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Sample records for supplement afcrl scientific

  1. Proceedings (Supplement), AFCRL Scientific Balloon Symposium (8th) 30 September to 3 October 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-02

    fiberglass shell with a rigid PVC foam plastic core. (See Figure 12.) These materials are relatively non-sensitive to ultraviolet degradation. The...rot ’rh 1-1ectica Fil ,Cv-u l ldh ilio isu Iýigure 19. plýutf_)tN.pe (),)tic-; sNAcri Te.-ited During Fine [A)(,k Program Olt, Aff Amon ITIV FiE

  2. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  3. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Avigan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States (US, the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized.

  4. Proceedings of AFCRL Scientific Balloon Symposium (8th) Held at Hyannis, Mass. on 30 September to 3 October 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-21

    8217 ■ „„ .,,.,„,...... „^ bntcd to tha bmJ’.sX« X-axlt «toll« tb« balloon VM hold In ■ flxod poaltlon. Tbo pitch uglo and roll angla wara raeerdad tbroufbout tha PWPW with food ...9. Double Theodolite Solution 399 _. ,-„. ,-,— -• "!■ SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAMS IN USE 1. TRAJEaORY PLOT FROM GMO 2. HORIZONTAL DISTANCE

  5. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1,Scientific Bases and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David

    2001-05-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754

  6. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1: Scientific Bases and Analyses, Rev 00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dobson

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23 013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054] [DIRS 124754]). By making the large amount of information developed on Yucca Mountain available in stages, the DOE intends to provide the public and interested parties with time to review the available materials and to formulate and

  7. OGO program summary, supplement 1. [updated bibliography for all OGO missions and scientific results from OGO 5 and 6 missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Scientific results from OGO-5 and OGO-6 experiments are summarized and approximately 200 citations are included to update the 1975 OGO bibliography. Personal author, subject, and corporate source indexes are included. The supplement follows the same format as that of the OGO Program Summary; it does not repeat the finalized information in the original publication, which should be consulted for indexes of experiments, experimenters, institutions, and the glossary of abbreviations and acronyms.

  8. Influence of 'soft' versus 'scientific' health information framing and contradictory information on consumers' health inferences and attitudes towards a food supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    It is a requirement that health claims be scientifically founded. However, their phrasing is criticised for being unappealing and cumbersome to communicate to consumers. Instead, it has been found that consumers respond favourably to non-scientifically phrased ‘soft’ health information. We aimed...... to explore to what extent health claims presented in the context of (thus framed) scientific phrasing of health information impacts health inferences and attitudes towards a product when compared to ‘soft’ health-related information framing. Different versions of mock resveratrol food supplement descriptions...... were presented in a between subjects experimental design conducted in the US and Denmark. Furthermore, respondents were shown mock-up media reports contradicting the earlier information and asked to repeat their assessment of health inferences and their attitude. This was done to assess how robust...

  9. Intradialytic creatine supplementation: A scientific rationale for improving the health and quality of life of dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallimann, Theo; Riek, Uwe; Möddel, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The CK/PCr-system, with creatine (Cr) as an energy precursor, plays a crucial role in cellular physiology. In the kidney, as in other organs and cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements, energy-charged phospho-creatine (PCr) acts as an immediate high-energy source and energy buffer, and as an intracellular energy transport vehicle. A maximally filled total Cr (Cr plus PCr) pool is a prerequisite for optimal functioning of the body and its organs, and health. Skeletal- and cardiac muscles of dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are depleted of Cr in parallel with the duration of dialysis. The accompanying accumulation of cellular damage seen in CKD patients lead to a deterioration of musculo-skeletal and neurological functioning and poor quality of life (QOL). Therefore, to counteract Cr depletion, it is proposed to supplement CKD patients with Cr. The anticipated benefits include previously documented improvements in the musculo-skeletal system, brain and peripheral nervous system, as well as improvements in the common comorbidities of CKD patients (see below). Thus, with a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive Cr supplementation marked improvements in quality of life (QOL) and life span are likely reached. To avoid Cr and fluid overload by oral Cr administration, we propose intradialytic Cr supplementation, whereby a relatively small amount of Cr is added to the large volume of dialysis solution to a final concentration of 1-10mM. From there, Cr enters the patient's circulation by back diffusion during dialysis. Because of the high affinity of the Cr transporter (CRT) for Cr affinity for Cr (Vmax of CRT for Cr=20-40μM Cr), Cr is actively transported from the blood stream into the target cells and organs, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain, proximal tubules of kidney epithelial cells, neurons, and leukocytes and erythrocytes, which all express CRT and depend on the CK/PCr system. By this intradialytic strategy, only as much Cr

  10. Issues and Scientific Use of Sports Nutritional Supplements by Athletes%运动员应用营养品存在的问题与科学应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊木清

    2012-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the history of sports nutritional supplements their classification and functional evaluation in China, and focuses on discussing the issues and scientific use of sports nutritional supplements by athletes.%简述了运动营养品在中国的发展、运动营养品的分类及功效评价,重点阐述了运动营养品本身及运动员应用存在的问题与改进措施及如何科学应用运动营养品。

  11. Transient calibration of a groundwater-flow model of Chimacum Creek Basin and vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5160

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    A steady-state groundwater-flow model described in Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5160, ”Numerical Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Chimacum Creek Basin and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington” was developed to evaluate potential future impacts of growth and of water-management strategies on water resources in the Chimacum Creek Basin. This supplement to that report describes the unsuccessful attempt to perform a calibration to transient conditions on the model. The modeled area is about 64 square miles on the Olympic Peninsula in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington. The geologic setting for the model area is that of unconsolidated deposits of glacial and interglacial origin typical of the Puget Sound Lowlands. The hydrogeologic units representing aquifers are Upper Aquifer (UA, roughly corresponding to recessional outwash) and Lower Aquifer (LA, roughly corresponding to advance outwash). Recharge from precipitation is the dominant source of water to the aquifer system; discharge is primarily to marine waters below sea level and to Chimacum Creek and its tributaries. The model is comprised of a grid of 245 columns and 313 rows; cells are a uniform 200 feet per side. There are six model layers, each representing one hydrogeologic unit: (1) Upper Confining unit (UC); (2) Upper Aquifer unit (UA); (3) Middle Confining unit (MC); (4) Lower Aquifer unit (LA); (5) Lower Confining unit (LC); and (6) Bedrock unit (OE). The transient simulation period (October 1994–September 2009) was divided into 180 monthly stress periods to represent temporal variations in recharge, discharge, and storage. An attempt to calibrate the model to transient conditions was unsuccessful due to instabilities stemming from oscillations in groundwater discharge to and recharge from streamflow in Chimacum Creek. The model as calibrated to transient conditions has mean residuals and standard errors of 0.06 ft ±0.45 feet for groundwater levels and 0.48 ± 0.06 cubic

  12. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations for the cultivation of the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11 and MON 810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize Bt11 or MON 810 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Statement supplementing the evaluation of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on insect resistant genetically modified maize Bt11 for cultivation. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making process; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  13. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507 for cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize 1507 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Scientific Opinion updating the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on maize 1507. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making processes; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  14. Scientific skepticism and new discoveries: an analysis of a report of zinc/phytase supplementation and the efficacy of botulinum toxins in treating cosmetic facial rhytides, hemifacial spasm and benign essential blepharospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L

    2014-10-01

    A recent paper in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology by Koshy and colleagues (2012, 11( 4 ):507-512) report on "Effect of Dietary Zinc and Phytase Supplementation on Botulinum Toxin Treatments" and conclude by claiming the discovery of "a potentially meaningful role for zinc and/or phytase supplementation in increasing the degree and duration of botulinum toxin effect in the treatment of cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm". The purpose of this paper is to examine these published claims for possible methodological and design errors and potential sources of bias. The authors evaluated the published results in comparison to the published literature on zinc deficiency, the role of phytase, prior reports of an effect of zinc on activity of botulinum toxin, issues of study design and execution and if the reported results of the study supported the study's conclusions. Multiple issues are present in the reported study, which appear to invalidate its conclusions. These areas include lack of direct evidence for the presence of clinical or subclinical zinc deficiency in the study population or for the level of phytate in the study population sufficient to interfere with zinc absorption in these subjects. Additionally, there is ambiguity as to the actual dose of zinc used as well as in the study design itself. Also there is a failure of the study through the "unmasking" of the crossover design. There is potential financial conflict of interest in the study execution that may have biased the reported results. Finally there is inadequate data presented to evaluate the claims made of a "new discovery" as to the three disease entities reported on and the various botulinum toxins used in each of the three treatment arms of the study. Based on this evaluation, it appears that a high level of clinical and scientific skepticism is warranted concerning any claim of a beneficial effect of zinc and phytase supplementation on the efficacy or

  15. Supplementation and therapeutic use of vitamin D in patients with multiple sclerosis: Consensus of the Scientific Department of Neuroimmunology of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralina Guimarães Brum

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory, autoimmune, demyelinating, and degenerative central nervous system disease. Even though the etiology of MS has not yet been fully elucidated, there is evidence that genetic and environmental factors interact to cause the disease. Among the main environmental factors studied, those more likely associated with MS include certain viruses, smoking, and hypovitaminosis D. This review aimed to determine whether there is evidence to recommend the use of vitamin D as monotherapy or as adjunct therapy in patients with MS. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANNE, and LILACS databases for studies published until September 9 th , 2013, using the keywords “multiple sclerosis”, “vitamin D”, and “clinical trial”. There is no scientific evidence up to the production of this consensus for the use of vitamin D as monotherapy for MS in clinical practice.

  16. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  17. Scientific Opinion on ChromoPrecise® cellular bound chromium yeast added for nutritional purposes as a source of chromium in food supplements and the bioavailability of chromium from this source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of ChromoPrecise® cellular bound chromium yeast added for nutritional purposes as a source of chromium in food supplements and the bioavailability of chromium from this source. ChromoPrecise® is a yeast preparation with an enriched trivalent chromium content, obtained by culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of chromium chloride. A daily intake of 100 µg chromium(III. There are limited data on the nature and identity of the organic chromium(III compounds contained in chromium-enriched yeast and on their toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic behaviour in the body. Overall, the Panel concluded that the bioavailability in man of chromium from chromium-enriched yeast is potentially up to approximately ten times higher than that of chromium from chromium chloride. A NOAEL of 2500 mg/kg bw/day ChromoPrecise® was identified in a 90-day feeding study in rats; no evidence of adverse effects of chromium yeasts were reported in other animal studies investigating the effects of dietary supplementation with chromium yeast. ChromoPrecise® chromium yeast was non-genotoxic in a range of in vitro genotoxicity studies. Although no information was available on the chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity or reproductive toxicity of ChromoPrecise® chromium yeast, the ANS Panel has previously concluded that trivalent chromium is not carcinogenic, and limited data on other chromium yeasts provide no evidence of an effect on reproductive endpoints. No adverse effects have been reported in clinical efficacy trials with chromium yeasts. The Panel concluded that the use of ChromoPrecise® chromium yeast in food supplements is not of concern, despite the lack of data on the nature and identity of the organic chromium(III compounds contained in the product, provided that the intake does not exceed 250 μg/day, as recommended by the WHO.

  18. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects. The Panel considers that the food constituent, supplemental folate, which is the subject of the claim, is sufficiently...... characterised. Increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake is a beneficial physiological effect in the context of reducing the risk of neural tube defects. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the association between low maternal folate intakes and an increased risk...... of neural tube defects is well established, and that a recent systematic review showed an effect of maternal folic acid intakes on the risk of neural tube defects. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate...

  20. Scientific publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessary work for developing a scientific publication is sometimes underestimated and requires the effective participation of many players to obtain a result in good standard. Initially it depends upon the determination of the authors that decide to write the scientific article. Scientific writing is a very challenging and time consuming task, but at the same time essential for any scientist. A published scientific article is unquestionably one of the main indicators of scientific production, especially if published in a qualified scientific journal with highly qualified editorial committee and strict peer review procedure. By looking at evaluation criteria for scientific production of the several Thematic Scientific Committees of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq it becomes clear publications in scientific journals that has certified quality is the most important item in the evaluation of a scientist production.

  1. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  2. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  3. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  4. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not getting the whole story about how supplements work, if they are really effective, and the risks you take by using them. Androstenedione and DHEA ... like testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart ... height. Natural steroid supplements can also cause breast development ...

  5. Guiding Students’ Scientific Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Peker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many science education programs involve scientists in K-12 education to support students’ engagement in scientific practices and learning science process skills and scientific epistemologies. Little research has studied the actions of scientists in classrooms or how scientists’ actions may (or may not supplement or complement the actions of teachers. In this descriptive study, we explore how teachers and scientists, working in pairs, guide high school students in the practice of scientific experimentation. In particular, we study the ways by which teachers and scientists act independently and in concert to guide students in designing and conducting biology experiments with unknown outcomes. We analyzed video recordings of classroom instruction in two different school settings, focusing on teachers’ and scientists’ acts as they are manifested through their language-in-use during face-to-face interactions with students. We argue that scientists and teachers act to support students in scientific experimentation in both distinct and common ways influenced by the particular teaching acts they perform and distinct authority roles they possess in the classroom (e.g., classroom authority vs. scientific authority.

  6. Scientific news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    The Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus acquired funds through NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) to participate in a 7-year interdisciplinary cooperative programme of Indonesian and Dutch scientific institutions aiming at research in Irian Jaya, Cenderawasih province (the Bird’s Hea

  7. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  9. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  10. Scientific Crossbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Rolf

    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic. To deve......This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic....... To develop a more adequate way of capturing what is at stake in interdisciplinarity, I suggest drawing inspiration from the contemporary philosophical literature on scientific representation. The development of a representation based approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity, and the discussion...... of the concept of “scientific discipline” and disciplinary difference. This chapter provides reasons to assume that conventional scientific taxonomies do not provide a good basis for analysing epistemic aspects of interdisciplinary science. On this background it is argued that the concept of “approaches...

  11. Scientific Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  12. 《西游补》、《浮士德》和《时间旅行机》--游走于文学的幻想和科学的时间中%A Supplement to Journey to the West,Faust and Time Traveling Machine:Winding Their Way in Literature Fantasy and Scientific Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一方

    2013-01-01

      对中外三部不同文学作品《西游补》、《浮士德》、《时间旅行机》进行比较,它们最主要的共同特点是在时间中游走。这是从神话小说、浪漫主义到科幻小说的发展,也是人类从幻想到现代科学的发展途径。%Analyzing the books of A Supplement to Journey to the West,Faust and Time Traveling machine,We find that their main com-mon feature is winding its way in time .It is the development from mythological novel and romantism to scientific novel .In fact it is also for humans the development from fantasy to modern science .

  13. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Promoting Scientific Spirit to Cultivate Scientific Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific culture is an advanced culture that is based on scientific knowledge and supported by the scientific method, with scientific thinking as its core and scientific spirit as its soul. During the process of modernization, it has profound impacts on human society in terms of values, ethics, mode of thinking, lifestyle and code of conduct, offering human civilization an important ideological source, physical foundation, technological tool and effective carrier.

  10. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  11. Clinical use of glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2008-10-01

    Endogenous production of glutamine may become insufficient during critical illness. The shortage of glutamine is reflected as a decrease in plasma concentration, which is a prognostic factor for poor outcome in sepsis. Because glutamine is a precursor for nucleotide synthesis, rapidly dividing cells are most likely to suffer from a shortage. Therefore, exogenous glutamine supplementation is necessary. In particular, when i.v. nutrition is given, extra glutamine supplementation becomes critical, because most present formulations for i.v. use do not contain any glutamine for technical reasons. The major part of endogenously produced glutamine comes from skeletal muscle. For patients staying a long time in the intensive care unit (ICU), the muscle mass decreases rapidly, which leaves a tissue of diminishing size to maintain the export of glutamine. The metabolic and nutritional adaptation in long-staying ICU patients is poorly studied and is one of the fields that needs more scientific evidence for clinical recommendations. To date, there is evidence to support the clinical use of glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients, in hematology patients, and in oncology patients. Strong evidence is presently available for i.v. glutamine supplementation to critically ill patients on parenteral nutrition. This must be regarded as the standard of care. For patients on enteral nutrition, more evidence is needed. To guide administration of glutamine, there are good arguments to use measurement of plasma glutamine concentration for guidance. This will give an indication for treatment as well as proper dosing. Most patients will have a normalized plasma glutamine concentration by adding 20-25 g/24 h. Furthermore, there are no reported adverse or negative effects attributable to glutamine supplementation.

  12. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...

  13. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  14. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  15. [Trade of food supplement: food or drug supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Margherita; Petrelli, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade. So we try to disentangle the intricate legislation with the national (and European) Court contributions. In particular, after a brief analysis of the rulings of the Competition and Market Authority on misleading advertising and by the Supreme Court in relation to crimes against health damage, it will come to the analysis of interpretative problems of a purely criminal law nature, in light of the recent proposal for reform about agribusiness crimes. Finally, it will be inevitable to analyze briefly the recent implementation of the d.lgs. n. 17/2004 concerning the distance trade of non-prescription medicines. There is no doubt that now, internet represents the preferred distribution channel for pharmaceutical products (including food supplement) and the most tempting "place" (because of control difficulties) for the realization of criminal conduct. The conclusion will be that the need to achieve more targeted and homogeneous regulatory measures, while also having to protect - public and individual - health through the protection of the legal security in one with the protection of the right to information.

  16. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  17. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient defi ciency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg / day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and / or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are confl icting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

  18. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  20. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recently,Zhao Zhixin,a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuilding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily,sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow:

  1. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories.

  2. What is scientific misconduct?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Selected examples from history are discussed to illustrate the many difficulties in judging scientific behavior. Scientific misconduct is not an a priori given concept but must first be defined. The definitions of scientific misconduct used in the USA and in Denmark are discussed as examples....

  3. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  4. “Standard Of Identity” For Probiotic Supplemented Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, S

    2013-01-01

    With the scientific advancement coupled with consumer’s inclination towards natural and health-promoting foods, probiotic have been projected as a new nutritional additive. In recent years, probiotic supplemented foods have gained popularity but consumers are not sure whether they are paying money for the appropriate product. Market survey indicated that many probiotic supplemented foods are being sold either with no or misleading label information regar...

  5. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  6. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  7. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...

  8. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  9. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  10. Scientific dishonesty and good scientific practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D; Axelsen, N H; Riis, P

    1993-04-01

    Scientific dishonesty has been the subject of much public interest in recent years. Although the problem has had a low profile in Denmark, there is no reason to believe that it is non-existent. Several preconditions known to be important prevail here as well as in other countries, such as pressure to publish and severe competition for research grants and senior academic positions. The Danish Medical Research Council (DMRC) decided to respond to this problem by preparing a report on scientific dishonesty with suggestions to the research institutions on rules for good scientific practice and procedures for investigation of suspected dishonesty. To this end, an investigatory system was suggested. The system should consist of two regional committees and one national committee. They should be headed by high court judges and experienced health sciences researchers as members. The committees will investigate cases reported to them and conclude on whether dishonesty has been established and on whether the scientific work should be retracted. Sanctions shall remain the task of the institutions. Preventive measures comprise open access to and a long storage period for scientific data.

  11. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  12. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    and process of scientific work completed by 20 pairs of participants (upper level undergraduate science students) working face-to-face and remotely. We collected scientific outcomes (graded lab reports) to investigate the quality of scientific work, post-questionnaire data to measure the adoptability......The evaluation of scientific collaboratories has lagged behind their development. Do the capabilities afforded by collaboratories outweigh their disadvantages? To evaluate a scientific collaboratory system, we conducted a repeated-measures controlled experiment that compared the outcomes...... of collaborating remotely. While the data analysis produced null results, considered as a whole, the analysis leads us to conclude there is positive potential for the development and adoption of scientific collaboratory systems....

  13. Supplements for exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.

  14. Use of nutritional supplements in sports: risks, knowledge, and behavioural-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, O; Márquez, S

    2009-01-01

    A large number of recreational and elite athletes use nutritional supplements in hopes of improving performance. These aids can be costly and potentially harmful, and the advertised ergogenic gains are often based on little or no scientific evidence. Due to the lack of regulation of the dietary supplement industry, an abundance of supplement products of dubious value, content, and quality are now available around the world. Many supplement products contain substances that are prohibited in sport or that have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For athletes, lack of knowledge or misinformation has been established despite numerous sources of information being available, and the reasons for, and implications of, unsupervised and unrestricted supplement use require further attention. In addition to the necessity of an appropriate regulation of dietary supplements, nutritional education and scientifically sound guidance for athletes is required. Intervention and prevention efforts should be particularly targeted to adolescents.

  15. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  16. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements to be proven safe to FDA's satisfaction before they are marketed. For most claims made ... the manufacturer or seller to prove to FDA's satisfaction that the claim is accurate or truthful before ...

  17. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  18. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  19. Herbal Products and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs ... not work the way it should. For example, St. John's wort reduces the amount of certain drugs absorbed by ...

  20. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  1. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly.

  2. Science and Scientificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Liang Xu; Xin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ A question about science We are now living in a scientific era, in which the theory and practice of science have penetrated into all aspects of society and science is often a hot topic.However, what on earth is science? This question is largely neglected by many people, even researchers focusing on scientific studies may not have a very clear understanding of it.

  3. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Recently, Zhao Zhixin, a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuiiding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily, sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow: China Youth Daily: What do you think about food therapy as a regimen?

  4. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...

  5. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  6. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    and process of scientific work completed by 20 pairs of participants (upper level undergraduate science students) working face-to-face and remotely. We collected scientific outcomes (graded lab reports) to investigate the quality of scientific work, post-questionnaire data to measure the adoptability......The evaluation of scientific collaboratories has lagged behind their development. Do the capabilities afforded by collaboratories outweigh their disadvantages? To evaluate a scientific collaboratory system, we conducted a repeated-measures controlled experiment that compared the outcomes......, the quantitative data showed no statistically significant differences with respect to effectiveness and adoption.The qualitative data helped explain this null result: participants reported advantages and disadvantages working under both conditions and developed work-arounds to cope with the perceived disadvantages...

