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Sample records for supina bluegrass poa

  1. Ecological characterisation of supina bluegrass (Poa supina Schrad.) germplasm from the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supina bluegrass (Poa supina Schrad.) is a potential turfgrass species for cool, northern type climates, yet few genetic resources for research and development are very limited. As a result, a field exploration for P. supina was conduction in the Italian Alps in 2008. Altogether, 55 populations of...

  2. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  3. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  4. Growth responses of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) to trinexapac-ethyl applied in spring and autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyu FAN; Xiuju BIAN; Huibin LI; Zhao MENG; Shengyao LIU

    2009-01-01

    The practices with low clippings production to save time, money, or landfill space, were favored by turf managers. Understanding the responses of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) to Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) would facilitate recommendations regarding its safe and effective use in Northern China. The objectives of this study are (1) to investigate the effects of TE on vertical growth, clipping yield, leaf width, and chlorophyll content of Kentucky bluegrass, and (2) to compare the seasonal application impacts of TE. Both spring and autumn experiment results demonstrated that Trinexapac-ethyl applied to Kentucky bluegrass, suppressed the vertical grass growth and significantly reduced the Kentucky bluegrass clippings production within a few weeks after initial treatment. Applied trinexapac-ethyl enhanced Kentucky bluegrass leaf width in both spring and autumn experimental periods. Discoloration on leaf tips was observed and lasted for four weeks when the same TE rate of 0.191 mL·m-2 was applied in early autumn. Darker leaves with higher chlorophyll content compared with non TE-treatments appeared after the initial four weeks of the treatment in autumn and the treatment for the entire spring.

  5. Callus induction and plant regeneration from mature bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Bi-po; Zhang Wan-jun; Dong Jiang-li; Jin Yong-sheng; Wang Tao

    2006-01-01

    A protocol was discussed for high efficient plant regeneration from seven bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars via an indirect callus induction and somatic embryogenesis method. Mature seeds were used as explants for callus initiation. Callus induction and proliferation efficiencies were investigated on NB, modified MS (MMS) and MS media, supplemented with 2.0 mg.L-12,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The MMS medium performed best. Based on the MMS medium, direct and indirect callus the direct callus induction method, the most suitable 2,4-D concentrations varied among cultivars. Under the indirect callus induction method, a significantly high callus induction frequency (93.33%-98.33%) was obtained and there were barely any statistically significant differences among the tested genetically diverse cultivars. Somatic embryos were promoted on the MMS medium supplemedium containing different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ), and the differentiation frequencies varied in the range from 20.15% to 77.65%. The 0.25 mg·L-1 TDZ was generally the most suitable concentration for the tested cultivars.

  6. Rapid and recent world-wide diversification of bluegrasses (Poa, Poaceae and related genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias H Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Rapid species diversifications provide fascinating insight into the development of biodiversity in time and space. Most biological radiations studied to date, for example that of cichlid fishes or Andean lupines, are confined to isolated geographical areas like lakes, islands or island-like regions. Using DNA sequence data of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS for many species of the Poa alliance, a group comprising about 775 C3 grass species, revealed rapid and parallel diversifications in various parts of the world. Some of these radiations are restricted to isolated areas like the Andes, whereas others are typical of the lowlands of mainly the northern hemisphere. These radiations thus are not restricted to island-like areas and are seemingly actively ongoing. The ages of the diversifying clades are estimated to be 2.5-0.23 million years (Myr. Conservative diversification rates in the Poa alliance amount to 0.89-3.14 species per Myr, thus are in the order of, or even exceeding, other instances of well-known radiations. The grass radiations of the mainly cold-adapted Poa alliance coincide with the Late Tertiary global cooling, which resulted in the retreat of forests and the subsequent formation of cold-adapted grasslands especially in the northern, but also in parts of the southern hemisphere. The cold tolerance, suggested to be one of the ecological key innovations, may have been acquired during the early diversification of the subfamily Pooideae, but became significant millions of years later during the Pliocene/Pleistocene radiation of the Poa alliance.

  7. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Beirn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli, although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  8. Responses of Poa annua and three bentgrass species (Agrostis spp.) to adult and larval feeding of annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostromytska, O S; Koppenhöfer, A M

    2016-12-01

    The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is an economically important pest of short-cut turfgrass in Eastern North America. Wide spread insecticide resistance warrants the development of alternative management strategies for this pest. ABW damage typically occurs in areas with a high percentage of annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., the preferred ABW host. Damage to bentgrasses, Agrostis spp., is much rarer and usually less severe. To aid the implementation of host plant resistance as an alternative ABW management strategy we investigated the tolerance of three bentgrass species to ABW feeding. Responses of P. annua, creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera L., colonial bentgrass, Agrostis capillaris L., and velvet bentgrass, Agrostis canina L., to adult and larval feeding were compared in greenhouse experiments. Grass responses were measured as visual damage, dry weight of the grass stems and leaves, color, density and overall grass quality. To determine possible mechanisms of grass tolerance constitutive fiber and silicon content were also determined. The three bentgrass species tolerated 2-3 times higher numbers of ABW adults and larvae than P. annua before displaying any significant quality decrease. Creeping bentgrass had the lowest damage ratings. ABW infestation caused higher plant yield reduction in P. annua (up to 42%) than in bentgrasses. Observed differences among the grass species in fiber and silicon content in the plant tissue are unlikely to play a role in the resistance of bentgrasses to ABW. Our findings clearly show that A. stolonifera is the best grass species for the implementation of host plant resistance in ABW management.

  9. Amending Subsoil with Composted Poultry Litter-II: Effects on Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis Establishment, Root Growth, and Weed Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Mandal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrasses established on a soil deprived of the topsoil during construction disturbance often have low levels of density and uniformity making them susceptible to weeds. Field experiments evaluated composted poultry litter incorporation into subsoil on Kentucky bluegrass growth attributes and subsequent effects on weed populations. Top 20 cm of topsoil was removed and composted poultry litter was incorporated at 0.1, or 0.2, or 0.4 cm/cm-soil into the exposed subsoil to a depth of 12.7 cm before seeding or sodding, and was compared to N-fertilized (50 × 10−4 kg m−2 and control plots. A greenhouse experiment was also conducted to determine the effect of compost incorporation rates on turfgrass rooting depth. Turfgrass yield from seeded plots with compost incorporation rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 cm/cm-soil, were 200%, 300%, and 500% more, respectively, compared to control plots. Composted poultry litter incorporated at 0.1 cm/cm-soil resulted in at least 70 seedlings in 7.6 cm−2, which was sufficient to attain 100% turf cover. Higher incorporation rates in seeded plots maintained lower numbers of buckhorn plantain and red clover than untreated plots. Rooting depth also increased linearly with compost rates. Overall, compost treatments were able to maintain superior turf cover and quality compared to conventionally fertilized or control plots.

