17. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue her

  18. Long-term changes in brain cholinergic system and behavior in rats following gestational exposure to lead: protective effect of calcium supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Chand D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6–21 of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure. Male offspring treated with Pb showed marginal alterations in developmental landmarks such as unfolding of pinnae, lower and upper incisor eruption, fur development, eye slit formation and eye opening on postnatal day (PND 1, whereas significant alterations were found in the righting reflex (PNDs 4–7, slant board behavior (PNDs 8–10 and forelimb hang performance (PNDs 12–16. Biochemical analysis showed decrease in synaptosomal acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and an increase in acetylcholine (ACh levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus on PND 14, PND 21, PND 28 and in the four-month age group of rats following Pb exposure. Significant deficits were also observed in total locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and open field behavior in selected age groups of Pb-exposed rats. These alterations were found to be maximal on PND 28, corresponding with the greater blood lead levels observed on PND 28. Addition of 0.02% Ca to Pb reversed the Pb-induced impairments in the cholinergic system as well as in behavioral parameters of rats. In conclusion, these data suggest that gestational exposure to Pb is able to induce long-term changes in neurological functions of offspring. Maternal Ca administration reversed these neurological effects of Pb later in life, suggesting a protective effect of

  19. Corrigendum to "A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system" [Energy 73, (2014), 110-125], doi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Mathiesen, B. V.; Ridjan, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we give the following corrigendum to the original paper, “A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system” [1], to correct some typos and a figure which could mislead the readers: • Firstly, the incorr...

  20. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  1. Computer aided engineering in exhaust aftertreatment sytems design. Part 2: Diesel engines; Computergestuetzter Entwurf von Abgas-Nachbehandlungskonzepten. Teil 2: Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelos, A.M.; Koltsakis, G.C.; Kandylas, I.P. [Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of diesel engines, there is growing interest in CAE methods for low-emission concepts, as newly developed mathematical models become more and more efficient. The design of diesel exhaust systems must take three general concepts into account: the oxidation catalyst, the particulate filter and the DeNO{sub x} catalyst. A CAE methodology developed at the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece, to aid engineers in designing exhaust systems is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the following computational tools: a transient exhaust system heat transfer code, a transient oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converter code, a catalyst kinetics database for the various types of oxidation and DeNO{sub x} catalytic converters and a computational tool for calculating the loading and regeneration of diesel filters with and without catalytic support. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Bereich der Dieselmotoren nimmt das Interesse an computergestuetzten CAE-Methoden fuer Niedrigemissionskonzepte zu, da neu entwickelte mathematische Modelle immer leistungsfaehiger werden. Der Entwurf von Dieselabgassystemen muss drei allgemeine Konzepte beruecksichtigen: Oxidationskatalysator, Partikelfilter und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysator. Eine an der Aristoteles Universitaet Thessaloniki, Griechenland, entwickelte computergestuetzte Methode, die den Entwurf von Abgassystemen unterstuetzten kann, wird im Folgenden dargestellt. Die Methode basiert auf folgenden Rechenmodellen: ein Modell zur Berechnung des Waermeuebergangs im Abgassystem, ein Rechenmodell zur Bestimmung des Instationaerverhaltens des Oxidations- und des DeNO{sub x}-Katalysators, eine Datenbank mit den chemischen Kinetikdaten fuer die verschiedenen Typen von Oxidations- und DeNO{sub x}-Katalysatoren sowie ein Rechenmodell zur Berechnung der Beladung und Regenerierung von Dieselfiltern mit oder ohne katalytische Unterstuetzung. (orig.)

  2. Smartphone-based support system (SoberDiary) coupled with a Bluetooth breathalyser for treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chuang-Wen; Chen, Yen-Chang; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Lee, Chao-Hui; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chu, Hao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Relapse prevention in patients with alcohol dependence (AD) has long been a clinical challenge. It is vital to provide services with minial restrictions for patients to have access to continuous after-treatment care. The study was aimed to examine the benefits of a smartphone application (SoberDiary) coupled to a Bluetooth breathalyser to assist patients recovering from alcohol dependence (AD). This study recruited 38 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for AD and who were undergoing an outpatient maintenance program for abstinence. The participants were provided a breathalyser and smartphone-equipped SoberDiary and followed for 12weeks. The participants were divided into highly adherent (HA) and less adherent (LA) groups according to the medium number of reward points they were awarded for using the SoberDiary system throughout the follow-up period based on the average amount of time spent on using the application, the number of function modules they accessed, and the number of BrAC tests they completed each day. 19 of the patients were classified as HA and 19 patients were classified as LA group. Members of the HA group recorded fewer drinking days and drinks consumed per week, a higher cumulative number of abstinence days, a higher abstinence rate, less pronounced anxiety, and superior quality of life. The proposed smartphone-assisted support system coupled with a Bluetooth breathalyser might be a feasible supplement to conventional treatment for AD. Higher SoberDiary compliance appears to be associated with better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  4. The effect of Vitamin D supplementation in disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with Vitamin D deficiency: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Hadi; Shirzadi, Mohammad; Karimifar, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of Vitamin D supplementation on the disease activity of Vitamin D-deficient systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 45 Vitamin D-deficient SLE patients were studied in two groups, namely interventional and placebo groups. The interventional group patients were treated with Vitamin D (50,000 unit/weekly Vitamin D for 12 weeks and then 50,000 unit/monthly for 3 months) and placebo group patients were only administered the placebo. The level of Vitamin D and the level of disease activity using SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) were measured before and after intervention period in each group, and for intra- and between-groups comparison, we used t-test and repeated measure ANOVA. Results: A total of 90 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean of Vitamin D was increased significantly after therapy in interventional group (17.36 ± 4.26 ng/ml vs. 37.69 ± 5.92 ng/ml, P < 0.001). The mean of Vitamin D had no significant difference before and after intervention in placebo group (16.78 ± 4.39 ng/ml vs. 16.62 ± 4.61 ng/ml, P = 0.53). The mean of disease activity (SLEDAI) was not different significantly before and after Vitamin D administration in interventional group (3.09 vs. 1.62 ± 1.25, P = 0.39). The mean of disease activity (SLEDAI) was not different significantly before and after intervention in placebo group (3.09 vs. 1.98 ± 2.47, P = 0.42). Conclusion: According to our study, it is suggested that using Vitamin D in patients with SLE could not have better outcomes in this regard. However, there are many unknown environmental or biological factors which are associated with the disease activity of SLE and have not been identified yet.

  5. Supplements and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality.

  6. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  7. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust due to the inhibiting effect of excess oxygen. In this study, a novel electrochemical deNOx system was developed, which eliminated the need for additional reducing materials or a sophisticated controlling system as used...... in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...

  8. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  10. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marianne E; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H; Siegfried, Nandi

    2017-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. Objectives To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women). Search methods We performed literature searches from January 2010 to 18 November 2016 for new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplements since the previous review included all trials identified from searches prior to 2010. We searched the CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), Embase, and PubMed databases. Also we checked the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers. We also checked the reference lists of all new included trials. Selection criteria We included RCTs that compared supplements that contained either single, dual, or multiple micronutrients with placebo, no treatment, or other supplements. We excluded studies that were primarily designed to investigate the role of micronutrients for the treatment of HIV-positive participants with metabolic morbidity related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, morbidity, and disease progression. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and appraised trial quality for risk of bias. Where possible, we presented results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, as hazard ratios (HRs) for time-to-event data, and as mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Since we were often unable to pool the outcome

  11. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  12. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  13. Optimal Timing for Venous Systemic Oxygen Persufflation Supplemented with Nitric Oxide Gas in Cold-Stored, Warm Ischemia-Damaged Experimental Liver Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porschen, Anne; Kadaba Srinivasan, Pramod; Iwasaki, Junji; Afify, Mamdouh; Tolba, René H

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide shortage of donor organs has increased the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD). The aim of this study was to analyze the best time point for venous systemic oxygen persufflation (VSOP) supplemented with nitric oxide (NO) gas during the 1st and 24th hour of cold storage (CS) in warm ischemia (WI)-damaged experimental liver grafts. Liver grafts (n = 5) were retrieved after 30 min of WI induced by cardiac arrest and CS in histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution at 4°C. The 1st hour group was immediately persufflated with a VSOP plus NO (VSOP+NO) mixture for 1 h followed by 23 h of static CS (DCD+NO 1st hour). The 24th hour group entailed CS for 23 h followed by 1 h of VSOP+NO persufflation (DCD+NO 24th hour). CS livers without WI but with VSOP served as controls. CS livers with WI represented the fourth group (DCD). Viability of the liver grafts was assessed by normothermic isolated reperfusion for 45 min with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Data are presented as mean ± SEM (control vs. DCD vs. DCD+NO 1st hour vs. DCD+NO 24th hour). After 45 min of reperfusion, the DCD+NO 1st hour group showed significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase (13.4 ± 5.3, 63.2 ± 17.3, 25.6 ± 3.9, and 82.8 ± 27.3 U/l) and lactate dehydrogenase levels (289.4 ± 41.2, 2,139.4 ± 542.7, 577.2 ± 117.2, and 2,429 ± 221.6 U/l). Malondialdehyde levels were significantly abrogated (1.0 ± 0.3, 2.7 ± 1, 1.0 ± 0, and 3.9 ± 1.2 nmol/ml). Significantly higher levels of portal venous pressure were recorded in the DCD+NO 24th hour group (12.0 ± 1, 21.2 ± 3.1, 16.1 ± 1, and 23.2 ± 3.5 mm Hg). NO levels were recorded after 5 min of reperfusion (1.42 ± 0.17, 1.8 ± 0.2, 2.7 ± 0.2, and 2.6 ± 0.1 μmol/l). Bile production levels showed no statistical significance (23.2 ± 3.8, 27.3 ± 1.8, 43.5 ± 18, and 31 ± 2.5 μl/45 min). Our results present the beneficial effects of NO combined with VSOP during the 1st hour of CS of WI-damaged experimental liver grafts.

  14. SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  15. 48 CFR 252.231-7000 - Supplemental cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles. 252.231-7000 Section 252.231-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.231-7000 Supplemental cost principles. As prescribed in 231.100-70, use the following clause: Supplemental Cost Principles (DEC 1991) When the allowability of costs...

  16. Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental

  17. 5 CFR 842.504 - Amount of annuity supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Annuity Supplement § 842.504 Amount..., excluding military service not performed during an absence of leave without pay from civilian service... with the year in which the annuity supplement commences; (ii) For an employee or Member who...

  18. Changes in the vitamin D endocrine system and bone turnover after oral vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: results of a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holvik Kristin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is uncertainty as to which intake of vitamin D is needed to suppress PTH and maintain normal bone metabolism throughout winter at northern latitudes. We aimed to investigate whether four weeks’ daily supplementation with 10 μg vitamin D3 from fish oil produced a greater change in serum vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover in healthy adults compared with solid multivitamin tablets. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, gender, ethnic background, body mass index, or serum concentrations at baseline predicted the magnitude of change in these parameters. Methods Healthy adults aged 19–48 years living in Oslo, Norway (59°N were randomised to receive a daily dose of 10 μg vitamin D3 given as fish oil capsules or multivitamin tablets during four weeks in late winter. Serum samples from baseline and after 28 days were analysed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH2D, intact parathyroid hormone (s-iPTH, and osteoclast-specific tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (s-TRACP. Fifty-five eligible participants completed the intervention (74% of those randomised. Results S-25(OHD increased by mean 34.1 (SD 13.1 nmol/l, p 2D increased by mean 13 (SD 48 pmol/l, p = 0.057; and s-TRACP increased by mean 0.38 (SD 0.33 U/l, p  Conclusions Four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 μg vitamin D3 decreased mean s-iPTH and increased s-TRACP concentration, and this did not differ by mode of administration. Our results suggest an increased bone resorption following vitamin D supplementation in young individuals, despite a decrease in parathyroid hormone levels. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01482689

  19. Growth performance of pigs fed diets with and without tylosin phosphate supplementation and reared in a biosecure all-in all-out housing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lunen, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    Three hundred and eighty-four pigs, mean initial live weight of 20.8 kg, were assigned randomly to groups of 24 (12 females, 12 castrated males). Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments consisting of the same commercial barley-based diet, with or without the addition of tylosin phosphate. The barn where the animals were housed operates as an all-in all-out facility, and all pigs arrived on the same day as part of a group of 960 pigs. No new pigs were introduced into the facility during the period of this trial and pigs were sent to market over a 4-week period upon achieving a live weight of 110 kg. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the trial and when they left the facility for slaughter. Feed consumption and incidence of disease, mortality, or both were recorded daily. At slaughter, carcass backfat depth over the last rib, 6.5 cm ventral to the dorsal midline (P-2 site); loin depth; carcass weight; predicted lean yield; and grade index were recorded. The sow herd supplying pigs to the unit was known to be free of the major swine diseases such as swine influenza, mycoplasma pneumonia, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), necroproliferative enteritis, and ascarids. A strict biosecurity protocol was employed to minimize the risk of introducing disease organisms into the unit. Prior to this study, no subtherapeutic antibiotics had been used in this facility. Tylosin phosphate supplementation had no significant effect on final weight, days on test, total gain, and daily gain. In both treatments, the pigs reached a mean market weight of 110.2 kg within 94.1 days, resulting in daily gains of the order of 950 grams per day. Due to the design of the trial, it was difficult to measure significant feed consumption effects. Feed consumption and conversion appeared to be similar for pigs in both treatment groups. At slaughter, tylosin phosphate supplementation appeared to significantly increase lean muscle content of the carcass as

  20. Effects of low protein diet supplemented with ketoacids on local renin-angiotensin system enzyme activities and podocytes loss in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷立杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids on podocytes as well as local RAS in the kidney of patients with diabetic nephropathy.Methods A total of 61 patients with T2DN and CKD stages 3-4 were included.All the patients were randomly divided into two groups:low protein group(0.6g·kg BW-1·d-1and 30 kcal·kg BW-1·d-1,LPD)

  1. Effect of amino acid supplementation on titer and glycosylation distribution in hybridoma cell cultures-Systems biology-based interpretation using genome-scale metabolic flux balance model and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimonn, Thomas M; Park, Seo-Young; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Brorson, Kurt A; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Genome-scale flux balance analysis (FBA) is a powerful systems biology tool to characterize intracellular reaction fluxes during cell cultures. FBA estimates intracellular reaction rates by optimizing an objective function, subject to the constraints of a metabolic model and media uptake/excretion rates. A dynamic extension to FBA, dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA), can calculate intracellular reaction fluxes as they change during cell cultures. In a previous study by Read et al. (2013), a series of informed amino acid supplementation experiments were performed on twelve parallel murine hybridoma cell cultures, and this data was leveraged for further analysis (Read et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2013;29:745-753). In order to understand the effects of media changes on the model murine hybridoma cell line, a systems biology approach is applied in the current study. Dynamic flux balance analysis was performed using a genome-scale mouse metabolic model, and multivariate data analysis was used for interpretation. The calculated reaction fluxes were examined using partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results indicate media supplementation increases product yield because it raises nutrient levels extending the growth phase, and the increased cell density allows for greater culture performance. At the same time, the directed supplementation does not change the overall metabolism of the cells. This supports the conclusion that product quality, as measured by glycoform assays, remains unchanged because the metabolism remains in a similar state. Additionally, the DFBA shows that metabolic state varies more at the beginning of the culture but less by the middle of the growth phase, possibly due to stress on the cells during inoculation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1163-1173, 2016.