  7. Scientific Utopia: I. Opening scientific communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nosek, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Existing norms for scientific communication are rooted in anachronistic practices of bygone eras, making them needlessly inefficient. We outline a path that moves away from the existing model of scientific communication to improve the efficiency in meeting the purpose of public science - knowledge accumulation. We call for six changes: (1) full embrace of digital communication, (2) open access to all published research, (3) disentangling publication from evaluation, (4) breaking the "one article, one journal" model with a grading system for evaluation and diversified dissemination outlets, (5) publishing peer review, and, (6) allowing open, continuous peer review. We address conceptual and practical barriers to change, and provide examples showing how the suggested practices are being used already. The critical barriers to change are not technical or financial; they are social. While scientists guard the status quo, they also have the power to change it.

  8. β-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Phillip M

    2014-06-01

    β-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic β-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that β-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. β-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with β-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from β-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using β-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. β-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic

  9. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue her

  10. [Herbal supplements in sports: use and abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, Luciano; Braganò, Maria Cristina; Botrè, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The use of natural supplements, included herbal supplements, by athletes has become an habit which often lacks any valid scientific rationale. It appears evident that this habit may entail health risks (including more or less serious adverse effects), consequent either: 1) to the pharmacodynamic effects of the drugs at high doses; or 2) to the occurrence of accumulation especially when their administration is not justified by a reduced synthesis or an increased demand; or 3) to the occurrence of intolerance; or, finally, 4) to the presence of unlabelled ingredients. The abuse of this kind of products always entails risks to the consumer, not only to the elite athlete, that can incur an adverse analytical finding on the occasion of anti-doping tests, but also to the amateur sportsman, for the possible occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR).

  11. Preperation of Scientific Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Pekdağ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide information on the preparation of the scientific movies as a part of Information and Communications Technology. The preparation stages of the scientific movies and their visualizations on computer screens were described. For preparing movies, the unit on the "acid-base reactions" on 11th grade French chemistry curriculum was used, and the knowledge presented in the movies was determined by an analysis of the 11th grade chemistry curriculum and the chemistry books. Also, the information that will be beneficial for readers and researchers on the scenario preparation of scientific movies and picture selection was mentioned.

  12. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews......, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...... groups. Thereby, I argue that research groups and their role in scientific practice deserve more philosophical attention than they have hitherto received. In contemporary natural science, research groups are key to the formulation and corroboration of scientific knowledge claims prior...

  13. Scientific Freedom and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretsos, James M.

    1976-01-01

    Recommends that the American Society for Information Science become involved and cooperate with the American Association for the Advancement of Science in the issue of scientific freedom and responsibility. (Author/PF)

  14. [Challenge in scientific publication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gilson Luiz; de Freitas, Eliane Gonçalves

    2003-05-01

    We discuss the main problems which make a scientific text difficult to find, to be read or to be accepted by readers. A scientific text is considered a logical argument. Therefore, methods, results and data from literature are premises supporting the conclusions of the work; and in the "Introduction" session, the justification corroborates the objective of the study. This conception makes the text a hermetically coherent structure where only the necessary data should be included (some controversy is still pertinent). In a second step, we show formal mistakes in scientific writing which make texts less attractive. Thus, we give examples of errors or inadequacy of formal aspects of presenting titles, abstracts, results (figures and tables), and grammar mistakes in Portuguese (but also valid for English grammar). After that, we emphasize the need for writing in international language (English) and for publication in periodicals with international impact on the scientific community. Finally, considerations to improve the Brazilian periodicals in the biological area are presented.

  15. Plagiarism in Scientific Publishing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Izet Masic

    2012-01-01

    .... If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which...

  16. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals remarkable predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society,...

  17. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    scientists engage in relations of mutual epistemic dependence. To deepen philosophy’s understanding of scientific practice in its diversity, a distinction should be made between opaque and translucent epistemic dependence. While opaque epistemic dependence involves asymmetries in expertise, translucent...

  18. Scientific calculating peripheral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethridge, C.D.; Nickell, J.D. Jr.; Hanna, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    A scientific calculating peripheral for small intelligent data acquisition and instrumentation systems and for distributed-task processing systems is established with a number-oriented microprocessor controlled by a single component universal peripheral interface microcontroller. A MOS/LSI number-oriented microprocessor provides the scientific calculating capability with Reverse Polish Notation data format. Master processor task definition storage, input data sequencing, computation processing, result reporting, and interface protocol is managed by a single component universal peripheral interface microcontroller.

  19. Scientific information processing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.

  20. Unraveling Scientific Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Stremersch, S.; Camacho, N.M.A.; Vanneste, S.; Verniers, I.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The number of citations a paper receives is the most commonly used measure of scientific impact. In this paper, we study not only the number but also the type of citations that 659 marketing articles generated. We discern five citation types: application, affirmation, negation, review and perfunctory mention (i.e., citing an article only indirectly without really using it). Prior literature in scientometrics recognizes that the former three types, on average, signal a higher level of scientif...

  1. Transdisciplinarity: a scientific essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, Erich

    2004-12-01

    Transdisciplinarity in science is necessary to counteract the rapid growth of scientific results and information, the elimination of logical inconsistencies, and the effect of specialization whereby uncomparable disciplines develop. A correspondence is drawn between the uncontrolled growth, immune system malfunction, repression/expansion, and isolation that are characteristic of cancer and of the scientific concept of modernity. Suggestions are presented regarding the promotion of healing in both of these realms.

  2. Supplements and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality.

  3. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  4. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  5. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  6. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Scientific/Techical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chris Leighton, Neutron Scattering Society of American; Mr. J. Ardie (Butch) Dillen, MRS Director of Finance and Administration

    2012-11-07

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the North American neutron user community, strengthening ties within this diverse group, and promoting neutron research in related disciplines. The conference thus serves a dual role as both a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides a forum for scientific discussion of neutron-enabled research in fields as diverse as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, elementary excitations, fundamental physics, and development of neutron instrumentation. This is achieved through a combination of invited oral presentations, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. Adequate opportunity for spontaneous discussion and collaboration is also built into the ACNS program in order to foster free exchange of new scientific ideas and the potential for use of powerful neutron scattering methods beyond the current realms of application. The sixth American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2012) provided essential information on the breadth and depth of current neutron-related research worldwide. A strong program of plenary, invited and contributed talks showcased recent scientific results in neutron science in a wide range of fields, including soft and hard condensed matter, biology, chemistry, energy and engineering applications, and neutron physics.

  8. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  9. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  10. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  11. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  12. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  13. Etiquette in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Publishing a scientific article in a journal with a high impact factor and a good reputation is considered prestigious among one's peer group and an essential achievement for career progression. In the drive to get their work published, researchers can forget, either intentionally or unintentionally, the ethics that should be followed in scientific publishing. In an environment where "publish or perish" rules the day, some authors might be tempted to bend or break rules. This special article is intended to raise awareness among orthodontic journal editors, authors, and readers about the types of scientific misconduct in the current publishing scenario and to provide insight into the ways these misconducts are managed by the Committee of Publishing Ethics. Case studies are presented, and various plagiarism detection software programs used by publishing companies are briefly described.

  14. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  15. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  16. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  17. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I. NASTASE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, science and, accordingly, scientific research is widely recognized as the main driving force of production and source of innovation and technology transfer. There are many definitions in this regard that seek to express the concept of scientific research, experimental development (engineering and technical progress. Practically in the developed countries the phenomenon of innovation is being analyzed in relation to the concept of technology transfer, based on the experience and knowledge in science and technology. Innovation has to be addressed systematically, it involving: science, technology, financial and economic principles, management.

  18. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    In this paper we illustrate how a truth circulates within social discourse. We examine a particular truth reproduced within science, that is: through the understanding of Euclid’s axioms and postulates a person will gain the access to all human knowledge. We deploy a discourse analysis that helps...... us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...

  19. SUPPLEMENT USE BY YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices

  20. The development of nutritional-supplement fact sheets for Irish athletes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpa, Kate L; Madigan, Sharon M; Wood-Martin, Ruth E; Flanagan, Richelle; Roche, Noreen

    2012-06-01

    The use of sport supplements presents a dilemma for many of those involved in supporting athletes, including coaches, families, support staff, and the athletes themselves. Often the information that they source can be incorrect and promote a biased view regarding the use of nutritional supplements. The aim of this case study was to describe the process that occurred around the development of a series of targeted educational fact sheets on a range of nutritional supplements for Irish athletes. It describes the initiation and support of the process by the Irish Sports Council; one of its subgroups, the Food and Food Supplements Committee; and the Irish Institute of Sport. A needs assessment through questionnaires was carried out to establish the most commonly used sport nutrition supplements by athletes age 16 or over in Ireland. Respondents completed 105 questionnaires over a 4-mo period in 2008-09 that led to the production of 20 supplement fact sheets. These supplement fact sheets will enable Irish athletes to access high-quality, up-to-date, scientific information about the supplements they have reported consuming. Since personal reading had a strong influence over athletes' decision-making process for taking nutritional supplements, as did scientific research, fact sheets available on the Internet from a reliable source are an ideal way to educate Irish athletes.

  1. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  2. Toward executable scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cushing, R.; Vasyunin, D.; Laat, C. de; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reproducibility of experiments is considered as one of the main principles of the scientific method. Recent developments in data and computation intensive science, i.e. e-Science, and state of the art in Cloud computing provide the necessary components to preserve data sets and re-run code and softw

  3. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  4. Scientific Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor.

  5. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  6. Serendipity and Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)

  7. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  8. Scientific techniques in Egyptology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.W.A.

    1987-04-01

    The paper concerns the contribution made by scientific method to Egyptology, in the areas of dating, provenance and medicine. The dating techniques, the analysis techniques and the use of radiology to determine the lifestyle of ancient Egyptians are all described. (U.K.).

  9. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  10. Scientific workflows for bibliometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guler, A.T.; Waaijer, C.J.; Palmblad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific workflows organize the assembly of specialized software into an overall data flow and are particularly well suited for multi-step analyses using different types of software tools. They are also favorable in terms of reusability, as previously designed workflows could be made publicly avai

  11. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  12. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950's,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA's original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  13. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950’s,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA’s original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  14. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  15. Scientific Tourism in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2016-12-01

    The Scientific Tourism is relatively new direction in the world, however it already has managed to gain great popularity. As it is, it has arisen in 1980s, but its ideological basis comes from the earliest periods of the human history. In Armenia, it is a completely new phenomenon and still not-understandable for many people. At global level, the Scientific Tourism has several definitions: for example, as explains the member of the scientific tourist centre of Zlovlen Mrs. Pichelerova "The essence of the scientific tourism is based on the provision of the educational, cultural and entertainment needs of a group of people of people who are interested in the same thing", which in our opinion is a very comprehensive and discreet definition. We also have our own views on this type of tourism. Our philosophy is that by keeping the total principles, we put the emphasis on the strengthening of science-individual ties. Our main emphasis is on the scientific-experimental tourism. But this does not mean that we do not take steps to other forms of tourism. Studying the global experience and combining it with our resources, we are trying to get a new interdisciplinary science, which will bring together a number of different professionals as well as individuals, and as a result will have a new lore. It is in this way that an astronomer will become an archaeologist, an archaeologist will become an astrophysicist, etc. Speaking on interdisciplinary sciences, it's worth mentioning that in recent years, the role of interdisciplinary sciences at global level every day is being considered more and more important. In these terms, tourism is an excellent platform for the creation of interdisciplinary sciences and, therefore, the preparation of corresponding scholars. Nevertheless, scientific tourism is very important for the revelation, appreciation and promotion of the country's historical-cultural heritage and scientific potential. Let us not forget either that tourism in all its

  16. Continental scientific drilling program. [Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 17-21, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The dynamics, structure, evolution, and genesis of the continents offer a major scientific challenge. At the same time, society faces many problems that require information about the continental crust for solution. A workshop on continental drilling for scientific purposes addressed the questions of how to maximize the scientific value of current and planned efforts of federal agencies and industry and how to supplement these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purpoes. Four panels addressed the scientific and associated societal problems relating to basement structures and deep continental basins, thermal regimes, mineral resources, and earthuqakes. These panels identified the main problems in each area that could be solved by information obtained from drill holes. A fifth panel considered needs for technological developments. The importance of a communications and coordinating mechanism to maximize the scientific results was noted. To this end, a Continental Scientific Drilling Program is outlined, including two advisory and guiding committees, one concerned with scientific objectives, the other with operations. (RWR)

  17. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  18. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  19. Supplemental topics on voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, H.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several topics concerning voids are presented, supplementing the report of Rood (1988). The discovery of the Coma supercluster and void and the recognition of the cosmological significance of superclusters and voids are reviewed. Galaxy redshift surveys and redshift surveys for the Abell clusters and very distant objects are discussed. Solar system and extragalactic dynamics are examined. Also, topics for future observational research on voids are recommended. 50 references.

  20. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  1. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  2. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  3. Scientific citations in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Finn Aarup

    2007-01-01

    The Internet-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia has grown to become one of the most visited web-sites on the Internet. However, critics have questioned the quality of entries, and an empirical study has shown Wikipedia to contain errors in a 2005 sample of science entries. Biased coverage and lack of sources are among the "Wikipedia risks". The present work describes a simple assessment of these aspects by examining the outbound links from Wikipedia articles to articles in scientific journals with a comparison against journal statistics from Journal Citation Reports such as impact factors. The results show an increasing use of structured citation markup and good agreement with the citation pattern seen in the scientific literature though with a slight tendency to cite articles in high-impact journals such as Nature and Science. These results increase confidence in Wikipedia as an good information organizer for science in general.

  4. Scientific Programming in Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fortran programming language was designed by John Backus and his colleagues at IBM to reduce the cost of programming scientific applications. IBM delivered the first compiler for its model 704 in 1957. IBM's competitors soon offered incompatible versions. ANSI (ASA at the time developed a standard, largely based on IBM's Fortran IV in 1966. Revisions of the standard were produced in 1977, 1990, 1995 and 2003. Development of a revision, scheduled for 2008, is under way. Unlike most other programming languages, Fortran is periodically revised to keep pace with developments in language and processor design, while revisions largely preserve compatibility with previous versions. Throughout, the focus on scientific programming, and especially on efficient generated programs, has been maintained.

  5. Scientific Auditing Firms

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal P

    2016-01-01

    The "crisis of reproducibility" has been a significant source of controversy, heated debate, and calls for reform to institutional science in recent years. As a long-term solution to address both the present crisis and future obstacles, I propose the creation of a new form of research organization whose purpose would be to conduct random audits of the scientific literature. I suggest that data analytics of a digitized scientific corpus may play a critical role in allowing broadly educated scientists to identify linchpin results to investigate in further detail across all disciplines. I argue that a simple "mock" trial run of a simplified auditing firm consisting of several researchers over a short time period would provide valuable insight into the feasibility of this proposal.

  6. [Communication of scientific fraud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Rouquette, Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    There is for a scientific journal several levels of communication depending of the degree of suspicion or certainty of a case of error or fraud. The task is increasingly difficult for journal editors as disclosed cases of fraud are more common and scientific communication on this topic is growing. Biomedical fraud is fairly little reported by the mainstream press and causes of this low interest are not currently well understood. The difficulty of processing this type of news for journalists appears to be one possible reason. The potentially numerous and significant consequences of fraud on health professionals are poorly documented. Though it is likely to cause a feeling of distrust and create controversy, the impact of fraud on the general public is poorly studied and appears multifactorial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Scientific Social Responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    formed organizations to make science responsible for its social effects. More recently, ideals of increasing the social acceptability of science through engagement, reflexivity and dialogue seems to have found their way into the heart of policy-making, not least as a way of making science a prime motor...... for the development of competitive knowledge economies. In the present paper, these developments are all understood as moves to increase the social responsibility of science, i.e. efforts to hold science accountable to wider social, economic and ethical values. Despite the widespread political and theoretical plea...... for scientific social responsibility (SSR), however, there is a striking lack of knowledge about how it should be (or indeed is) performed in practice. This paper makes a first step in this direction by mapping different interpretations of what scientific social responsibility might entail. It also charts...

  8. Scientific workflows for bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Arzu Tugce; Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Palmblad, Magnus

    Scientific workflows organize the assembly of specialized software into an overall data flow and are particularly well suited for multi-step analyses using different types of software tools. They are also favorable in terms of reusability, as previously designed workflows could be made publicly available through the myExperiment community and then used in other workflows. We here illustrate how scientific workflows and the Taverna workbench in particular can be used in bibliometrics. We discuss the specific capabilities of Taverna that makes this software a powerful tool in this field, such as automated data import via Web services, data extraction from XML by XPaths, and statistical analysis and visualization with R. The support of the latter is particularly relevant, as it allows integration of a number of recently developed R packages specifically for bibliometrics. Examples are used to illustrate the possibilities of Taverna in the fields of bibliometrics and scientometrics.

  9. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  10. Professional scientific blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Beke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bear a resemblance to digital notice board, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be collectivization of the knowledge. In this article I am going to examine the characteristics of the scientific blog as a genre. Conventional learning counts as a rather solitary activity. If the students have access to the materials of each other and of the teacher, their sense of solitude diminishes and this model is also closer to the constructivist approach that features the way most people think and learn. Learning does not mean passively collecting tiny pieces of knowledge; it much more esembles ‘spinning a conceptual net’ which is made up by the experiences and observations of the individual. With the spreading of the Internet more universities and colleges worldwide gave a try to on-line educational methods, but the most efficient one has not been found yet. The publication of the curriculum (the material of the lectures and the handling of the electronic mails are not sufficient; much more is needed for collaborative learning. Our scholastic scientific blog can be a sufficient field for the start of a knowledge-building process based on cooperation. In the Rocard-report can be read that for the future of Europe it is crucial to develop the education of the natural sciences, and for this it isnecessary to act on local, regional, national and EU-level. To the educational processes should be involved beyond the traditional actors (child, parent, teacher also others (scientists, professionals, universities, local institutions, the actors of the economic sphere, etc.. The scholastic scientific blog answer the purposes, as a collaborative knowledge-sharing forum.

  11. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  12. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large or...

  13. AFCRL Infrared Sky Survey. Volume I. Catalog of Observations at 4, 11, and 20 Microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-14

    for the success of the rocket program. We wish to particularly acknowledge Paul Hartnett, Daniel Nardello, Ed LaBlanc, Larry Smart, and Thomaw...nnnAC CD’ NIIS V40c- " N 10- -2 MDI LW SOLOW -MW0 M40100 W M t10 to~1 t-- W 4M In.W-I’- 40-I (-MW too 0~~ SIn l Cl. m al 4w * OSO. - 40 CP m C4 f 0

  14. Scientific ballooning in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Villela, T.

    We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon experiments, related to Astrophysics, Aeronomy, and Geophysics were launched from Brazil taking advantage of the country's continental dimensions, a well-defined rain season, and a low population density, which offer excellent conditions for scientific ballooning activities. Balloons with volumes up to 500,000 cubic meters can be launched from INPE's balloon launching base (latitude S 22° 4' 2″; longitude W 044° 58' 41″). The availability of good roads and several inland airports in Brazil provides the necessary structure for safe payload retrieval and its rapid return to the balloon base. There are several airports throughout Brazil that can also be used as balloon launching bases, mainly in the country's Eastern region. Overflights of more than 1,000 kilometers are possible and easily attained. Balloon flights ranging from a few hours to long duration flights can be safely verified. The constant climate monitoring through the use of weather satellites information received at INPE provides the necessary data to determine the necessary conditions for a long duration flight. INPE's Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) provides the necessary weather forecast support for launch and payload retrieval.

  15. Fairness in scientific publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philippa C.

    2017-01-01

    Major changes are afoot in the world of academic publishing, exemplified by innovations in publishing platforms, new approaches to metrics, improvements in our approach to peer review, and a focus on developing and encouraging open access to scientific literature and data. The FAIR acronym recommends that authors and publishers should aim to make their output Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. In this opinion article, I explore the parallel view that we should take a collective stance on making the dissemination of scientific data fair in the conventional sense, by being mindful of equity and justice for patients, clinicians, academics, publishers, funders and academic institutions. The views I represent are founded on oral and written dialogue with clinicians, academics and the publishing industry. Further progress is needed to improve collaboration and dialogue between these groups, to reduce misinterpretation of metrics, to minimise inequity that arises as a consequence of geographic setting, to improve economic sustainability, and to broaden the spectrum, scope, and diversity of scientific publication.

  16. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large organizations losing power, direct supervision, the managers were looking for incentives to replace this power . One of the first practitioners of this new management system was Henry R. Towne, the president of the well-known enterprise "Yale and Towne Manufacturing Company", which applied the management methods in his company workshops. Publishers of magazines "Industrial Management" and "The Engineering Magazine" stated that HR Towne is, undisputedly, the pioneer of scientific management. He initiated the systematic application of effective management methods and his famous article "The Engineer as Economist" provided to the company. "American Society of Mechanical Engineers" in 1886 was the one that probably inspired Frederick W. Taylor to devote his entire life and work in scientific management.

  17. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads to a f...... cross-disciplinary research and in the collective use of different kinds of scientific expertise, and thereby make society better able to solve complex, real-world problems.......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...

  18. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes....

  19. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  20. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  1. Supplementing managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  2. NCI at Frederick Scientific Library Reintroduces Scientific Publications Database | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 20-year-old database of scientific publications by NCI at Frederick, FNLCR, and affiliated employees has gotten a significant facelift. Maintained by the Scientific Library, the redesigned database—which is linked from each of the Scientific Library’s web pages—offers features that were not available in previous versions, such as additional search limits and non-traditional metrics for scholarly and scientific publishing known as altmetrics.

  3. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  5. Wavelets in scientific computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Møller

    1998-01-01

    such a function well. These properties of wavelets have lead to some very successful applications within the field of signal processing. This dissertation revolves around the role of wavelets in scientific computing and it falls into three parts: Part I gives an exposition of the theory of orthogonal, compactly...... is an investigation of the potential for using the special properties of wavelets for solving partial differential equations numerically. Several approaches are identified and two of them are described in detail. The algorithms developed are applied to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and Burgers' equation...