  10. 不同灌溉水平下气象因子对草地早熟禾蒸散量的影响%Effect of meteorological factors on evapotranspiration of Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa prmensis L.), under different irrigation levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全艳嫦; 苏德荣; 徐玉芹; 刘艺衫

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The research aimed to study the effect of meteorological factors on evapotranspiration of Kentucky bluegrass under different irrigation levels. [ Melhod] Based on the standard of the field capacity, control soil moisture content using weighing method and measure the bliiegrass evapotranspiration, meteorological data in real time was recorded using the watchdog instrument, Kentucky bluegrass evapotrans-piration and its dynamics under different irrigation levels were measured in this paper, and the relationship between bluegrass evapotranspiration and meteorological factors was studied. [Result] Bluegrass evapolranspiration under the sufficient irrigation condition was significantly greater than the limited irrigation; all bluegrass daily evapotranspiration showed a single peak type except the August limited irrigation blue-grass daily evapotranspiration in double peak type, and the peak appears before the temperature arriving in the highest point; monthly evapotranspiration with solar radiation and air temperature decreases down month by month. The effect of solar radiation and temperature on blue-grass evapotranspiration is the most significant, the relative humidity is negatively correlated with evapotranspiration , positive correlation of wind speed is not obvious. [ Conclusion] The. study provides the scientific basis for the cropping of Kentucky bluegrass.%[目的]研究不同灌溉水平下气象因子对草地早熟禾蒸散量的影响.[方法]以田间持水量为标准,用称重法控制土壤含水量并测量草地早熟禾蒸散量,利用Watchdog气象仪记录实时气象数据,研究在不同灌溉水平下草地早熟禾蒸散量及其动态,并研究草地早熟禾蒸散量与气象因子的关系.[结果]充分灌溉条件下草地早熟禾的蒸散量明显大于限制灌溉;除了8月限制灌溉草地早熟禾日蒸散量呈双峰型外,其他草地早熟禾日蒸散量均呈单峰型,且峰值均出现在当天气温最高值之

  11. [Flavonoids from whole plants of Lagopsis supina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Pang, Dao-ran; Huang, Zheng; Huo, Hui-xia; Li, Yue-ting; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-fang; Tu, Peng-fei; Li, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The flavonoids were investigated from the whole plants of Lagopsis supina. The compounds were isolated and purified by various column chromatography, and their structures were identified by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Two flavones were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of Lagopsis supina extract and identified as genkwanin (1) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (2), respectively. Ten flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the water layer of Lagopsis supina and elucidated as kaempferol-3-O-6" (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl) -β-D-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-6"-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl) -β-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside(5), kaempferol-3-Of3-D-glucoside ( 6), isorhamnetin-3-O-/-D-glycopyranoside (7), apigenin-7-O-6-D-glucoside (8), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (9), chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (10), rutin (11 ), and kaempferol-3-β-(6"-p-coumaroyl) -β-D-glucoside (tiliroside, 12). Compounds 3 and 4 were firstly isolated from Lamiaceae family, and compounds 1-12 were isolated from the plants of Lagopsis genus for the first time.

  12. 秋施不同缓释氮肥对坪用草地早熟禾抗寒性影响的研究%Influence of Applying Slow Release Nitrogen Fertilizers in Autumn on Cold Resistant Turf-type Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓静; 于铁峰; 张德罡; 郝凤; 蒯佳林

    2011-01-01

    秋季对草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis L.)草坪施用MU(亚甲基脲)、IBDU(亚异丁基二脲)、SUD1(大颗粒尿素十硝化抑制剂)、SUD2(大颗粒尿素十硝化抑制剂)、SUDT2(大颗粒尿素+2种硝化抑制剂)、木质素肥和有机氮肥7种不同类型的缓释氮肥,以及速效氮肥尿素,于冬季不同时期,测定与抗寒性相关的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性和可溶性蛋白质(SP)、可溶性糖(WSS)、游离脯氨酸(Pro)、丙二醛(MDA)含量,以探查缓释氮肥对草坪草抗寒性的影响.结果表明:与不施氮的对照相比,秋季施氮肥有助于提高草地早熟禾的抗寒性;7种缓释氮肥的抗寒性效应较尿素更为全面和显著,均增强了CAT活性,提高了Pro,SP和WSS含量,降低了MDA含量.MU,IBDU,SUD1,SUD2,SUDT2和木质素肥6种缓释氮肥对5种生理生化指标的影响基本相同,但MU和IDBU对MDA活性的影响较低(P<0.05);有机肥除了对CAT,Pro和SP的影响较小外(P<0.05),对MDA和WSS的影响与缓释氮肥具有相同效果,因此,秋施有机氮肥也是提高草地早熟禾抗寒性的有效措施.根据Fuzzy数学隶属函数综合评判法计算的缓释氮肥抗寒性数值,8种肥料对抗寒性影响的大小排序为SUDT2> SUD2> IBDU>木质素肥>SUD1>MU>有机肥>尿素(速效肥),也可按其对抗寒性影响的大小分为高、中、低3组,SUD2和SUDT2为高效组,有机肥和MU属于低效组,其余为中效组.%This study applied 7 kinds of slow release nitrogen fertilizers (MU, IBDU, SUD1, SUD2, SUDT2, lignin fertilizer, and organic fertilizer) and one kind of fast release fertilizer (Urea) on turf in autumn. The cold resistance of bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. ) was studied by measuring the contents of cata-lase (CAT) , soluble protein (SP), water sloluble sugar (WSS), proline (Pro) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in different stages during winter. Result indicated that the application of nitrogen in autumn could increase the cold resistance of

  13. Mycena cupressina, a new species of section Supinae from Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonín, V.; Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Mycena cupressina, found on bark of Cupressus, is proposed as a new species belonging to section Supinae. It is compared to M. corticalis which equally grows on bark of a coniferous tree in North America.

  14. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Steven P; Soreng, Robert J; Peterson, Paul M; Sylvester, Mitsy D P V

    2016-01-01

    We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa's by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected.

  15. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Steven P.; Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Sylvester, Mitsy D.P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa’s by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected. PMID:27489489

  16. Cold-induced responses in annual bluegrass genotypes with differential resistance to pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Azaiez, Aïda; Hsiang, Tom; Dionne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Greens-type annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is susceptible to winter stresses including subfreezing temperatures and pink snow mold (SM). To better understand the mechanisms of SM resistance in annual bluegrass, four SM-resistant and four SM-sensitive genotypes were incubated at low temperature with Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett, the causal agent of pink snow mold. We assessed the impact of a 6-week incubation period with SM at 2 °C under high humidity (≥ 98%) on the accumulation of cold-induced metabolites and on freezing tolerance. Incubation of annual bluegrass inoculated with SM lead to a major decrease in concentration of cryoprotective sugars such as sucrose and HDP (high degree of polymerization) fructans. Conversely, major amino acids linked to stress resistance such as glutamine and arginine increased in crowns of annual bluegrass in response to SM inoculation. One of the major differences between resistant and sensitive genotypes was found in the concentration of HDP fructans, which remained higher in SM-resistant genotypes throughout the incubation period. HDP fructans were also more abundant in freeze-tolerant genotypes, reinforcing their positive impact on winter survival of annual bluegrass. The identification of genotypes that are resistant to both SM and freezing shows the possibility of being able to improve both traits concomitantly.