  2. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  3. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  4. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  5. Modelling Supplementation Strategies for Beef Steer Rearing and Fattening Systems in Southern Chile Modelación de Estrategias de Suplementación en la Recría y Engorda de Novillos en el Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to analyze beef production systems in Southern Chile. The study considered the identification of the main components of systems under different beef steer management strategies, using pasture with or without supplementation and back grounding cattle on pasture followed by a winter period of confined feeding with pasture silage and concentrates. Validation of model outputs using 200 kg LW Hereford steers against real experimental data showed no significant differences (P ≥ 0.01 between simulated and observed final weights. In order to analyze the interaction between the stocking rate (SR and supplementation, three SR of 2, 2.5 and 3 steers ha-1 with and without pasture silage supplementation at the rate of 5 kg DMd-1 steer-1 for the length of the entire period were simulated. Means were compared by the least significant difference (LSD, P ≤ 0.05. Significant differences were found in terms of final weights, which decreased with increasing SR regardless of the supplementation level, although silage supplementation tended to reduce differences between SR. A second set of simulation runs was carried out to simulate on-farm finishing of the steers through a final phase of confined feeding based on a ration of silage and concentrates. Final weights differed between SR and systems and results showed that the optimum corresponded to 2.5 steers ha-1, since at this SR the largest income corresponded to the smallest mean cost. It is concluded that a stocking rate of 2.5 steers ha-1 is feasible if winter supplementation is available, independently of a finishing period in feedlot.Un modelo matemático fue desarrollado para analizar sistemas de producción de carne bovina en el Sur de Chile. El estudio consideró la identificación de los componentes en diferentes estrategias usadas en novillos de carne, usando praderas con y sin suplementación y la recría seguida por una engorda a corral en invierno con ensilaje de

  6. Effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation in high-fat fed mice on lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ system in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Chantal; Pignalosa, Angelica; Wanecq, Estelle; Rancoule, Chloé; Batut, Aurélie; Deleruyelle, Simon; Lionetti, Lillà; Valet, Philippe; Castan-Laurell, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has beneficial effects on obesity and associated disorders. Apelin, the ligand of APJ receptor also exerts insulin-sensitizing effects especially by improving muscle metabolism. EPA has been shown to increase apelin production in adipose tissue but its effects in muscle have not been addressed. Thus, the effects of EPA supplementation (36 g/kg EPA) in high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat, 20% protein, 35% carbohydrate) were studied in mice with focus on muscle lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ expression. Compared with HFD mice, HFD+EPA mice had significantly less weight gain, fat mass, lower blood glucose, insulinemia and hepatic steatosis after 10 weeks of diet. In addition, EPA prevented muscle metabolism alterations since intramuscular triglycerides were decreased and β-oxidation increased. In soleus muscles of HFD+EPA mice, apelin and APJ expression were significantly increased compared to HFD mice. However, plasma apelin concentrations in HFD and HFD+EPA mice were similar. EPA-induced apelin expression was confirmed in differentiated C2C12 myocytes but in this model, apelin secretion was also increased in response to EPA treatment. In conclusion, EPA supplementation in HFD prevents obesity and metabolic alterations in mice, especially in skeletal muscle. Since EPA increases apelin/APJ expression in muscle, apelin may act in a paracrine/autocrine manner to contribute to these benefical effects.

  7. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Chiara; Mikhal'chik, Elena V; Suprun, Maxim V; Papacharalambous, Michael; Truhanov, Arseniy I; Korkina, Liudmila G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, development and research of nutraceuticals based on marine collagen peptides (MCPs) have been growing due to their high homology with human collagens, safety, bioavailability through gut, and numerous bioactivities. The major concern regarding safety of MCPs intake relates to increased risk of oxidative stress connected with collagen synthesis (likewise in fibrosis) and to ROS production by MCPs-stimulated phagocytes. In this clinical-laboratory study, fish skin MCPs combined with plant-derived skin-targeting antioxidants (AO) (coenzyme Q10 + grape-skin extract + luteolin + selenium) were administered to volunteers (n = 41). Skin properties (moisture, elasticity, sebum production, and biological age) and ultrasonic markers (epidermal/dermal thickness and acoustic density) were measured thrice (2 months before treatment and before and after cessation of 2-month oral intake). The supplementation remarkably improved skin elasticity, sebum production, and dermal ultrasonic markers. Metabolic data showed significant increase of plasma hydroxyproline and ATP storage in erythrocytes. Redox parameters, GSH/coenzyme Q10 content, and GPx/GST activities were unchanged, while NO and MDA were moderately increased within, however, normal range of values. Conclusions. A combination of MCPs with skin-targeting AOs could be effective and safe supplement to improve skin properties without risk of oxidative damage.

  8. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Luca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development and research of nutraceuticals based on marine collagen peptides (MCPs have been growing due to their high homology with human collagens, safety, bioavailability through gut, and numerous bioactivities. The major concern regarding safety of MCPs intake relates to increased risk of oxidative stress connected with collagen synthesis (likewise in fibrosis and to ROS production by MCPs-stimulated phagocytes. In this clinical-laboratory study, fish skin MCPs combined with plant-derived skin-targeting antioxidants (AO (coenzyme Q10 + grape-skin extract + luteolin + selenium were administered to volunteers (n=41. Skin properties (moisture, elasticity, sebum production, and biological age and ultrasonic markers (epidermal/dermal thickness and acoustic density were measured thrice (2 months before treatment and before and after cessation of 2-month oral intake. The supplementation remarkably improved skin elasticity, sebum production, and dermal ultrasonic markers. Metabolic data showed significant increase of plasma hydroxyproline and ATP storage in erythrocytes. Redox parameters, GSH/coenzyme Q10 content, and GPx/GST activities were unchanged, while NO and MDA were moderately increased within, however, normal range of values. Conclusions. A combination of MCPs with skin-targeting AOs could be effective and safe supplement to improve skin properties without risk of oxidative damage.

  9. The Structure Characteristics and Diagnostic Test of Supplemental Restraint System on BENZ Car%奔驰轿车辅助防护系统的结构特点与诊断测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒华; 董宏国; 张煜; 刘磊

    2001-01-01

    The supplemental restraint system on BENZ car is composed of safety air bag system and safety belt retractor system.This paper introduces the structure characteristics,working principle and control circuit and expounds the fault code reading and delating methods.%奔驰轿车装备的辅助防护系统由安全气囊系统和座椅安全带收紧系统2部分组成,介绍了其结构特点、工作原理及控制电路,阐述了读取与清除故障代码的诊断测试方法。

  10. Efficacy of supplementation in Filipino children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Marie S Tayao

    2015-01-01

    , with the level progression statistically significant. Conclusion: Overall, the results were statistically significant in terms of RBC count alone. Therefore, this study demonstrated that compliance with intake of supplementation is a factor in improving the hematological parameters of these subjects. To address iron deficiency anemia, a similar endeavor may establish a system of support in Lingap Center to ensure the screening and therapeutic management of this population.

  11. Efeitos da suplementação com zinco sobre o crescimento, sistema imunológico e diabetes Zinc supplementation and its effects on growth, immune system, and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Cavalcanti Maurício de Sena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O zinco apresenta funções catalíticas, estruturais e reguladoras, sendo componente de várias enzimas. Os sintomas observados na deficiência deste elemento incluem lesões de pele, anorexia, retardo do crescimento, hipogonadismo e alteração na função imune. O objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar as funções metabólicas e funcionais do zinco, enfatizando as conseqüências da deficiência e os aspectos que justificam os estudos envolvendo a suplementação com zinco e seus efeitos sobre o crescimento, sistema imunológico e diabetes. Considerando que algumas doenças predispõem o organismo à deficiência de zinco, a suplementação, isoladamente ou associada a outros elementos, demonstra benefícios, especialmente no aumento da velocidade de crescimento, funcionamento do sistema imunológico, diminuição das afecções respiratórias e controle das diarréias. A suplementação em pacientes com diabetes está relacionada com as variáveis do controle metabólico e as concentrações plasmáticas e eritrocitárias de zinco. As estratégias de suplementação com zinco, em populações de risco, devem ser implementadas, considerando-se as doses adequadas de ingestão.Zinc has catalytic, structural and regulatory functions and is a component of many enzymes. Skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, hypogonadism, immune suppression function are the symptoms caused by zinc deficiency. This review aims to present the structural and metabolic zinc functions, emphasising the consequences of zinc deficiency and the aspects that justify the studies on zinc supplementation, affecting growth, immune system and diabetes. Considering that some diseases predispose the organism to zinc deficiency, supplementation, either in isolation or in conjunction with other elements, demonstrates benefits, specifically in improved growth rate, immune system function, reduced respiratory infections and diarrhoea control. In diabetic patients, zinc

  12. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Supplemental neutron-induced interactions (Z less than or equal to 35): graphical, experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; MacGregor, M.H.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    This report (Vol. 8) presents graphs of supplemental neutron-induced cross sections in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976. It consists of interactions where more than one data set is needed to show cross-section behavior. In contrast, Vol. 7 of this UCRL-50400 series consists primarily of interactions where a single data set contains enough points to show cross-section behavior. In Vol. 7 can be found the total, elastic, capture, and fission cross sections (along with the parameters anti ..nu.., ..cap alpha.., and eta). Volume 8 contains all other reactions. Data are plotted with associated cross-section error bars (when given) and compared with the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) as of July 4, 1976. The plots are arranged in ascending order of atomic number (Z) and atomic weight (A). Part A contains the plots for Z = 1 to 35; Part B contains the plots for Z greater than 35.

  13. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Supplemental neutron-induced interactions (Z > 35): graphical, experimental data. [61,671 data points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; MacGregor, M.H.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    This report (vol. 8) presents graphs of supplemental neutron-induced cross sections in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976. It consists of interactions where more than one data set is needed to show cross-section behavior. In contrast, vol. 7 of this UCRL-50400 series consists primarily of interactions where a single data set contains enough points to show cross-section behavior. Vol. 7 contains total, elastic, capture, and fission cross sections (along with the parameters anti ..nu.., ..cap alpha.., and eta). Volume 8 contains all other reactions. Data are plotted with associated cross-section error bars (when given) and compared with the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) as of July 4, 1976. The plots are arranged in ascending order of atomic number (Z) and atomic weight (A). Part A contains the plots for Z = 1 to 35; Part B contains the plots for Z greater than 35.

  14. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes....

  15. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  16. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  17. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stuart R. [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2013-11-25

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  18. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-30

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  20. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  1. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  2. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  3. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Novel Probiotic Bacteria Bacillus vireti 01 on Antioxidant Defence System of Freshwater Prawn Challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya Hindu, S; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Thomas, John

    2017-08-23

    The aim of the present work was to isolate probiotic bacteria from the intestinal tract of healthy freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and to examine the effect of the isolated probiotic Bacillus vireti 01 in controlling Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. This is probably the first report on the isolation of probiotic B. vireti 01 from the intestine of M. rosenbergii. The compounds present in B. vireti 01 were identified using GC-MS analysis. The effect of B. vireti 01-incorporated diet on survival and antioxidant enzymes was studied in M. rosenbergii for 2 weeks. Decreased mortality was observed in M. rosenbergii which were administered with the probiotic diet compared to control diet. The antioxidant defence enzymes activities such as SOD, catalase and GSH were analysed in various organs of M. rosenbergii probiotic-treated and control groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities were considerably lowered (p < 0.01) in the muscles, hepatopancreas and gills of prawns infected by P. aeruginosa when compared to that of prawns fed with the probiotic-supplemented diet. The histopathological results suggest that the hepatopancreas, gills and muscles infected with P. aeruginosa were altered structurally. The result of the present work demonstrates that the probiotic B. vireti 01 could be used as a substitute to antibiotics for treating P. aeruginosa infection in prawns.

  4. Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) supplemented probiotic lassi prevents Shigella infiltration from epithelial barrier into systemic blood flow in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Reddi, Srinu; Yadav, Vidhu; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Singh, Ram Ran Bijoy; Kapila, Suman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate preventive role of orally administered Aloe vera supplemented probiotic lassi (APL) on Shigella dysenteriae infection in mice. At the end of experimental period (2, 5 and 7 days of challenging), different organs such as spleen, liver, small intestine, large intestine, and peritoneal fluid were collected and assessed for Shigella colonization. Secretary IgA was estimated in intestinal fluid. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. Oral administration of APL showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the Shigella counts (log cfu/mL) in all organs as compared to other treatment groups at different intervals after post feeding. Similarly, secretary IgA antibody levels (μg/mL) in intestinal fluid were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in case of APL fed mice. Further, feeding of APL also demonstrated a positive effect on different haematological parameters viz. Hb (gm %), RBC and WBC count. The results indicated the immunoprotective effects of APL against Shigella dysenteriae induced infection in mice.

  5. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body.Supplement: Saw PalmettoPossible drug-supplement interaction with:Birth control pills. Can decrease effects of estrogen in the body, which can reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.Estrogen. Can decrease estrogen levels in the body, ...

  6. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  7. Risk Management Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING RISK MANAGEMENT SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...IEC- IEEE -15288: 2015, SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING — SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE PROCESSES...1 2.2. IEEE -15288.1: 2015, STANDARD FOR APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ON DEFENSE PROGRAMS

  8. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  9. The Importance of Carotenoid Dose in Supplementation Studies with Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rebecca E; Wilson, Alan E; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoid coloration is the one of the most frequently studied ornamental traits in animals. Many studies of carotenoid coloration test the associations between carotenoid coloration and measures of performance, such as immunocompetence and oxidative state, proceeding from the premise that carotenoids are limited resources. Such studies commonly involve supplementing the diets of captive birds with carotenoids. In many cases, however, the amount of carotenoid administered is poorly justified, and even supposedly carotenoid-limited diets may saturate birds' systems. To quantify the relationships among the amount of carotenoids administered in experiments, levels of circulating carotenoids, and quantities of carotenoids deposited into colored ornaments, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 published studies that supplemented carotenoids to one of seven songbird species. We used allometric scaling equations to estimate the per-gram carotenoid consumption of each study's subjects, and we used meta-regression to evaluate the effects of this carotenoid dose on differences in coloration and plasma carotenoid levels between supplemented and control groups of birds. After accounting for supplementation duration and species, we observed a significant positive correlation between carotenoid intake and response of plasma carotenoid level to supplementation. The presence of supplemental carotenoids also tended to increase the expression of ornamental coloration, but the magnitude of the carotenoid dose did not significantly affect how strongly coloration changed with supplementation. Further, coloration effect sizes had no significant relationship with plasma carotenoid effect sizes. We also found significant heterogeneity in responses among studies and species, and the parameters used to measure color significantly affected response to supplementation. Our results emphasize the importance of performing dosage trials to determine what supplementation levels provide limited

  10. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. What are the ...