  6. Practical scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, A

    2011-01-01

    Scientific computing is about developing mathematical models, numerical methods and computer implementations to study and solve real problems in science, engineering, business and even social sciences. Mathematical modelling requires deep understanding of classical numerical methods. This essential guide provides the reader with sufficient foundations in these areas to venture into more advanced texts. The first section of the book presents numEclipse, an open source tool for numerical computing based on the notion of MATLAB®. numEclipse is implemented as a plug-in for Eclipse, a leading integ

  7. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  8. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  9. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as

  10. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  11. TSCA Scientific Peer Review Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SACC will provide independent scientific advice and recommendations to the EPA on the scientific basis for risk assessments, methodologies, and pollution prevention measures and approaches for chemicals regulated under TSCA.

  12. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management......In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  13. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management......In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  14. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  15. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Scientific methodology applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, A

    1975-04-01

    The subject of this symposium is naproxen, a new drug that resulted from an investigation to find a superior anti-inflammatory agent. It was synthesized by Harrison et al. in 1970 at the Syntex Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biological Sciences. How can we chart the evolution of this or any other drug? Three steps are necessary: first, chemical studies (synthesis, analysis); second, animal pharmacology; third, human pharmacology. The last step can additionally be divided into four phases: metabolism and toxicology of the drug in normal volunteers; dose titration and initial clinical trials with sick subjects (pharmacometry); confirmatory clinical trials when the drug is accepted on the market and revaluation (familiarization trials). To discover the truth about naproxen, we must all participate actively with a critical mind, following the principles of scientific methodology. We shall find that the papers to be presented today all deal with the third step in the evaluation process--clinical pharmacology. It is quite evident that the final and most decisive test must be aimed at the most valuable target: the human being. The end product of this day's work for each of us should be the formation of an opinion based on solid scientific proofs. And let us hope that we will all enjoy fulfilling the symposium in its entire etymological meaning this evening. In vino veritas.

  17. Replacing Victoria's Scientific Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Morus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional views of nineteenth century science has viewed it in terms of a largely unproblematic institutional consolidation. More recently, the consensus view of the century as a period of leisurely progress towards scientific professionalization has been decisively broken. In particular the issues of what counted as science at all and what sorts of spaces counted as scientific have been rigorously contested. A variety of new accounts of Victorian science have now emerged, built around new sets of questions concerning science's place in culture and the emergence of new strategies of self-fashioning and legitimation. In this overview I survey promising trends in the cultural history of nineteenth-century science with a view to assessing the possibility of resurrecting a new grand narrative. I suggest in conclusion that the possibility of reconstructing such a big picture as an explicitly political account might be improved by rethinking the category of Victorian science and reorienting our understanding around the French Revolution and its immediate aftermath.

  18. Budapest scientific a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, István

    2015-01-01

    This guidebook introduces the reader—the scientific tourist and others—to the visible memorabilia of science and scientists in Budapest—statues, busts, plaques, buildings, and other artefacts. According to the Hungarian–American Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Györgyi, this metropolis at the crossroads of Europe has a special atmosphere of respect for science. It has been the venue of numerous scientific achievements and the cradle, literally, of many individuals who in Hungary, and even more beyond its borders became world-renowned contributors to science and culture. Six of the eight chapters of the book cover the Hungarian Nobel laureates, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the university, the medical school, agricultural sciences, and technology and engineering. One chapter is about selected gimnáziums from which seven Nobel laureates (Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, Wigner, Gabor, Harsanyi, Olah, and Kertész) and the five “Martians of Science” (von Kármán, Szilard, Wigner, von Neumann, and Teller...

  19. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  20. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  1. World Map of Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2017-06-26

    A comparative world map of scientific misconduct reveals that countries with the most rapid growth in scientific publications also have the highest retraction rate. To avoid polluting the scientific record further, these nations must urgently commit to enforcing research integrity among their academic communities.

  2. The Promise of Scientific Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Morris

    1970-01-01

    Presents case for general education in sciences and scientific methodology at all levels of education as a means of enhancing application of scientific humanism to daily living of all persons. Growth of scientific humanism is considered as a hope for improved interpersonal relations, social decision and international cooperation. (JM)

  3. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...

  4. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  5. Designing scientific applications on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Many of today's complex scientific applications now require a vast amount of computational power. General purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) enable researchers in a variety of fields to benefit from the computational power of all the cores available inside graphics cards.Understand the Benefits of Using GPUs for Many Scientific ApplicationsDesigning Scientific Applications on GPUs shows you how to use GPUs for applications in diverse scientific fields, from physics and mathematics to computer science. The book explains the methods necessary for designing or porting your scientific appl

  6. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body.Supplement: Saw PalmettoPossible drug-supplement interaction with:Birth control pills. Can decrease effects of estrogen in the body, which can reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.Estrogen. Can decrease estrogen levels in the body, ...

  7. Scientific journal cancellations

    CERN Multimedia

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    Earlier this year the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) requested the Library and the Working Group for Acquisitions to revise the current printed journal collection in order to cancel those titles that are less required. Savings could then be used for the development of other collections and particularly electronic resources needed to support CERN current research activities. A list of proposed cancellations was drawn and posted on the Library web pages: http://library.cern.ch/library_general/cancel.html The SIPB invites every one to check if any of the titles are of importance to their work, in which case you are invited to inform the Library before the 25th of September by sending an e-mail to: eliane.chaney@cern.ch Titles not reconsidered by the users will be cancelled by the end of the year. Thank you, The Library

  8. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-02

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity.

  9. Ben Franklin's Scientific Amusements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2003-04-01

    As an American icon, Benjamin Franklin is often portrayed as wise and canny in business and politics, earnestly pursuing and extolling diligence, sensible conduct, pragmatism, and good works. Also legendary are some of his inventions, particularly the lightning rod, bifocals, and an efficient wood-burning stove. The iconic image is misleading in major respects. Today, surprisingly few people appreciate that, in the 18th century, Franklin was greatly esteemed throughout Europe as a scientist (termed then a "natural philosopher.") He was hailed as the "Newton of Electricity." Indeed, until Franklin, electricity seemed more mysterious than had gravity in Newton's time, and lightning was considered the wrath of God. By his own account, Franklin's studies of electricity and many other phenomena were prompted not by practical aims, but by his playful curiosity--which often became obsessive. Also not generally appreciated is the importance of Franklin's scientific reputation in enhancing his efforts to obtain French support for the American Revolution.

  10. Scientific developments ISFD3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, M.H.I.; Soong, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Highlights, trends, and consensus from the 63 papers submitted to the Scientific Developments theme of the Third International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD) are presented. Realizing that absolute protection against flooding can never be guaranteed, trends in flood management have shifted: (1) from flood protection to flood-risk management, (2) from reinforcing structural protection to lowering flood levels, and (3) to sustainable management through integrated problem solving. Improved understanding of watershed responses, climate changes, applications of GIS and remote-sensing technologies, and advanced analytical tools appeared to be the driving forces for renewing flood-risk management strategies. Technical competence in integrating analytical tools to form the basin wide management systems are demonstrated by several large, transnation models. However, analyses from social-economic-environmental points of view are found lag in general. ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group.

  11. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  12. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).

  13. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).

  14. Scientific Tourism Centres in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Mikayelyan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Armenia is rich in scientific sites, among which archaeological sites of scientific nature, modern scientific institutions and science related museums can be mentioned. Examples of archaeological sites are ancient observatories, petroglyphs having astronomical nature, as well as intangible heritage, such as Armenian calendars. Modern institutions having tools or laboratories which can be represented in terms of tourism, are considered as scientific tourism sites. Science related museums are Museum of science and technology, Space museum, Geological museum and other museums. Despite the fact, that scientific tourism is a new direction, it has great perspectives, and Armenia has a great potential in this field. It is very important to introduce Armenia from this angle, including scientific archaeological sites as well as modern institutions and museums. This article presents major scientific tourism centers of Armenia.

  15. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    is demonstrated through examples. By providing a robust library for organising scientific workflows in a Python application I hope to inspire scientific users to adopt PyCSP. As a proof-of-concept this thesis demonstrates three scientific applications: kNN, stochastic minimum search and McStas to scale well......This thesis presents CSP as a means of orchestrating the execution of tasks in a scientific workflow. Scientific workflow systems are popular in a wide range of scientific areas, where tasks are organised in directed graphs. Execution of such graphs is handled by the scientific workflow systems...... on multi-processing and cluster computing using PyCSP. Additionally, McStas is demonstrated to utilise grid computing resources using PyCSP. Finally, this thesis presents a new dynamic channel model, which has not yet been implemented for PyCSP. The dynamic channel is able to change the internal...

  16. Quality control of plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzini, Elisabetta; Badea, Mihaela; Santos, Ariana Dos; Restani, Patrizia; Sievers, Hartwig

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to guarantee the safety of unprocessed plants and food supplements if consumers' health is to be protected. Although botanicals and their preparations are regulated at EU level, at least in part, there is still considerable discretion at national level, and Member States may choose to classify a product either as a food supplement or as a drug. Accurate data concerning the finished products and the plant used as the starting point are of major importance if risks and safety are to be properly assessed, but in addition standardized criteria for herbal preparation must be laid down and respected by researchers and manufacturers. Physiologically active as well as potentially toxic constituents need to be identified, and suitable analytical methods for their measurement specified, particularly in view of the increasing incidence of economically motivated adulteration of herbal raw materials and extracts. It remains the duty of food operators to keep up with the scientific literature and to provide sufficient information to enable the adaptation of specifications, sampling schemes and analytical methods to a fast-changing environment.

  17. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient’s health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products.

  18. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy) are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient's health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products. PMID:28845434

  19. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  20. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the......The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues...

  1. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Carratù

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  2. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. What are the ...

  3. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  4. Exploring the scientific method: cases and questions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimbel, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the scientific method pairs classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of science with milestones in scientific discovery to illustrate the foundational issues underlying scientific methodology...

  5. Acquisition of Scientific Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Lynn [Director, Sponsored Programs

    2014-05-16

    Whitworth University constructed a 63,00 sq. ft. biology and chemistry building which opened in the Fall of 2011. This project provided for new state-of-the-art science instrumentation enabling Whitworth students to develop skills and knowledge that are directly transferable to practical applications thus enhancing Whitworth student's ability to compete and perform in the scientific workforce. Additionally, STEM faculty undertake outreach programs in the area schools, bringing students to our campus to engage in activities with our science students. The ability to work with insturmentation that is current helps to make science exciting for middle school and high school students and gets them thinking about careers in science. 14 items were purchased following the university's purchasing policy, that benefit instruction and research in the departments of biology, chemistry, and health sciences. They are: Cadaver Dissection Tables with Exhaust Chamber and accessories, Research Microscope with DF DIC, Phase and Fluorescence illumination with DP72 Camera, Microscope with Fluorescence, Microcomputer controlled ultracentrifuge, Ultracentrifuge rotor, Variable Temperature steam pressure sterilizer, Alliance APLC System, DNA Speedvac, Gel Cocumentation System, BioPac MP150, Glovebox personal workstation,Lyophilizer, Nano Drop 2000/2000c Spectrophotometer, C02 Incubator.

  6. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability.

  7. Scientific results from COBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) carries three scientific instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales greater than 7 deg and to conduct a search for a diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation with 0.7 deg angular resolution. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the CMB is that of a blackbody of temperature T = 2.73 +/- 0.06 K, with no deviation from a blackbody spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The first year of data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant CMB anisotropy. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Infrared sky brightness measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservative upper limits to the CIB. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the CIB limits.

  8. Scientific and historical archive

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    : International Archives Day, 9 June, is an opportunity to discover a little-known CERN resource. Unlike libraries, archives tend to be hidden away. You can’t browse among the shelves, or borrow files to use in the workplace, but sometimes they contain just the information you need. CERN’s rich heritage has many parts: its scientific data, the black and white photos recently put online by the Library, the audio-visual collection, currently being digitized by the IT department, historic objects in the care of the IR-ECO group, and much more - not least the memory of its people. The CERN Archive exists in the background, supporting other endeavours and preserving our documentary heritage for future generations. About 1000 shelf metres of files filled with letters, notes, reports, rough drafts, memos such as this report, by Miss Steel, are preserved. You can browse more examples on our timeline. It is a place for information on all aspects of CERN’s history. Sometimes documents pro

  9. Scientific Programme Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  10. Scientific results from COBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) carries three scientific instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales greater than 7 deg and to conduct a search for a diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation with 0.7 deg angular resolution. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the CMB is that of a blackbody of temperature T = 2.73 +/- 0.06 K, with no deviation from a blackbody spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The first year of data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant CMB anisotropy. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Infrared sky brightness measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservative upper limits to the CIB. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the CIB limits.

  11. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  12. Scientific (Wo)manpower?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Persson, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent male and female PhDs choose academic vs non‐academic employment. Further, it analyses gender earnings differences in the academic and non‐academic labour markets. Design/methodology/approach – Rich Swedish cross‐sectional regist...... scientific human capital. Originality/value – The study is the first to investigate career‐choice and earnings of Swedish PhDs. Further, the study is the first to investigate both the academic and the non‐academic labour markets.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent male and female PhDs choose academic vs non‐academic employment. Further, it analyses gender earnings differences in the academic and non‐academic labour markets. Design/methodology/approach – Rich Swedish cross‐sectional register...... data on the stock of PhDs in 2004 is used for investigating differences between male and female PhDs in earnings levels and in the choice of labour market (in academia or outside academia). Findings – No significant gender differences prevail for the probability of becoming academically employed...

  13. Should scientific realists be platonists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Jacob; Morrison, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Realists about are arrived at by any inferen- tial route which eschews causes (§3), and nor is there any direct pressure for Scientific Real- ists to change their inferential methods (§4). We suggest that in order to maintain inferential parity with Scientific Realism, proponents of EIA need to give......Enhanced Indispensability Arguments (EIA) claim that Scientific Realists are committed to the existence of mathematical entities due to their reliance on Inference to the Best Explana- tion (IBE). Our central question concerns this purported parity of reasoning: do people who defend the EIA make...... an appropriate use of the resources of Scientific Realism (in particular, IBE) to achieve platonism? (§2) We argue that just because a variety of different inferential strategies can be employed by Scientific Realists does not mean that ontological conclusions concerning which things we should be Scientific...

  14. [Scientific journalism and epidemiological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the communications media in the construction of symbols has been widely acknowledged. Many of the articles on health published in the daily newspapers mention medical studies, sourced from scientific publications focusing on new risks. The disclosure of risk studies in the mass media is also a topic for editorials and articles in scientific journals, focusing the problem of distortions and the appearance of contradictory news items. The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning and content of disclosing scientific risk studies in large-circulation daily newspapers, analyzing news items published in Brazil and the scientific publications used as their sources during 2000. The "risk" is presented in the scientific research projects as a "black box" in the meaning of Latour, with the news items downplaying scientific disputes and underscoring associations between behavioral habits and the occurrence of diseases, emphasizing individual aspects of the epidemiological approach, to the detriment of the group.

  15. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using nutritio......This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... of these issues among scientific advisers and a wider public....

  16. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... through second order perspectives. We substantiate these hypotheses on the basis of a perspectivist philosophy of science grounded in Peircean semiotics and autopoietic systems theory. Perspectival knowledge asymmetries are an unavoidable and necessary part of the growth of scientific knowledge, and more...

  17. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    and can usually benefit performance-wise from both multiprocessing, cluster and grid environments. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) for the Python programming language and takes advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach to controlling concurrency...... and the readability of Python source code. Python is a popular programming language in the scientific community, with many scientific libraries (modules) and simple integration to external languages. This thesis presents a PyCSP extended with many new features and a more robust implementation to allow scientific...... is demonstrated through examples. By providing a robust library for organising scientific workflows in a Python application I hope to inspire scientific users to adopt PyCSP. As a proof-of-concept this thesis demonstrates three scientific applications: kNN, stochastic minimum search and McStas to scale well...

  18. INVENTIVENESS AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin S. Tričković

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of invention and of its components is explained as a form of creativity and creation of something new. Likewise, the essence of the scientific work is also viewed as an activity aiming at discovering new knowledge and its use for new changes. The importance of invention and scientific research work is stressed for economy and development of the country. The personality of the inventor and of the scientific research worker is described as the subject of inventiveness and creativity. Of special consideration are scientific research workers of universities and scientific institutions as possible inventors; the accompanying recommendation refers to the need for transforming a scientific result into a contrivance. A critical view of our society and economy is given regarding results and application of the inventions and science in practice as well as suggestions for correcting the present attitudes.

  19. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  20. Dietary supplements in sport nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    BOČAN, David

    2015-01-01

    Thesis deals with dietary supplements and their use by amateurs and professionals.The theoretical part is in the 1st part devoted to supplements and their legislation,forms and division.To the 2nd part was selected substances used by athletes and further discussed in terms of their function and effects on the organism.Within the general information was drafted in the 3rd part risks related to the use of dietary supplements due to wrong dosage or concentration and the issue of doping. Research...

  1. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  2. Data mining for scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai VLASE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching scientific literature on the Web is a difficult task because of the large volume and the complex dynamics of the scientific literature and because of the complexity and narrow target of typical queries. The problem is compounded by differences among publication standards and formats used in various fields of knowledge. In this paper we review several specific solutions that apply or adapt data mining techniques to searching scientific publications.

  3. Mastering scientific computing with R

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you want to learn how to quantitatively answer scientific questions for practical purposes using the powerful R language and the open source R tool ecosystem, this book is ideal for you. It is ideally suited for scientists who understand scientific concepts, know a little R, and want to be able to start applying R to be able to answer empirical scientific questions. Some R exposure is helpful, but not compulsory.

  4. Scientific Information Service at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.

  5. ARE SPANKING INJUNCTIONS SCIENTIFICALLY SUPPORTED?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert E. Larzelere; Diana Baumrind

    2010-01-01

      Larzelere and Baumrind summarize the scientific evidence on child outcomes of spanking, emphasizing causal evidence under conditions considered most appropriate for its use by parents and psychologists...

  6. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... of these issues among scientific advisers and a wider public....... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...

  7. Eismitte in the Scientific Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    was a setting for scientific knowledge production as well as diplomatic maneuvering, providing new insights into the history of polar exploration and the intertwining of scientific and geopolitical considerations. Author Janet Martin-Nielsen draws on new research in private, government, military......Since the first attempts by Europeans to penetrate Greenland's interior, its geometric center, Eismitte (‘middle ice’), has been one of the most forbidding but scientifically rich locations in the Arctic. Tracing its history from European contact through the Cold War, this study shows how Eismitte......, and institutional archives in many languages in multiple countries to illuminate Eismitte’s place in the scientific imagination....

  8. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Nogiec

    Full Text Available Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  9. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  10. Added Value via SPI supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T....

  11. Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplements combined. For women who are capable of becoming pregnant, 400 micrograms of folic acid from fortified ... paid attention to what I ate until my teacher asked us to use SuperTracker. I definitely learned ...

  12. Herbal Supplements: Cause for Concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  13. Le Francais des Professions Scientifiques et Techniques (French for the Scientific and Technical Professions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Brigitte

    Two sequential courses in scientific and technical French developed as a supplement to third- and fourth-year college French, in response to expressed student and industry demand, had as their objectives to develop a general familiarity with products of the large French industrial companies and their United States affiliates and to develop means…

  14. Scientific American Frontiers Teaching Guides for Shows 701-705, October 1996-April 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Public Television, Hartford.

    These teaching guides are meant to supplement the seventh season (1996-97) of the PBS Series "Scientific American Frontiers". Episode 701 is entitled "Inventing the Future: A Tour of the MIT Media Lab" and the teaching guide contains information and activities on a virtual pet dog, computers of the future, a smart car designed…

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  16. Monitoring of Grid scientific workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balis, B.; Bubak, M.; Łabno, B.

    2008-01-01

    Scientific workflows are a means of conducting in silico experiments in modern computing infrastructures for e-Science, often built on top of Grids. Monitoring of Grid scientific workflows is essential not only for performance analysis but also to collect provenance data and gather feedback useful

  17. Monitoring of Grid scientific workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balis, B.; Bubak, M.; Łabno, B.

    2008-01-01

    Scientific workflows are a means of conducting in silico experiments in modern computing infrastructures for e-Science, often built on top of Grids. Monitoring of Grid scientific workflows is essential not only for performance analysis but also to collect provenance data and gather feedback useful i

  18. Bibliometric Studies of Scientific Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    In 1926, Alfred J. Lotka examined the scientific publishing productivity of chemists. His bibliometric study of the number of chemists listed in...square law’ of scientific productivity in which the frequency of authors publishing x papers varied inversely as the square of x. Bibliometric research is

  19. Can Scientific Method Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of changes in science education and scientific literacy is presented in the form of a dialog between the author and his alter ego. Structure of science, myths, facts, methods, and critical rationality are considered. Suggests that scientific principles once considered basic and unchanging are giving way to critical thinking. (DH)

  20. CHINA LAUNCHES NEW SCIENTIFIC SATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  1. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

  2. Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, George O.

    2012-01-01

    As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

  3. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  4. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for understa...

  5. Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, George O.

    2012-01-01

    As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

  6. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

  7. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  8. Scientific Publishing and the Data Deluge (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to collect and analyze huge data sets is changing and revolutionizing many aspects of science, including scientific publishing. Policies and practices with respect to data management and archiving have been evolving at journals, but many outstanding problems and challenges have emerged and some are growing. Journals have an evolving mission including a traditional role in advancing science and an increasingly important role of accrediting peer-reviewed research used in public policy and the legal and regulatory systems. Publishing is increasingly responsible for assuring the reliability and transparency of data for both uses, and policies have been evolving to meet these goals. Most journals now include data supplements and have strengthened sharing and archiving requirements. For example, Science now requires all references to be available (published) at publication, and to the extent possible, supporting data to be archived in online supplements. Many problems remain and are growing: Journals cannot handle some of the large data sets routinely being produced now, and must rely on public databases. Of these, too many do not have reliable funding, and others (e.g., personal or institutional WWW sites) are not reliably curated. Much usable data is being discarded. Journals are in the role of monitoring and in too many cases enforcing deposition and sharing of data. Presentation and visualization of data requires new tools that are challenging to standardize and maintain, and to represent within traditional formats still used by most users. Much data is being archived in a minimally usable form (PDF) without common metadata. A growing burden is being placed on reviewers and editors as papers are longer and more complex, and many journals are seeing large growths in submissions. In some disciplines, huge private data sets, third-party data, or privacy issues are increasingly important, and scientists and journals may be unaware of use restrictions. It is

  9. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  10. Scientific progress: Knowledge versus understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2016-04-01

    What is scientific progress? On Alexander Bird's epistemic account of scientific progress, an episode in science is progressive precisely when there is more scientific knowledge at the end of the episode than at the beginning. Using Bird's epistemic account as a foil, this paper develops an alternative understanding-based account on which an episode in science is progressive precisely when scientists grasp how to correctly explain or predict more aspects of the world at the end of the episode than at the beginning. This account is shown to be superior to the epistemic account by examining cases in which knowledge and understanding come apart. In these cases, it is argued that scientific progress matches increases in scientific understanding rather than accumulations of knowledge. In addition, considerations having to do with minimalist idealizations, pragmatic virtues, and epistemic value all favor this understanding-based account over its epistemic counterpart.