  17. Silicon application increases drought tolerance of kentucky bluegrass by improving plant water relations and morphophysiological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Shah; Li, Xin; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Lu; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Sadiq, Arooj; Chen, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L(-1)) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400 mg L(-1) significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.

  18. Leaf growth of contrasting Poa species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorani, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the grass genus Poa a wide variation in final leaf size and leaf growth rate exists. In this thesis leaf growth was analyzed at different levels. At the cellular level, inherent variation in leaf elongation rate and final leaf size was correlated to the length of the elongation zone and to merist

  19. Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2014-07-01

    The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6″-gallate, astragalin 6″-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 μM), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6″-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 μM) and isoquercitrin 6″-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 μM), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6″-gallate, and astragalin 6″-gallate as active principles.

  20. HAC-POA Policy Effects on Hospitals, Patients and Other...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in HAC-POA Policy Effects on Hospitals, Patients, and Other Payers, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  1. Mineral content of grasses grown for seed in low rainfall areas of the Pacific Northwest and analysis of ash from gasification of bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw resulting from grass seed and cereal grain production represents a potential supply of biomass for energy production. The low-density distribution of this biomass in many locations suggests that distributed small-scaled thermochemical technologies may provide an economic conversion approach. T...

  2. Mapping of epitopes on Poa p I and Lol p I allergens with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z W; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Jaggi, K S; Dzuba-Fischer, J; Rector, E; Kisil, F T

    1990-01-01

    Allergen Poa p I isolated from the dialysed aqueous extract of Kentucky blue grass pollen by affinity chromatography with an anti-Lol p I murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 290A-167 was previously shown to consist of a 35.8-kilodalton (kD) component with a pI of 6.4, designated as Poa p Ia, and a 33-kD component with a pI of 9.1, designated as Poa p Ib. The present study reports on the comparative antigenic analyses of these two components, using MAbs produced separately against Poa p I and Lol p I. Thus, anti-Poa p I MAbs 60 and 61 and anti-Lol p I MAb 290A-167 recognized Poa p Ia and Poa p Ib whereas anti-Poa p I MAbs 62, 63 and 64 and anti-Lol p I MAb 348A-6 recognized only Poa p Ia. The specificities of the MAbs were further resolved by comparing their respective abilities to inhibit the binding of 125I-Poa p I or 125I-Lol p I to the different MAbs prepared in the form of solid phase. These studies revealed that at least 4 distinct epitopes (designated as E1, E2, E3 and E4) were shared by both Poa p I and Lol p I. All 4 epitopes were present on Poa p Ia whereas only E1 and E3 were detected on Poa p Ib. E1 was recognized by MAbs 60 and 61, E2 by MAbs 62, 63 and 64, E3 by MAb 290A-167 and E4 by MAb 348A-6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Preliminary studies on ribonucleases from Poa pratensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease was extracted from Poa pratensis seeds with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.1, and then precipitated with alcohol. The enzyme was separated into 5 fractions (I-V after chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH 5.1. The enzymes were stable at 50°C, at pH 7.1. The activity of ribonucleases I, II, III and V were optimal at pH 7.1-7.3, and that of ribonuclease IV at pH 8.1. Ali enzymes were inhibited by Ca2+ and EDTA. Mg2+ inhibited the activity of ribonucleases II, III, IV, and had no influence on that of ribonucleases I and V. Ribonucleases IV and V showed only one activity band in disc electrophoresis, whereas ribonucleases, I, II and III were found to be heterogenous.

  4. Study on chemical constituents from Potentilla supina%朝天委陵菜化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑光海; 朴惠顺

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究朝天委陵菜Potentilla supina的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶和Sephadex LH-20进行色谱柱分离,根据理化性质和波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果 从回流法和冷浸法提取得到的乙醇提取物的石油醚、醋酸乙酯萃取部位中分离得到11个单体化合物,分别鉴定为β-谷甾醇(1)、齐墩果酸(2)、野鸦椿酸(3)、乌苏酸(4)、委陵菜酸(5)、2α,3α,19α,23-四羟基-12-烯-28-乌苏酸(6)、胡萝卜苷(7)、七叶内酯(8)、芹菜素(9)、野蔷薇苷(10)、紫云英苷(11).结论 化合物1~11均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To investigate the chemical constituents of Potentilla supina. Methods Silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography was applied for the constituents isolation and their structures were identified by means of spectroscopic and chemical data. Results Eleven compounds were isolated from petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of the EtOH extract with reflux and maceration methods. Their structrures were identified as p-sitosterol (1), oleanic acid (2), euscaphic acid (3), ursolic acid (4) tormentic acid (5), 2α, 3α, 19α, 23-tetraydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), daucosterol (7), aesculetin (8), apigenin (9), rosamultin (10), and astragalin (11). Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  5. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  6. Unsupervised component analysis: PCA, POA and ICA data exploring - connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge Costa; Azevedo, Julio Cesar R.; Knapik, Heloise G.; Burrows, Hugh Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Under controlled conditions, each compound presents a specific spectral activity. Based on this assumption, this article discusses Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Principal Object Analysis (POA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms and some decision criteria in order to obtain unequivocal information on the number of active spectral components present in a certain aquatic system. The POA algorithm was shown to be a very robust unsupervised object-oriented exploratory data analysis, proven to be successful in correctly determining the number of independent components present in a given spectral dataset. In this work we found that POA combined with ICA is a robust and accurate unsupervised method to retrieve maximal spectral information (the number of components, respective signal sources and their contributions).

  7. THE INITIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF POA PRATENSIS UNDER THE ALLELOPATHIC INFLUENCE OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Jankowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions. The aim of this work was estimating allelopathic potential of Taraxacum officinale on seeds germination and initial growth of Poa pratensis. In the experiment different concentration of soil’s and plant’s water solution obtained from common dandelion were employed. The inhibition of germination energy of Poa pratensis under the influence of plant extracts produced from roots and leaves of Taraxacum officinale was found. Germination availability was inhibited in a higher degree by extracts prepared from the leaves than the roots of Taraxacum officinale. Higher concentrations of all solutions of both the soil and the plant inhibited the length of seending of Poa pratensis.

  8. Analysis of drought resistance HVA1 gene under drought stress in different Poa pratensis cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yanhua; CHEN Yajun; SHEN Fengjuan; SUN Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    Total RNA from leaves of Poa pratensis cultivars under drought stress was extracted for reversing transcription to cDNA and then cDNA as template for PCR reaction by designing primer of cds of Hordeum valgare HVA1 drought resistance gene from GenBank. The amplified products were positive recon identified by using procedures of recovery, connection, transformation and enzyme separation. The length of cloned gene sequence was 324 bp, identity reached 79.27% with Barley HVA1 gene that meaned the cloned gene sequence was the partial HVA1 gene of Poa pratensis.