  11. Probiotics supplementation for athletes - clinical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; West, Nicholas P; Cox, Amanda J; Cripps, Allan W

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has traditionally focused on gut health. However, in recent years, the clinical applications of probiotics have broadened to allergic, metabolic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. Gastrointestinal health is important for regulating adaptation to exercise and physical activity. Symptoms such as nausea, bloating, cramping, pain, diarrhoea and bleeding occur in some athletes, particularly during prolonged exhaustive events. Several studies conducted since 2006 examining probiotic supplementation in athletes or highly active individuals indicate modest clinical benefits in terms of reduced frequency, severity and/or duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness. The likely mechanisms of action for probiotics include direct interaction with the gut microbiota, interaction with the mucosal immune system and immune signalling to a variety of organs and systems. Practical issues to consider include medical and dietary screening of athletes, sourcing of recommended probiotics and formulations, dose-response requirements for different probiotic strains, storage, handling and transport of supplements and timing of supplementation in relation to travel and competition.

  12. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Differences in the Dynamics of Colonization and Degradation of Grass vs. Hay by Rumen Microbes with Minor Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Belanche

    2017-08-01

    of feed degradation. Vitamin E supplementation had minor effects but promoted a simplification of the LAB community and a slight acceleration in the SAB colonization sequence which could explain the higher DM degradation during the secondary colonization. Our findings suggest that when possible, grass should be fed instead of hay, in order to accelerate feed utilization by rumen microbes.

  13. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  14. Dietary supplements in sport nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    BOČAN, David

    2015-01-01

    Thesis deals with dietary supplements and their use by amateurs and professionals.The theoretical part is in the 1st part devoted to supplements and their legislation,forms and division.To the 2nd part was selected substances used by athletes and further discussed in terms of their function and effects on the organism.Within the general information was drafted in the 3rd part risks related to the use of dietary supplements due to wrong dosage or concentration and the issue of doping. Research...

  15. Surveyance of disease frequency in a population by linkage to diagnostic laboratory databases. A system for monitoring the incidences of hyper- and hypothyroidism as part of the Danish iodine supplementation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Laurberg, Peter; Arnfred, Terkel; Knudsen, Nils; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars

    2002-03-01

    In Denmark an increase in iodine intake through salt iodization has been introduced in 1998. In parallel a program for surveyance of thyroid diseases in the population was developed as recommended by UNICEF and WHO. To develop and evaluate a computer based system to identify and register new cases of hyper- and hypothyroidism in a well defined cohort, by linkage to diagnostic laboratory databases. (1) Two sub cohorts for monitoring were defined (n=535,859), and evaluated to minimize loss of new cases. Collaboration was established with laboratories covering thyroid hormone analyses in the cohort; (2) a diagnostic algorithm was defined and evaluated against clinical practice; (3) evaluation of the laboratory methods employed by the four participating laboratories, to ensure they would reach the same diagnosis in a patient; (4) a register database was developed which used data imported from the laboratory databases to automatically identify previously unknown cases of hyper- and hypothyroidism and record diagnostic activity in the area. All parts of the registration were carefully evaluated. We describe for the first time a computer based system for prospective measuring the incidence rate of hyper- and hypothyroidism. The system is particularly useful for monitoring of iodine supplementation programmes.

  16. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  17. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  18. Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplements combined. For women who are capable of becoming pregnant, 400 micrograms of folic acid from fortified ... paid attention to what I ate until my teacher asked us to use SuperTracker. I definitely learned ...

  19. Herbal Supplements: Cause for Concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  20. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  2. Louisiana State University System General Purpose Financial Statements and Independent Auditor's Reports as of and for the Year Ended June 30, 1998, with Supplemental Information Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Legislative Auditor, Baton Rouge.

    This report presents results of a financial audit of the Louisiana State University (LSU) system. The auditors also rendered opinions on financial statements of separate, incorporated foundations which oversee the investment of various university endowments, the financial statements for which were prepared by other auditors. An accompanying letter…

  3. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  4. Supplemental care from a bioethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Regina Ribeiro Parizi; Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Garrafa, Volnei

    2013-01-01

    To describe and analyze, from the perspective of Intervention Bioethics, the legal, institutional and ethical contexts, the conflicts and regulations of supplemental health care in Brazil, since the approval of the regulatory law in 1998 until 2010. Qualitative research, using Intervention Bioethics as the theoretical reference. Bibliographical and documental study of the legislation, regulations and assistential framework, as well as interviews with members of the Supplemental Health Board. There was improvement in the records and rules of action in private health companies, as well as flow of information, contractual and financial guarantees provided to consumers. Conflicts persist regarding access to services and procedures, price increases, policies on autonomy and medical fees. There is a dispute with the public sector regarding the network of health services, with rising costs and no improvement in quality of care. Private participation in health demands comparative assessments and improvement of public-private care regulation, as well as promoting greater balance in the funding and reevaluation of the health care model. It is necessary to review the regulatory framework considering the supplementary, complementary or duplicate characteristic of assistance, the social actors involved, bioethical and political issues regarding associations between Supplemental Health Care and the National Health System (SUS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of Layers Supplemented with Either Complete Feed or Diets in Cafeteria Feeding System Under Semi-scavenging Condition in a Tropical Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Chamali; Roy, Bimol Chandra; Ranvig, Hans; Riise, Jens Christian; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tabata, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    1. Egg production ability and its economical aspect were compared among the hens kept under semi-scavenging condition on two feeding systems with four supplementary levels. Commercial balanced feed and cafeteria feeding diet were fed the hens at 40 g, 60 g, 80 g and 120 g/day respectively. Cafeteria feeding diet was composed of 70% mixed feed (40% broken rice, 20% rice polish and 10% wheat bran), 27% soybean meal and 3% oyster shell. 2. The mean feed residue was 4-8 g/day in the hens fed 40...

  6. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  7. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  8. Research on Test and Diagnosis System on AVR of the Rocket Cannon Supplemental Power Station%某型火箭炮配套电站AVR测试诊断系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟波; 刘洪文; 谷志锋

    2011-01-01

    According to the key and urgency of test and diagnosis system on AVR of the rocket cannon supplemental power station, this paper was used to design the test and diagnosis system. Firstly, this paper analyzed the importance in power station and the necessariness in fault diagnosis, and educed the importance of design about AVR diagnosis system. Secondly, this paper analyzed working principle and the structural composition of AVR, and reviewed the evolution history of test technology and fault diagnosis technology, especially go with the vigorous development of virtual instrument technology and the reasonable application of fault tree. Finally, this paper educed the design block diagram including the hardware, software as well as fault analysis method.%针对某型火箭炮配套电站AVR测试诊断的关键性和迫切性,该文用于研究设计AVR诊断测试系统.首先通过分析AVR在电站中重要性和故障诊断的必要性,得出AVR诊断系统设计的重要性,其次分析了该AVR的结构组成及其工作原理,并回顾了测试技术和故障诊断技术的沿革史,特别是虚拟仪器技术的蓬勃发展和故障树的合理应用性,最后得出系统设计框图、该系统设计的硬件、软件以及故障分析方法.

  9. Improvement of hypertension, endothelial function and systemic inflammation following short-term supplementation with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) juice: a randomized crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Afshani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Keshvari, M; Taheri, M; Jahanian, E; Rafieian-Kopaei, M; Malekian, F; Sarrafzadegan, N

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a prevalence of about one billion people worldwide. It has been shown that adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables helps in decreasing blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to investigate the effect of raw beet juice (RBJ) and cooked beet (CB) on BP of hypertensive subjects. In this randomized crossover study, 24 hypertensive subjects aged 25-68 years old were divided into two groups. One group took RBJ for 2 weeks and the other group took CB. After 2 weeks of treatment, both groups had a washout for 2 weeks then switched to the alternate treatment. Each participant consumed 250 ml day(-1) of RBJ or 250 g day(-1) of CB each for a period of 2 weeks. Body weight, BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), lipid profile and inflammatory parameters were measured at baseline and after each period. According to the results, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly lower and FMD was significantly higher after treatment with RBJ compared with CB (P<0.05). FMD was significantly (P<0.05) increased, but systolic and diastolic BP, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), hs-CRP, interleukin-6, E-selectin and TNF-α were significantly (P<0.05) decreased with RBJ or CB. Total antioxidant capacity was increased and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) were decreased with RBJ but not with CB. Although both forms of beetroot were effective in improving BP, endothelial function and systemic inflammation, the raw beetroot juice had greater antihypertensive effects. Also more improvement was observed in endothelial function and systemic inflammation with RBJ compared with CB.

  10. Multiple supplements for beef heifers on pasture in dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate levels of multiple supplement for beef heifers in restricted grazing on average daily gain (ADG, economic analysis and intakes of total dry matter (TDMI, forage dry matter (FDMI, crude protein (CPI and total digestible nutrients (TDNI. For evaluation of performance and economic analysis, twenty Nellore heifers (328.45 kg were used. The following supplements were evaluated as fed to the animals: control (mineral supplement and supplementation levels of 2, 4 and 6 kg/animal/day, composing the following percentages of average body weight (ABW: 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66%, respectively. To evaluate the nutrient intake, additional five Nellore heifers with 344 kg, were used, which were submitted to same supplements previously mentioned, in addition to the level of 2.22% of ABW (8 kg/animal/day. Average daily gain showed quadratic behavior; TDMI, CPI and TDNI had increasing linear behavior; and FDMI showed decreasing linear behavior in function of the supplementation levels. The strategy of supplying 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66% of the ABW to heifers on restricted grazing provides additional weight gains of 608, 762 and 943 g/day, respectively, which are effective in promoting similar productive and economic performance to those obtained in grazing systems in the rainy period.

  11. Leucine supplementation improves regeneration of skeletal muscles from old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo G; Silva, Meiricris T; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H

    2015-12-01

    The decreased regenerative capacity of old skeletal muscles involves disrupted turnover of proteins. This study investigated whether leucine supplementation in old rats could improve muscle regenerative capacity. Young and old male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine; then, the muscles were cryolesioned and examined after 3 and 10 days. Leucine supplementation attenuated the decrease in the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in young and old muscles on day 3 post-injury and promoted an increase in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers from both young and old soleus muscles on day 10 post-injury. This supplementation decreased the levels of ubiquitinated proteins and increased the proteasome activity in young regenerating muscles, but the opposite effect was observed in old regenerating muscles. Moreover, leucine decreased the inflammation area and induced an increase in the number of proliferating satellite cells in both young and old muscles. Our results suggest that leucine supplementation improves the regeneration of skeletal muscles from old rats, through the preservation of certain biological responses upon leucine supplementation. Such responses comprise the decrease in the inflammation area, increase in the number of proliferating satellite cells and size of regenerating myofibers, combined with the modulation of components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  12. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  13. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  14. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  15. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  16. Low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids ameliorates proteinuria in 3/4 nephrectomised rats by directly inhibiting the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Ying; Yin, Ying; Ni, Li; Long, Quan; You, Li; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shan-Yan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks. Sham-operated rats fed NPD served as controls. The level of proteinuria and expression of renin, angiotensin II (AngII) and its type 1 receptors (AT1R) in the renal cortex were markedly higher in Nx-NPD group than in the sham group. LPD+KA significantly decreased the proteinuria and inhibited intrarenal RAS activation. To exclude renal haemodynamic impact on intrarenal RAS, the serum samples derived from the different groups were added to the culture medium of mesangial cells. It showed that the serum from Nx-NPD directly induced higher expression of AngII, AT1R, fibronectin and transforming growth factor-β1 in the mesangial cells than in the control group. Nx-LPD+KA serum significantly inhibited these abnormalities. Then, proteomics and biochemical detection suggested that the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of LPD+KA might be amelioration of the nutritional metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. In conclusion, LPD+KA could directly inhibit the intrarenal RAS activation, independently of renal haemodynamics, thus attenuating the proteinuria in CKD rats.

  17. Pyridoxine supplementation during isoniazid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, D E

    1980-12-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supplementation during isoniazid (INH) therapy is necessary in some patients to prevent the development of peripheral neuropathy. In vivo pyridoxine is converted into coenzymes which play an essential role in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and several other substances, including brain amines, INH apparently competitively inhibits the action of pyridoxine in these metabolic functions. The reported frequency of INH-induced neuropathy in various studies is reviewed and population groups at relatively high risk of developing this complication are identified. The routine use of pyridoxine supplementation to prevent peripheral neuropathy in high risk populations is recommended.

  18. Marginal pricing and supplement cost allocation in transmission open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, H.; Palma, R.; Fernandez, J.E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Escuela de Ingenieria

    1995-05-01

    The application of marginal costing to transmission pricing in open access schemes requires the collection of a supplement to finance the transmission systems. The paper describes the application of marginal cost based pricing in the Chilean power system and the difficulties faced in allocating the supplement among parties involved. Alternatives methods for defining the allocation are formulated. Generalized generation and load distribution factors for cost allocation are formulated and implemented. The methods are applied to allocate payments for transmission services provided by the transmission network and by a distribution company.

  19. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  20. Commercial introduction of the Advanced NOxTECH system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, B.C. [NOxTECH, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    NOxTECH is BACT for diesel electric generators. Emissions of NO{sub x} are reduced 95% or more with substantial concurrent reductions in CO, particulates, and ROG`s. No engine modifications or other exhaust aftertreatments can remove all criteria pollutants as effectively as NOxTECH. The NOxTECH system reliably maintains NH{sub 3} slip below 2 ppm. Unlike other emissions controls, NOxTECH does not generate hazardous by-products. The Advanced NOxTECH system reduces the size, weight, and cost for BACT emissions reductions. Based on the operation of a 150 kW prototype, NOxTECH, Inc. is quoting commercial units for diesel electric generators. Advanced NOxTECH equipment costs about half as much as SCR systems, and NO{sub x} reduction can exceed 95% with guarantees for emissions compliance.

  1. Herbal Supplements and Sport Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen Coleman; Ron Maughan; Sozanne Nelson Steen; Rob Skinner

    2008-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS ·Labels on dietary supplements can be misleading. Containers may include substantially more,but usually less,of the listed amounts of ingredients,and substances may be added? some of which can cause failed doping tests for athletes?