  11. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways of improv......The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways...... of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards...... for specific fields of risk assessment and thus for specific Panels. The use of defined terminology for risk assessment is driven by three standard-setting organisations, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) in relation to food safety, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for animal health...

  12. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge.

  13. Scientific Publication Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İnci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Science based on consciousness of responsibility and principles of trust puts academics under an obligation to act according to the values and principles, ethical attitudes and standards of behaviour. A quest for perfectness, to observe truth and show respect for the dignity and value of each individual should be a fundamental principle. In this context, academic freedom and autonomy, academic integrity,  responsibility and accountabily, respect for others, the protection of the fundamental rights and competence are among the core values of academic merit. Science is not possible without ethics. Protection of academic value is essential for an academic publication. It is also fundamental that academics should not behave contrary to the ethics values. It is assumed that academic studies are conducted honestly, based on true foundations, that the research data are collected according to the correct methods, accurate statistics are used and results are reported accordingly. It is also assumed that professional standards are carried out in software presentation and share of results. The exceptional methods in academical publications should be classified as those carried out intentionally, aiming to mislead the related studies and the others to be distinguished from the ones carried out by some ignorances and various innocent facts. The most serious infraction of the ethical rules and standards is the ‘academic misappropriation’. Among all, the most crucial one is the academic plagiarism, which is transferring the production of some other person under one’s own name or stealing away the work of other persons. Creating some not-existing data and results, and fabrication is inventing some information just by sitting at the table. Changing the datas and results without scientific reasoning, and falsification is accepted as another and the third kind of misappropriation (FTP. Their most important difference from the other kinds is

  14. Uncloaking the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

    2009-12-01

    Since April 2008, NSIDC has offered daily updates of sea ice data on our Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis Web page (http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews). The images provide near-real-time data to the general public and policy makers, accompanied by monthly or more frequent analysis updates. In February 2009, a crucial channel of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensor on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 satellite, from which NSIDC was obtaining near-real-time Arctic sea ice data, suddenly failed. The daily image, which is automatically updated, showed a sudden drop in ice extent of over 50,000 square kilometers. Even after taking the images down, skeptical blogs jumped on the event, posting headlines such as “Errors in publicly presented data - Worth blogging about?” and “NSIDC pulls the plug on sea ice data.” In fact, NSIDC data managers and scientists were well aware that the F15 satellite sensor would eventually fail. NSIDC switched to a previously used back-up sensor, F13, and work to transition to a newer sensor on the F17 satellite had been underway for several weeks. While the deluge of questions from readers and bloggers were frustrating to NSIDC communications staff and scientists, they also presented a chance to give readers a window into the scientific process, and specifically into the collection of satellite data. We decided to publish a clear account of the process used to transition between sensors, as well as a basic explanation of the satellites used to measure sea ice data. While most scientists are familiar with the limitations of near-real-time data, the concept is unfamiliar to many in the general public. The Web page includes links to information on near-real-time data, including notes that images sometimes contain missing or erroneous data, and that delays can occur. However, to a skeptical person, the words that scientists use to describe the processing of final data, including “adjustment,”

  15. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  16. ERINDA Scientific Results: Transnational Access Activities and Scientific Visits

    CERN Document Server

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Transnational Access Activities and Scientific visits within the FP7 project ERINDA (European Research Infrastructures for Nuclear Data). It highlights the fact that nearly 3200 data - taking hours for external users were made available in the partner installations and 104 man weeks for scientific visits to par tner institutes. This is much more than the 2500 beam hours and 80 weeks promised in the Description of Work of the project.

  17. Characteristics of scientific web publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund Jepsen, Erik; Seiden, Piet; Ingwersen, Peter Emil Rerup

    2004-01-01

    Because of the increasing presence of scientific publications on the Web, combined with the existing difficulties in easily verifying and retrieving these publications, research on techniques and methods for retrieval of scientific Web publications is called for. In this article, we report on the......Vista and AllTheWeb retrieved a higher degree of accessible scientific content than Google. Because of the search engine cutoffs of accessible URLs, the feasibility of using search engine output for Web content analysis is also discussed....

  18. Language change in scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randaccio Monica

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Halliday has demonstrated that changes in discourse function covary with changes in the grammatical resources a language makes available to construe discourse. Specifically, he outlined the ways in which nominalisation evolved as a resource for construing scientific reality as a world of logical relations among abstract entities. In the present article, Halliday’s theory of the scientific text as process will be outlined. The founding principle of this theory, how grammatical metaphor has introduced changes in scientific English, will be illustrated through analysis of selected lexical items and semantic relations.

  19. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  20. Environmental Report 2000 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A H; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Larson, J M; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B; Ring Peterson, S; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Williams, R A

    2001-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 2000'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air surveillance, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  1. Environmental Report 1999 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J M; Biermann, A H; Harrach, R J; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brandstetter, E R; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Christofferson, E; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Garcia, L M; Giesing, T A; Grayson, A R; Hall, L C; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, R J; Williams, R A

    2000-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 1999'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  2. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  3. Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data...... Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models...... against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy...

  4. [Reflexology--nothing in common with scientific naturopathic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, M; Heide, M H

    2009-09-01

    A host of alternative treatment methods are sold to us as reputable science on the "supermarket of naturopathy" nowadays. "Foot zone therapy", also known as "reflexology" is one of them. Advocates of reflexology claim that certain zones of the feet are linked to internal organs; that "energy forces" run throughout the human body. According to the teachings of Ayurveda and Yoga, a network of more than 72,000 nerve tracts (energy tracts = meridians) is linked to a single, tiny point on the feet, where the energy ends. In reality, however, reflexology is an unconventional, alternative, paramedical and esoterical "outsider" method that has nothing in common with serious naturopathic treatments. Any scientific value to reflexology is to be denied. As opposed to reflexology, genuine, scientifically acknowledged naturopathic methods are not an alternative, but a supplement to modern medicine.

  5. Scientific Realism and Primordial Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    We discuss scientific realism from the perspective of modern cosmology, especially primordial cosmology: i.e. the cosmological investigation of the very early universe. We first (Section 2) state our allegiance to scientific realism, and discuss what insights about it cosmology might yield, as against "just" supplying scientific claims that philosophers can then evaluate. In particular, we discuss: the idea of laws of cosmology, and limitations on ascertaining the global structure of spacetime. Then we review some of what is now known about the early universe (Section 3): meaning, roughly, from a thousandth of a second after the Big Bang onwards(!). The rest of the paper takes up two issues about primordial cosmology, i.e. the very early universe, where "very early" means, roughly, much earlier (logarithmically) than one second after the Big Bang: say, less than $10^{-11}$ seconds. Both issues illustrate that familiar philosophical threat to scientific realism, the under-determination of theory by data---on a...

  6. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  7. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    their development. We conducted a repeated-measures study that provided data regarding social interaction learning styles and perceptions of a scientific collaboratory system from 40 university science students working face-to-face and remotely. Students with a strong competitive learning style preference or who......Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...... worked with a student with a strong competitive learning style reported a slightly more positive perception of the relative advantage, compatibility and complexity of the collaboratory system. Students with a strong individualistic learning style preference or who worked with a student with a strong...

  8. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  9. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: By using the UNISIST models this article argues for the necessity of domain analysis in order to qualify scientific information seeking. The models better understanding of communication processes in a scientific domain and embraces the point that domains are always both unstable over time...... as according to the agents that are charting them. As such, power in a Foucauldian sense is unavoidable in outlining a domain. Originality/value 1. The UNISIST models are applied to the domain of art history; and 2. the article discusses the instability of a scientific domain as well as, at the same time......, the significance of framing a domain; an implication which is often neglected in scientific information seeking....

  10. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  12. A Theory of Scientific Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    This paper avers that science is not demarcated from other disciplines by a specific unique methodology, but by its specific scientific rationality and rational grounds. In this context, the notion and structure of scientific reason are explicated. Four rational grounds of science are identified: the epistemological. Ontological, ethical and sociological grounds. They are discussed in detail within the context of classical physics, relativistic physics and quantum physics.

  13. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  14. Pyridoxine supplementation during isoniazid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, D E

    1980-12-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supplementation during isoniazid (INH) therapy is necessary in some patients to prevent the development of peripheral neuropathy. In vivo pyridoxine is converted into coenzymes which play an essential role in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and several other substances, including brain amines, INH apparently competitively inhibits the action of pyridoxine in these metabolic functions. The reported frequency of INH-induced neuropathy in various studies is reviewed and population groups at relatively high risk of developing this complication are identified. The routine use of pyridoxine supplementation to prevent peripheral neuropathy in high risk populations is recommended.

  15. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on scientific communication. Topics include theory-less and formal technical/natural scientific models of scientific communication; social-scientific, power-sensitive models; the sociology of scientific communication; sciences as fields of competition; fraud and deception; potential surplus value across subject information…

  16. Network effects on scientific collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count and formation (tie strength between authors of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of 'steel structure' for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s. Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Authors' network positions in co

  17. Autonomy vs. dependency of scientific collaboration in scientific performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla-Rodriguez, Z.; Miguel, S.; Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ovalle-Perandones, M.A.; Olmeda-Gomez, C.

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the capacity of Latin America in the generation of scientific knowledge and its visibility at the global level. The novelty of the contribution lies in the decomposition of leadership, plus its combination with the results of performance indicators. We compare the normalized citation of all output against the leading output, as well as scientific excellence (Chinchilla, et al. 2016a; 2016b), technological impact and the trends in collaboration types and normalized citation. The main goal is to determine to what extent the main Latin American producers of scientific output depend on collaboration to heighten research performance in terms of citation; or to the contrary, whether there is enough autonomy and capacity to leverage its competitiveness through the design of research and development agendas. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study adopting this approach at the country level within the field of N&N. (Author)

  18. Herbal Supplements and Sport Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen Coleman; Ron Maughan; Sozanne Nelson Steen; Rob Skinner

    2008-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS ·Labels on dietary supplements can be misleading. Containers may include substantially more,but usually less,of the listed amounts of ingredients,and substances may be added? some of which can cause failed doping tests for athletes?

  19. A Supplement for Teaching Beowulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosh, Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Suggests supplementing the teaching of "Beowulf" to high school students with (1) translation and grammatical analysis of parts of the original lines, (2) study of Anglo-Saxon poetic techniques, and (3) students' imitation of old English poetic techniques in New English. (SW)

  20. Added Value via SPI supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T. Spero , and C. Nolte. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index. ADVANCES IN METEOROLOGY. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 2016(8432064): 14 pages, (2016).

  1. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  2. Omega-3 Supplements: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth ... JAMA Internal Medicine . 2014;174(3):460-462. Hooper L, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, et al. Omega ... on November 2, 2012. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, ...

  3. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and resul

  4. NOAA issues scientific integrity policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced the agency's first-ever scientific integrity policy at a 7 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The policy follows a December 2010 White House memorandum that issued guidance to federal agencies implementing scientific integrity policies (see "White House issues scientific integrity policies," Eos Trans. AGU, 91(51), 503, doi:10.1029/2010EO510003, 2010). The purpose of the NOAA policy is "to promote a continuing culture of scientific excellence and integrity, and to establish a policy on the integrity of scientific activities that the agency conducts and uses to inform management and policy decisions," the agency's administrative order states. "In addition, the intent of the policy is to strengthen widespread confidence—from scientists, to decisionmakers, to the general public—in the quality, validity, and reliability of NOAA science and to denote the agency's commitment to a culture of support for excellence of NOAA's principal science asset, its employees."

  5. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  6. Kommentarer og supplement til DS 418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Saxhof, Bjarne

    1999-01-01

    Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology.......Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology....

  7. Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167008.html Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections Benefits of ... 3, 2017 MONDAY, July 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Probiotic supplements may not protect babies from catching colds ...

  8. 7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supplemental financing according to their plant revenue ratio (PRR), as defined in § 1710.2, based on the most recent year-end data available on the date of loan approval, as follows: PRR Supplemental loan...

  9. Kommentarer og supplement til DS 418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Saxhof, Bjarne

    1999-01-01

    Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology.......Comments and Supplement for DS 418. Lecture note for DTU course 64040 Basic Course in Building Energy Technology....

  10. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  11. Empirical Adequacy and Scientific Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that Bas van Fraassen’s constructive empiricism, such as it is expounded in The Scientific Image, ends up in considerable difficulties in the philosophy of science. The main problem would be the exclusion of mathematics from the conception of science, given its clear absence of empirical adequacy, which is the most important requirement of his formulation. In this sense, it is suggested a more inclusive formulation of scientific theory, aroused from the notion of Da Costa’s (1999 simple structure, considering the notion of scientific discovery in a strict sense, and the validity limit of a theory and the formalism used in a temporal context.

  12. Betting on better scientific literacy

    CERN Multimedia

    Daisy Yuhas

    Dmitry Zimin, founder of the Russian philanthropic foundation Dynasty, visited CERN on 23 October. Zimin, who is himself a scientist and businessman, founded Dynasty in order to support scientific education and a greater public understanding of scientific thinking. Zimin met the Bulletin to reflect on the experience and what had interested him about CERN. Zimin, who had read about and researched CERN before his visit, felt prepared for the physics at CERN but was greatly impressed by the collaborative “brainforce.” He observed that “The organization of all of these people is not less important as an achievement than all of the technical achievements, the collider, the experiments.” He was amazed at “how CERN has been able to organize such a grand collaboration of different people from different institutes of countries from all over the world.” At the core of the Dynasty Foundation’s ideals is the dissemination of scientific thought. Zimin ...

  13. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: By using the UNISIST models this article argues for the necessity of domain analysis in order to qualify scientific information seeking. The models better understanding of communication processes in a scientific domain and embraces the point that domains are always both unstable over time...... and changeable according to the specific perspective. This understanding is even more important today as numerous digitally generated information tools as well as collaborative and interdisciplinary research are blurring the domain borders. Nevertheless, researchers navigate “intuitively” in “their” specific...... as according to the agents that are charting them. As such, power in a Foucauldian sense is unavoidable in outlining a domain. Originality/value 1. The UNISIST models are applied to the domain of art history; and 2. the article discusses the instability of a scientific domain as well as, at the same time...

  14. Direct Summands of ⊕-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nil Orhan; Derya Keskin Tütüncü; Rachid Tribak

    2007-01-01

    A module M is called ⊕-supplemented if every submodule of M has a supplement that is a direct summand of M. It is shown that if M is a ⊕-supplemented module and r(M) is a coclosed submodule of M for a left preradical r, then r(M) is a direct summand of M, and both r(M) and M/r(M) are ⊕-supplemented.

  15. Scientific Utopia: An agenda for improving scientific communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, B.

    2013-12-01

    The scientist's primary incentive is publication. In the present culture, open practices do not increase chances of publication, and they often require additional work. Practicing the abstract scientific values of openness and reproducibility thus requires behaviors in addition to those relevant for the primary, concrete rewards. When in conflict, concrete rewards are likely to dominate over abstract ones. As a consequence, the reward structure for scientists does not encourage openness and reproducibility. This can be changed by nudging incentives to align scientific practices with scientific values. Science will benefit by creating and connecting technologies that nudge incentives while supporting and improving the scientific workflow. For example, it should be as easy to search the research literature for my topic as it is to search the Internet to find hilarious videos of cats falling off of furniture. I will introduce the Center for Open Science (http://centerforopenscience.org/) and efforts to improve openness and reproducibility such as http://openscienceframework.org/. There will be no cats.

  16. Scientific Coolections: Informational - Navigational Portal for Scientific Publications Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatencov, Petru; Kozlenco, Ludmila; Ginculova, Silvia; Keradi, Natalia

    At present there is the tendency of uniting efforts of scientific establishments and libraries for using information - communication medium with the purpose of information support of research and pedagogical activity in Moldova. The efficient access to the scientific and technical literature and, first of all, to the new publications, is necessary practically for all scientists and experts irrespective of a field of knowledge, in which they work. Research institutions, knowing how to receive access to the electron information and to use it intellectually, realize that it effects positively the quality and outcomes of the research process. It is obvious, that to ensure maximum utilization of the new information stream by habitual methods is impossible. New non-traditional approaches are necessary for the increase of the level of information provision of scientists and experts. Creation of electron libraries, realizing qualitatively other level of production, storage, organization and distribution of various information is the most effective way to gin this object. The access to the electron versions of scientific journals allows to reduce the acuteness of shortage of scientific literature, the electron information becomes accessible before the publication of paper version of a journal, and taking into account the delivery time of foreign issues into Moldova, this outstripping can reach several months.

  17. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    , the RBV represents an "unfinished revolution" as there is still considerable potential to dig deeper in the deep structure of competitive advantage. Keywords: Resource-based view, mechanisms, reductionism, competitive advantage, transaction costs, property rights. JEL Code: L2, M1...... for understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...

  18. Chemical datuments as scientific enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepa Henry S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is an attempt to construct a chemical datument as a means of presenting insights into chemical phenomena in a scientific journal. An exploration of the interactions present in a small fragment of duplex Z-DNA and the nature of the catalytic centre of a carbon-dioxide/alkene epoxide alternating co-polymerisation is presented in this datument, with examples of the use of three software tools, one based on Java, the other two using Javascript and HTML5 technologies. The implications for the evolution of scientific journals are discussed.

  19. Chemical datuments as scientific enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepa, Henry S

    2013-01-23

    This article is an attempt to construct a chemical datument as a means of presenting insights into chemical phenomena in a scientific journal. An exploration of the interactions present in a small fragment of duplex Z-DNA and the nature of the catalytic centre of a carbon-dioxide/alkene epoxide alternating co-polymerisation is presented in this datument, with examples of the use of three software tools, one based on Java, the other two using Javascript and HTML5 technologies. The implications for the evolution of scientific journals are discussed.

  20. Scientific Divulgation and Digital Utterances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silvia Machado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the perspective of the Bakhtin Circle's theory, this paper aims to study a few specifications, as well as aspects that constitute the digital scientific divulgation (DSD utterances. Besides verbal and verbo-visual aspects, which characterize scientific divulgation utterances in several print genres, it is important to consider that our object of study is also composed by/in the complexity of the digital environment. We intend to present a reflection upon hypertextual dialogic relations, conclusibility and utterance alternation, and finally the conditions of production and reception in DSD utterances.

  1. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  2. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  3. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment. 141.809... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment...

  4. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  5. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural...

  6. [Calcium supplementation and the possible increase in cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Sáez, Abelardo; Formiga, Francesc; Pujol Farriols, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent the occurrence of fragility fractures, and thereby reduce morbidity and mortality. Among the various approaches to the treatment of this disease include ensuring proper calcium intake and to obtain adequate levels of vitamin D. Virtually all clinical trials with drugs used to treat osteoporosis systematically include calcium and vitamin D supplements. In light of the recent publication of clinical trials and meta-analyses, a possible increase in cardiovascular risk, particularly in the form of a myocrdial infarction, is hypothesised in patients taking calcium supplements. However, data published to date are inconclusive. Until the development of new scientific evidence, it seems reasonable to recommend, whenever practicable and individualized for each patient, increasing calcium intake with food and reserve supplements for patients with very low calcium intake in the diet. It would also be advisable for the administration of total daily dose to be fractionated throughout the day and with meals, and to obtain appropriate levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol or calcidiol), along with the basic treatment for osteoporosis that is decided to be prescribed to patients.

  7. Health claims made on multivitamin and mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovičić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic purpose of health claims is consumers' benefit by providing information about healthy eating habits. It is necessary for health claims to be scientifically substantiated and truthful. Health claims should not attribute to food the property of preventing, treating or curing a human disease. Use of health claims should be followed by a statement indicating the importance of a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this research was to examine the compliance of health claims made on multivitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels on the Serbian market with national regulation concerning health safety of dietary products.Methods: An assessment of labels of MVMs was done in two privately owned pharmacies in Novi Sad, Serbia in August 2010.Results: In total, 48 MVMs were sampled and 22 health claims were detected. Seven out of 22 health claims were in compliance with the national regulation. The main reason for health claims on foreign MVMs not to be compliant with the regulation in Serbia was inadequate or nonexistent translation of original labels.Conclusion: Detected use of terms such as "prevention", "treatment" and "indications" on vitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels is both forbidden and misleading to consumers. Coupled with inadequate or nonexistent translation of the labels, it leads to a low level of protection of Serbian consumers. It is necessary to establish an effective monitoring system for dietary supplements' labeling on a national scale in order toprotect consumers and their wellbeing.

  8. Scientific Realism versus Antirealism in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbae Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific realists believe both what a scientific theory says about observables and unobservables. In contrast, scientific antirealists believe what a scientific theory says about observables, but not about unobservables. I argue that scientific realism is a more useful doctrine than scientific antirealism in science classrooms. If science teachers are antirealists, they are caught in Moore’s paradox when they help their students grasp the content of a scientific theory, and when they explain a phenomenon in terms of a scientific theory. Teachers ask questions to their students to check whether they have grasped the content of a scientific theory. If the students are antirealists, they are also caught in Moore’s paradox when they respond positively to their teachers’ questions, and when they explain a phenomenon in terms of a scientific theory. Finally, neither teachers nor students can understand phenomena in terms of scientific theories, if they are antirealists.

  9. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the

  10. Oral strategies to supplement older adults' dietary intakes: comparing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population.