  9. SDN-POA volume, sexual behavior, and partner preference of male rats affected by perinatal treatment with ATD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Houtsmuller (Elisabeth Judith); T. Brand (Teus); F.H. de Jonge (F.); R.N.J.M.A. Joosten (R. N J M A); N.E. van de Poll (N.); A.K. Slob (Koos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters

  10. Breeding system diversification and evolution in American Poa supersect. Homalopoa (Poaceae: Poeae: Poinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Liliana M; Gillespie, Lynn J; Scataglini, M Amalia; Negritto, María A; Anton, Ana M; Soreng, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Poa subgenus Poa supersect. Homalopoa has diversified extensively in the Americas. Over half of the species in the supersection are diclinous; most of these are from the New World, while a few are from South-East Asia. Diclinism in Homalopoa can be divided into three main types: gynomonoecism, gynodioecism and dioecism. Here the sampling of species of New World Homalopoa is expanded to date its origin and diversification in North and South America and examine the evolution and origin of the breeding system diversity. A total of 124 specimens were included in the matrix, of which 89 are species of Poa supersect. Homalopoa sections Acutifoliae, Anthochloa, Brizoides, Dasypoa, Dioicopoa, Dissanthelium, Homalopoa sensu lato (s.l.), Madropoa and Tovarochloa, and the informal Punapoa group. Bayesian and parsimony analyses were conducted on the data sets based on four markers: the nuclear ribosomal internal tanscribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS), and plastid trnT-L and trnL-F. Dating analyses were performed on a reduced Poa matrix and enlarged Poaceae outgroup to utilize fossils as calibration points. A relaxed Bayesian molecular clock method was used. Hermaphroditism appears to be pleisiomorphic in the monophyletic Poa supersect. Homalopoa, which is suggested to have originated in Eurasia 8·4-4·2 million years ago (Mya). The ancestor of Poa supersect. Homalopoa radiated throughout the New World in the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, with major lineages originating during the Pliocene to Pleistocene (5-2 Mya). Breeding systems are linked to geographic areas, showing an evolutionary pattern associated with different habitats. At least three major pathways from hermaphroditism to diclinism are inferred in New World Homalopoa: two leading to dioecism, one via gynodioecism in South America and another directly from hermaphroditism in North America, a result that needs to be checked with a broader sampling of diclinous species in North America. A third

  11. 草地早熟禾对腐霉枯萎病的抗性评价%Resistance of different cultivars of Poa pratensis against Pythium wilt disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小巍; 袁庆华

    2012-01-01

    The resistance of 45 cultivars of the Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis Linn, against Pythium disease was studied in greenhouses. The results indicated that the acuteness of the Pythium disease was significantly different under different inoculated conditions. The incidence caused by traditional soil inoculation experiments was more severe than that by the other two, and the most severe incidence was 39. 2%j the incidence that under the improved soil inoculation experiment was significantly less than that under traditional soil inoculation experiments. The disease resistance of each cultivar against Pythium diseases was different from that of the others, and different by itself in each experiment, but relatively stable. The cultivar such as 'Park', 'Midnight', 'Kentucky', 'Captan', 'Nassau' and 'Draglor' had stronger resistance against Pythium diseases than the cultivars 'Morsan-skij\\ 'Fylking' and 'Snow Wolf.%研究了温室条件下45份草地早熟禾材料对腐霉枯萎病的抗病性差异.结果表明,不同接种条件下草地早熟禾的发病率存在显著差异:传统的土壤接种法造成草地早熟禾的发病率最高,可达39.2%;改进的土壤接种法测定的发病率明显低于传统的土壤接种法.相同试验条件下品种间抗病性差异显著,不同的试验条件下同一品种表现出的抗病性不一致,具有相对稳定的特征.温室效果评价获得的高抗品种有:‘公园’、‘午夜’、‘肯塔基,、‘开鲁坦,、‘纳苏’和‘特拉内尔’等,高感品种有:‘莫桑斯克’、‘菲尔京’、‘雪狼’等.

  12. Quantifiable differences between phytolith assemblages detected at species level: analysis of the leaves of nine Poa species (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Lisztes-Szabó

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic value of phytolith assemblages and their degree of variability within different species of the same genus is still an undervalued issue in the botanical range of phytolith studies. However the understanding of grass phytolith variance and its implications to plant systematics is doubtless. In the present study phytoliths of the lateral shoots (leaves of nine, globally distributed Poa species (Pooideae – Poaceae are described. Phytoliths were recovered from Poa specimens by the dry ashing technique. Altogether 6223 disarticulated phytoliths were counted (approximately 500–700 phytoliths per species in 54 plant samples, which cover six shoots of nine species. Not only the relative frequency of each morphotype was calculated, but measurements were conducted to determine the biogenic silica content of Poa lateral shoots. A phytolith reference collection for the nine selected species of a worldwide importance was also compiled. The description of the most significant phytolith morphotypes and their taxonomic relationships are given here. Results suggest that the biogenic silica content of the Poa lateral shoots was determined to be relatively high within all nine species. Phytolith assemblage data was subjected to multivariate statistical analyses (e.g., CA and PCA in order to find differences and similarities among the nine Poa species. Results show that the two closely related Poa of the P. pratensis species group, namely the P. pratensis and P. angustifolia, only slightly differ from the other Poa species if we consider their rondel-trapeziform short cells (SC phytolith frequencies.

  13. COMPORTAMIENTO FRACTAL DEL REPERTORIO T ESPECÍFICO CONTRA EL ALERGENO Poa p9 Fractal behavior of T specify repertory against Poa p9 alergeno

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    Javier Rodríguez Velásquez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: basados en una analogía lingüística aplicada al repertorio inmune B y T específicos, el sistema inmune se puede caracterizar por su grado de complejidad como se hace con los lenguajes naturales. Material y métodos: este estudio es la aplicación de una ley matemática al repertorio inmune. Se aplicó la ley de Zipf-Mandelbrot, observada en los lenguajes naturales, al estudio del repertorio T específico contra el alergeno Poa p9. Resultados: se observó un comportamiento a escala de la ley en el repertorio específico para el alergeno obtenido de un paciente alérgico en presencia y ausencia de interferón á, y en los clones de células Th. Los repertorios T en presencia y ausencia de interferón á se comportanfractalmente, con una dimensión fractal de 0.661165 y 0.923895 respectivamente. Conclusión: el grado de complejidad del repertorio T contra el alergeno Poa p9 es una medida matemática objetiva y reproducible del repertorio inmune, la dimensión fractal es un parámetro matemático apropiado para caracterizar la fisiología del sistema inmune. Este comportamiento fractal puede tener implicaciones generales para la inmunología.Background: based on a linguistic analogy applied to the immune specific B and T repertoires the immune system it has been characterized by the degree of fractal complexity like the one observed in the natural languages. Material and methods: this study is the application of a mathematical law to the immune repertoire. The Zipf-Mandelbrot law, observed in the natural languages, was applied to the study of the specific T repertoire against the allergen Poa p9. Results: the scale behavior of the law was observed in the specific repertoire from an allergic patient, with a without alfa interferon, like in Th cells clones. Conclusion: complexity degree of T repertoire against Poa p9 allergen can be identified by fractal dimension, as a appropriate mathematical parameter to characterize the

  14. Foliar uptake of nutrients applied in solution to Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua var. reptans (Hausskn.) Timm) and Ultra-Dwarf Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy).