  2. A Supplement for Teaching Beowulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosh, Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Suggests supplementing the teaching of "Beowulf" to high school students with (1) translation and grammatical analysis of parts of the original lines, (2) study of Anglo-Saxon poetic techniques, and (3) students' imitation of old English poetic techniques in New English. (SW)

  3. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  4. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  5. Omega-3 Supplements: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth ... JAMA Internal Medicine . 2014;174(3):460-462. Hooper L, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, et al. Omega ... on November 2, 2012. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, ...

  6. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and resul

  7. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This section of the Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 present the major assumptions of the modeling system used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). In this context, assumptions include general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are most significant in formulating the model results. Detailed documentation of the modeling system is available in a series of documentation reports listed in Appendix B. A synopsis of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), the model components, and the interrelationships of the modules is presented. The NEMS is developed and maintained by the office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide projection of domestic energy-economy markets in the midterm time period and perform policy analyses requested by various government agencies and the private sector.

  8. 76 FR 50461 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Types of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Types of Contracts AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of... information collection requirement. SUMMARY: In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the...

  9. Clinical use of glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2008-10-01

    Endogenous production of glutamine may become insufficient during critical illness. The shortage of glutamine is reflected as a decrease in plasma concentration, which is a prognostic factor for poor outcome in sepsis. Because glutamine is a precursor for nucleotide synthesis, rapidly dividing cells are most likely to suffer from a shortage. Therefore, exogenous glutamine supplementation is necessary. In particular, when i.v. nutrition is given, extra glutamine supplementation becomes critical, because most present formulations for i.v. use do not contain any glutamine for technical reasons. The major part of endogenously produced glutamine comes from skeletal muscle. For patients staying a long time in the intensive care unit (ICU), the muscle mass decreases rapidly, which leaves a tissue of diminishing size to maintain the export of glutamine. The metabolic and nutritional adaptation in long-staying ICU patients is poorly studied and is one of the fields that needs more scientific evidence for clinical recommendations. To date, there is evidence to support the clinical use of glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients, in hematology patients, and in oncology patients. Strong evidence is presently available for i.v. glutamine supplementation to critically ill patients on parenteral nutrition. This must be regarded as the standard of care. For patients on enteral nutrition, more evidence is needed. To guide administration of glutamine, there are good arguments to use measurement of plasma glutamine concentration for guidance. This will give an indication for treatment as well as proper dosing. Most patients will have a normalized plasma glutamine concentration by adding 20-25 g/24 h. Furthermore, there are no reported adverse or negative effects attributable to glutamine supplementation.

  10. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  11. Kommentarer og supplement til DS 418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Saxhof, Bjarne

    1999-01-01

    Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology.......Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology....

  12. Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167008.html Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections Benefits of ... 3, 2017 MONDAY, July 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Probiotic supplements may not protect babies from catching colds ...

  13. 7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supplemental financing according to their plant revenue ratio (PRR), as defined in § 1710.2, based on the most recent year-end data available on the date of loan approval, as follows: PRR Supplemental loan...

  14. Kommentarer og supplement til DS 418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Saxhof, Bjarne

    1999-01-01

    Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology.......Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology....

  15. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  16. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    notifications since 2005 of food supplements in Germany at the BVL. Additionally, an overview for notifications in the rapid alert system for food and feed concerning food supplements is given as well as a brief introduction into the survey of food supplements marketed on the internet.

  17. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication...

  18. Strategic Target Systems (STARS) Environmental Assessment. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    guarantee it will go where you want it? Response: We track it by radar, observe it by television , and track by telemetry from the missile. If the missile...moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis), the black-necked (Hawaiian) stilt (Himantopus mexicanas knudseni), and the Hawaiian duck (Anas uyvilliana

  19. Supplement to Comparison of automatic control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This analysis deals with the indirect regulator, wherefrom the behavior of the direct regulator is deduced as a limiting case. The prime mover is looked upon as "independent of the load": a change in the adjusting power (to be applied) for the control link (as, for example, in relation to the adjusting path (eta) with pressure valves or the rudder of vessels) does not modify the actions of the prime mover. Mass forces and friction are discounted; "clearance" also is discounted in the transmission links of the regulator.

  20. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Connecticut Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    compounds resulting from the displacement of three of the four hydrogen atoms in methane with chlorine, bromide, or iodine atoms in the molec- ular...500 ppm available chlorine, phenolic solution with 500 ppm active agent, iodoform solution with 100 ppm available iodine , or quaternary ammonium...Co. Timberfume I1 3008-46 Osmose Wood Pres. Co. Timberlife-D 3008-56 Osmose Wood Pres. Co. Tomato Potato Vegetable 279-1626-4 Bonide Chemical Co

  1. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  2. Direct Summands of ⊕-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nil Orhan; Derya Keskin Tütüncü; Rachid Tribak

    2007-01-01

    A module M is called ⊕-supplemented if every submodule of M has a supplement that is a direct summand of M. It is shown that if M is a ⊕-supplemented module and r(M) is a coclosed submodule of M for a left preradical r, then r(M) is a direct summand of M, and both r(M) and M/r(M) are ⊕-supplemented.

  3. Supplemental feeding of captive neonatal koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eri; Shindo, Izumi; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Kido, Nobuhide

    2017-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated. The amount of formula fed was determined according to the product instructions, and offspring weight was monitored. Slower than normal growth was not initially noticed in the first offspring. This caused delayed commencement of supplemental feeding. An attempt was made to counteract this by providing more formula for a longer period; however, this meant No. 1 was unable to eat enough eucalyptus when weaning. Supplemental feeding was started earlier for the second offspring than for the first, and was terminated at weaning; this juvenile showed a healthy body weight increase. Furthermore, it was able to eat eucalyptus leaves at an earlier stage than No. 1. Although No. 1 showed delayed growth, both koalas matured and are still living. This study showed that supplemental feeding is useful for koalas, if the mother will accept human intervention. The key factors for successful supplemental feeding of koalas identified by comparing the two feeding systems observed in this study are that: (1) it should be initiated as soon as insufficient growth is identified; and (2) it should be terminated before weaning age. Zoo Biol. 36:62-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment. 141.809... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment...

  5. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  6. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural...

  7. 44 CFR 208.63 - Request by DHS for supplemental information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPONSE SYSTEM Reimbursement Claims and Appeals § 208.63 Request by DHS for supplemental information. (a... request. (b) If DHS makes a request for supplemental information at any stage of the reimbursement and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request by DHS for...

  8. 75 FR 20825 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Appendix I, DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program; OMB Control Number... Mentor-Protege Program have been met. The purposes of the Program are to (1) provide incentives to...

  9. 75 FR 71647 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Discussions Prior to Contract Award (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 215 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to strongly encourage discussions... requirements. DoD notes the potential disadvantages of this proposed change in increased time to complete...

  10. [Trade of food supplement: food or drug supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Margherita; Petrelli, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade. So we try to disentangle the intricate legislation with the national (and European) Court contributions. In particular, after a brief analysis of the rulings of the Competition and Market Authority on misleading advertising and by the Supreme Court in relation to crimes against health damage, it will come to the analysis of interpretative problems of a purely criminal law nature, in light of the recent proposal for reform about agribusiness crimes. Finally, it will be inevitable to analyze briefly the recent implementation of the d.lgs. n. 17/2004 concerning the distance trade of non-prescription medicines. There is no doubt that now, internet represents the preferred distribution channel for pharmaceutical products (including food supplement) and the most tempting "place" (because of control difficulties) for the realization of criminal conduct. The conclusion will be that the need to achieve more targeted and homogeneous regulatory measures, while also having to protect - public and individual - health through the protection of the legal security in one with the protection of the right to information.

  11. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  12. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Beynen, A.C.; Borg, van der J.A.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation wit

  13. Synthetic androgens as designer supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed.

  14. The effect of sevoflurane pretreatment or aftertreatment on intrapulmonary shunt for patients with one lung ventilation during thoracic surgical procedures%七氟烷预处理或后处理对胸外科手术单肺通气患者肺内分流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红芹; 王地萍; 黎平; 肖维; 徐璐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨七氟烷预处理或后处理对胸科手术单肺通气(OLV)患者肺内分流的影响。方法80例择期行开胸手术OLV的患者分为4组:全凭静脉组(P组),七氟烷预处理组(S1组),七氟烷后处理组(S2组),七氟烷全程吸入组(S3组),每组20例。在麻醉诱导前(T0)、OLV前(T1)即七氟烷预处理30 min后、OLV 30 min(T2)、OLV 60 min(T3)、OLV结束前(T4)、OLV结束后30 min(T5)采集桡动脉及右心房血样行血气分析,计算肺内分流率(Qs/Qt),同时记录血流动力学指标及相关的临床数据。结果 OLV期间,4组患者氧分压较双肺通气时明显降低(P<0.05),但4组间的氧分压比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);4组患者的肺内分流较双肺通气时明显增加( P<0.05),但S1、S2、S3组的肺内分流较P组低( P<0.05),S1、S2、S3组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论七氟烷预处理、后处理全程处理能降低OLV患者肺内分流,但3种处理方式之间无显著差异,也不能明显提高动脉氧分压。%Objective To study the effect of sevoflurane pretreatment or aftertreatment on intrapulmonary shunt for patients with one lung ventilation(OLV)during thoracic surgical procedures .Methods 80 ASA I or II patients underwent thoracic surgery with OLV were randomly divided into four groups(n= 20 for each):(1)Propofol group(group P);(2)Sevoflurane pretreatment group(group S1);(3)Sevoflurane aftertreatment group(group S2);(3)Sevoflurane whole-treatment group(group S3) .Blood sam-ples were taken from radial artery and right atrial blood before induction of anesthesia(baseline T .0) ,before OLV(sevoflurane pre-treatment 30 min ,T1) ,after OLV 30 ,60 min and before the end of OLV(T2-T4)and after the end of OLV(T5)for measurement of blood gases and calculation of Qs/Qt .The indexs of hemodynamics and relative clinical data were recorded .Results

  15. Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.

  16. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacologic...

  17. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  18. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    also known as cholecalciferol . This is a result of the reaction between 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and ultraviolet radiation in the...skin) (From Diet) Vitamin D3 ( Cholecalciferol ) UV light Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Liver 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxy...monthly oral vitamin D3 ( cholecalciferol ) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomized double

  19. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  20. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, N M; Lamb, D R; Nelson, T E

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if oral creatine (CR) ingestion, compared to a placebo (PL), would enable swimmers to maintain a higher swimming velocity across repeated interval sets over 2 weeks of supplementation. Fourteen female and 18 male university swimmers consumed a PL during a 2-week baseline period. Using a randomized, double-blind design, during the next 2 weeks subjects consumed either CR or PL. Swimming velocity was assessed twice weekly during 6 X 50-m swims and once weekly during 10 X 25-yd swims. There was no effect of CR on the 10 X 25-yd interval sets for men and women and no effect on the 6 X 50-m interval sets for women. In contrast, for men, CR significantly improved mean overall swimming velocity in the 6 X 50-m interval after 2 weeks of supplementation, whereas PL had no effect. Although ineffective in women, CR supplementation apparently enables men to maintain a faster mean overall swimming velocity during repeated swims each lasting about 30 s; however, CR was not effective for men in repeated swims each lasting about 10 - 15 s.

  1. Glutamine supplementation in bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Thomas R

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of clinical investigations have focused on supplementation of specialized enteral and parenteral nutrition with the amino acid glutamine. This interest derives from strong evidence in animal models and emerging clinical data on the efficacy of glutamine administration following chemotherapy, trauma, sepsis and other catabolic conditions. Glutamine has protein-anabolic effects in stressed patients and, among many key metabolic functions, is used as a major fuel/substrate by cells of the gastrointestinal epithelium and the immune system. These effects may be particularly advantageous in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), who exhibit post-transplant body protein wasting, gut mucosal injury and immunodeficiency. Studies to date indicate that enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation is well tolerated and potentially efficacious after high-dose chemotherapy or BMT for cancer treatment. Although not all studies demonstrate benefits, sufficient positive data have been published to suggest that this nutrient should be considered as adjunctive metabolic support of some individuals undergoing marrow transplant. However, BMT is a rapidly evolving clinical procedure with regard to the conditioning and supportive protocols utilized. Thus, additional randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials are indicated to define the efficacy of glutamine with current BMT regimens.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  3. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  4. Iron Supplementation and Altitude: Decision Making Using a Regression Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Andrew D. Govus, Peter Peeling, Chris R. Abbiss, Christopher J. Gore

    2016-03-01

    based on Ferritin-Pre. Fifteen athletes were not supplemented based on medical advice or because of already high Ferritin-Pre. Oral iron (FerroGrad C, 325 mg ferrous sulphate and 1,000 mg ascorbic acid, equivalent to 105 mg elemental iron; Abbott Laboratories, Botany Bay, Australia was provided to the remaining athletes daily for the duration of altitude exposure. Nineteen athletes ingested two iron tablets per day (210 mg elemental iron owing to Ferritin-Pre of or 34.6 µg.L-1 who were supplemented with 105 mg.d-1 increased Hbmass by 3.4±2.8%, whilst those with Ferritin-Pre 20 µg.L-1 who were supplemented with 210 mg.d-1 increased Hbmass by 3.3±3.4%, whereas those with Ferritin-Pre 100 µg.L-1, non-supplemented athletes increased Hbmass by 1.2±3.2%, compared with 3.4±3.3% in those who ingested 105 mg.d-1. Our regression tree suggests daily iron supplementation may support Hbmass production during altitude exposure (Govus et al., 2015, particularly in athletes with low Ferritin-Pre. Interestingly, supplemented athletes with low Ferritin-Pre, tended to exhibit a greater Hbmass response than athletes with otherwise “healthy” iron stores. In fact, iron deficient (ID athletes (ferritin <20 µg.L-1 who ingested 210 mg.d-1 increased their Hbmass after altitude exposure by 7%, which is substantially larger than expected (Gore et al., 2013. Improved iron availability (arising from supplementation, combined with enhanced iron absorption at altitude (Reynafarje and Ramos, 1961 and an accelerated erythropoietic drive may explain this observation. Prolonged altitude exposure suppresses the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, thereby aiding intestinal iron absorption (Goetze et al., 2013. Iron deficiency may also elevate erythropoietin (EPO, therein ‘priming’ the erythropoietic system in anticipation of iron delivery (Mast et al., 2014. In combination, these factors may improve the efficacy of iron supplementation in ID athletes at altitude. In contrast, since Hbmass did

  5. FINDING POTENTIALLY UNSAFE NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FROM USER REVIEWS WITH TOPIC MODELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ryan; Sarker, Abeed; O'Connor, Karen; Goodin, Amanda; Karlsrud, Mark; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplements are widely used and generally are considered safe, some supplements have been identified as causative agents for adverse reactions, some of which may even be fatal. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for monitoring supplements and ensuring that supplements are safe. However, current surveillance protocols are not always effective. Leveraging user-generated textual data, in the form of Amazon.com reviews for nutritional supplements, we use natural language processing techniques to develop a system for the monitoring of dietary supplements. We use topic modeling techniques, specifically a variation of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), and background knowledge in the form of an adverse reaction dictionary to score products based on their potential danger to the public. Our approach generates topics that semantically capture adverse reactions from a document set consisting of reviews posted by users of specific products, and based on these topics, we propose a scoring mechanism to categorize products as "high potential danger", "average potential danger" and "low potential danger." We evaluate our system by comparing the system categorization with human annotators, and we find that the our system agrees with the annotators 69.4% of the time. With these results, we demonstrate that our methods show promise and that our system represents a proof of concept as a viable low-cost, active approach for dietary supplement monitoring.