  11. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  12. Meteorological Support in Scientific Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Chris; Mullenax, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The weather affects every portion of a scientific balloon mission, from payload integration to launch, float, and impact and recovery. Forecasting for these missions is very specialized and unique in many aspects. CSBF Meteorology incorporates data from NWSNCEP, as well as several international meteorological organizations, and NCAR. This presentation will detail the tools used and specifics on how CSBF Meteorology produces its forecasts.

  13. Scientific discovery using genetic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzer, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    that are numerically stable and correct. A case study using four real-world problems in the induction of dimensionally correct empirical equations on data using the two different methods is presented to illustrate to use and limitations of these methods in a framework of scientific discovery....

  14. Scientific Ethics in Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1996-10-01

    Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adhered to by people engaged in those pursuits called professions. It is distinct from, but consistent with, both ordinary morality and moral theory. The codes of professional ethics derive from the two bargains that define a profession: the internal code of practice and the external bargain between the profession and society. While the informal code of professional conduct is well understood by working scientists, it is rarely explicitly included in the chemistry curriculum. Instead, we have relied on informal methods to teach students scientific ethics, a strategy that is haphazard at best. In this paper I argue that scientific ethics can and must be taught as part of the chemistry curriculum and that this is the best done through the case-study method. Many decisions made by working scientists have both a technical and an ethical component. Students need to learn how to make good decisions in professional ethics. The alternative is, at best, sloppy science and, at worst, scientific misconduct.

  15. Scientific aesthetics: three steps forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-11-01

    Leder and Nadal (2014, this issue) examine the current state of scientific aesthetics through the lens of a prescient psychological model proposed 10 years ago. These retrospective points to several future directions of which I touch on three: the nature of aesthetic emotions, the time course of emotions in aesthetic episodes, and the relationship of art and evolution.

  16. Scientific Creativity: Idealism versus Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.

    2010-01-01

    The need for creativity in the sciences has, from time to time, been questioned. Thus, Ghassib's (2010) argument that creativity is critical to performance in the sciences, and hence organizational effectiveness in a knowledge production economy, is important. Moreover, the proposition that scientific creativity is based on knowledge and…

  17. The Logic of Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.

    This paper considers the case for scientifically based research. The paper presents the case in concise outline form, providing a rationale; an analogy to medicine; strength of evidence argument; and thoughts about educational sciences. It asks and answers the questions What is EBE? (Evidence Based Education); and What is empirical evidence? In…

  18. Adaptive Segmentation for Scientific Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.G.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore database segmentation in the context of a column-store DBMS targeted at a scientific database. We present a novel hardware- and scheme-oblivious segmentation algorithm, which learns and adapts to the workload immediately. The approach taken is to capitalize on (intermediate)

  19. On (scientific) integrity: conceptual clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão Neves, Maria do Céu

    2017-09-13

    The notion of "integrity" is currently quite common and broadly recognized as complex, mostly due to its recurring and diverse application in various distinct domains such as the physical, psychic or moral, the personal or professional, that of the human being or of the totality of beings. Nevertheless, its adjectivation imprints a specific meaning, as happens in the case of "scientific integrity". This concept has been defined mostly by via negativa, by pointing out what goes against integrity, that is, through the identification of its infringements, which has also not facilitated the elaboration of an overarching and consensual code of scientific integrity. In this context, it is deemed necessary to clarify the notion of "integrity", first etymologically, recovering the original meaning of the term, and then in a specifically conceptual way, through the identification of the various meanings with which the term can be legitimately used, particularly in the domain of scientific research and innovation. These two steps are fundamental and indispensable for a forthcoming attempt at systematizing the requirements of "scientific integrity".

  20. Figuring out a scientific understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Clive

    1993-12-01

    This article attempts to place analogy and metaphor within the wider context of all figurative language, and to trace the relationship between that kind of expression and the supposedly literal and direct accounts of nature that scientists have built up.I explore the functions of figures of speech in the development of new scientific ideas, and trace how they fade or die as each area of scientific knowledge matures. What we then take to be the literal words of scientific description are in effect the remnants of old figures of speech that have grown so familiar that their earlier metaphorical quality is easily overlooked. The conventional separation of figurative and literal cannot be sustained, and a new understanding of their relationship is needed.The practical implications of this analysis are to do with how we can reactivate the dormant metaphors in ordinary scientific language, so that learners may hear again the human voice of scientists who developed the ways of talking we now take for granted. To reactivate the system of thought behind any established way of talking, we must be able to get the learners to understand that language works as a medium of interpretation and persuasion, and not simply a system of descriptive labeling. These two views of language are compared and contrasted.

  1. Adaptive segmentation for scientific databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore database segmentation in the context of a column-store DBMS targeted at a scientific database. We present a novel hardware- and scheme-oblivious segmentation algorithm, which learns and adapts to the workload immediately. The approach taken is to capitalize on (intermediate)

  2. Building Bridges through Scientific Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Getting together to exchange ideas, forge collaborations, and disseminate knowledge is a long-standing tradition of scientific communities. How conferences are serving the community, what their current challenges are, and what is in store for the future of conferences are the topics covered...

  3. Biology, Philosophy, and Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L.

    1985-01-01

    The limits of falsification are discussed and the historically based models of science described by Lakatos and Kuhn are shown to offer greater insights into the practice of science. The theory of natural selection is used to relate biology to philosophy and scientific method. (Author/JN)

  4. The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Siggaard; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge aims to reach a unique understanding of science with the help of economic and sociological theories. They use institutional and evolutionary theories and the sociological theories draw from the type of work on social studies of science that have, in recent...

  5. Scientific customer needs - NASA user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Some requirements for scientific users of the Space Station are considered. The use of testbeds to evaluate design concepts for information systems, and for interfacing between designers and builders of systems is examined. The need for an information system that provides an effective interaction between ground-based users and their space-based equipment is discussed.

  6. Scientific Creativity: Idealism versus Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.

    2010-01-01

    The need for creativity in the sciences has, from time to time, been questioned. Thus, Ghassib's (2010) argument that creativity is critical to performance in the sciences, and hence organizational effectiveness in a knowledge production economy, is important. Moreover, the proposition that scientific creativity is based on knowledge and…

  7. Teaching scientific integrity through statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, Marijtje A.J.; Post, Wendy J.; Makar, Katie; de Sousa, Bruno; Gould, Robert1

    2014-01-01

    In the past years, Dutch academia was confronted with several cases of fraud. The Stapel investigation revealed that the prevailing research culture allowed questionable research practices (QRP). As a consequence, there is an ongoing debate on how to prevent academic misconduct. Teaching scientific

  8. Mary’s Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Malatesti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Frank Jackson’s knowledge argument (KA aims to prove, by means of a thought experiment concerning the hypothetical scientist Mary, that conscious experiences have non-physical properties, called qualia. Mary has complete scientific knowledge of colours and colour vision without having had any colour experience. The central intuition in the KA is that, by seeing colours, Mary will learn what it is like to have colour experiences. Therefore, her scientific knowledge is incomplete, and conscious experiences have qualia. In this paper I consider an objection to the KA raised by Daniel Dennett. He maintains that the KA is vitiated by Jackson’s account of Mary’s scientific knowledge. While endorsing this criticism, I will defend the plausibility and relevance of the type of strategy involved in the KA by offering an account of Mary’s scientific knowledge. This account involves formulating a reasonable and not immediately false version of the physicalist thesis with regard to colour experiences. Whether this version of the KA is successful against this type of physicalism is not investigated here.

  9. Adaptive segmentation for scientific databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore database segmentation in the context of a column-store DBMS targeted at a scientific database. We present a novel hardware- and scheme-oblivious segmentation algorithm, which learns and adapts to the workload immediately. The approach taken is to capitalize on (intermediate)

  10. Learning Scientific Programming with Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christian

    2016-02-01

    1. Introduction; 2. The core Python language I; 3. Interlude: simple plotting with pylab; 4. The core Python language II; 5. IPython and IPython notebook; 6. NumPy; 7. Matplotlib; 8. SciPy; 9. General scientific programming; Appendix A; Solutions; Index.

  11. Synthetic androgens as designer supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed.

  12. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Katie

    This dissertation investigates the implementation issues and the educational opportunities associated with "taking the practice turn" in science education. This pedagogical shift focuses instructional experiences on engaging students in the epistemic practices of science both to learn the core ideas of the disciplines, as well as to gain an understanding of and personal connection to the scientific enterprise. In Chapter 2, I examine the teacher-researcher co-design collaboration that supported the classroom implementation of a year-long, project-based biology curriculum that was under development. This study explores the dilemmas that arose when teachers implemented a new intervention and how the dilemmas arose and were managed throughout the collaboration of researchers and teachers and between the teachers. In the design-based research of Chapter 3, I demonstrate how students' engagement in epistemic practices in contemporary science investigations supported their conceptual development about genetics. The analysis shows how this involved a complex interaction between the scientific, school and community practices in students' lives and how through varied participation in the practices students come to write about and recognize how contemporary investigations can give them leverage for science-based action outside of the school setting. Finally, Chapter 4 explores the characteristics of learning environments for supporting the development of scientific practice-linked identities. Specific features of the learning environment---access to the intellectual work of the domain, authentic roles and accountability, space to make meaningful contributions in relation to personal interests, and practice-linked identity resources that arose from interactions in the learning setting---supported learners in stabilizing practice-linked science identities through their engagement in contemporary scientific practices. This set of studies shows that providing students with the

  13. Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.

  14. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacologic...

  15. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  16. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    also known as cholecalciferol . This is a result of the reaction between 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and ultraviolet radiation in the...skin) (From Diet) Vitamin D3 ( Cholecalciferol ) UV light Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Liver 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxy...monthly oral vitamin D3 ( cholecalciferol ) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomized double

  17. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  18. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, N M; Lamb, D R; Nelson, T E

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if oral creatine (CR) ingestion, compared to a placebo (PL), would enable swimmers to maintain a higher swimming velocity across repeated interval sets over 2 weeks of supplementation. Fourteen female and 18 male university swimmers consumed a PL during a 2-week baseline period. Using a randomized, double-blind design, during the next 2 weeks subjects consumed either CR or PL. Swimming velocity was assessed twice weekly during 6 X 50-m swims and once weekly during 10 X 25-yd swims. There was no effect of CR on the 10 X 25-yd interval sets for men and women and no effect on the 6 X 50-m interval sets for women. In contrast, for men, CR significantly improved mean overall swimming velocity in the 6 X 50-m interval after 2 weeks of supplementation, whereas PL had no effect. Although ineffective in women, CR supplementation apparently enables men to maintain a faster mean overall swimming velocity during repeated swims each lasting about 30 s; however, CR was not effective for men in repeated swims each lasting about 10 - 15 s.

  19. 50 CFR 600.512 - Scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 600.512 Section 600... research. (a) Scientific research activity. Persons planning to conduct scientific research activities on board a scientific research vessel in the EEZ that may be confused with fishing are encouraged to submit...

  20. Replicative nature of Indian research, essence of scientific temper, and future of scientific progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.

  1. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Fields, S. A. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Skylab solar observatory facility that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 are presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications; (2) journal publications submitted; (3) other publications; (4) presentations-national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  2. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications, supplement 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reports are compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed in this report are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations--National and International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is included together with errata for the first report.

  3. Apollo telescope mount. A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) are presented. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications, (2) journal publications submitted, (3) other publications, (4) presentations - national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  4. Software Defects, Scientific Computation and the Scientific Method

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Computation has rapidly grown in the last 50 years so that in many scientific areas it is the dominant partner in the practice of science. Unfortunately, unlike the experimental sciences, it does not adhere well to the principles of the scientific method as espoused by, for example, the philosopher Karl Popper. Such principles are built around the notions of deniability and reproducibility. Although much research effort has been spent on measuring the density of software defects, much less has been spent on the more difficult problem of measuring their effect on the output of a program. This talk explores these issues with numerous examples suggesting how this situation might be improved to match the demands of modern science. Finally it develops a theoretical model based on an amalgam of statistical mechanics and Hartley/Shannon information theory which suggests that software systems have strong implementation independent behaviour and supports the widely observed phenomenon that defects clust...

  5. Scientific and non-scientific challenges for Operational Earthquake Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tracking the time evolution of seismic hazard in time windows shorter than the usual 50-years of long-term hazard models may offer additional opportunities to reduce the seismic risk. This is the target of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). During the OEF development in Italy we identify several challenges that range from pure science to the more practical interface of science with society. From a scientific point of view, although earthquake clustering is the clearest empirical evidence about earthquake occurrence, and OEF clustering models are the most (successfully) tested hazard models in seismology, we note that some seismologists are still reluctant to accept their scientific reliability. After exploring the motivations of these scientific doubts, we also look into an issue that is often overlooked in this discussion, i.e., in any kind of hazard analysis, we do not use a model because it is the true one, but because it is the better than anything else we can think of. The non-scientific aspects are mostly related to the fact that OEF usually provides weekly probabilities of large eartquakes smaller than 1%. These probabilities are considered by some seismologists too small to be of interest or useful. However, in a recent collaboration with engineers we show that such earthquake probabilities may lead to intolerable individual risk of death. Interestingly, this debate calls for a better definition of the still fuzzy boundaries among the different expertise required for the whole risk mitigation process. The last and probably more pressing challenge is related to the communication to the public. In fact, a wrong message could be useless or even counterproductive. Here we show some progresses that we have made in this field working with communication experts in Italy.

  6. Advanced Scientific Computing Environment Team new scientific database management task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J.P.; Roberts, J.C.; Sims, R.N.; Smetana, A.O.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1991-06-01

    The mission of the ASCENT Team is to continually keep pace with, evaluate, and select emerging computing technologies to define and implement prototypic scientific environments that maximize the ability of scientists and engineers to manage scientific data. These environments are to be implemented in a manner consistent with the site computing architecture and standards and NRTSC/SCS strategic plans for scientific computing. The major trends in computing hardware and software technology clearly indicate that the future computer'' will be a network environment that comprises supercomputers, graphics boxes, mainframes, clusters, workstations, terminals, and microcomputers. This network computer'' will have an architecturally transparent operating system allowing the applications code to run on any box supplying the required computing resources. The environment will include a distributed database and database managing system(s) that permits use of relational, hierarchical, object oriented, GIS, et al, databases. To reach this goal requires a stepwise progression from the present assemblage of monolithic applications codes running on disparate hardware platforms and operating systems. The first steps include converting from the existing JOSHUA system to a new J80 system that complies with modern language standards, development of a new J90 prototype to provide JOSHUA capabilities on Unix platforms, development of portable graphics tools to greatly facilitate preparation of input and interpretation of output; and extension of Jvv'' concepts and capabilities to distributed and/or parallel computing environments.

  7. Popularization of science and scientific journalism: possibilities of scientific literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Augusto Barros Façanha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evidences the intersection between science education and communication in the perspective of the popularization of sciences based on the evidence produced in a specific column of a large circulation newspaper of the city of Teresina / PI. The discussions were based on the analysis of content carried out in the context of science classes in a school of basic education with elementary students, where journalistic texts were used with diverse themes that involved science and daily life in order to understand the interpretation of texts And the relationship with the context of scientific dissemination and citizenship. The analysis of the content was used and the answers were stratified into categories of conceptual nature and application of the themes. The analyses show that the texts of scientific dissemination have a contribution in relation to the popularization of Sciences, fomentation to the debate in the classroom, didactic increment in the classes of sciences, in spite of their insertion still incipient in the context of science education. However, the results of the research denote the difficulty faced by the students in understanding the text of dissemination in their conceptual comprehension and resolution of daily problems, as well as the distance between the context of the sciences in their theoretical scope and their presentation in everyday situations, Despite this, the texts of divulgation corroborated as an important way of real insertion in the process of scientific literacy and promotion of citizenship.

  8. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuexin

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the procedures involved in scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. The definition of a functional food is discussed, in addition to the factors that led to its modification in 2005. The framework of administration includes the regulation of functional foods, steps involved in submission of dossiers, the safety control system for raw materials and products, and technical procedures for testing and evaluation. Scientific evidence required for a claim includes evidence from product tests in addition to evidence resulting from complete scientific literature searches relative to the food material or component in question. Currently, the 4 main rules for functional food assessment in China include 1) functional assessment procedures; 2) standard toxicological assessment; 3) regulations on nutrient supplements; and 4) standard analytical methods for functional components. The current situation for functional foods in China is analyzed, including a discussion of the distribution of the 27 currently allowed functional food health claims. The effectiveness of functional foods and health claims for improving health relies largely on the motivation and education of the public to be able to make good choices.

  9. Change Management and Version Control of Scientific Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Koteska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development process of scientific applic ations is largely dependent on scientific progress and the experimental research results. Thus, dealing with frequent changes is one of the main problems faced by the developers of scientific software. Taking into account the results of the survey conducte d among scientists in the HP - SEE project, the implementation of change management and version control software processes is inevitable. In this paper, we propose software engineering principles that should be in cluded in the development process to improve the version control and change management. Moreover, we give some specific recommendations for their implementation, thereby making a slight modification of alre ady generally accepted templates and methods. The development steps practiced by scientists sho uld not be replaced completely, but they need to be supplemented with appropriate practices, documents and form al methods. We also emphasize the reasons for the inclusion of these two processes and the consequences that may arise as a result of their non - a pplication .

  10. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2013

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2013 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look at the books on sale. The fair will take place in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) on the ground floor near Restaurant 1 on Monday 9 and Tuesday 10 September. Participating or represented publishers include: Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Wiley, and World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times:  - Monday 9 September 9:00 - 18:00  - Tuesday 10 September 9:00 - 18:00

  11. Learning scientific programming with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learn to master basic programming tasks from scratch with real-life scientifically relevant examples and solutions drawn from both science and engineering. Students and researchers at all levels are increasingly turning to the powerful Python programming language as an alternative to commercial packages and this fast-paced introduction moves from the basics to advanced concepts in one complete volume, enabling readers to quickly gain proficiency. Beginning with general programming concepts such as loops and functions within the core Python 3 language, and moving onto the NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib libraries for numerical programming and data visualisation, this textbook also discusses the use of IPython notebooks to build rich-media, shareable documents for scientific analysis. Including a final chapter introducing challenging topics such as floating-point precision and algorithm stability, and with extensive online resources to support advanced study, this textbook represents a targeted package for students...

  12. Should we train scientific generalists?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    I examine the topic of training scientific generalists. To focus the discussion, I propose the creation of a new graduate program, analogous in structure to existing MD/PhD programs, aimed at training a critical mass of scientific researchers with substantial intellectual breadth. In addition to completing the normal requirements for a PhD, students would undergo an intense, several year training period designed to expose them to the core vocabulary of multiple subjects at the graduate level. After providing some historical and philosophical context for this proposal, I outline how such a program could be implemented with little institutional overhead by existing research universities. Finally, I discuss alternative possibilities for training generalists by taking advantage of contemporary developments in online learning and open science.

  13. REDVET indexada desde Scientific Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    veterinaria.org

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenScientific Commons es un cosechador de metadatos desarrollado por laUniversidad de St. Gallen (Suiza en los idiomas inglés y alemán, utiliza el protocolo OAI-PMH y aunque aún está en versión beta, paulatinamente va adquiriendo números totales de revistas científicas que, como es el caso de REDVET Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria, publican en OA. Así si entramos a http://en.scientificcommons.org/redvet#search_string=REDVETVeremos como a fecha de hoy hay 644 artículos publicados en REDVETindexados en Scientific Commons:

  14. [Scientific concepts in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, G

    2003-11-28

    The understanding of the scientific basis and the theory of knowledge are surprisingly heterogeneous in practical and clinical medicine. It is frequently influenced or based on the philosophical theory of critical rationalism founded by Sir Karl Popper. Because the theory of knowledge and the understanding of scientific truth is the central basis for cautious and good clinical practise it is necessary to discuss both points to avoid unscientific auto-immunisation against critique in a type of medicine that regards herself as science-based. Evidence-based medicine would not be possible without interpretation and explanation of existing data into the individual treatment context. Besides an inductive or deductive logic the historical and situative side-conditions of the gathering of knowledge and of experiments are of central importance for their interpretation and their relevance in clinical practice. This historical and situative context warrants reflection but must also be paid attention to in the reflections on medical ethics.

  15. An Introduction to Scientific Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Erika Lorraine; Nye, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to integrate gender analysis into the global history of science and medicine from the late Middle Ages to the present by focusing on masculinity, the part of the gender equation that has received the least attention from scholars. The premise of the volume is that social constructions of masculinity function simultaneously as foils for femininity and as methods of differentiating between "kinds" of men. In exploring scientific masculinities without taking the dominance of men and masculinity in the sciences for granted, we ask, What is masculinity and how does it operate in science? Our answers remind us that gender is at once an analytical category and a historical object. The essays are divided into three sections that in turn emphasize the importance of gender to the professionalization of scientific, technological, and medical practices, the spaces in which such labor is performed, and the ways that sex, gender, and sexual orientation are measured and serve as metaphors in society and culture.

  16. CERN scientific book fair 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2010 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Some twelve companies will be present and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look to the books on offer. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (bldg. 500) on the ground floor near the Restaurant 1 on Tuesday 7th and Wednesday 8th September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, EPFL Press – PPUR, Oxford University Press, Imperial College Press, McGraw-Hill, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, World Scientific. Fair opening times: Tuesday 7 September 9:00 &ndash...

  17. Genealogical Trees of Scientific Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waumans, Michaël Charles; Bersini, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Many results have been obtained when studying scientific papers citations databases in a network perspective. Articles can be ranked according to their current in-degree and their future popularity or citation counts can even be predicted. The dynamical properties of such networks and the observation of the time evolution of their nodes started more recently. This work adopts an evolutionary perspective and proposes an original algorithm for the construction of genealogical trees of scientific papers on the basis of their citation count evolution in time. The fitness of a paper now amounts to its in-degree growing trend and a "dying" paper will suddenly see this trend declining in time. It will give birth and be taken over by some of its most prevalent citing "offspring". Practically, this might be used to trace the successive published milestones of a research field.