    OpenAIRE

    Gaussoin, Roch; Schmid, Charles; Frank, Kevin; Butler, Tim; Liu, Haibo; Jarvis, William III; Baldwin, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Liquid applications of nutrients to turfgrass are a routine management practice. A better understanding of nutrient chelating chemistry coupled with a measurable increase in products marketed to turfgrass professionals purported to facilitate effective and efficient absorption of nutrients into turfgrass leaves has resulted in a need for a better understanding of the capacity of turfgrass species to absorb essential nutrient elements. Research was conducted with the objectives to 1) determine...

  15. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Entaz; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Min-Kyung; Rashid, Harun-Or; Kim, Ji-Ye; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES) on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC) assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg) to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients. PMID:28146110

  16. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entaz Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients.

  17. Comparative Carbon and Water Relations of Betula nana and Poa pratensis in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S. M. P.; Sullivan, P. F.; Welker, J. M.; Post, E.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of woody shrubs throughout much of the Arctic in recent decades is a common observation in response to climate change. However, we lack a complete understanding of how woody shrubs differ physiologically from neighboring species and how these differences may confer competitive advantages to woody shrubs as the climate continues to change. At a site in West Greenland, we combined detailed leaf physiological measurements with stable isotope analysis of plant leaf material, xylem water and soil water to elucidate the processes governing seasonal carbon (C) gain in the two dominant plant species at our study site: Betula nana and Poa pratensis. We hypothesized that cooler, drier soils beneath the Betula canopy would result in greater drought sensitivity during times of high atmospheric demand (i.e. greater water vapor pressure deficit; VPD), which would manifest in reduced leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and a negative relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in accordance with the dual-isotope conceptual model. Data collected over two consecutive growing seasons, however, revealed greater drought sensitivity in Poa, which displayed a dramatic reduction in Amax and gs during periods of high VPD, along with reduced leaf Δ13C. Additionally, leaf Δ13C and Δ18O were negatively correlated in Poa, suggesting strong stomatal influence on Δ13C. Conversely, we found no relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in Betula, indicating that seasonal variation in Δ13C may have been driven primarily by changes in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that, although Poa maintains greater average leaf-level photosynthesis, this species is more susceptible to drought than Betula. Meanwhile, it may be that Betula employs a strategy to avoid drought stress and maintain steady, yet conservative, C gain. This strategy may enable growth to continue during warm and dry conditions, conferring a competitive advantage for Betula in

  18. Chemical characterization of chars developed from thermochemical treatment of Kentucky bluegrass seed screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Stephen M; Banowetz, Gary M; Gady, David

    2013-08-01

    Seed mill screenings would be a considerable biofeedstock source for bioenergy and char production. Char produced from the gasification of residues resulting from cleaning of grass seed and small grains could be recycled to a cropping system as a soil amendment if chemical characterization determined that the gasification process had not produced or concentrated deleterious chemical or physical factors that might harm the environment, crop growth or yield. Previous reports have shown that char derived from the pyrolysis of a variety of biomass feedstocks has potential to enhance soil quality by pH adjustment, mineral amendment, and improved soil porosity. The objective of this research was to characterize char produced from Kentucky bluegrass seed mill screenings (KBss) by a small-scale gasification unit, operated at temperatures between 600 and 650°C, with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, selected heavy metals, as well as other physical and chemical characteristics, and determine its suitability for agricultural application as a soil amendment. We utilized KBss as a model for seed and grain-cleaning residues with the understanding that chemical and physical characteristics of char produced by gasification or other cleaning residues may differ based on soil and environmental conditions under which the crops were produced. Our results support the hypothesis that KBss char could be applied in a cropping system without toxic environmental consequences and serve multiple purposes, such as; recycling critical plant macro- and micro-nutrients back to existing cropland, enhancing soil carbon sequestration, managing soil pH, and improving water holding capacity. Crop field trails need to be implemented to further test these hypotheses.

  19. A Memória Institucional – Santa Casa POA/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth de Oliveira Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa os enfoques sobre a memória organizacional e como esse trabalho é articulado: questões estratégicas de resgate e construção de memória; a emergência do “mercado de memórias”, a relação entre a cultura e a memória organizacional, os instrumentos utilizados. São desenvolvidas reflexões teóricas nas áreas estudadas aliadas ao estudo de caso da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de POA.

  20. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  1. Effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on phenolic content in Poa annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn Bezemer T; Hefin Jones T; E Newington J

    2000-11-01

    Different but partially overlapping hypotheses have been developed to predict the allocation of phenolics in elevated atmospheric CO(2). The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis predicts increased allocation to phenolics due to reduced relative availability of nitrogen. The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis states that allocation will depend on source and sink strength, while the protein competition model predicts that allocation will remain unchanged. We grew Poa annua at two CO(2) concentrations in soils of three different nutrient levels. Although plant-tissue nitrogen levels were reduced in high CO(2) and photosynthetic rate increased, phenolic concentration and biomass allocation remained unchanged. We discuss these data in the context of the three models' predictions of phenolic allocation in conditions of elevated CO(2).

  2. Tremorgenic mycotoxins produced by strains of Penicillium spp. isolated from toxic Poa huecu parodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, M; Sala de Miguel, M A; Blanco Viera, J; Planes de Banchero, E

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen strains of Penicillium spp. have been isolated from Poa huecu Parodi from the Zapala zone, exhibiting toxicity to sheet. The following strains have been identified: P. crustosum, cyclopium, notatum, palitans, puberulum, verrucosum, viridicatum and Penicillium spp. The toxigenic capacity of the strains was studied after growing them under suitable conditions. Toxins produced were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Penitrem A (PA) and Penitrem B (PB) neurotoxins were identified and quantitated in twelve strains; verruculogen (VERR) and fumitremorgen B (FTB) being present in one of them. The effect of these mycotoxins was studied in mice. Neurological symptoms characteristic of the intoxication by tremorgenic toxins and similar to those observed in sheep suffering from 'huecu's disease' were observed. The possible role of these toxins as causative agents of 'huecu's disease' is discussed.