  6. Diesel NO(x) aftertreatment by combined process using temperature swing adsorption, NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma, and NO(x) recirculation: improvement of the recirculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2012-09-15

    NO(x) emitted from a stationary diesel engine generator was treated with a hybrid system comprising NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma (NTP) and temperature swing adsorption (TSA) driven by engine waste heat. TSA produces a low-volume gas mixture of N(2) and highly concentrated NO(x), which is effectively reduced by NTP treatment. Improved treatment performance and efficiency are achieved by re-injecting the NTP-treated gas mixture into the engine intake. The system comprises two switchable adsorption chambers; the operation of this system was simulated by using a one-chamber system. The maximum energy efficiency for NO(x) treatment is 200 g(NO(2))/kWh. The respective contributions of NTP and injection of N(2) and NO(x) to the performance were theoretically analyzed. The analysis predicts that high energy efficiency and high NO(x)-removal efficiency can be simultaneously achieved with this system but miniaturization of the adsorption chambers will be a challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  8. Site Annual Environmental Report for 1997 - Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A.H.; Althouse, P.E.; Brandstetter, E.R.; Christofferson, E.C.; Fields, B.C.; Gallegos, G.M.; Garcia, L.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Larson, J.M.; Tate, P.J.

    1998-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1997 (called Volume 2 in previous years) was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Not all of the data in the Data Supplement tables have been reduced to the proper number of significant figures; however, summary data in both volumes are expressed using the proper number of significant figures. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other four chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup {minus}11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  9. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training and...... resulted in a significantly increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, but not in hippocampus. In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, as compared to sham group. Treadmill running, curcumin...... supplementation, or both resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and significantly increased BDNF and TAC levels, as compared to lead acetate group. These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role of curcumin and regular exercise in the attenuation of lead-induced neurotoxicity....

  10. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  11. Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, David G; Connor, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    Performance enhancing drugs, ergogenic aids, and supplements come in many forms. The financial, personal, social, and health-related impact of these substances has wide and varied consequences. This article reviews common substances and practices used by athletes. It discusses the history, use, effects, and adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, growth factors, masking agents, diuretics, volume expanders, β-blockers, amphetamines, caffeine, other stimulants, and creatine. The evidence base behind the use, safety, and efficacy of these items as well as testing for these substances is discussed.

  12. [Creatine: the nutritional supplement for exercise - current concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renata Rebello; Tirapegui, Julio

    2002-06-01

    Creatine, a natural nutrient found in animal foods, is alleged to be an effective nutritional ergogenic aid to enhance sport or exercise performance. It may be formed in kidney and liver from arginina and glicina. Creatine may be delivered to the muscle, where it may combine readily with phosphate to form creatine phosphate, a high-energy phosphagen in the ATP-CP system, and is stored. The ATP-CP energy system is important for rapid energy production, such as in speed and power events. Approximately 120 g of creatine is found in a 70 kg male, 95% in the skeletal muscle. Total creatine exists in muscle as both free creatine (40%) and phosphocreatine (60%). It is only recently that a concerted effort has been undertaken to investigate its potential ergogenic effect relative to sport or exercise performance. It does appear that oral creatine monohydrate may increase muscle total creatine, including both free and phosphocreatine. Many, but not all studies suggest that creatine supplementation may enhance performance in high intensity, short-term exercise task that are dependent primarily on the ATP-CP energy system, particularly on laboratory test involving repeated exercise bouts with limited recovery time between repetitions. Short-term creatine supplementation appears to increase body mass, although the initial increase is most likely water associated with the osmotic effect of increased intramuscular total creatine. Chronic creatine supplementation in conjunction with physical training involving resistance exercise may increase muscle mass. However, confirmatory research data are needed. Creatine supplementation up to 8 weeks, with high doses, has not been associated with major health risks; with low doses, it was demonstrated that in 5 years period supplementation, there are no adverse effects. The decision to use creatine as a mean to enhance sport performance is left to the description to the individual athlete.

  13. System and method of DPF passive enhancement through powertrain torque-speed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Frazier, Timothy R.

    2015-11-24

    This disclosure provides a method and system for determining recommendations for vehicle operation that reduce soot production in view of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) of an exhaust aftertreatment system. Recommendations generated can reduce excessive particulate matter (PM) production during transient engine events and provide for operating conditions favorable for passive regeneration. In this way, less frequent active regeneration of the DPF is needed and/or more opportunities are provided for passive regeneration. The system and method can utilize location and terrain information to anticipate and project a window of operation in view of reducing soot production and soot loading of the DPF, or provide the operator with instruction when such opportunities are present or will soon be encountered.

  14. Performance of an innovative 120 kWe natural gas cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badami, M.; Casetti, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy); Campanile, P.; Anzioso, F. [Centro Ricerche FIAT, Strada Torino 50, Orbassano, Torino (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The paper deals with an innovative (120 kWe, 195 kWt) natural gas (NG) combined heat and power (CHP) system, at present under development, which has been set up at the FIAT Centre of Research (CRF), Turin, Italy. The main characteristics of the CHP system are: the use of an automotive derived internal combustion engine, a high part load electrical efficiency due to a variable speed operation strategy and an advanced exhaust gas after-treatment to meet the most stringent pollutant emission regulations. In the paper, the electrical efficiency and pollutant emissions of the new CHP unit are compared with those of some traditional small-scale cogeneration systems. Some comparison criteria and performance indices which are, in the authors' opinion, the most representative of the real operative conditions, have been proposed to evaluate the performance of the different technologies. (author)

  15. Pollination services provided by bees in pumpkin fields supplemented with either Apis mellifera or Bombus impatiens or not supplemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jessica D; Reiners, Stephen; Nault, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Pollinators provide an important service in many crops. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are used to supplement pollination services provided by wild bees with the assumption that they will enhance pollination, fruit set and crop yield beyond the levels provided by the wild bees. Recent declines in managed honey bee populations have stimulated interest in finding alternative managed pollinators to service crops. In the eastern U.S., managed hives of the native common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) may be an excellent choice. To examine this issue, a comprehensive 2-yr study was conducted to compare fruit yield and bee visits to flowers in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) fields that were either supplemented with A. mellifera hives, B. impatiens hives or were not supplemented. We compared pumpkin yield, A. mellifera flower visitation frequency and B. impatiens flower visitation frequency between treatments. Results indicated that supplementing pumpkin fields with either A. mellifera or B. impatiens hives did not increase their visitation to pumpkin flowers or fruit yield compared with those that were not supplemented. Next, the relationship between frequency of pumpkin flower visitation by the most prominent bee species (Peponapis pruinosa (Say), B. impatiens and A. mellifera) and fruit yield was determined across all pumpkin fields sampled. Fruit yield increased as the frequency of flower visits by A. mellifera and B. impatiens increased in 2011 and 2012, respectively. These results suggest that supplementation with managed bees may not improve pumpkin production and that A. mellifera and B. impatiens are important pollinators of pumpkin in our system.

  16. Early weaning and concentrate supplementation strategies for lamb production on Tifton-85 pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Araújo da Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of early weaning and concentrate supplementation strategies on sward characteristics, forage chemical composition and lamb productivity were evaluated in four production systems on Tifton-85 pasture: suckling lambs not supplemented until slaughter; suckling lambs supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding until slaughter; early-weaned lambs not supplemented until slaughter; and early-weaned lambs supplemented with concentrate until slaughter. Structural, morphological and productive characteristics of pasture were measured. The forage was chemically analyzed to estimate its composition. Lambs average daily gain and productivity were calculated. Sward height, forage and morphological components mass were lower in systems without weaning. Forage production was higher in systems with supplementation. Higher levels of neutral and acid detergent fiber were observed in forage ingested by lambs in creep feeding and by weaned and unsupplemented lambs. Average daily gain was higher for lambs in creep feeding (275 g/d and lower for the weaned and unsupplemented animals (57 g/d. Productivity was higher for weaned and supplemented lambs (21 kg lamb body weight, BW gain/ha/d. Lower productivity was observed in systems without supplementation (5 kg lamb BW gain/ha/d on average. Ewes modify the sward conditions improving the pasture characteristics and the quality of forage produced. Changes in sward conditions affect the chemical composition of forage ingested by lambs. Early weaning may be an alternative to maximize pasture utilization in small areas. Concentrate supplementation may increase lamb performance and productivity in grazing systems. If the objective is to improve lamb individual performance, creep feeding should be used.

  17. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  18. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  19. Low emission transport systems. Reduction of emissions with low-pollutant lubricants; Emissionsarmer Verkehr. Emissionsminderung durch schadstoffarme Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.; Boehncke, A.; Mangelsdorf, I.

    2001-07-01

    Due to the lower EURO 4 emission limits, exhaust aftertreatment systems for heavy- and light-duty vehicles will be necessary which are more efficient than the today 3-way- or oxidation-type catalysts. Practicable exhaust aftertreatment systems are, for example, particle traps, SCR or NOx- adsorber catalysts, and combinations of these systems. Most of these exhaust control devices require fuels with sulphur contents below 10 ppm. Then the sulphate emissions from lubricants containing about 0.5% sulphur is in the same order of magnitude as sulphate emissions from low sulfur fuels. Measured data on the influence of sulphur from lubricating oils on future exhaust treatment systems are very limited. Conclusions have mostly been drawn from experimental results with low sulphur fuels. It cannot be ruled out, especially for NOx- adsorbers, that sulphur will adversely affect performance, thus making a reduction of sulphur levels in engine oils necessary. As far as diesel exhaust is concerned lubricants contribute approximately 20 - 26% to total particulate matter and more than 50% to the soluble organic fraction (SOF). Ash deposits derived from additives that contain zinc, calcium, sulphur, or phosphorous are likely to block the newly developed particle filter systems. Also for diesel technologies incorporating precious-metal catalysts (e.g. DOC, CDPF, CR-DPF, Urea- SCR) low sulphur levels are advantageous because the mass of sulphate particulate matter formed from fuel or lubricant sulphur is reduced. Conventional three-way catalysts are less sensitive, the light-off temperature being mainly affected. In summary, all available studies suggest that the lower the level of sulphur the lower emissions are. Furthermore phosphorous (associated with the antiwear additive ZDTP) was shown to limit catalyst life and, together with thermal degradation, is responsible for reduced catalyst efficiency over time. Although there is still a lack of quantitative technical information, it

  20. The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, F O; Budiaman, A; Eng, Y; Olumese, F E; Hoesel, J L; Ejilemele, A; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1 β level was significantly (P phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  1. Supplementation of Nellore young bulls on Marandu grass pastures in the dry period of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and daytime ingestive behavior of 84 Nellore young bulls in the post-weaning phase kept on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season. Treatments were protein mineral supplementation (1 g/kg body weight and protein+energy mineral supplementation (3 g/kg body weight. The experimental area comprised 12 paddocks in a total area of 27.36 ha, divided in two blocks of six paddocks each, having three replications per treatment in each block, with 42 animals/treatment. The data were subjected to variance analysis with repeated measures over time via procedure PROCMIXED of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.0 and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The initial average weight of animals was 204.8 kg; final weights were 260.9 and 276.9 kg for animals that received protein and protein+energy supplement, respectively. The forage availability, sward height and stocking rate values did not differ with supplementation, but they showed difference between the experimental periods. The average time spent grazing during daylight of animals fed protein+energy supplement was shorter as compared with those which consumed protein supplement. Animals kept under the same pasture conditions during the dry season show better performance when they receive protein+energy supplement than protein supplement.

  2. Doping through supplement use: a review of the available empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon; Stewart, Bob

    2015-02-01

    The potential for supplement use to result in doping infringements is likely to be of concern for anyone involved in sports nutrition. The available data indicates that between 40-70% of athletes use supplements, and that between 10-15% of supplements may contain prohibited substances. Such data indicates that there is a considerable risk of accidental or inadvertent doping through using supplements. Accordingly, this paper sets out to provide an overview of the currently available empirical evidence of accidental doping by supplement use. In carrying out this task, the authors refer to press releases and proxy measures associated with nutritional supplement use, as well as statistical data on supplement contamination rates and doping infractions. A number of different indications as to the percentage of doping cases that might be attributed to supplement use are presented, ranging from 6.4% to 8.8%. Such percentages are not comparable; instead they are provided as indications as to how difficult it is to ascertain or estimate the scale of this problem. Although some forms of estimation can be made, it is suggested that it is currently not possible to quantify the scale of the problem. By way of conclusion, it is argued that antidoping regulators may wish to review current data gathering and information provision systems so that the problem of inadvertent doping can be more directly assessed as a factor in sports doping overall.

  3. CALVES GROWTH INFANT OF BREED NELLORE SUPPLEMENTED WITH CHROMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Lima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the growth of nursling Nelore calves supplemented with chromium during creep feeding. The study was conducted using 131 Nelore calves with an average age of 60 days and average adjusted initial weight of 75 kg; considering that all calves were accompanied by their mothers. Therefore, the experimental groups were defined as T1: 35 males supplemented with chromium; T2: 34 males without chromium, T3: 30 females supplemented with chromium and T4: 32 females supplemented without chromium. The experimental period lasted from 60 days of age to 210 days (weaning, the animals were kept in two pickets of Panicum maximum cv. Mombasa provided with troughs for the creep feeding system, which permitted calves exclusive access to the concentrate formula based on 75% of TDN and 20% of crude protein, with 35% of soybean meal, 63% of corn and 2% of mineral nucleus containing 10 mg of chromium chelate for each kg of the product. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance, using the software R (R Development Core Team, 2013. In the evaluation of the live weight at 150 days of age, no significant difference was found in the use of chromium in males and females (regardless of sex. However, in the analysis between sexes, females’ live weights were lower than males’ live weight (p = 0.04, being 131.1 kg and 138.1 kg respectively. In the evaluation of live weight at 210 days there was no significant difference between males and females (p = 0.07, but there was a difference (p = 0.03 in the use of chrome in the evaluated treatments. So, it could be concluded that the creep feeding system with chrome chelate supplementation promoted an improvement in male and females calves’ growth for average daily weight gain and weaning weight, with a positive influence on the weight of cows.