  18. Genealogical Trees of Scientific Papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Charles Waumans

    Full Text Available Many results have been obtained when studying scientific papers citations databases in a network perspective. Articles can be ranked according to their current in-degree and their future popularity or citation counts can even be predicted. The dynamical properties of such networks and the observation of the time evolution of their nodes started more recently. This work adopts an evolutionary perspective and proposes an original algorithm for the construction of genealogical trees of scientific papers on the basis of their citation count evolution in time. The fitness of a paper now amounts to its in-degree growing trend and a "dying" paper will suddenly see this trend declining in time. It will give birth and be taken over by some of its most prevalent citing "offspring". Practically, this might be used to trace the successive published milestones of a research field.

  19. A Guide to Scientific Crowdfunding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachelard, Julien; Gambarra-Soares, Thaise; Augustini, Gabriela; Riul, Pablo; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius

    2016-02-01

    Crowdfunding represents an attractive new option for funding research projects, especially for students and early-career scientists or in the absence of governmental aid in some countries. The number of successful science-related crowdfunding campaigns is growing, which demonstrates the public's willingness to support and participate in scientific projects. Putting together a crowdfunding campaign is not trivial, however, so here is a guide to help you make yours a success.

  20. The Scientific Data Management Center

    OpenAIRE

    Shoshani, Arie

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing volume and complexity of data produced by ultra-scale simulations and high-throughput experiments, understanding the science is largely hampered by the lack of comprehensive, end-to-end data management solutions ranging from initial data acquisition to final analysis and visualization. The Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center is bringing a set of advanced data management technologies to DOE scientists in various application domains including astrophysics, climate, ...

  1. NOAA's Scientific Data Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The NOAA mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet the Nation's economic, social and environmental needs. NOAA has responsibility for long-term archiving of the United States environmental data and has recently integrated several data management functions into a concept called Scientific Data Stewardship. Scientific Data Stewardship a new paradigm in data management consisting of an integrated suite of functions to preserve and exploit the full scientific value of NOAA's, and the world's, environmental data These functions include careful monitoring of observing system performance for long-term applications, the generation of authoritative long-term climate records from multiple observing platforms, and the proper archival of and timely access to data and metadata. NOAA has developed a conceptual framework to implement the functions of scientific data stewardship. This framework has five objectives: 1) develop real-time monitoring of all satellite observing systems for climate applications, 2) process large volumes of satellite data extending up to decades in length to account for systematic errors and to eliminate artifacts in the raw data (referred to as fundamental climate data records, FCDRs), 3) generate retrieved geophysical parameters from the FCDRs (referred to as thematic climate data records TCDRs) including combining observations from all sources, 4) conduct monitoring and research by analyzing data sets to uncover climate trends and to provide evaluation and feedback for steps 2) and 3), and 5) provide archives of metadata, FCDRs, and TCDRs, and facilitate distribution of these data to the user community. The term `climate data record' and related terms, such as climate data set, have been used for some time, but the climate community has yet to settle on a concensus definition. A recent United States National Academy of Sciences report recommends using the

  2. Towards Exascale Scientific Metadata Management

    OpenAIRE

    Blanas, Spyros; Byna, Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology and computing hardware are enabling scientists from all areas of science to produce massive amounts of data using large-scale simulations or observational facilities. In this era of data deluge, effective coordination between the data production and the analysis phases hinges on the availability of metadata that describe the scientific datasets. Existing workflow engines have been capturing a limited form of metadata to provide provenance information about the identity ...

  3. A Guide to Scientific Crowdfunding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vachelard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Crowdfunding represents an attractive new option for funding research projects, especially for students and early-career scientists or in the absence of governmental aid in some countries. The number of successful science-related crowdfunding campaigns is growing, which demonstrates the public's willingness to support and participate in scientific projects. Putting together a crowdfunding campaign is not trivial, however, so here is a guide to help you make yours a success.

  4. Lexical Features of Scientific Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rusko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a lot of emphasis is placed of the ability of a person to successfully communicate in any sphere of activity, which along with upbringing and education is among the factors that determine a person’s culture. In the context of rapid scientific and technological progress, it is vital to constantly exchange relevant infor- mation. The effectiveness of this process relies not only on the proficient knowledge of the subject and the ability to make grammatically correct sentences, but to a large extent on the level of competence in scientific language. The present article attempts to consider the interaction of discourse and vocabulary, different types of cognitive phenomena responsible for the use of a language in real time and related to the language as a means of storing and organising information. Analysing and classifying some key elements of a scientific discourse lexicon contributes to the development of certain provisions of lexicology, functional stylistics, cognitive linguistics and terminology. The results of the analysis may be advantageous both to linguistics and teaching the language for specific purposes.

  5. Feature Selection in Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E; Newsam, S; Kamath, C

    2004-02-27

    Numerous applications of data mining to scientific data involve the induction of a classification model. In many cases, the collection of data is not performed with this task in mind, and therefore, the data might contain irrelevant or redundant features that affect negatively the accuracy of the induction algorithms. The size and dimensionality of typical scientific data make it difficult to use any available domain information to identify features that discriminate between the classes of interest. Similarly, exploratory data analysis techniques have limitations on the amount and dimensionality of the data that can be effectively processed. In this paper, we describe applications of efficient feature selection methods to data sets from astronomy, plasma physics, and remote sensing. We use variations of recently proposed filter methods as well as traditional wrapper approaches where practical. We discuss the importance of these applications, the general challenges of feature selection in scientific datasets, the strategies for success that were common among our diverse applications, and the lessons learned in solving these problems.

  6. Accelerating scientific publication in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ronald D

    2015-11-03

    Scientific publications enable results and ideas to be transmitted throughout the scientific community. The number and type of journal publications also have become the primary criteria used in evaluating career advancement. Our analysis suggests that publication practices have changed considerably in the life sciences over the past 30 years. More experimental data are now required for publication, and the average time required for graduate students to publish their first paper has increased and is approaching the desirable duration of PhD training. Because publication is generally a requirement for career progression, schemes to reduce the time of graduate student and postdoctoral training may be difficult to implement without also considering new mechanisms for accelerating communication of their work. The increasing time to publication also delays potential catalytic effects that ensue when many scientists have access to new information. The time has come for life scientists, funding agencies, and publishers to discuss how to communicate new findings in a way that best serves the interests of the public and the scientific community.

  7. Ethics of reviewing scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Federica; Petrini, Carlo; Garattini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    The approval or rejection of scientific publications can have important consequences for scientific knowledge, so considerable responsibility lies on those who have to assess or review them. Today it seems that the peer review process, far from being considered an outdated system to be abandoned, is experiencing a new upturn. This article proposes criteria for the conduct of reviewers and of those who select them. While commenting on new emerging models, it provides practical recommendations for improving the peer-review system, like strengthening the role of guidelines and training and supporting reviewers. The process of peer review is changing, it is getting more open and collaborative, but those same ethical principles which guided it from its very origin should remain untouched and be firmly consolidated. The paper highlights how the ethics of reviewing scientific publications is needed now more than ever, in particular with regard to competence, conflict of interest, willingness to discuss decisions, complete transparency and integrity. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CERN Library - Scientific journal cancellations

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Due to the constant increase of the subscription costs of scientific journals and the current budget restrictions, the Scientific Information Policy Board has mandated the Working Group for Acquisitions (WGA) together with the Library to propose a list of titles to be cancelled at the end of 2004. As a first step, the WGA has identified the scientific journals listed at the web site below as candidates for cancellation. The choice has been guided by the personal experience of the WGA members, consultation of other expert CERN staff for highly specialized titles, and by criteria such as subscription price, impact factor, and - where available - access statistics for electronic journals. The list also accounts for the fact that many titles are subscribed to in 'packages' such that a cancellation of individual titles would not lead to any cost savings. We invite users to carefully check the list on the Library homepage (http://library.cern.ch/). If you find any title that you consider critically important for y...

  9. Scientific papers: A new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, George C.

    The problem of how to organize and write a scientific paper is a very basic one for most of us. A scientific paper is, after all, the only tangible product of a research scientist and, like all products, will be a failure if not marketed properly to reach its potential buyers. I think that a lack of attention to this “marketing and sales” aspect of research is a serious fault in our community, by which I mean those of us who publish in AGU journals.The potential audience for a scientific paper can be divided roughly into three distinct categories. The first group is usually rather small in number, consisting of fellow scientists working in a very closely related field, and to whom the details of the work are of major importance. The second group is also fellow scientists, but their interest is less sharply focused, and they are concerned with the broad outlines of the work and essential results. The third group is the sponsors and the people who actually pay for the work, whose interest in the details is minimal and they, sadly enough, are often concerned only with the fact that a paper has been published rather than its content.

  10. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  11. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  12. Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, David G; Connor, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    Performance enhancing drugs, ergogenic aids, and supplements come in many forms. The financial, personal, social, and health-related impact of these substances has wide and varied consequences. This article reviews common substances and practices used by athletes. It discusses the history, use, effects, and adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, growth factors, masking agents, diuretics, volume expanders, β-blockers, amphetamines, caffeine, other stimulants, and creatine. The evidence base behind the use, safety, and efficacy of these items as well as testing for these substances is discussed.

  13. The Influence of Sports Supplements on the Blood Indexes of Snowboard Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a scientific monitoring of the snowboard function of athletes a nutrition intervention to improve athletic performance and provide experimental evidence. This study selected a race against China′s national team athletes, the experiment of 9-week training and nutrition intervention at the same time and take blood samples before to research the influence of sports supplements on the blood indexes of snowboard athletes.

  14. Do Nutritional Supplements Have a Role in Age Macular Degeneration Prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinazo-Durán, Maria D.; Francisco Gómez-Ulla; Luis Arias; Javier Araiz; Ricardo Casaroli-Marano; Roberto Gallego-Pinazo; García-Medina, Jose J.; Maria Isabel López-Gálvez; Lucía Manzanas; Anna Salas; Miguel Zapata; Manuel Diaz-Llopis; Alfredo García-Layana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD), as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX) and omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) supplements in AMD prevention. Materials and Methods. Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and omega-3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTA...

  15. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabna Kotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido, compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses.

  16. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses.

  17. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mak, D.S.Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H.V.; Pelkonen, V.M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sauve, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...

  18. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

  19. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term “Complementary and Alternative Medicine.” Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. PMID:26933641

  20. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  1. Draft scientific concept of the research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazić Miljojko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every scientific research involves the systematic study of phenomena and processes that occur in nature and society. Such a systematic study is not possible without the use of objective instruments for collecting, processing and analyzing data and without the application of scientific methods for drawing conclusions, propriety and legality of the researching object properties. That is why all systematic scientific studies require advance planning and design, and that in one scientific, operational and planning document, called the research project is devised a way of acquiring scientific knowledge, which will represent a logical, structured unit, rational and purposeful, mutually compatible and functionally related attitudes, judgments and conclusions of the research subject. The general methodology of scientific research has defined the scientific standards, rules and procedures by which a scientific research project is created. The project of scientific research has a standard structure element of the project which consists of: a draft scientific concept; b research plans; iv research instruments, including a plan of arrangement and data processing. Since numerous difficulties encountered by young researchers in establishing draft scientific ideas in theirs Master's and Doctoral Theses in the last edition of the Megatrend journal, we have offered to scientific and professional public the first three elements of the scientific concept structure draft of the research project: formulation of the research problem, determination of research subject and the formulation of scientific and social research objectives. In this edition of the Megatrend journal, according to the strict requirements of the general methodology of science and special methodology of science, scientific and professional community, we present the following three elements of the draft of the scientific concept of research: a hypothetical framework of the research, the method of

  2. Doing Science: The Process of Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This curriculum supplement, from The NIH Curriculum Supplement Series, brings cutting-edge medical science and basic research discoveries from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) into classrooms. It was designed to complement existing life science curricula at both the state and local levels and to be consistent with the National Science…

  3. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  4. [Scientific ethics and frozen embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C Y

    2001-05-01

    Scientific Ethics is the theory and praxis of decisions. Philosophical Ethics is presented as the theory and praxis of the good. As the good differs among cultures, Philosophical Ethics is dependent on the endo-cultural good conception. The decision (included that one of adhesion or not to a world vision) depends on neuro-psychic specific factors: i) cognitive factors that include mostly the knowledge of the alternatives and their consequences and the ideological or religious conception of good in relation to the alternatives; ii) affective factors that make alternatives pleasant, unpleasant or neutral, attractive, repulsive or neutral; iii) emotional factors that associate to alternatives anger, peace or neutrality, sadness, happiness or neutrality; iv) value factors that assign importance, triviality or neutrality to alternatives, or assign them significance, irrelevancy or neutrality. There are unspecific factors such as the psychic energy, desire or others. Mixed factors such as attitude, motivation, intention and others. Scientific Ethics deals with the mind as a materio-energetic process which is different from the soul, eggs and embryos of any species are full individuals of that species, because, they have initiated a copy of their genome that specify, give autonomy and define them as individuals. For Scientific Ethics to leave frozen embryos like that for ever, to defrost and get rid of them or to use their cells for science are synonymous of killing them. To defrost them to use their cells as stem cells for somatic cell therapy or to implant them into uteri to continue their development is to maintain alive their cells, but only the implantation allows their maintenance as individuals, thus, being the only compatible with the Christian ethics. The compatibility of these alternatives with other ethics is discussed.

  5. The nature of scientific truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, S A; Polifroni, E C

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share with the readers the authors' views on the need for a philosophical foundation in nursing scholarship. The philosophical premises of realism, idealism, and empiricism are discussed. In addition, the research methods most appropriately used with each philosophical stance are identified and discussed. The authors strongly suggest that nursing epistemology will not advance along the lines of good science until all nursing theorists, thinkers, and philosophers identify their underpinning philosophical positions prior to the discovery of theory, through research and other scientific endeavors. A nursing science fiction account of discovery and theory is used to illustrate the points made within the article.

  6. Scientific Research in Computer Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa al-Yasiry

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the importance of selection research objective and supervisor; In addition this paper suggested the optimal research methods that help researcher to get to optimal results in efficient way. This paper shows the thesis writing style and arrangement in way that to be readable for reader about reality of type and size of the work. The one important result of this paper it's the successful of scientific research must depend about many features that join together and miss one of the research methods that mean unsuccessful research.

  7. PREFACE: Scientific Organising Committee Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Edited by: Oliver Roberts Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Local Organising Committee: Oliver Roberts (Chair) Antonio Martin-Carrillo Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Alexey Uliyanov David Murphy Sinéad Hales Scientific Organising Committee:: Sheila McBreen, (UCD, Ireland) (Chair) Franco Camera (INFN-Milano, Italy) Nerine Cherepy (LLNL, USA) Jarek Glodo (RMD, USA) Lorraine Hanlon (UCD, Ireland) Paul Lecoq (CERN, Switzerland) Julie McEnery (NASA, USA) Oliver Roberts (UCD, Ireland) Anant Setlur, (GE, USA) Brian Shortt, (ESA, the Netherlands) Kenneth Stanton (UCD, Ireland)

  8. Surgical Skills Beyond Scientific Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel’s attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel–Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice. PMID:26090737

  9. Scientific Potential of Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B; Acernese, F; Andersson, P Amaro-Seoane N; Arun, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsuglia, M; Beveridge, M Beker N; Birindelli, S; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Bulik, T; Calloni, E; Cella, G; Mottin, E Chassande; Chelkowski, S; Chincarini, A; Clark, J; Coccia, E; Colacino, C; Colas, J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S; Danzmann, K; Salvo, R De; Dent, T; Rosa, R De; Fiore, L Di; Virgilio, A Di; Doets, M; Fafone, V; Falferi, P; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Friedrich, D; Fulda, P; Gair, J; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Glampedakis, K; Gräf, C; Granata, M; Grote, H; Guidi, G; Gurkovsky, A; Hammond, G; Hannam, M; Harms, J; Heinert, D; Hendry, M; Heng, I; Hennes, E; Hild, S; Hough, J; Husa, S; Huttner, S; Jones, G; Khalili, F; Kokeyama, K; Kokkotas, K; Krishnan, B; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Lück, H; Majorana, E; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Martin, I; Michel, C; Minenkov, Y; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Müller--Ebhardt, H; Murray, P; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Oshaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Palomba, C; Paoli, A; Parguez, G; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pinard, L; Plastino, W; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Prato, M; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D; Racz, I; Rapagnani, P; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Rezzolla, L; Ricci, F; Richard, F; Rocchi, A; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Santamaría, L; Sassolas, B; Schnabe, R; Schwarz, C; Seidel, P; Sintes, A; Somiya, K; Speirits, F; Strain, K; Strigin, S; Sutton, P; Tarabrin, S; Thüring, A; Brand, J van den; Veggel, M van; Broeck, C van den; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Vyatchanin, S; Willke, B; Woan, G; Yamamoto, K

    2011-01-01

    Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope (ET) is a design study funded by the European Commission to explore the technological challenges of and scientific benefits from building a third generation gravitational wave detector. The three-year study, which concluded earlier this year, has formulated the conceptual design of an observatory that can support the implementation of new technology for the next two to three decades. The goal of this talk is to introduce the audience to the overall aims and objectives of the project and to enumerate ET's potential to influence our understanding of fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  10. Scientific Evidence for Hydrostatic Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific support for a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from a penetrating projectile and causing injury and incapacitation. This phenomenon is known colloquially as "hydrostatic shock." The idea apparently originates with Col. Frank Chamberlin, a World War II trauma surgeon and wound ballistics researcher. The paper reviews claims that hydrostatic shock is a myth and considers supporting evidence through parallels with blast, describing the physics of the pressure wave, evidence for remote cerebral effects, and remote effects in the spine and other internal organs. Finally, the review considers the levels of energy transfer required for the phenomenon to be readily observed.

  11. Scientific Investigation with the SJCSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbey, E.; Delpeyroux, G.; Douay, E.; Juchereau, C.; Garavet, O.

    2012-04-01

    Scientific Investigation with the SJCSI (Saint Jean* Crime Scene Investigation) Our work, which we have been teaching for 3 years, consists of a scientific investigation. We create a case from A to Z and then our students (15 to 16 years old) are meant to collect samples and clues from a reconstituted crime scene and then have to catch the culprit thanks to laboratory tests crossing four subjects: Physics and Chemistry, Biology, Math and English. I'm a biology teacher and I work with 3 other teachers in my school. The objectives of these activities are: • Make sciences more attractive by putting them into a context of crime investigation. • Use science techniques to find a culprit or to clear a suspect. • To acquire scientific knowledge. • Realize that the different scientific subjects complement each other to carry out a survey. • Use English language and improve it. The investigation consists of doing experiments after collecting different samples and clues on the crime scene. Examples of Biology experimentation: • Detecting the origin of the blood samples found on the crime scene. Students observe blood samples with a microscope and compare the characteristics to those of human blood found on the web. They discover that blood samples found aren't human blood because the red cells have a nucleus. By using the information given in the scenario, they discover that blood sample belongs to the parrot of a suspect. Students, also take a photo of their microscopic preparations, add title and caption and so they learn the cell's structure and the characteristics of blood cells. • In another case, students have to study the blood sample found under the victims fingernails. They observe blood preparation and compare it to the blood of a suspect who has a genetic disease: drepanocytosis. So, they discover the characteristics of blood cells by comparing them to sickle cells. • DNA electrophoresis to identify DNA found, for example, on the gun. • Blood type

  12. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  13. Queen's discovery lauded by top scientific journal

    CERN Multimedia

    McGrady, S

    2002-01-01

    A scientific breakthrough at Queen's University's Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has received major international recognition. The journal Science ranked the discovery that cracked the "neutrino problem" second, in the journal's top 10 scientific achievements of 2002 (1/2 page).

  14. Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific Management. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Journal Home ... This article focussed on the lessons that can be garnered from the tenets of Scientific Management.

  15. Bringing Kids into the Scientific Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Sabine; Knight, Robert T

    2017-01-04

    Frontiers for Young Minds puts kids in charge of scientific publications by having them control the review process. This provides kids the ability to shape the way science is taught and to better understand the scientific method.

  16. General outline of scientific programme for 1971

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    A description of the 1971 scientific and technical programme at CERN was prepared for the Scientific Policy Committee and was used to accompany the budget document. The opening chapter is reproduced here with a few minor modifications.

  17. Speaking with Numbers: Scientific Literacy and Public Understanding of Science

    OpenAIRE

    SEVGİ, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Public understanding of science and scientific literacy is discussed. Scientific method, scientific process and scientific filter are reviewed accordingly. Basic terms of measurement and numerical calculation are outlined. Finally, fundamental requirements of scientific literacy and critical response skills are presented.

  18. Methodology of Military-Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book gives an analysis of the methodology used in military- scientific research. The authors examine the characteristics of such research and the...Marxist dialectic method , logic and statistical method used in it; also discussed is the process of military-scientific research and recommendations...on the literary finalization of a scientific work and on the preparation of a manuscript for the press; the methodology for organizing military-scientific work is discussed in detail.

  19. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  20. Homoeopathy: Discussion on scientific validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Rutten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are diverging opinions about scientific evidence for Homoeopathy, but evidence for conventional medicine is not perfect either. In fact, proof for Homoeopathy is not inferior to conventional. However, the evidence for Homoeopathy has been downplayed by selection of trials (cherry-picking. The effect of Homoeopathy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs, however, is small due to many ineffective prescriptions. This is caused by shortcomings of our Materia Medica and Repertories. Discussion: The hegemony of the RCT is increasingly questioned; it does not provide all answers, especially not for the individual patient. The individual patient wants to know his individual prognosis: Will this medicine work for him? This is even more important than his individual diagnosis. It is possible to assess prognosis scientifically the same way as diagnosis. Prognostic research is based on daily practice; practitioners should have knowledge about statistics to fulfill their role in this process. Conclusion: The discussion in this paper elucidates that RCT has its limitations, especially for the patient whose main concern is recovery/prognosis. Drug validation is a key to improve the outcome of clinical practice in Homoeopathy.

  1. The scaling issue: scientific opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2009-07-01

    A brief history of the Leadership Computing Facility (LCF) initiative is presented, along with the importance of SciDAC to the initiative. The initiative led to the initiation of the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment program (INCITE), open to all researchers in the US and abroad, and based solely on scientific merit through peer review, awarding sizeable allocations (typically millions of processor-hours per project). The development of the nation's LCFs has enabled available INCITE processor-hours to double roughly every eight months since its inception in 2004. The 'top ten' LCF accomplishments in 2009 illustrate the breadth of the scientific program, while the 75 million processor hours allocated to American business since 2006 highlight INCITE contributions to US competitiveness. The extrapolation of INCITE processor hours into the future brings new possibilities for many 'classic' scaling problems. Complex systems and atomic displacements to cracks are but two examples. However, even with increasing computational speeds, the development of theory, numerical representations, algorithms, and efficient implementation are required for substantial success, exhibiting the crucial role that SciDAC will play.