  3. Fructan accumulation and transcription of candidate genes during cold acclimation in three varieties of Poa pratensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Poa pratensis, a type species for the grass family (Poaceae), is an important cool season grass that accumulates fructans as a polysaccharide reserve. We studied fructan contents and expression of candidate fructan metabolism genes during cold acclimation in three varieties of P. pratensis adapte...

  4. Development of natural treatment system consisting of black soil and Kentucky bluegrass for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested strong wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    To develop a sound post-treatment process for anaerobically-digested strong wastewater, a novel natural treatment system comprising two units is put forward. The first unit, a trickling filter, provides for further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and adjustable nitrification. The subsequent soil-plant unit aims at removing and recovering the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). As a lab-scale feasibility study, a soil column test was conducted, in which black soil and valuable Kentucky bluegrass were integrated to treat artificial nutrient-enriched wastewater. After a long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, despite the need for an improved denitrification process prior to discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through distinct mechanisms. Since they either partially or totally remained in plant-available forms in the soil, indirect nutrient reuse could be achieved. As for Kentucky bluegrass, it displayed better growth status when receiving wastewater, with direct recovery of 8%, 6% and 14% of input N, P and K, respectively. Furthermore, the indispensable role of Kentucky bluegrass for better treatment performance was proved, as it enhanced the cell-specific nitrification potential of the soil nitrifying microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere. After further upgrade, the proposed system is expected to become a new solution for strong wastewater pollution.

  5. Assessing the importance of human activities for the establishment of the invasive Poa annua in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Molina-Montenegro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harsh environmental conditions and remoteness, Antarctica is often considered to be at low risk of plant invasion. However, an increasing number of reports have shown the presence and spread of non-native plants in Antarctica; it is therefore important to study which factors control the invasion process in this ecosystem. Here, we assessed the role of different human activities on the presence and abundance of the invasive Poa annua. In addition, we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment in the field, and a manipulative experiment of germination with P. annua and the natives Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, in order to unravel the effects of physical soil disturbance on the establishment and survival of P. annua. We found a positive correlation between abundance of P. annua and level of soil disturbance, and that survival of P. annua was 33% higher in sites with disturbed soil than non-disturbed. Finally, we found that disturbance conditions increased germination for P. annua, whereas for native species germination in experimentally disturbed soil was either unchanged or reduced compared to undisturbed soil. Our results indicate that human activities that modify abiotic soil characteristics could play an important role in the abundance of this invasive species. If the current patterns of human activities are maintained in Antarctica, the establishment success and spread of P. annua could increase, negatively affecting native flora.

  6. Effects of traffic pollution on the genetic structure of Poa annua L.populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; CHEN Xiao-yong; SHEN Lang; LI Yuan-yuan; CAI Yue-wei

    2004-01-01

    The genetic composition of Poa annua L. populations with a series of traffic pollution was studied by starch electrophoresis. Five enzyme systems were stained. The results showed that: (1) Traffic pollution can dramatically change genotypic frequencies at some loci of P. annua populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Fe-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote in some populations. (2) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site(Botanic Park population), but the increase was not related with the pollution extent. (3) Most genetic variation was found within populations, and only 6.21% was among populations of the polluted series. Slightly higher differentiation(FST=7.98%) was observed when the control population was included. (4) The calculated gene flow(Nm) is 2.8841 per generation. The mean of genetic identity is 0.9864 and the genetic distance average to 0.0138.

  7. Ethylene-Induced Chlorosis in the Pathogenesis of Bipolaris sorokiniana Leaf Spot of Poa pratensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, C F; Coleman, L W

    1984-06-01

    Endogenous ethylene of Poa pratensis leaves infected by Bipolaris sorokiniana was evaluated as a factor in leaf chlorosis during pathogenesis. Detectable increases in endogenous ethylene of leaves of intact plants under normal ambient pressure occurred 12 hours after inoculation and was maximum at 48 hours; from 48 to 96 hours the ethylene progressively decreased. Necrotic lesions surrounded by chlorotic halos occurred on infected leaves between 24 and 48 hours. Midvein chlorosis interconnecting individual lesions and complete chlorosis of all tissues not directly affected by the lesions occurred between 72 and 96 hours, after maximum production of ethylene at 48 hours. The chlorophyll loss in infected leaves by 96 hours was 44% compared with controls.Subjecting inoculated leaves of intact plants to a controlled atmospheric-environmental system with an atmospheric pressure of 233 millibars and O(2) and CO(2) partial pressures adjusted to approximately that of normal ambient pressure during infection and disease development prevented most midvein chlorosis and complete chlorosis, but did not prevent necrotic lesion or chlorotic halo development. Under the hypobaric conditions, chlorophyll loss during disease development was reduced to 22% compared with controls at 96 hours. The observations suggest that ethylene may function late in pathogenesis of this host-pathogen interaction and is responsible for much of the chlorophyll loss after its maximum production at 48 hours.

  8. Genetic diversity of Poa pratensis L. depending on geographical origin and compared with genetic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szenejko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Poa pratensis is one of the most common species of meadow grass in Europe. Most cultivars of the species found in Poland were originally derived from its ecotypes. We compared the effectiveness of the RAPD and ISSR methods in assessing the genetic diversity of the selected populations of P. pratensis. We examined whether these methods could be useful for detecting a possible link between the geographical origin of a given population and its assessed genetic variation. Methods The molecular markers RAPD and ISSR were used and their efficiency compared using, inter alia, statistical multivariate methods (UPGMA and PCA. Results The low value of Dice’s coefficient (0.369 along with the significantly high percentage of polymorphic products indicates a substantial degree of genetic diversity among the studied populations. Our results found a correlation between the geographical origin of the studied populations and their genetic variations. For ISSR, which proved to be the more effective method in that respect, we selected primers with the greatest differentiating powers correlating to geographical origin. Discussion The populations evaluated in this study were characterized by a high genetic diversity. This seems to confirm the hypothesis that ecotypes of P. pratensis originating from different regions of Central Europe with different terrain structures and habitat conditions can be a source of great genetic variability.

  9. Generative reproduction of Antarctic grasses, the native species Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and the alien species Poa annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Giełwanowska Irena; Kellmann−Sopyła Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The embryology of two species, Deschampsia antarctica, a native species, and Poa annua, an alien species in the Antarctic we studied. Flowering buds of plants growing in their natural habitats on King George Island and generative tissues of both plant species grown in a greenhouse were analyzed. Adaptations to autogamy and anemogamy were observed in the flower anatomy of both species. The microsporangia of the evaluated grasses produce a small number of three−celled pollen grains. Numerous po...