  4. [Sensory evaluation of enteral nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell Vidal, Lina; Sánchez Juan, Carlos; Alfonso García, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is indicated in patients who, although they may not eat enough food, maintain a sufficient function to receive, digest and absorb nutrients digestive system. Oral Nutritional Supplements (SON) are nutritionally complete or incomplete formulas (depending on whether or not provide all the nutrients needed to serve as the sole source of nutrients), which supplement inadequate oral diet. This study aims to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of hyperproteic, normoproteic and fiber-enriched oral SON. SON test, carried out at the Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Consortium Hospital General Universitario de Valencia from October 2012 to February 2013. 137 SON were evaluated in total, of which 47 were hyperproteic, 46 normoproteic and 44 enriched in fiber. Of the SON evaluated in the group of hyperproteic the following 3 SON obtained the best scores: Fresenius Prot Energy Drink® (21,27, vanilla flavor), Avant Standard Nut® (20.3 , strawberry flavor) and Resource® Protein (20.01, chocolate flavor) In the group of normoproteic SON the 3 best rated were: Ensure Plus® (22.3, banana flavor), Ensure Plus® (21.9, peach flavor) and Fresubin Energy Drink® (21, strawberry flavor) In the group of fiber-enriched the 3 SON most appreciated were: 2 Kcal Fresubin Fibre Drink® (23.78, vanilla flavor), Ensure Plus® TwoCal (22.9, banana flavor) and Fortimel Compact® (21.5, strawberry flavor) The study aims to guide clinicians on what SON may be more acceptable to the patient, so that the SON serve their purpose and restore or improve nutritional status, as the SON intervention is safe and cost - effective, since they improve both the functionality and quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Arginine and citrulline supplementation in sports and exercise: ergogenic nutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Dietary L-citrulline malate supplements may increase levels of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, although this response has not been related to an improvement in athletic performance. NO plays an important role in many functions in the body regulating vasodilatation, blood flow, mitochondrial respiration and platelet function. L-Arginine is the main precursor of NO via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Additionally, L-citrulline has been indicated to be a second NO donor in the NOS-dependent pathway, since it can be converted to L-arginine. The importance of L-citrulline as an ergogenic support derives from the fact that L-citrulline is not subject to pre-systemic elimination and, consequently, could be a more efficient way to elevate extracellular levels of L-arginine by itself. L-Citrulline malate can develop beneficial effects on the elimination of NH(3) in the course of recovery from exhaustive muscular exercise and also as an effective precursor of L-arginine and creatine. Dietary supplementation with L-citrulline alone does not improve exercise performance. The ergogenic response of L-citrulline or L-arginine supplements depends on the training status of the subjects. Studies involving untrained or moderately healthy subjects showed that NO donors could improve tolerance to aerobic and anaerobic exercise. However, when highly-trained subjects were supplemented, no positive effect on performance was indicated.

  6. Multivitamin mineral supplementation in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Daniela; Brkic, Snezana; Mikic, Aleksandra Novakov; Tomic, Slavica; Cebovic, Tatjana; Turkulov, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by medically unexplained persistent or reoccurring fatigue lasting at least 6 months. CFS has a multifactorial pathogenesis in which oxidative stress (OS) plays a prominent role. Treatment is with a vitamin and mineral supplement, but this therapeutic option so far has not been properly researched. Material/Methods This prospective study included 38 women of reproductive age consecutively diagnosed by CDC definition of CFS and treated with a multivitamin mineral supplement. Before and after the 2-month supplementation, SOD activity was determined and patients self-assessed their improvement in 2 questionnaires: the Fibro Fatigue Scale (FFS) and the Quality of Life Scale (SF36). Results There was a significant improvement in SOD activity levels; and significant decreases in fatigue (p=0.0009), sleep disorders (p=0.008), autonomic nervous system symptoms (p=0.018), frequency and intensity of headaches (p=0.0001), and subjective feeling of infection (p=0.0002). No positive effect on quality of life was found. Conclusions Treatment with a vitamin and mineral supplement could be a safe and easy way to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with CFS. PMID:24419360

  7. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2013-06-06

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory. Clinical manifestations of the disease are defined primarily by low levels of thyroid hormones; therefore it is treated by hormone replacement therapy, which usually consists of levothyroxine (LT4). Selenium might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of LT4 and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). To assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched the following databases up to 2 October 2012: CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science; we also screened reference lists of included studies and searched several online trial registries for ongoing trials (5 November 2012). Randomised controlled clinical trials that assessed the effects of selenium supplementation for adults diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. We were unable to conduct a meta-analysis because clinical heterogeneity between interventions that were investigated is substantial. Four studies at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. The mean study duration was 7.5 months (range 3 to 18 months). One of our primary outcomes-'change from baseline in health related quality of life'-and two of our secondary outcomes-'change from baseline in LT4 replacement dosage at end of the study' and 'economic costs'-were not assessed in any of the studies. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium

  8. [Magnesium as a food supplement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Paul

    2004-05-01

    Magnesium is a Cofactor in all enzymes transfering phosphate. It is therefore necessary for the energymetabolism and for many synthesis, i.e. DNA and RNA. Mg is one of the most widespread elements of the earthcrust and is found in many nutritients. Nevertheless the daily intake in the western countries is often under the recommended level, due to the western life stile. Regular alcohol intake lessens the resorption and regular sport enhances the excretion via the sweat. Especially in elderly people this can lead to a lack of Magnesium. This may promote muscular cramps and weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension or bronchial hyperreactivity. It seems to be reasonable to recommend liberally a oral supplementation with magnesium.

  9. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  10. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  11. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  12. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  13. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  14. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  15. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  16. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International Code of Signals, the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual, the...

  17. Determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-28

    Jan 28, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 5 ... supplementation after adjusting for other factors in the binary logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). .... Definition of compliance to iron supplementation.

  18. 5 CFR 610.306 - Supplemental regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental regulations. 610.306 Section 610.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.306 Supplemental...

  19. 40 CFR 152.132 - Supplemental distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental distribution. 152.132... Supplemental distribution. The registrant may distribute or sell his registered product under another person's name and address instead of (or in addition to) his own. Such distribution and sale is...

  20. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  1. Effects of Biogenic Supplementation on Xenobiotic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Van-Hieu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge acclimated to 2,4-D was used to degrade 2,4-D in batch reactions. Biogenic substrates of sucrose and peptone, in varying concentrations, separately and combined, were supplemented to the degradation reactions to find if, how and why biogenic supplementations were beneficial to the degradation of the xenobiotic. With the biogenic supplement as a variable and other reaction conditions, optimal constant supplementation schemes were found which suit as feasible ways for enhancing the degradation rate of 2,4-D. Among the number of supplementation combinations, the ones having optimal advantage were 50 mg/L of sucrose, 80 mg/L of peptone, each separately, and 20 mg/L sucrose and 40 mg/L peptone combined.

  2. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  3. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  4. Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Deborah L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 μg folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 μg folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003. There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22. Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490

  5. Rationale for Antioxidant Supplementation in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Marion

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS production and antioxidant defense mechanisms, is now a well recognized pathogenic process in hemodialysis (HD patients that could be involved in dialysis-related pathologies such as accelerated atherosclerosis, amyloidosis and anemia. This review is aimed at evaluating the rationale for preventive intervention against oxidative damage during HD as well as the putative causal factors implicated in this imbalance. The antioxidant system is severely impaired in uremic patients and impairment increases with the degree of renal failure. HD further worsens this condition mainly by losses of hydrophilic unbound small molecular weight substances such as vitamin C, trace elements and enzyme regulatory compounds. Moreover, inflammatory state due to the hemo-incompatibility of the dialysis system plays a critical role in the production of oxidants contributing further to aggravate the pro-oxidant status of uremic patients. Prevention of ROS overproduction can be achieved by improvement of dialysis biocompatibility, a main component of adequate dialysis, and further complimented by antioxidant supplementation. This could be achieved either orally or via the extracorporeal circuit. Antioxidants such as vitamin E could be bound on dialyzer membranes. Alternatively, hemolipodialysis consisting of loading HD patients with vitamin C or E via an ancillary circuit made of vitamin E-rich liposomes may be used.

  6. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance.

  7. 75 FR 48665 - Heritage Stoney Corners Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Heritage Stoney Corners Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Heritage Stoney Corners Wind Farm I, LLC's...Library system by clicking on the appropriate link in the above list. They are also available for review...

  8. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Fuchs, G.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Mahmud, H.; Tofail, F.; Black, R.E.; Prabhakar, H.; Santosham, M.

    2006-01-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during preg

  9. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Fuchs, G.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Mahmud, H.; Tofail, F.; Black, R.E.; Prabhakar, H.; Santosham, M.

    2006-01-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during

  10. Guide to mathematical tables supplement no 1

    CERN Document Server

    Burunova, N M; Fedorova, R M

    1960-01-01

    A Guide to Mathematical Tables is a supplement to the Guide to Mathematical Tables published by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1956. The tables contain information on subjects such as powers, rational and algebraic functions, and trigonometric functions, as well as logarithms and polynomials and Legendre functions. An index listing all functions included in both the Guide and the Supplement is included.Comprised of 15 chapters, this supplement first describes mathematical tables in the following order: the accuracy of the table (that is, the number of decimal places or significant

  11. Nutritional supplements in the surgical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Dudrick, Stanley J

    2011-08-01

    This article presents an overview of the current knowledge, status, and use of supplements by patients before surgical operations, together with the benefits expected of the supplements by the patients. The indications, potential advantages and disadvantages, and the relationships with various aspects of the preoperative preparation and postoperative management of surgical patients are discussed, with emphasis on the significant percentage of this population that is deficient in fundamental nutrients. Recent revisions and recommendations for some of the macronutrients are presented, together with a summary of federal regulations and an oversight of supplements.

  12. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  13. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  14. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Colombo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine (CyA is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John’s wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  15. Physiological Effects of Nucleotide Supplementation on Resistance Exercise Stress in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczala, Adam J; DuPont, William H; Comstock, Brett A; Flanagan, Shawn D; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kupchak, Brian R; Lee, Elaine C; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2016-02-01

    Nucleotide supplementation can reduce postexercise immunosuppression and hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) axis activation in endurance exercise models. Nucleotide supplementation may aid recovery from other exercise modalities, such as heavy resistance exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate the effects of nucleotide supplementation on the acute cortisol and immune responses to heavy resistance exercise and its effects on recovery. A double-blinded, crossover, mixed methods design with 10 men and 10 women was used. Each performed an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol (AHREP) after a loading period with a nucleotide or placebo supplement. Before and after the AHREP, and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post, blood samples were analyzed for cortisol, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. Creatine kinase (CK) was analyzed before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the AHREP. Performance measures, including peak back squat isometric force and peak countermovement jump power were also analyzed. Nucleotide supplementation resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreases in cortisol and MPO immediately after the AHREP, and significantly lower CK values 24 hours later. The AHREP significantly affected leukocyte counts; however, no treatment effects were observed. Greater isometric force was observed immediately after AHREP and at 24 hours and 48 hours with nucleotide supplementation. Nucleotide supplementation seems to attenuate muscle damage, HPA axis and immune system activation, and performance decrements after heavy resistance exercise.

  16. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, F. [Continental Cement Co., Inc., Hannibal, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  17. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity.

  18. QUALIMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IODINE SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Bazrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new iodine-containing supplements (ID derived from organic media collagenous animal protein (pork rind, carpatina and collagen and protein concentrates brands SCANGEN and PROMIL C95. It is shown that the use of these proteins as carriers of iodine is due to the high content of the amino acids glycine and alanine, which correlates with the degree of binding of iodine objects. New additives in addition to the special focus improve rheological properties of foods, including texture, appearance and functional properties. To assess the quality'ID and selection of preferred option the proposed qualitative assessment and a systematic approach to consider all'ID as a system to allocate its elements, to justify the principles of its construction and the requirements imposed on it, to build a General decision tree. For the construction of complex criterion for assessing the quality'ID proposed procedure formalization based on selection and evaluation of individual indicators, the definition of the laws of their change, depending on the dose, duration and temperature of exposure, and functional efficiency. For comparative evaluation of single and calculation of group indicators all of them were reduced to a single dimension by introducing the dimensionless coefficients of adequately describing the analyzed indicators. The article presents the calculated values of single and group of indicators characterizing technological properties 'ID: the degree of binding of iodine, the binding rate of iodine, heat losses of iodine and basic functional and technological properties of meat stuffing systems (water-binding, moisture-holding, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, obtained by the introduction of stuffing in the system studied'ID. At the final stage is the selection of the best 'ID, on the basis of an assessment of group performance.

  19. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  20. 21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Required Manufacturers' Reports for Listed Electronic Products § 1002.11 Supplemental reports. Prior to the introduction into commerce of a new or modified model within a...

  1. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  2. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-07

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  3. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C. M. Lopes; A. Dourado; R. Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    .... In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements...

  4. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  5. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lease having a well with indicated hydrocarbons; the reservoir may or may not be interpreted to extend... Mexico Planning Areas. (e) The Director may disclose the classification of blocks in supplemental...

  6. Chart Supplements - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Chart Supplements are searchable by individual airport in PDF format. They contain data on public and joint use airports, seaplane bases, heliports, VFR airport...

  7. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA-rich fish oil Green tea Hydroxycitrate L-carnitine Pantethine Pyruvate Sesamin There is no proof that ... are also known as Emagrece Sim and Herbathin dietary supplements. The FDA has warned consumers not to buy ...

  8. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    components not adequately identified on their package labels. .... data to support this theory. Although stimulants have been widely ... supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance –. Part 22. Br J Sports ...

  9. Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs Updated:Oct ... celebrations when eating habits tend to change. Common Medication Interactions Drugs with Food and Beverages Food and ...

  10. Americans Are Changing Their Supplements of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are an "affordable, safe and convenient way" for people to get nutrients that are missing from their diets, a CRN spokesperson said. D'Adamo and Kantor suggested that people talk to their doctors about any supplements they ...

  11. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  12. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  13. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  14. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient defi ciency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg / day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and / or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are confl icting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

  15. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Supplemental Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    34 background lighting condition, because of vehicular traffic in the vicinity of the signal generator, including cars that parked with their headlights on, we...Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals ; Supplemental Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is...unlimited. August 2015 Report No. CG-D-17-15 Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals ; Supplemental Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC

  16. Finite Groups with Some -Supplemented Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a subgroup of a finite group , a prime dividing the order of , and a Sylow -subgroup of for prime We say that is -supplemented in if there is a subgroup of such that and where denotes the subgroup of generated by all those subgroups of which are -quasinormally embedded in In this paper, we characterize -nilpotency and supersolvability of under the assumption that all maximal subgroups of are -supplemented in .

  17. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  18. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  19. Vitamin D supplements in the Indian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Lhamo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5% or alfacalcidiol (43% as tablets (51.1% and capsules (35.2%. Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large.