  2. Empiricism, Structuralism and Scientific Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lucero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades there was a structural turn in the classic debate between scientific realists and antirealists with empiricist orientation. Two main arguments support the realist conception: the ‘No Miracle Argument’ and the thesis of continuity. The thesis of continuity states that some parts of a theory are retained when a scientific change takes place. In a current famous article, J. Worrall (1989 defends the continuity argument by stating that what is preserved in the succession of two empirically successful theories are the relations among the postulated entities and not the nature of the relata (structural or syntactical realism. Based on this perspective, van Fraassen introduces his position named Empiricist Structuralism, which claims that only the structures of phenomena are retained. This conception tries to explain the success of science and at the same time defend the continuity of structures. I will demonstrate in this paper that the accomplishment of the two mentioned requirements imply a capitulation in favor of realistic intuitions.

  3. Metadata Management in Scientific Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Eric L

    2012-01-01

    Complex scientific codes and the datasets they generate are in need of a sophisticated categorization environment that allows the community to store, search, and enhance metadata in an open, dynamic system. Currently, data is often presented in a read-only format, distilled and curated by a select group of researchers. We envision a more open and dynamic system, where authors can publish their data in a writeable format, allowing users to annotate the datasets with their own comments and data. This would enable the scientific community to collaborate on a higher level than before, where researchers could for example annotate a published dataset with their citations. Such a system would require a complete set of permissions to ensure that any individual's data cannot be altered by others unless they specifically allow it. For this reason datasets and codes are generally presented read-only, to protect the author's data; however, this also prevents the type of social revolutions that the private sector has seen...

  4. Methods of Scientific Research: Teaching Scientific Creativity at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    We present a scaling-up plan for AstroComNYC's Methods of Scientific Research (MSR), a course designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of science practices. The course format and goals, notably the open-ended, hands-on, investigative nature of the curriculum are reviewed. We discuss how the course's interactive pedagogical techniques empower students to learn creativity within the context of experimental design and control of variables thinking. To date the course has been offered to a limited numbers of students in specific programs. The goals of broadly implementing MSR is to reach more students and early in their education—with the specific purpose of supporting and improving retention of students pursuing STEM careers. However, we also discuss challenges in preserving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience at scale.

  5. Scientific visualization: a guide to engaging scientific content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, H.; Salvador, J.

    Although we are capable of judging a good sports play or musical performance, we cannot do the same without lots practice. For example, many people in the El Paso region understand Spanish but cannot speak it. By analogy, in science education we want to provide our students with experiences that connect visual information with hands-on activities. To this end we are producing internet and classroom accessible computer programs that students can use to build their own molecular model or mathematical queries, and to construct answers to online or classroom questions. One software model uses artificial intelligence and wireless connectivity to provide students with online or classroom feedback. In addition, presenting and testing basic science concepts through the use of interactive visualization activities provides yet another model for engaging and assessing students' understanding of math and science and lead to greater scientific literacy in society in general.

  6. Scientific Communication and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    Communication is an important part of scientific practice and, arguably, may be seen as constitutive to scientific knowledge. Yet, often scientific communication gets cursory treatment in science studies as well as in science education. In Nature of Science (NOS), for example, communication is rarely mentioned explicitly, even though, as will be…

  7. 50 CFR 660.719 - Scientific observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific observers. 660.719 Section 660... § 660.719 Scientific observers. (a) All fishing vessels with permits issued under this subpart and... accommodate an NMFS certified observer on board to collect scientific data. (b) All vessels with observers...

  8. Scientific Data: Preserving, Archiving and Sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianxue; YANG Congke

    2006-01-01

    Scientific data refers to the data or data sets generated from scientific research process through observations, experiments, calculations and analyses. These data are fundamental components for developing new knowledge, advancing technological progress, and creating wealth. In recent years, scientific data has been attracting more and more attention for its preserving, archiving and sharing.

  9. Learning Genetics through a Scientific Inquiry Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; Salvadó, Zoel; González, Ángel; Valls, Cristina; Novo, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an activity through which students learn basic concepts in genetics by taking part in a police investigation game. The activity, which we have called Recal, immerses students in a scientific-based scenario in which they play a role of a scientific assessor. Players have to develop and use scientific reasoning and…

  10. Scientific Communication and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    Communication is an important part of scientific practice and, arguably, may be seen as constitutive to scientific knowledge. Yet, often scientific communication gets cursory treatment in science studies as well as in science education. In Nature of Science (NOS), for example, communication is rarely mentioned explicitly, even though, as will be…

  11. Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatello, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

  12. Creatine supplementation: exploring the role of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Eijnde, B O; Derave, W; Richter, E A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of oral creatine supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance has been extensively studied over the past ten years and its ergogenic potential in young healthy subjects is now well documented. Recently, research has shifted from performance evaluation towards elucidating the mechanisms underlying enhanced muscle functional capacity after creatine supplementation. In this review, we attempt to summarise recent advances in the understanding of potential mechanisms of action of creatine supplementation at the level of skeletal muscle cells. By increasing intracellular creatine content, oral creatine ingestion conceivably stimulates operation of the creatine kinase (CK)/phosphocreatine (PCr) system, which in turn facilitates muscle relaxation. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that creatine supplementation can beneficially impact on muscle protein and glycogen synthesis. Thus, muscle hypertrophy and glycogen supercompensation are candidate factors to explain the ergogenic potential of creatine ingestion. Additional issues discussed in this review are the fibre-type specificity of muscle creatine metabolism, the identification of responders versus non-responders to creatine intake, and the scientific background concerning potential side effects of creatine supplementation.

  13. Research on Athletic Training and Nutritional Supplement of Sugar and Protein in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Mi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has the significance of revealing that the human being originates from the sports and develops with the sports, the human being is closely related with the sports. Through exercise, the energy is consumed, but at same time, the health is enhanced. For professional athletic training, the energy replacement shall be made in a scientific, careful and comprehensive way. Through supplement of nutritional ingredients such as sugar and protein etc., in diet, the human metabolism will be enhanced and the cardio-pulmonary function can be improved. Therefore, how to realize the most effective athletic training and energy supplement is an important subject for long term study. By means of the methods such as documentary analysis, data comparison and case analysis etc., the issues existing in athletic training and supplement of sugar and protein in diet are studied, so as to realize the best athletic training and nutritional supplement. The research conclusion lies in that the athletic training and nutritional supplement of sugar and protein in diet not only make the athletes recover and improve their energy, but also play an active guaranteeing role for athletic training.

  14. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2013-06-06

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory. Clinical manifestations of the disease are defined primarily by low levels of thyroid hormones; therefore it is treated by hormone replacement therapy, which usually consists of levothyroxine (LT4). Selenium might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of LT4 and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). To assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched the following databases up to 2 October 2012: CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science; we also screened reference lists of included studies and searched several online trial registries for ongoing trials (5 November 2012). Randomised controlled clinical trials that assessed the effects of selenium supplementation for adults diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. We were unable to conduct a meta-analysis because clinical heterogeneity between interventions that were investigated is substantial. Four studies at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. The mean study duration was 7.5 months (range 3 to 18 months). One of our primary outcomes-'change from baseline in health related quality of life'-and two of our secondary outcomes-'change from baseline in LT4 replacement dosage at end of the study' and 'economic costs'-were not assessed in any of the studies. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium

  15. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  16. [Magnesium as a food supplement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Paul

    2004-05-01

    Magnesium is a Cofactor in all enzymes transfering phosphate. It is therefore necessary for the energymetabolism and for many synthesis, i.e. DNA and RNA. Mg is one of the most widespread elements of the earthcrust and is found in many nutritients. Nevertheless the daily intake in the western countries is often under the recommended level, due to the western life stile. Regular alcohol intake lessens the resorption and regular sport enhances the excretion via the sweat. Especially in elderly people this can lead to a lack of Magnesium. This may promote muscular cramps and weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension or bronchial hyperreactivity. It seems to be reasonable to recommend liberally a oral supplementation with magnesium.

  17. Draft scientific concept of the research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazić Miljojko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every scientific research is the systematic study of subjects, phenomena and processes that occur in nature and society, based on the use of scientific instruments for collecting, processing and analyzing data as well as the application of scientific methods for drawing conclusions about the properties of researching objects. precisely because each study needs to have systematic research character, it is necessary to design and plan in advance. The research project is a fundamental scientific and operational- planning document that represents a pre-designed model of acquiring scientific knowledge, structured as a target, rational purposeful system of mutually compatible and functionally related knowledge, attitudes, judgments and conclusions about the research subject. Because there are a number of different scientific disciplines and within them an even greater number of different types of research, general methodology of scientific research, as well as universal science, has defined certain standards and rules under which compiles every scientific project. Regardless of the scientific field, research project has a standard global structure consisting of: a draft scientific ideas; b research plans; c research instruments, including plans for processing data. Given the importance of the conceptualization of the research project, as a pre-designed model of acquisition of scientific knowledge and the numerous difficulties encountered by young researchers in establishing a draft of the scientific concept of their master and doctoral theses, the authors of this article have decided to offer an overall structure of the scientific draft of the research project, according to the requirements of modern general methodology and special sciences methodologies to the wider scientific community, in the next two editions of the Megatrend university journal. Due to the volume of subject matter, this paper refers only to the first three elements of the

  18. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  19. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  20. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  1. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  2. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  3. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  4. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  5. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International Code of Signals, the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual, the...

  6. Determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-28

    Jan 28, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 5 ... supplementation after adjusting for other factors in the binary logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). .... Definition of compliance to iron supplementation.

  7. 5 CFR 610.306 - Supplemental regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental regulations. 610.306 Section 610.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Administrative Dismissals of Daily, Hourly, and Piecework Employees § 610.306 Supplemental...

  8. 40 CFR 152.132 - Supplemental distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental distribution. 152.132... Supplemental distribution. The registrant may distribute or sell his registered product under another person's name and address instead of (or in addition to) his own. Such distribution and sale is...

  9. Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, G; Vettor, R

    2000-06-01

    The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines.

  10. The martial art of scientific publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    Publication of scientific results in refereed journals is an essential part of the scientific process. It is the final payoff for the obscure labors that compose scientific research. Unfortunately, effective operation of the publication procedure requires simultaneous rational scientific judgment on the part of the author, the referee, and the editor, and the coincidence of all of these cannot be taken for granted on every given occasion. There are times when the working definition of truth is taken to be the consensus of one's scientific intimates: the “good old boys.” Anything outside that limited horizon is discomforting and improper and is to be barred from consideration.

  11. Insights into Supplements with Tribulus Terrestris used by Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrywka Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and nutritional supplements are more and more popular in the western population. One of them is an extract of an exotic plant, named Tribulus terrestris (TT. TT is a component of several supplements that are available over-the-counter and widely recommended, generally as enhancers of human vitality. TT is touted as a testosterone booster and remedy for impaired erectile function; therefore, it is targeted at physically active men, including male athletes. Based on the scientific literature describing the results of clinical trials, this review attempted to verify information on marketing TT with particular reference to the needs of athletes. It was found that there are few reliable data on the usefulness of TT in competitive sport. In humans, a TT extract used alone without additional components does not improve androgenic status or physical performance among athletes. The results of a few studies have showed that the combination of TT with other pharmacological components increases testosterone levels, but it was not discovered which components of the mixture contributed to that effect. TT contains several organic compounds including alkaloids and steroidal glycosides, of which pharmacological action in humans is not completely explained. One anti-doping study reported an incident with a TT supplement contaminated by a banned steroid. Toxicological studies regarding TT have been carried out on animals only, however, one accidental poisoning of a man was described. The Australian Institute of Sport does not recommend athletes’ usage of TT. So far, the published data concerning TT do not provide strong evidence for either usefulness or safe usage in sport.

  12. Xu Guangqi’s Thought On Supplementing Confucianism With Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Seo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xu Guangqi is one of the most influential Chinese scholars who accepted Christian faith during the late Ming dynasty. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism and replacing Buddhism by Christianity” had great impact on the development of Christianity in China. His idea, however, has often been accused of syncretism, and genuineness of his Christian faith has been put into question. Some argue that his theology lacks Christology. Others suggest that his ultimate goal was to achieve the Confucian political ideals through adopting some of the Christian moral teachings. Through the analysis of Xu Guangqi’ works and life, we find that he accepted all the essential Christian doctrines and Christology is the core of his understanding of “Tianzhu”. His view on Confucianism itself istransformed through Christian perspective. In his new understanding, the ultimate goal of Confucianism is to serve and to worship “Tianzhu”,same as Christianity. The ultimate problem of life is to save one’s soul.Xu Guangqi considered his scientific works as a way to propagate Christian faith,since science was seen as an integral part of Christian thought and practice. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism by Christianity” integrated Confucianism into the overarching framework of Christian thought.

  13. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  14. Effects of Biogenic Supplementation on Xenobiotic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Van-Hieu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge acclimated to 2,4-D was used to degrade 2,4-D in batch reactions. Biogenic substrates of sucrose and peptone, in varying concentrations, separately and combined, were supplemented to the degradation reactions to find if, how and why biogenic supplementations were beneficial to the degradation of the xenobiotic. With the biogenic supplement as a variable and other reaction conditions, optimal constant supplementation schemes were found which suit as feasible ways for enhancing the degradation rate of 2,4-D. Among the number of supplementation combinations, the ones having optimal advantage were 50 mg/L of sucrose, 80 mg/L of peptone, each separately, and 20 mg/L sucrose and 40 mg/L peptone combined.

  15. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  16. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  17. Scientific Realism and Classical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Virendra

    2008-01-01

    We recount the successful long career of classical physics, from Newton to Einstein, which was based on the philosophy of scientific realism. Special emphasis is given to the changing status and number of ontological entitities and arguments for their necessity at any time. Newton, initially, began with (i) point particles, (ii) aether, (iii) absolute space and (iv) absolute time. The electromagnetic theory of Maxwell and Faraday introduced `fields' as a new ontological entity not reducible to earlier ones. Their work also unified electricity, magnetism and optics. Repeated failure to observe the motion of earth through aether led Einstein to modify the Newtonian absolute space and time concepts to a fused Minkowski space-time and the removal of aether from basic ontological entities in his special theory of relativity. Later Einstein in his attempts to give a local theory of gravitation was led to further modify flat Minkowski space-time to the curved Riemannian space time. This reduced gravitational phenome...

  18. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2008

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2008 CERN Book Fair 2008, a three-day scientific book festival offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and electronic book suppliers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts. Some ten companies will be participating and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. There will also be a number of tie-in events intended to give you an insight into the writing and publishing process from authors within our own community. Come along and meet the authors, discuss your book ideas with the publishers’ representatives or simply browse the books on offer. The Fair will take place in Building 500 in the area near the Main Auditorium, and special presentations (as detailed below) will be held in rooms nearby or in the Library. Participating publishers and book traders include: Cambridge ...

  19. $100 million Alaskan Scientific Endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Governor Steve Cowper has seen a longtime goal and campaign promise realized as he signed a law creating the Alaska Science and Technology Foundation on May 13. Its purpose is to fund Alaska-related scientific research projects and to promote economic and technological development and public health through basic and applied research.Cowper first proposed the foundation in 1980 and feels strongly that Alaska's natural resources must be treated wisely to insure their future. According to Cowper, “Alaska has more coastline than the rest of the nation combined. We have more forest, more minerals, and more oil and gas than any other state. And we're the only Arctic region the U.S. has.” He does not believe that the oil industry or the federal government can sufficiently handle the state's resources, thus his devotion to creating and supporting the foundation.

  20. Jacob's Ladder and Scientific Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Julio Michael

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to use the epistemological framework of a specific version of Cognitive Constructivism to address Piaget's central problem of knowledge construction, namely, the re-equilibration of cognitive structures. The distinctive objective character of this constructivist framework is based on Heinz von Foerster's fundamental metaphor of - objects as tokens for eigen-solutions, and is also supported by formal inference methods of Bayesian statistics. This epistemological perspective is illustrated using some episodes in the history of chemistry concerning the definition or identification of chemical elements. Some of von Foerster's epistemological imperatives provide general guidelines of development and argumentation. Keywords: Chemical elements; Cognitive constructivism; Development of cognitive structures; Eigen-solutions; External symbol grounding; Objective knowledge; Ontology alignments; Scientific ontologies.

  1. Surviving Scientific Academia . . . and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    It's been 16 years since I first took a physics class at Weber State University. Since them, I've survived graduate school in Nuclear Engineering, and a postdoc appointment doing nuclear nonproliferation. Now I'm a Technical Staff Member at Los Alamos National Laboratory working with nuclear data, the physics behind the numerical simulations of nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Along the way, I've learned a few things. First, scientific computing is everywhere in science. If you are not writing codes, you will be analyzing their output, and generally there will be more output than a human can correctly and accurately interpret in a timely manner. Second, a career in science or engineering can be very rewarding with opportunities to collaborate with and generate friendships with very bright people from all over the world.

  2. Scientific discovery using genetic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzer, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    programming paradigm. The induction of mathematical expressions based on data is called symbolic regression. In this work, genetic programming is extended to not just fit the data i.e., get the numbers right, but also to get the dimensions right. For this units of measurement are used. The main contribution...... in this work can be summarized as: The symbolic expressions produced by genetic programming can be made suitable for analysis and interpretation by using units of measurements to guide or restrict the search. To achieve this, the following has been accomplished: A standard genetic programming system...... that are numerically stable and correct. A case study using four real-world problems in the induction of dimensionally correct empirical equations on data using the two different methods is presented to illustrate to use and limitations of these methods in a framework of scientific discovery....

  3. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN ROMANIAN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂȘESCU SIMONA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify the importance of scientific research for romaian trade companies, how they deal with marketing research and what aspects retailer companies generally want to study, concerning the market they operate in. Although, research is not necessarily specific for trading, however, companies in this area , have began to show their availability to carry out research of customer needs, their suggestions, their capacity to purchase, the level of training and the habits of buying and using, the way how their products are received by individual customers. To understand exactly how the above issues are addressed by traders through a qualitative marketing research we were able to identify the opinions and attitudes of traders concerning the use of market research methods. The research was based on sampling retailer companies in Braşov.

  4. Impact, productivity, and scientific excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Jasleen; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro; Radicchi, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Citation metrics are becoming pervasive in the quantitative evaluation of scholars, journals and institutions. More then ever before, hiring, promotion, and funding decisions rely on a variety of impact metrics that cannot disentangle quality from productivity, and are biased by factors such as discipline and academic age. Biases affecting the evaluation of single papers are compounded when one aggregates citation-based metrics across an entire publication record. It is not trivial to compare the quality of two scholars that during their careers have published at different rates in different disciplines in different periods of time. We propose a novel solution based on the generation of a statistical baseline specifically tailored on the academic profile of each researcher. By decoupling productivity and impact, our method can determine whether a certain level of impact can be explained by productivity alone, or additional ingredients of scientific excellence are necessary. The method is flexible enough to al...

  5. Hierarchical networks of scientific journals

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Gergely; Mones, Enys; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journals are the repositories of the gradually accumulating knowledge of mankind about the world surrounding us. Just as our knowledge is organised into classes ranging from major disciplines, subjects and fields to increasingly specific topics, journals can also be categorised into groups using various metrics. In addition to the set of topics characteristic for a journal, they can also be ranked regarding their relevance from the point of overall influence. One widespread measure is impact factor, but in the present paper we intend to reconstruct a much more detailed description by studying the hierarchical relations between the journals based on citation data. We use a measure related to the notion of m-reaching centrality and find a network which shows the level of influence of a journal from the point of the direction and efficiency with which information spreads through the network. We can also obtain an alternative network using a suitably modified nested hierarchy extraction method applied ...

  6. Information Theory in Scientific Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoli Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is an emerging direction that leverages information theory to solve many challenging problems in scientific data analysis and visualization. In this article, we review the key concepts in information theory, discuss how the principles of information theory can be useful for visualization, and provide specific examples to draw connections between data communication and data visualization in terms of how information can be measured quantitatively. As the amount of digital data available to us increases at an astounding speed, the goal of this article is to introduce the interested readers to this new direction of data analysis research, and to inspire them to identify new applications and seek solutions using information theory.

  7. Apollo scientific experiments data handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelman, W. F. (Editor); Lauderdale, W. W. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A brief description of each of the Apollo scientific experiments was described, together with its operational history, the data content and formats, and the availability of the data. The lunar surface experiments described are the passive seismic, active seismic, lunar surface magnetometer, solar wind spectrometer, suprathermal ion detector, heat flow, charged particle, cold cathode gage, lunar geology, laser ranging retroreflector, cosmic ray detector, lunar portable magnetometer, traverse gravimeter, soil mechanics, far UV camera (lunar surface), lunar ejecta and meteorites, surface electrical properties, lunar atmospheric composition, lunar surface gravimeter, lunar seismic profiling, neutron flux, and dust detector. The orbital experiments described are the gamma-ray spectrometer, X-ray fluorescence, alpha-particle spectrometer, S-band transponder, mass spectrometer, far UV spectrometer, bistatic radar, IR scanning radiometer, particle shadows, magnetometer, lunar sounder, and laser altimeter. A brief listing of the mapping products available and information on the sample program were also included.

  8. Scientific and educational recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, A. I.; Kireev, V. S.; Bochkarev, P. V.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Philippov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the questions associated with the use of reference systems in the preparation of graduates in physical function. The objective of this research is creation of model of recommender system user from the sphere of science and education. The detailed review of current scientific and social network for scientists and the problem of constructing recommender systems in this area. The result of this study is to research user information model systems. The model is presented in two versions: the full one - in the form of a semantic network, and short - in a relational form. The relational model is the projection in the form of semantic network, taking into account the restrictions on the amount of bonds that characterize the number of information items (research results), which interact with the system user.