  10. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  11. VARIABILIDAD MORFOLÓGICA DE LAS ESPECIES DEL COMPLEJO POA RESINULOSA (POACEAE Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS ESPECIES DE LA SECCIÓN DIOICOPOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Fernández Pepi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El complejo Poa resinulosa incluye un grupo de especies conformado por P. calchaquiensis, P. pedersenii y P. resinulosa, de difícil delimitación debido a que las entidades son afines en cuanto a su morfología, aunque presentan distribución disyunta. Para evaluar y analizar a las especies del complejo Poa resinulosa y especies afines al mismo complejo, se midieron 40 caracteres morfológicos y anatómicos en ejemplares de Poa calchaquiensis, P. lanigera, P. pilcomayensis y P. resinulosa. Esos datos se incorporaron a la matriz del conjunto de especies de Poa sección Dioicopoa confeccionada por Giussani (2000, incluyendo también a P. nubensis una nueva especie afín a P. calchaquiensis. Mediante el análisis de componentes principales y pruebas estadísticas, se circunscribió a las especies del complejo Poa resinulosa. Se describió a P. resinulosa como una variedad de P. ligularis, de la que se diferencia por poseer lígula corta, hojas y cañas de menor longitud, menor ancho de la lámina y estomas de menor tamaño. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de Poa ligularis var. resinulosa y taxones afines, y un mapa con la distribución geográfica de ambas variedades de P. ligularis.

  12. Modified Bluegrass Appliance: A Nonpunitive Therapy for Thumb Sucking in Pediatric Patients—A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amish Diwanji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral habits in form of digit/thumb sucking are common phenomenon and part of childhood behavior. They are normally associated with oral pleasure, hunger, anxiety, and sometimes psychological disturbances. Chronic practice can cause major orthopedic alterations to the skeletal structures of the oral cavity and lower face. Aversive approaches in form of punitive therapy have been moderately effective. Modified bluegrass appliance is nonpunitive therapy to treat sucking habits. It acts as a habit reversal technique and installs positive reinforcement in children. Modified blue grass appliance proved to be very comfortable to patients and encourages neuromuscular stimulations.

  13. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. A next-generation sequencing method for overcoming the multiple gene copy problem in polyploid phylogenetics, applied to Poa grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy is important from a phylogenetic perspective because of its immense past impact on evolution and its potential future impact on diversification, survival and adaptation, especially in plants. Molecular population genetics studies of polyploid organisms have been difficult because of problems in sequencing multiple-copy nuclear genes using Sanger sequencing. This paper describes a method for sequencing a barcoded mixture of targeted gene regions using next-generation sequencing methods to overcome these problems. Results Using 64 3-bp barcodes, we successfully sequenced three chloroplast and two nuclear gene regions (each of which contained two gene copies with up to two alleles per individual in a total of 60 individuals across 11 species of Australian Poa grasses. This method had high replicability, a low sequencing error rate (after appropriate quality control and a low rate of missing data. Eighty-eight percent of the 320 gene/individual combinations produced sequence reads, and >80% of individuals produced sufficient reads to detect all four possible nuclear alleles of the homeologous nuclear loci with 95% probability. We applied this method to a group of sympatric Australian alpine Poa species, which we discovered to share an allopolyploid ancestor with a group of American Poa species. All markers revealed extensive allele sharing among the Australian species and so we recommend that the current taxonomy be re-examined. We also detected hypermutation in the trnH-psbA marker, suggesting it should not be used as a land plant barcode region. Some markers indicated differentiation between Tasmanian and mainland samples. Significant positive spatial genetic structure was detected at Conclusions Our results demonstrate that 454 sequencing of barcoded amplicon mixtures can be used to reliably sample all alleles of homeologous loci in polyploid species and successfully investigate phylogenetic relationships among

  15. Silicate application increases the photosynthesis and its associated metabolic activities in Kentucky bluegrass under drought stress and post-drought recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Shah; Yajun, Chen; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Na, Li; Xin, Li; Alhussien, Safa Abd Alaleem Fadal Elseed

    2016-09-01

    Drought stress is the most pervasive threat to plant growth, which disrupts the photosynthesis and its associated metabolic activities, while silicate (Si) application may have the potential to alleviate the damaging effects of drought on plant growth. In present study, the role of Si in regulating the photosynthesis and its associated metabolic events in Kentucky bluegrass (cv. Arcadia) were investigated under drought stress. Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, 800 mg L(-1)) of Si (Na2SiO3.9H2O) were imposed on 1-year-old plants removed from field and cultured under glasshouse conditions. After 20 days of drought stress, the plants were re-watered to reach soil field capacity for the examination of recovery on the second and the seventh day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design replicated four times. Drought stress severely decreased the photosynthesis, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, cholorophyll contents, Rubisco activity, and Rubisco activation state in Kentucky bluegrass. Nevertheless, application of Si had a positive influence on all these attributes, particularly under stress conditions. As compared to control, Si application at 400 mg L(-1) recorded 78, 64, and 48 % increase in photosynthesis, Rubisco initial activity, and Rubisco total activity, respectively, at 20 days of drought. Higher photosynthesis and higher Rubisco activity in Si-applied treatments suggest that Si may have possible (direct or indirect) role in maintenance of more active Rubisco enzyme and Rubisco activase and more stable proteins for carbon assimilation under stress conditions, which needs to be elucidated in further studies.

  16. Generative reproduction of Antarctic grasses, the native species Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and the alien species Poa annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giełwanowska Irena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The embryology of two species, Deschampsia antarctica, a native species, and Poa annua, an alien species in the Antarctic we studied. Flowering buds of plants growing in their natural habitats on King George Island and generative tissues of both plant species grown in a greenhouse were analyzed. Adaptations to autogamy and anemogamy were observed in the flower anatomy of both species. The microsporangia of the evaluated grasses produce a small number of three−celled pollen grains. Numerous pollen grains do not leave the microsporangium and germinate in the thecae. Deschampsia antarctica and P. annua plants harvested in Antarctica developed a particularly small number of microspores in pollen chambers. In D. antarctica, male gametophytes were produced at a faster rate: generative cells in pollen did not become detached from the wall of the pollen grain, they were not embedded in the cytoplasm of vegetative cells, and they divided into two sperm cells situated close to the wall. The monosporous Polygonum type of embryo sac development was observed in the studied species. The egg apparatus had typical polarization, and the filiform apparatus did not develop in synergids. Large antipodals with polyploidal nuclei were formed in the embryo sacs of D. antarctica and P. annua. Poa annua was characterized by numerous antipodal cells which formed antipodal tissue in the chalazal region of the embryo sac. Three distinct antipodals with atypical, lateral position in the vicinity of the egg apparatus were observed in D. antarctica. The diaspores of the investigated grass species were characterized by small size, low weight and species-specific primary and secondary sculpture of the testa and caryopsis coat.

  17. Leaf waxes of slow-growing alpine and fast-growing lowland Poa species: inherent differences and responses to UV-B radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilon, J.; Lambers, H.; Baas, W.; Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J.J.; Atkin, O.K.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether alpine and lowland Poa species exhibit inherent differences in leaf cuticular waxes, leaf UV absorbing compounds and/or growth responses to UV-B treatment. All plants were grown hydroponically in a growth cabinet (constant 20°; 14 hr photoperiod; 520 mol photons m-2 s-1 PAR).