  20. The use of dietary supplements by athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Depiesse, Frederic; Geyer, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with a sports nutrition professional. A few supplements may be helpful to athletes in specific circumstances, especially where food intake or food choice is restricted. Vitamin and mineral supplements should be used only when a food-based solution is not available. Sports drinks, energy bars, and protein-carbohydrate shakes may all be useful and convenient at specific times. There are well-documented roles for creatine, caffeine, and alkalinizing agents in enhancing performance in high-intensity exercise, although much of the evidence does not relate to specific athletic events. There are potential costs associated with all dietary supplements, including the risk of a positive doping result as a consequence of the presence of prohibited substances that are not declared on the label.

  1. Host iron status and iron supplementation mediate susceptibility to erythrocytic stage Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martha A; Goheen, Morgan M; Fulford, Anthony; Prentice, Andrew M; Elnagheeb, Marwa A; Patel, Jaymin; Fisher, Nancy; Taylor, Steve M; Kasthuri, Raj S; Cerami, Carla

    2014-07-25

    Iron deficiency and malaria have similar global distributions, and frequently co-exist in pregnant women and young children. Where both conditions are prevalent, iron supplementation is complicated by observations that iron deficiency anaemia protects against falciparum malaria, and that iron supplements increase susceptibility to clinically significant malaria, but the mechanisms remain obscure. Here, using an in vitro parasite culture system with erythrocytes from iron-deficient and replete human donors, we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum infects iron-deficient erythrocytes less efficiently. In addition, owing to merozoite preference for young erythrocytes, iron supplementation of iron-deficient individuals reverses the protective effects of iron deficiency. Our results provide experimental validation of field observations reporting protective effects of iron deficiency and harmful effects of iron administration on human malaria susceptibility. Because recovery from anaemia requires transient reticulocytosis, our findings imply that in malarious regions iron supplementation should be accompanied by effective measures to prevent falciparum malaria.

  2. Zinc supplementation leads to immune modulation and improved survival in a juvenile model of murine sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Hammad A; Varisco, Brian M; Harmon, Kelli; Lahni, Patrick; Opoka, Amy; Wong, Hector R

    2017-01-01

    Children with severe sepsis are known to have altered zinc homeostasis and decreased circulating zinc levels, suggesting a role for zinc supplementation to improve outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that zinc supplementation would improve survival in a juvenile model of polymicrobial sepsis. Juvenile (13-14-d-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of zinc via i.p. injections (or vehicle) for 3 d prior to induction of polymicrobial sepsis via i.p. cecal slurry injections. Survival after sepsis was followed for 3 d, and bacterial clearance, ex vivo phagocytosis, systemic inflammatory markers and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation were quantified. We found a significant survival benefit and decreased bacterial burden among zinc supplemented mice when compared with the control group. Zinc supplementation also resulted in enhanced phagocytic activity, greater neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and NET formation, suggesting a possible mechanism for improved bacterial clearance and survival. We also noted decreased serum cytokine levels and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissue following zinc supplementation, suggesting attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response. In conclusion, zinc supplementation improves bacterial clearance, and hence survival, in juvenile mice with polymicrobial sepsis.

  3. 42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220... Programs § 403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance... determines whether or not a State regulatory program for Medicare supplemental health insurance policies...

  4. 20 CFR 227.2 - Initial supplemental annuity rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial supplemental annuity rate. 227.2... COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.2 Initial supplemental annuity rate. The supplemental annuity rate, before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum or any private pension, is $23 for...

  5. Relationship between Sport Nourishment Supplement and Athletes' Sports Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjiang Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the athlete's body recovery and rehabilitation to have sport nourishment supplement. In this study, it analyzed the effect of sport nourishment supplement with the overview of sport nourishment supplements, discussing the influence of sports nutrition supplement on sports abilities of athletes.

  6. Effect of selenium supplementation on spermatogenic cells of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganabadi, S; Halimatun, Y; Amelia Choong, K L; Nor Jawahir, A; Mohammed Hilmi, A

    2010-04-01

    Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is required for many physiological functions in animals and the potential relevance of selenium to the reproductive system of livestock has been considered by many researchers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of selenium supplementation on the spermatogenic cells of goat. Eight young male crossbred (Katjang x Boer) goats, aged between 9 to 11 months, were used in this study. The control group (CON; n = 4) was fed with a diet consisting of 60% Guinea grass and 40% concentrates while the treatment group (Se-SUP; n = 4) was fed with the same diet as the goats in the control group but with supplementation of 0.6mg selenium (sodium selenite powder) per goat daily for 100 days and were slaughtered on the 101st day. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean number of spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatozoa and the total number of spermatogenic cells between the CON and Se-SUP goat respectively. However, there was a significant increase (pspermatozoa was significantly decreased (pselenium supplementation increased the percentages of spermatids and decreased the percentages of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules in goats.

  7. Health claims made on multivitamin and mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovičić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic purpose of health claims is consumers' benefit by providing information about healthy eating habits. It is necessary for health claims to be scientifically substantiated and truthful. Health claims should not attribute to food the property of preventing, treating or curing a human disease. Use of health claims should be followed by a statement indicating the importance of a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this research was to examine the compliance of health claims made on multivitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels on the Serbian market with national regulation concerning health safety of dietary products.Methods: An assessment of labels of MVMs was done in two privately owned pharmacies in Novi Sad, Serbia in August 2010.Results: In total, 48 MVMs were sampled and 22 health claims were detected. Seven out of 22 health claims were in compliance with the national regulation. The main reason for health claims on foreign MVMs not to be compliant with the regulation in Serbia was inadequate or nonexistent translation of original labels.Conclusion: Detected use of terms such as "prevention", "treatment" and "indications" on vitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels is both forbidden and misleading to consumers. Coupled with inadequate or nonexistent translation of the labels, it leads to a low level of protection of Serbian consumers. It is necessary to establish an effective monitoring system for dietary supplements' labeling on a national scale in order toprotect consumers and their wellbeing.

  8. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  9. Cardiac effects of carnitine supplementation in experimental uraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Anne-Marie; Reddy, Veena; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease. The uraemic heart undergoes remodelling and changes in metabolic function. Experimental uraemia produces a reduction in the myocardial energy reserve phosphocreatine in parallel with left ventricular hypertrophy and depletion of serum carnitine. This study investigated the effects of chronic L-carnitine supplementation on myocardial substrate metabolism and function in the experimental uraemia. Experimental uraemia was induced surgically in male Sprague-Dawley rats via a subtotal nephrectomy. Carnitine was administered continuously via subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps. Cardiac function and substrate oxidation were assessed in vitro by means of isovolumic perfusion using 13C NMR, at 3 and 6 weeks. Uraemic animals exhibited anaemia, kidney dysfunction and systemic carnitine deficiency but no myocardial tissue carnitine deficiency. Myocardial hypertrophy was abolished following carnitine supplementation. This was associated with a reduction in glucose utilisation. In summary carnitine supplementation prevents cardiac hypertrophy, and this effect is amplified with the duration of treatment. This is associated with a reduction in myocardial glucose utilisation but no significant modulation of myocardial function.

  10. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with t requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to@ previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  11. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  12. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents.

  13. Comportamento da Curva de Lactação de Cabras Mestiças Saanen em Função da Suplementação de Concentrado e do Sistema de Produção Lactation Curve Behavior of Cross Breed Saanen Dairy Goats in Function of the Concentrate Supplementation and the Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Macedo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o comportamento da curva de lactação em 31 cabras mestiças Saanen e o efeito de duas estratégias de suplementação de concentrado: 30% das exigências em energia líquida da 3ª semana até o final da lactação (ESC.1; 60% das exigências em energia líquida diária da 3ª à 13ª semana, e 15% da 14ª semana até o final da lactação (ESC.2, em sistemas de produção semi-confinamento e pastagem. Os seguintes modelos foram avaliados: Wood linear e não-linear, Morant linear e não-linear, D-set e Grossman. O modelo Wood não linear foi o que melhor descreveu o comportamento da curva de lactação. A resposta da estratégia de suplementação com concentrado variou em função do sistema de produção. A estratégia de suplementação com concentrado afetou mais intensamente o comportamento da curva de lactação no sistema de produção semi-confinamento. A estratégia ESC.2, de suplementação com concentrado, resultou em mais dias para atingir o pico de produção, no sistema semi-confinamento, e maior produção no pico em ambos sistemas.The behavior of lactation curve of 31 crossbred Saanen dairy goats and the effect of two strategies of supplementation with concentrate: 30% of requirements in net energy from third week until the end of lactation (ESC.1; or 60% of requirements in daily net energy from the 3rd to the 13th week and 15% from 14th until the end of lactation (ESC.2, in a pasture or semi-confined systems, were studied. The following models were evaluated: Wood linear and non-linear, Morant linear and non-linear, D-set and Grossman. Non-linear Wood model was the best in describing the behavior of lactation curve. The responses to the strategy of supplementation with concentrate were different in function of production systems. The strategy of supplementation affected the behavior of lactation curve more intensely in the semi-confined system. The ESC.2 strategy of supplementation resulted in more days to reach

  14. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P=0.037. The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 (P=0.014 and ICAM-1 (P=0.048 were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P=0.003. These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

  15. Effects of creatine supplementation in taekwondo practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Manjarrez-Montes de Oca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taekwondo (TKD is a combat sport, which has also been proposed as a fitness program, with a strong anaerobic component. Creatine (Cr supplementation is used to improve both anaerobic exercise performance and body composition. Therefore, Cr supplementation could be beneficial in TKD. Aims: To determine the effect of Cr supplementation (50 mg/kg body wt on body composition, anaerobic power and blood chemistry in young male TKD practitioners. Methods: Ten male TKD practitioners (age [20 ± 2 yr], height [1.69 ± 0.06 m], and mass [67 ± 9.8 kg] participated in a placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. Body composition (DEXA, anaerobic power (Wingate Test, blood lactate and blood chemistry were measured before and after supplementation. Differences between data before and after supplementation were calculated for each treatment (Cr and Placebo and were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Fat mass (kg decreased after placebo (Mdn [IqR] = -0.75 [-1.44 to 0.03] and increased following Cr intake (0.17 [-0.77 to 1.13] kg (Z = 2.191, p < 0.028, r = 0.49. Serum triglyceride concentration (mg/mL increased after Cr (45.00 [-7.50 to 75.00] and decrease with placebo (-7.00 [-10.75 to 12.00] (Z = 2.090, p < 0.037, r = 0.47. No changes were found in others parameters. Conclusion: Cr supplementation may increase fat mass and serum triglycerides concentration in young male TKD practitioners without improvement in anaerobic power. Cr supplementation appears to be safe, but athletes should be careful when they want to loss fat.

  16. Metric Supplement to Technical Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Mark

    This manual is intended for use in training persons whose vocations involve technical drawing to use the metric system of measurement. It could be used in a short course designed for that purpose or for individual study. The manual begins with a brief discussion of the rationale for conversion to the metric system. It then provides a…

  17. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Gomez Malave, Heber; Flores-Urrutia, Monica C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-10-19

    Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women in low- and middle-income countries. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation has been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2015), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 July 2015) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (31 July 2015). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. This review includes 27 trials from 15 countries, but only 21 trials (with 5490 women) contributed data to the review. All studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. The methodological quality of included studies was mixed and most had high levels of attrition.The overall assessment of the quality of the evidence for primary infant outcomes was low and for maternal outcomes very low.Of the 21 trials contributing data, three studies provided intermittent iron alone, 14 intermittent iron + folic acid and four intermittent iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals in comparison with the same composition of supplements provided in a daily regimen.Overall, for women receiving any intermittent

  18. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  19. Effect of Pleuran ( β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation on cellular immune response after intensive exercise in elite athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabri ž, Ján; Bobov čák, Marián; Kuniaková, Renata; Majtán, Juraj

    2010-01-01

    .... The goal of this study was to determine whether β-glucan dietary supplementation from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus decreases the suppressed immune system responses induced by short-term high-intensity exercise in humans...

  20. Supplement analysis, Southpoint power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-16

    The Calpine Corporation applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) Parker-Davis project in western Arizona. Western, as a major electric transmission system owner is required by existing policies and regulations, to provide access to its transmission system, when requested by an eligible organization. The proposed interconnection would integrate a major source of new generation into the Parker-Davis system which would allow Calpine to supply its power to the electric wholesale market. Based on this application, Western`s proposed action is to enter into an interconnection agreement with Calpine.

  1. Role of dietary seaweed supplementation on growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Peixoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to appraise growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax when fed diets supplemented with seaweeds. A control diet (without supplementation was tested against 6 practical diets supplemented either with Gracilaria spp., Ulva spp., or Fucus spp., at 2.5 or 7.5% levels, plus an additional diet with a blend of the three seaweeds, each supplemented at 2.5% (Mix. Seabass juveniles (24.0 ± 6.3 g were fed the experimental diets for 84 days. Dietary seaweed supplementation had no effect on growth rate (DGI: 1.0–1.1, voluntary feed intake (11.3–12.6 g kg −1 ABW−1 day−1, feed conversion ratio (FCR: 1.2–1.4 and protein efficiency ratio (PER: 1.5–1.8. Lipase activity was significantly higher in fish fed Mix diet when compared to control (P < 0.05. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx was significantly affected by seaweeds presence regardless its level of supplementation (P < 0.05. The innate immune system was significantly altered by dietary seaweed supplementation (P < 0.05. Fish fed the 7.5% seaweed supplemented diets had a significant decrease in the ACH50 level, when compared to fish fed 2.5% seaweed supplemented diets (P < 0.05. Moreover, a combined effect of seaweed and supplementation level significantly affected lysozyme (LYS activity (P < 0.05. Fish fed diet with Ulva at 2.5% had an increase in LYS when compared to fish fed control and Ulva at 7.5% diets. Overall, our results indicate that the use of dietary seaweed supplementation improves immune and antioxidant responses in European seabass without compromising growth performance.

  2. Controlled supplemental oxygenation during tracheobronchial hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C M; Bada, H S; Korones, S B; Carter, M A; Wong, S P; Arheart, K

    1987-01-01

    The effect of controlled supplemental oxygenation without bag ventilation on transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (TcPO2) measurements during tracheobronchial hygiene was evaluated. Procedure A, no supplemental oxygenation, was compared to Procedure B, in which controlled supplemental oxygenation was used. For controlled supplemental oxygenation, the FiO2 was increased until TcPO2 measurements rose to levels between 90 and 100 torr. Sixteen premature infants who required mechanical ventilation were studied in the neonatal center. Both procedures were performed on each patient in random order. In both procedures, a precipitous decrease in TcPO2 was observed during chest vibration, and further decrease in TcPO2 was noted with endotracheal suctioning. Except for baseline readings, throughout the tracheobronchial hygiene TcPO2 measurements were significantly higher and more subjects maintained TcPO2 values greater than 40 torr in Procedure B. In Procedure A corresponding TcPO2 measurements were 40 torr or less. Mean recovery time was shorter in Procedure B, 2.1 +/- 2.3 minutes, than in Procedure A, 4.9 +/- 2.8 minutes, p less than .003. Thus, in most patients, controlled supplemental oxygenation without manual bag ventilation seems sufficient to prevent hypoxia during tracheobronchial hygiene; it also shortens recovery time from hypoxemia as a result of the bronchopulmonary hygiene procedure.