  9. Promoting scientific thinking with robots

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Benker, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an exemplary robot exercise which was conducted in a class for mechatronics students. The goal of this exercise was to engage students in scientific thinking and reasoning, activities which do not always play an important role in their curriculum. The robotic platform presented here is simple in its construction and is customizable to the needs of the teacher. Therefore, it can be used for exercises in many different fields of science, not necessarily related to robotics. Here we present a situation where the robot is used like an alien creature from which we want to understand its behavior, resembling an ethological research activity. This robot exercise is suited for a wide range of courses, from general introduction to science, to hardware oriented lectures.

  10. Scientific Facts and Methods in Public Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin; Kappel, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Should scientific facts and methods have an epistemically privileged status in public reason? In Rawls’s public reason account he asserts what we will label the Scientific Standard Stricture: citizens engaged in public reason must be guided by non-controversial scientific methods, and public reason...... must be in line with non-controversial scientific conclusions. The Scientific Standard Stricture is meant to fulfill important tasks such as enabling the determinateness and publicity of the public reason framework. However, Rawls leaves us without elucidation with regard to when science......’s Scientific Standards Stricture. We then use Rawls’s general theoretical framework to examine various potential justifications for privileging these ‘non-controversial’ scientific methods and conclusions. We conclude that no viable justification is available to Rawls....

  11. Scientific notations for the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Hinsen, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Computers have profoundly changed the way scientific research is done. Whereas the importance of computers as research tools is evident to everyone, the impact of the digital revolution on the representation of scientific knowledge is not yet widely recognized. An ever increasing part of today's scientific knowledge is expressed, published, and archived exclusively in the form of software and electronic datasets. In this essay, I compare these digital scientific notations to the the traditional scientific notations that have been used for centuries, showing how the digital notations optimized for computerized processing are often an obstacle to scientific communication and to creative work by human scientists. I analyze the causes and propose guidelines for the design of more human-friendly digital scientific notations.

  12. Open access to scientific publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Beate Reitan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in open access (OA to scientific publications is steadily increasing, both in Norway and internationally. From the outset, FORMakademisk has been published as a digital journal, and it was one of the first to offer OA in Norway. We have since the beginning used Open Journal Systems (OJS as publishing software. OJS is part of the Public Knowledge Project (PKP, which was created by Canadian John Willinsky and colleagues at the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia in 1998. The first version of OJS came as an open source software in 2001. The programme is free for everyone to use and is part of a larger collective movement wherein knowledge is shared. When FORMakademisk started in 2008, we received much help from the journal Acta Didactic (n.d. at the University of Oslo, which had started the year before us. They had also translated the programme to Norwegian. From the start, we were able to publish in both Norwegian and English. Other journals have used FORMakademisk as a model and source of inspiration when starting or when converting from subscription-based print journals to electronic OA, including the Journal of Norwegian Media Researchers [Norsk medietidsskrift]. It is in this way that the movement around PKP works and continues to grow to provide free access to research. As the articles are OA, they are also easily accessible to non-scientists. We also emphasise that the language should be readily available, although it should maintain a high scientific quality. Often there may be two sides of the same coin. We on the editorial team are now looking forward to adopting the newly developed OJS 3 this spring, with many new features and an improved design for users, including authors, peer reviewers, editors and readers.

  13. Access to the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarède, Francis

    The Public Library of Science Open Letter (http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org) is a very generous initiative, but, as most similar initiatives since the advent of electronic publishing, it misses the critical aspects of electronic publishing.Ten years ago, a Publisher would be in charge of running a system called a “scientific journal.” In such a system, the presence of an Editor and peer Reviewers secures the strength of the science and the rigor of writing; the Publisher guarantees the professional quality of printing, efficient dissemination, and long-term archiving. Publishing used to be in everyone's best interest, or nearly everyone. The Publisher, because he/she is financially motivated, ensures widespread dissemination of the journal amongst libraries and individual subscribers. The interest of the Author is that the system guarantees a broad potential readership. The interest of the Reader is that a line is drawn between professionally edited literature, presumably of better quality, and gray literature or home publishing, so that he/she does not waste time going through ‘low yield’ ungraded information. The Publisher could either be a private company, an academic institution, or a scholarly society. My experience is that, when page charges and subscription rates are compounded, journals published by scholarly societies are not necessarily cheaper. The difference between these cases is not the cost of running an office with rents, wages, printing, postage, advertisement, and archiving, but that a private Publisher pays shareholders. Shareholders have the bad habit of minding their own business and, therefore, they may interfere negatively with scientific publishing. Nevertheless, while the stranglehold imposed by private Publishers on our libraries over the last 10 years by increasing subscription rates may in part be due to shareholders' greed, this is true only in part. The increases are also a consequence of the booming number of pages being

  14. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M. I. R.; Argüeso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mak, D. S. Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H. S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vassallo, T.; Vibert, L.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which is dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013. In February 2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy, and modified gravity, and new results on low-frequency Galactic foregrounds.

  15. Research report for the Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg 1987. Supplement volume. Description of university institutes. Landesforschungsbericht 1987. Anlagenband. Beschreibung der Universitaetsinstitute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The supplement describes the university institutes of Baden-Wuerttemberg, including their research facilities, fields of research, other services, and cooperation projects. The descriptions are based on an inquiry sheet developed by Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe on behalf of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Minister of Science and Arts. Entries in the supplement volume are classified according to fields of research. The classification was derived from the 'VADEMECUM Deutscher Lehr- und Forschungsstaetten'. The supplement volume of the 1987 Research Report for the Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg is also available in the database INFORBW to be accessed via the Online Service of Fachinformationszentrum STN International (The Scientific and Technical Network).

  16. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…

  17. Making Sense of Scientific Biographies: Scientific Achievement, Nature of Science, and Storylines in College Students' Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the educative value of scientific biographies will be explored, especially for non-science major college students. During the "Scientist's life and thought" course, 66 college students read nine scientific biographies including five biologists, covering the canonical scientific achievements in Western scientific history.…

  18. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…

  19. Making Sense of Scientific Biographies: Scientific Achievement, Nature of Science, and Storylines in College Students' Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the educative value of scientific biographies will be explored, especially for non-science major college students. During the "Scientist's life and thought" course, 66 college students read nine scientific biographies including five biologists, covering the canonical scientific achievements in Western scientific history.…

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K

    2001-01-01

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS on cognitive function in ageing and dementia, we have undertaken a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans in properly controlled trials. The review will also provide a scientific basis for effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration, and side effect profiles. This review is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults or in individuals with dementia. Relevant electronic databases, journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA/S were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. There are four included studies, three cognition in normal older people, and Barnhart 1999 in perimenopausal women with decreased well-being. There were no studies in dementia. There were a few significant findings. Wolf 1997 found significant improvement following DHEA compared with placebo in both immediate recall (MD 0.8, 95% CI 0.16, 1.44) and delayed recall (MD 0.9, 95% CI 0.09, 1.71) of a visual memory test in women, estimated in a crossover

  1. WITHDRAWN: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K

    2007-07-18

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS on cognitive function in ageing and dementia, we have undertaken a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans in properly controlled trials. The review will also provide a scientific basis for effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration, and side effect profiles. This review is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults or in individuals with dementia. Relevant electronic databases, journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA/S were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. There are four included studies, three cognition in normal older people, and Barnhart 1999 in perimenopausal women with decreased well-being. There were no studies in dementia. There were a few significant findings. Wolf 1997 found significant improvement following DHEA compared with placebo in both immediate recall (MD 0.8, 95% CI 0.16, 1.44) and delayed recall (MD 0.9, 95% CI 0.09, 1.71) of a visual memory test in women, estimated in a crossover

  2. Proposed scientific activities for the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) has been organized for the purpose of investigating a hydrothermal system at depths and temperatures greater than has been done before. Plans are to deepen an existing well or to drill a new well for research purposes for which temperatures of 300/sup 0/C will be reached at a depth of less than 3.7 km and then deepen that well a further 1.8 km. This report recounts the Congressional history of the appropriation to drill the hole and other history through March 1984, gives a review of the literature on the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and its relationship to other geothermal systems of the Salton Trough, and describes a comprehensive series of investigations that have been proposed either in the well or in conjunction with the SSSDP. Investigations in geophysics, geochemistry and petrology, tectonics and rock mechanics, and geohydrology are given. A tabulation is given of current commercial and state-of-the-art downhole tools and their pressure, temperature, and minimum hole size limitations.

  3. Science Sound Bites, a Podcast for STEM Curriculum Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Leslie Johnson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First hand accounts of research are a valuable part of students’ understanding and integration of scientific material, yet it is often difficult to access scientists to discuss ongoing research projects. To address this issue, we offer details of a podcast called Science Sound Bites; a tool designed to supplement STEM and biology curricula at the middle and high school grade levels. Roughly 20 minutes in length, each episode consists of a candid interview of a PhD- or MD-level researcher about their current research, while infusing and defining field-specific scientific terminology. Additionally, each Science Sound Bites podcast comes with a short biography of the interviewee and a list of terms that are defined within the episode, which serves to help teachers find relevant podcasts for a given lesson plan. The goal of this podcast is to provide real world applications of science in an attempt to bridge the gap between scientists in the field and students in the classroom.

  4. Guide to mathematical tables supplement no 1

    CERN Document Server

    Burunova, N M; Fedorova, R M

    1960-01-01

    A Guide to Mathematical Tables is a supplement to the Guide to Mathematical Tables published by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1956. The tables contain information on subjects such as powers, rational and algebraic functions, and trigonometric functions, as well as logarithms and polynomials and Legendre functions. An index listing all functions included in both the Guide and the Supplement is included.Comprised of 15 chapters, this supplement first describes mathematical tables in the following order: the accuracy of the table (that is, the number of decimal places or significant

  5. Nutritional supplements in the surgical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Dudrick, Stanley J

    2011-08-01

    This article presents an overview of the current knowledge, status, and use of supplements by patients before surgical operations, together with the benefits expected of the supplements by the patients. The indications, potential advantages and disadvantages, and the relationships with various aspects of the preoperative preparation and postoperative management of surgical patients are discussed, with emphasis on the significant percentage of this population that is deficient in fundamental nutrients. Recent revisions and recommendations for some of the macronutrients are presented, together with a summary of federal regulations and an oversight of supplements.

  6. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  7. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  8. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Colombo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine (CyA is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John’s wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  9. Editorial bias in scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R

    2011-01-01

    Many authors believe that there are biases in scientific publications. Editorial biases include publication bias; which refers to those situations where the results influence the editor's decision, and editorial bias refers to those situations where factors related with authors or their environment influence the decision. This paper includes an analysis of the situation of editorial biases. One bias is where mainly articles with positive results are accepted, as opposed to those with negative results. Another is latent bias, where positive results are published before those with negative results. In order to examine editorial bias, this paper analyses the influence of where the article originated; the country or continent, academic centre of origin, belonging to cooperative groups, and the maternal language of the authors. The article analyses biases in the editorial process in the publication of funded clinical trials. Editorial biases exists. Authors, when submitting their manuscript, should analyse different journals and decide where their article will receive adequate treatment. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  11. The hunter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th century: humankind has become a spacefaring civilization, colonizing the solar system and beyond. While no alien forms of life have yet been encountered in this expansion into space, colonists suddenly encounter machines of alien origin - huge robots able to reproduce themselves.  Called replicators by the colonists, they seem to have but a single goal: to destroy all organic life they come in contact with. Since the colonial governments have no means to fight this menace directly, they instead promise huge rewards to whoever destroys a replicator. As a result, the frontier attracts a new kind of adventurers, the Hunters, who work to find and destroy the replicators. Mike Edwards, a skilled young maintenance technician and robotics expert at a faraway outpost, will not only become one of them - but be the very first one to unlock the secret behind the replicators’ origin and mission.   The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular space travel, robotics and self-replica...

  12. Managing scientific information and research data

    CERN Document Server

    Baykoucheva, Svetla

    2015-01-01

    Innovative technologies are changing the way research is performed, preserved, and communicated. Managing Scientific Information and Research Data explores how these technologies are used and provides detailed analysis of the approaches and tools developed to manage scientific information and data. Following an introduction, the book is then divided into 15 chapters discussing the changes in scientific communication; new models of publishing and peer review; ethics in scientific communication; preservation of data; discovery tools; discipline-specific practices of researchers for gathering and using scientific information; academic social networks; bibliographic management tools; information literacy and the information needs of students and researchers; the involvement of academic libraries in eScience and the new opportunities it presents to librarians; and interviews with experts in scientific information and publishing.

  13. Stochastic approach to scientific development and innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, H. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-03-19

    Scientific development and technological innovations were studied by stochastic methods, in particular, scientometric method. The Bradford law was discussed which describes the behavior of scientific and engineering documents in the view point of their development and innovations. It was found that scientific development and innovations were governed more strongly by cumulative advantage effect and selfmultiplicative or self-reproductive effect than natural development and economic innovations. The elite characteristics were also pointed out by which a relatively small number of eminent scientific resources was selected in order to go ahead the others. These stochastic efforts could not fully explain peculiar characteristics of the Bradford law, and this inability probably indicated the essential gap between natural or economic science and bibliometrics. In addition, several attempts in stochastic theories and several possible trends of scientific activities in various scientific fields and in developing countries were discussed which might dissolve above gap. 23 refs., 8 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Scientific word, Version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen Köksal

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Word is the first fully integrated mathematical word processor in the Windows 3.1 environment, which uses the TEX typesetting language for output. It runs as a Microsoft Windows application program and has two-way interface to TEX. The Scientific Word is an object-oriented WYSIWYG word processor for virtually all users who need typesetting scientific books, manuals and papers. It includes automatic equation numbering, spell checking, and LATEX and DVI previewer.

  15. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radder, H.

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of interve...

  16. Speech and scientific paper. A rhetorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Carmona Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to show that the ancient rhetorical theory has explanatory capabilities to understand and learn to write modern texts and to analyze them in order to understand their communication skills, as in the scientific article, one of the most prestigious forms on scientific communication. It starts with the notion of discourse in the field of scientific communication and then address the rhetorical dimension of the paper.

  17. Scientific workflow applications on Amazon EC2

    OpenAIRE

    Juve, Gideon; Deelman, Ewa; Vahi, Karan; Mehta, Gaurang; Berriman, Bruce; Berman, Benjamin P; Maechling, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of commercial cloud computing providers has generated significant interest in the scientific computing community. Much recent research has attempted to determine the benefits and drawbacks of cloud computing for scientific applications. Although clouds have many attractive features, such as virtualization, on-demand provisioning, and "pay as you go" usage-based pricing, it is not clear whether they are able to deliver the performance required for scientific applications at a...

  18. Geological Scientific Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    @@ Geological Scientific Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield is a scientific and technological research organization for exploration and development of oil/gas fields in Shengli oil province. The main work of the institute involves program for exploration and development, medium/long term planning,program for productivity construction in the new areas, program for adjustment of the old oilfields and undertaking key task of scientific research assigned by CNPC and Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau.

  19. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu,Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to ana...

  20. On Writing Scientific Articles in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHartley

    2003-01-01

    If we examine the text of scientific articles it is clear that there is a generally accepted way of writing them. Scientific prose in English stereotypically uses the third person, the passive tense, complex terminology, and various footnoting and referencing systems. Scientific prose is not known for discursive anecdotes, humour, pictures, colour, bizarre typography or exclamation marks! Often the written text appears quite impersonal-the human element is removed.

  1. Clustering of scientific citations in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    The instances of templates in Wikipedia form an interesting data set of structured information. Here I focus on the cite journal template that is primarily used for citation to articles in scientific journals. These citations can be extracted and analyzed: Non-negative matrix factorization...... is performed on a (article x journal) matrix resulting in a soft clustering of Wikipedia articles and scientific journals, each cluster more or less representing a scientific topic....

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri B. [Washington University

    2015-01-29

    The potential for developing commercially viable microbial H2-production systems as a renewable source of biofuel has been limited by the need for an anaerobic environment to enable photobiological H2-production in capable bacterial and algal species. In this project, we have shown that the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has the capacity for highly efficient H2-production under natural aerobic conditions. The marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has a diurnal metabolic cycle; photosynthesis and carbon fixation occur during daylight hours and then at night, high rates of respiration create a suboxic intracellular environment that enables O2-sensitive processes to occur, including N2-fixation and H2-production. We developed a two-stage approach to monitor H2-production by Cyanothece 51142. In the first stage, we grew the bacteria aerobically in an alternating 12 hour light/dark cycle. A second ‘incubation’ stage was then carried out in which we took cells from the end of a 12 hour light growth period and incubated them in air-tight vials for a further 12 hours under continuous illumination. Analysis of the headspace in the vial revealed high specific rates of H2-production (>150 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour) during this incubation period. Furthermore, the rate of H2-production could be enhanced by growing the cells in the presence of high levels of CO2 or glycerol. We also confirmed that H2-production was mediated by the nitrogenase system found in these Cyanothece cells. Interestingly, in the absence of molecular N2, nitrogenase systems channel all available electrons towards H2-production. Accordingly, when we incubated glycerol-supplemented Cyanothece 51142 cells in the absence of N2, the rate of H2-production increased up to 467 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour, which is an order of magnitude greater than those rates previously observed in other wild type H2 producing model photosynthetic microorganisms under anaerobic

  3. Introduction to scientific publishing backgrounds, concepts, strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This book is a very concise introduction to the basic knowledge of scientific publishing. It  starts with the basics of writing a scientific paper, and recalls the different types of scientific documents. In gives an overview on the major scientific publishing companies and different business models. The book also introduces to abstracting and indexing services and how they can be used for the evaluation of science, scientists, and institutions. Last but not least, this short book faces the problem of plagiarism and publication ethics.

  4. Scientific Process Automation and Workflow Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Altintas, Ilkay; Bowers, Shawn; Cummings, J.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Deelman, Ewa; De Roure, D.; Freire, Juliana; Goble, Carole; Jones, Matt; Klasky, S.; McPhillips, Timothy; Podhorszki, Norbert; Silva, C.; Taylor, I.; Vouk, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and describe scientific workflows, i.e., executable descriptions of automatable scientific processes such as computational science simulations and data analyses. Scientific workflows are often expressed in terms of tasks and their (data ow) dependencies. This chapter first provides an overview of the characteristic features of scientific workflows and outlines their life cycle. A detailed case study highlights workflow challenges and solutions in simulation management. We then provide a brief overview of how some concrete systems support the various phases of the workflow life cycle, i.e., design, resource management, execution, and provenance management. We conclude with a discussion on community-based workflow sharing.

  5. Scalable Scientific Workflows Management System SWFMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Rahman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s electronic world conducting scientific experiments, especially in natural sciences domain, has become more and more challenging for domain scientists since “science” today has turned out to be more complex due to the two dimensional intricacy; one: assorted as well as complex computational (analytical applications and two: increasingly large volume as well as heterogeneity of scientific data products processed by these applications. Furthermore, the involvement of increasingly large number of scientific instruments such as sensors and machines makes the scientific data management even more challenging since the data generated from such type of instruments are highly complex. To reduce the amount of complexities in conducting scientific experiments as much as possible, an integrated framework that transparently implements the conceptual separation between both the dimensions is direly needed. In order to facilitate scientific experiments ‘workflow’ technology has in recent years emerged in scientific disciplines like biology, bioinformatics, geology, environmental science, and eco-informatics. Much more research work has been done to develop the scientific workflow systems. However, our analysis over these existing systems shows that they lack a well-structured conceptual modeling methodology to deal with the two complex dimensions in a transparent manner. This paper presents a scientific workflow framework that properly addresses these two dimensional complexities in a proper manner.

  6. Arctic health policy: contribution of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, James E; Gilman, Andrew

    2003-08-01

    In Western Hemisphere arctic regions, scientific findings in humans, wildlife, and the environment have resulted in major governmental policy formulations. Government policy resulted in establishment of an effective international organization to address scientifically identified problems, including health disparities in arctic indigenous populations. Western scientific data and indigenous knowledge from initial international programs led to international agreements restricting certain persistent organic pollutants. In recent years, scientific data, and indigenous traditional knowledge, have resulted in governmental policy in the United States, Canada, and Nordic countries that includes the full participation of indigenous residents in defining research agendas, interpreting data, communicating information, and local community policy formulation.

  7. Mapping the research on scientific collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Jianhua; CHEN; Chaomei; YAN; Jianxin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the trends and hot topics in the study of scientific collaboration via scientometric analysis.Information visualization and knowledge domain visualization techniques were adopted to determine how the study of scientific collaboration has evolved.A total of 1,455 articles on scientific cooperation published between 1993 and 2007 were retrieved from the SCI,SSCI and A&HCI databases with a topic search of scientific collaboration or scientific cooperation for the analysis.By using CiteSpace,the knowledge bases,research foci,and research fronts in the field of scientific collaboration were studied.The results indicated that research fronts and research foci are highly consistent in terms of the concept,origin,measurement,and theory of scientific collaboration.It also revealed that research fronts included scientific collaboration networks,international scientific collaboration,social network analysis and techniques,and applications of bibliometrical indicators,webmetrics,and health care related areas.

  8. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  9. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  10. 21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Required Manufacturers' Reports for Listed Electronic Products § 1002.11 Supplemental reports. Prior to the introduction into commerce of a new or modified model within a...

  11. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-07

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  12. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C. M. Lopes; A. Dourado; R. Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    .... In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements...

  13. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  14. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lease having a well with indicated hydrocarbons; the reservoir may or may not be interpreted to extend... Mexico Planning Areas. (e) The Director may disclose the classification of blocks in supplemental...

  15. Chart Supplements - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Chart Supplements are searchable by individual airport in PDF format. They contain data on public and joint use airports, seaplane bases, heliports, VFR airport...

  16. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA-rich fish oil Green tea Hydroxycitrate L-carnitine Pantethine Pyruvate Sesamin There is no proof that ... are also known as Emagrece Sim and Herbathin dietary supplements. The FDA has warned consumers not to buy ...

  17. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    components not adequately identified on their package labels. .... data to support this theory. Although stimulants have been widely ... supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance –. Part 22. Br J Sports ...

  18. Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs Updated:Oct ... celebrations when eating habits tend to change. Common Medication Interactions Drugs with Food and Beverages Food and ...

  19. Americans Are Changing Their Supplements of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are an "affordable, safe and convenient way" for people to get nutrients that are missing from their diets, a CRN spokesperson said. D'Adamo and Kantor suggested that people talk to their doctors about any supplements they ...

  20. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...