  3. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  4. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  5. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  6. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  7. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Rules of the Armed Services Board of Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Chapter 2 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Rules of the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is issuing a final rule to update the Rules...

  8. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  9. The marketing of dietary supplements in North America: the emperor is (almost) naked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2010-07-01

    Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly sold include exotic fruit juices (such as goji juice) and single herbs or mixture of herbs. Common claims made in support of particular supplements are that they are rich in antioxidants, induce detoxification, stimulate the immune system, and cause weight loss. Supplements are commonly sold through health food stores and by multilevel marketing. Sales may be promoted using bulk mail ("junk mail"), spam e-mails, and Web sites. A large part of marketing is based on claims that are blatantly dishonest. Whereas supplements for which good supporting evidence exists generally cost around $3-$4 per month, those that are heavily promoted for which there is little supporting evidence cost about $20-$60 per month. The major cause of this problem in the United States is weakness of the law. There is an urgent need for stricter regulation and for giving better advice to the general public.

  10. Effects of glutamine supplementation on the immune status in weaning piglets with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang; Li, Wei; Huang, Xuexin; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Yanmin; Hussain, Ahmad; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-01

    Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) often suffer from impaired cellular immunity, and weaning may further aggravate adverse effects of IUGR on development and function of the immune system. In this study, we investigated effects of glutamine supplementation on immune status in the intestines of weaning pigs with IUGR, focusing on molecular mechanisms underlying altered immune response. Piglets with IUGR were weaned at 21 days of age and received orally 1.22 g alanine or 1 g glutamine per kg body weight every 12 h. Weight gain and intestinal weight of weaning piglets were increased by glutamine supplementation. Levels of serum IgG in piglets supplemented with glutamine were increased compared with Control piglets. The production of IL-1 and IL-8 in the serum and jejunum was decreased by glutamine supplementation, whereas the levels of IL-4 in the serum and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 in the jejunum were increased. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the jejunum was increased by glutamine supplementation, but the degradation of inhibitor κB and the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were decreased. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation enhanced immune response in weaning piglets with IUGR. The effects of glutamine in IUGR are associated with increased Hsp70 expression and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  11. [Justifications for formula supplementation in low-risk newborns at a Baby-Friendly Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Cynthia de Almeida Brandão; Oliveira, Maria Inês do Couto; Mello, Rosane Reis de; Varela, Maria Angélica Bonfim; Fonseca, Vânia de Matos

    2008-09-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative recommends not giving newborn infants any food or drink other than breast milk unless medically indicated. This study investigated the prevalence and alleged reasons for giving formula supplementation to rooming-in newborns at a Baby-Friendly Hospital. Participants were 300 formula-supplemented, exclusively rooming-in newborns at a Baby-Friendly Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Reasons for formula supplementation were classified as acceptable or unacceptable in accordance with the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative guidelines. A supplementation prevalence of 33.3% was found. The main allegations were: hypogalactia/ agalactia (36.8%), conditions involving risk of hypoglicemia (21.1%), cesarean section (7.9%), stomatognathic system-related conditions (7.4%), maternal conditions (6.3%), and absence of maternal HIV serology (4.5%). Cesarean section was associated with a higher risk of supplementation (RP = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.77-2.55) as compared to vaginal delivery. Supplementation prevalence was high, and only 9% of the allegations were justified.

  12. Clioquinol synergistically augments rescue by zinc supplementation in a mouse model of acrodermatitis enteropathica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Geiser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4 in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE. This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ, a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4 (intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells.

  13. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  14. Supplemental irrigation potential and impact on downstream flow of Karkheh River basin in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessari, Behzad; Bruggeman, Adriana; Akhoond-Ali, Ali Mohammad; Oweis, Theib; Abbasi, Fariborz

    2016-05-01

    Supplemental irrigation of rainfed winter crops improves and stabilises crop yield and water productivity. Although yield increases by supplemental irrigation are well established at the field level, its potential extent and impact on water resources at the basin level are less researched. This work presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology for identifying areas that are potentially suitable for supplemental irrigation and a computer routine for allocating streamflow for supplemental irrigation in different sub-basins. A case study is presented for the 42 908 km2 upper Karkheh River basin (KRB) in Iran, which has 15 840 km2 of rainfed crop areas. Rainfed crop areas within 1 km from the streams, with slope classes 0-5, 0-8, 0-12, and 0-20 %, were assumed to be suitable for supplemental irrigation. Four streamflow conditions (normal, normal with environmental flow requirements, drought and drought with environmental flow) were considered for the allocation of water resources. Thirty-seven percent (5801 km2) of the rainfed croplands had slopes less than 5 %; 61 % (3559 km2) of this land was suitable for supplemental irrigation, but only 22 % (1278 km2) could be served with irrigation in both autumn (75 mm) and spring (100 mm), under normal flow conditions. If irrigation would be allocated to all suitable land with slopes up to 20 %, 2057 km2 could be irrigated. This would reduce the average annual outflow of the upper KRB by 9 %. If environmental flow requirements are considered, a maximum (0-20 % slopes) of 1444 km2 could receive supplemental irrigation. Under drought conditions a maximum of 1013 km2 could be irrigated, while the outflow would again be reduced by 9 %. Thus, the withdrawal of streamflow for supplemental irrigation has relatively little effect on the outflow of the upper KRB. However, if the main policy goal would be to improve rainfed areas throughout the upper KRB, options for storing surface water need to be developed.

  15. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt;

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  16. The status of probiotics supplementation during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noroyono Wibowo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been known for their use in medical field for quite a long time. Strong evidences are now available for the use of probiotics in clinical setting. One of the current issues on this topic is the use of probiotics in pregnancy. Recent studies showed that probiotics may be safe and beneficial for prenatal supplementation. In this review, we highlighted several proven use of probiotics supplementation in pregnant women. A few selected strains of probiotics showed promising outcome to prevent preterm labor and preeclampsia, and to reduce atopic eczema but not asthma and wheezing, in offspring of women who had prenatal probiotics supplementation. The mechanism of action responsible for this effect is closely related to the regulation of T cells, although the exact pathways are not defined yet.

  17. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  18. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Platon, T P; Ancheta, L P; Angeles, J C; Nunez, C B; Macapinlac, M P

    1979-12-01

    The effect of iron supplementation alone or in combination with ascorbic acid as a preventive and or corrective measure against anemia were tested using pregnant women seeking pre-natal consultation at various health centers in Greater Manila Area. One tablet containing 65 mg iron alone or in combination with ascorbic acid per day during a supplementation period which varied from 16.5 to 17.8 weeks maintained initial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in non-anemic women. Three tablets of the same iron preparation (total of 195 mg iron) daily resulted in significant increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in anemic women. Ascorbic acid had no apparent beneficial effect. Considering the positive response to iron treatment, it is recommended that a nationwide program of iron supplementation of pregnant Filipinos be undertaken.

  19. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  20. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  1. Whole body counting at nuclear facilities in North America (Supplement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, C.L.; Coleman, R.L.; Haskins, A.W.

    1985-10-01

    A survey was conducted on whole body counting at nuclear facilities. The survey was a supplement to an initial study done by the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1980. Data obtained from this study were used to compare current trends in whole body counting to those observed in the 1980 survey. The current status of this method of personnel monitoring is described, including a description of whole body counting systems in use, spectral analysis software, quality assurance programs, protocol for performing whole body counts, and the technical bases for whole body counting programs. 1 ref., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Acne and whey protein supplementation among bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonart, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative evidence supports the role of nutritional factors in acne. I report here 5 healthy male adult patients developing acne after the consumption of whey protein, a favorite supplement of those engaged in bodybuilding. These observations are in line with biochemical and epidemiological data supporting the effects of milk and dairy products as enhancers of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling and acne aggravation. Further prospective studies are required to determine the possible role of dietary supplements in the fitness and bodybuilding environment.

  3. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin

  4. Supplemental mandibular mesiodens: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganahalli, Manjunath; Honnappa, Adarsh; Chaitanya, Nallan Csk

    2013-12-01

    Developmental anomalies affecting the number of teeth are occasionally encountered clinically. The incidence of supernumerary teeth is approximately 1-3%. Among these are the maxillary anterior teeth, the maxillary molars, and the maxillo-mandubular premolars, in terms of descending order of occurrence. Supernumeraries occur rarely in the mandibular anterior teeth region. They may be either supplemental or rudimentary. We are reporting case of a supplemental type of supernumerary tooth in the mandibular anterior region and steps which were followed to distinguish supernumerary tooth from the normal series.

  5. Vitamin A supplementation and risk of atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, Nicholas; Balde, Aliu; Lisse, Ida Marie;

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood.......The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood....

  6. Sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais Feeding systems and oyster shell meal supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Emygdio de Faria

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar diferentes sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos, determinados constituintes sangüíneos, e sobre a disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo dietéticos, em 120 galinhas Lohmann LSL, com 70 semanas de idade, distribuídas em 20 unidades experimentais com seis aves cada. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: sistemas de alimentação (ad libitum e jejum das 7 às 18 h e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras (0 e 6,5 g/ave/dia, totalizando quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada. Os resultados mostraram menor consumo de ração para as galinhas submetidas à restrição alimentar. Produção, peso e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar, porcentagem de casca, espessura de casca, densidade aparente dos ovos e os coeficientes de disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o fornecimento de ração após às 18 h e a suplementação de casca de ostras não se mostraram vantajosos para o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different feeding schedule and oyster shell supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality, determined blood constituents, and on the calcium and phosphorus apparent availability using 120 laying hens Lohmann LSL, aged 70 weeks, distributed in 20 experimental units with six hens each. A completely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2: feeding systems (ad libitum and fasting from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. and oyster shell meal supplementation (0 and 6.5 g/hen/day, totalizing four treatments with five replicates each. The results showed smaller feed intake with fasting. The characteristics egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed:gain ratio, shell percent, shell thickness, egg

  7. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html New Year, Fresh Recipes Enjoy these free recipes and meal plans to start 2017 on a healthy note. More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free ...

  8. [Nutritional supplementation in children and adolescents practicing fencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of nutritional supplementation during the days of training and the days free of training in children and adolescents who attend sports schools, Questionnaires on the use of nutritional supplementation were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practice fencing. The factor gender-age had statistically significant impact only on using mineral supplementation by the studied students. Using ergogenic aids as well as using vitamin and mineral supplements or other kind of supplementation was rare in the studied population, but was more frequent during the days of training. Nutritional supplementation was always used by higher percentage of boys than girls.

  9. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. This is an update of a previously published review. To establish whether in people with cystic fibrosis, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life. To assess adverse effects associated with using these supplements. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register comprising references from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted companies marketing oral calorie supplements.Last search: 18 October 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing use of oral calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with no specific intervention or additional nutritional advice in people with cystic fibrosis. We independently selected the included trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the authors of included trials and obtained additional information for two trials. We identified 21 trials and included three, reporting results from 131 participants lasting between three months and one year. Two trials compared supplements to additional nutritional advice and one to no intervention. Two of the included trials recruited only children. In one trial the risk of bias was low across all domains, in a second trial the risk of bias was largely unclear and in the third mainly low. Blinding of participants was unclear in two of the trials. Also, in one trial the clinical condition of groups appeared to be unevenly balanced at baseline and in another trial there were

  10. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  11. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria De-Regil

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015 and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015. Selection criteria: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials with randomization at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently i assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii extracted data from included studies, and iii assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements

  12. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-14

    Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015) and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements alone, particularly on a daily basis, had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D than those receiving no intervention or placebo, but this

  13. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  14. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  15. Effects of long-term dietary supplementation of monensin or saccharomyces cerevisiae on blood acid-base and productive performance in growing feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Benedito, José Luis; Méndez, Jesús; García-Partida, Paulino; Vázquez, Patricia; Pereira, Victor; López-Alonso, Marta; Hernández, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two dietary supplements (monensin and a live yeast culture) on acid-base balance in steers maintained in a commercial feedlot system, considering effects over the growing period (14 to 23 weeks of age). A 63-day feedlot study was performed using 42 double-muscled Belgian Blue steers. Steers were allotted randomly to one of the three study groups: (1) control group [no supplementation, C], (2) monensin supplementation [MON] at a concentration of 30 mg/kg (DM basis), and (3) live Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain supplementation [SACC] at a dose of 500 mg/kg (DM basis). Venous blood samples were collected for the measurement of acid-base parameters and L-lactate. Production parameters were also used as a complementary tool for understanding the internal changes associated with supplementation. Our results show that during the study period no statistical differences were observed between supplemented and control steers, although non-supplemented animals tended to gain more efficiently than those fed monensin or yeast. Nevertheless, taking into account blood parameters, these control animals showed a greater risk of acid overload due to a more marked decline in blood buffer levels over time in comparison with supplemented steers although no differences were observed between monensin or yeast supplemented animals. Additionally, significant effect of supplementation was observed in packed cell volume (PCV) values.

  16. [Food supplements : Legal requirements, borderline issues and other aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Food supplements are classified as foods. They are concentrated sources of vitamins and minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. Their purpose is to supplement the normal diet. Food supplements have to comply with the applicable legal provisions of the food law. In order to ensure the health protection of consumers, food supplements that will be put on the market must be safe. For food supplements, regulations exist at the EU level as well as at the national level. Specific requirements are regulated in the Ordinance on Food Supplements, with which the European Directive on Food Supplements was transposed into German law. The European and German legal provisions applicable to food supplements are outlined. Important aspects regarding the delimitation between food supplements and medicinal products are addressed. These borderline issues are of special importance to food supplements which are marketed in dose forms such as capsules, tablets etc., the typical forms of medicinal products. Problems resulting from the lack of harmonized rules are described. The European harmonization of the rules is still incomplete for substances with a nutritional or physiological effect other than vitamins and minerals for use in food supplements. The setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals present in food supplements as envisaged in the Directive on Food Supplements has not yet been implemented.

  17. Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

    Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

  18. Using Smartphones to Supplement Classroom Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Supplementing classroom reading with smartphones can develop better vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, technology skills, and writing. This article connects smartphones to reading complex, informational text and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The author suggests that smartphones motivate, scaffold comprehension, and invite…

  19. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  20. Using Smartphones to Supplement Classroom Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Supplementing classroom reading with smartphones can develop better vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, technology skills, and writing. This article connects smartphones to reading complex, informational text and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The author suggests that smartphones motivate, scaffold comprehension, and invite…