  18. Semivolatile POA and parameterized total combustion SOA in CMAQv5.2: impacts on source strength and partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin N.; Woody, Matthew C.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Carlton, Ann Marie G.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Liu, Shang; Ng, Nga L.; Russell, Lynn M.; Setyan, Ari; Xu, Lu; Young, Jeff; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zhang, Qi; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2017-09-01

    Mounting evidence from field and laboratory observations coupled with atmospheric model analyses shows that primary combustion emissions of organic compounds dynamically partition between the vapor and particulate phases, especially as near-source emissions dilute and cool to ambient conditions. The most recent version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model version 5.2 (CMAQv5.2) accounts for the semivolatile partitioning and gas-phase aging of these primary organic aerosol (POA) compounds consistent with experimentally derived parameterizations. We also include a new surrogate species, potential secondary organic aerosol from combustion emissions (pcSOA), which provides a representation of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from anthropogenic combustion sources that could be missing from current chemical transport model predictions. The reasons for this missing mass likely include the following: (1) unspeciated semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compound (SVOC and IVOC, respectively) emissions missing from current inventories, (2) multigenerational aging of organic vapor products from known SOA precursors (e.g., toluene, alkanes), (3) underestimation of SOA yields due to vapor wall losses in smog chamber experiments, and (4) reversible organic compounds-water interactions and/or aqueous-phase processing of known organic vapor emissions. CMAQ predicts the spatially averaged contribution of pcSOA to OA surface concentrations in the continental United States to be 38.6 and 23.6 % in the 2011 winter and summer, respectively. Whereas many past modeling studies focused on a particular measurement campaign, season, location, or model configuration, we endeavor to evaluate the model and important uncertain parameters with a comprehensive set of United States-based model runs using multiple horizontal scales (4 and 12 km), gas-phase chemical mechanisms, and seasons and years. The model with representation of semivolatile POA improves predictions of

  19. Turismo, información, cambio climático: El caso del Parque Nacional Volcan Poas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático es el tema ambiental más importante de este siglo. El estudio se condujo entre 2008/2009 y el trabajo de campo durante los meses de abril y mayo del 2008, cuando un total de 996 visitantes fueron entrevistados en el Parque Nacional, Volcán Poas Costa Rica, en relación a sus actitudes hacia el cambio del clima y sobre, cómo y donde ellos consiguen su información en el tema. Los visitantes del parque que se entrevistaron promedian entre 30 a 50 años de edad, (CR 31,USA 40 EU 33, 48% son hombres y 52% mujeres, 80% arribo formando parte de grupos, entre 20 and 40% poseía una educación universitaria de esos 3.8% poseía post grados y 14% de esos post grados eran doctorados. Los ingresos medios para los locales estuvieron entre 1000 y 2000 (1071 CR dólares mes, y para los norteamericanos entre 4000 y 6000 (5137 EUA dólares mes y los europeos entre 1000 y 4000 (3305 EU La importancia del cambio del clima como problema hoy en una escala de 0 a 5, en ambos estuvo en 2 y en cincuenta años, en 4. Los europeos y norteamericanos indicaron que la deforestación es la principal causa del cambio climático, seguido por las emisiones de autos. Los costarricenses obtuvieron su información sobre el cambio climático en la televisión y los norteamericanos en la televisión, revistas populares e internet. En un tema con una "aceptación" indudablemente complicada debido a lo que puede signifi car para la persona común, la claridad y la sencillez, fueron dos comentarios que ocuparon un lugar preeminente, cuándo comentarios adicionales, fueron solicitados en relación con la información que ellos recibían y necesitaban para entender el tema.

  20. Avaliação da modulação autonômica da freqüência cardíaca nas posturas supina e sentada de homens jovens sedentários Evaluation of autonomic heart rate modulation among sedentary young men, in seated and supine postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Zuttin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar a modulação autonômica da freqüência cardíaca (FC em repouso em relação à postura corporal em jovens sedentários. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 20 homens jovens (22,6 ± 2,5 anos, saudáveis e sedentários. A FC e os intervalos das ondas R (iR-R em ms do eletrocardiograma (ECG foram captados em tempo real na derivação DII modificada, com os voluntários em repouso nas posturas supina e sentada, durante 15 minutos. Os dados dos iR-R foram analisados, no domínio do tempo (DT, pelos índices RMSSD, RMSM e pNN50 (%; e no domínio da freqüência (DF pela análise espectral, transformada rápida de Fourier (FFT, pelas bandas de baixa freqüência (BF e alta freqüência (AF, expressas em unidades normalizadas (un e a razão BF/AF. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o teste de correlação Spearman e o teste de Wilcoxon para amostras pareadas com significância de alfa= 5%. RESULTADOS: No DT, os índices RMSSD e pNN50 apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes na comparação entre as posturas supina e sentada (p 0,05. No DF, as bandas de BF, AF e a razão BF/AF apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante na comparação entre as posturas supina e sentada (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the autonomic heart rate (HR modulation, under resting conditions in relation to body posture, in sedentary young adults. METHODS: Twenty young healthy and sedentary men aged 22.6 ± 2.5 years participated in the study. The HR and R-R intervals (in ms of the electrocardiogram (EKG were obtained in real time using the modified DII derivation, with the volunteers at rest in the supine and seated positions, for 15 minutes. The R-R data were analyzed in the time domain, by means of the RMSSD, RMSM and pNN50 (% indices; and in the frequency domain, by means of spectral analysis and fast Fourier transforms (FFT, using low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF bands expressed as normalized units and as the

  1. Efeito da posição da articulação do cotovelo no controle de torque de supinação do antebraço em jovens adultos Effects of elbow joint position on forearm supination torque control among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krás Borges

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Inúmeros casos de patologias em antebraço e cotovelo reportados na literatura estão associados com tarefas que envolvem esforço e movimentos repetitivos do braço e mão. A posição do cotovelo é conhecida por afetar a produção de torque máximo de supinação do antebraço, assim como é um fator crítico na determinação de exercícios terapêuticos apropriados. No entanto, baseado no que se conhece, não existem evidências sobre os efeitos da posição do cotovelo em tarefas que requerem controle de níveis submáximos de torque. OBJETIVO: Este estudo investigou o efeito da posição do cotovelo na produção de torque isométrico máximo de supinação do antebraço e no controle constante e contínuo de torque em diferentes níveis submáximos de torque. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis jovens adultos (24,7 ± 2,2 anos de idade foram solicitados a realizar duas tarefas: produção de torque máximo em pinça lateral (polegar e indicador e controle constante de torque em pinça lateral. Ambas as tarefas foram avaliadas em quatro posições do cotovelo (livre, 0º, 45º e 90º de flexão e três níveis submáximos de produção de torque em pinça lateral (20%, 40% e 60%. Torque máximo, variabilidade, irregularidade e precisão da resposta motora foram usados como variáveis dependentes. RESULTADOS: Maiores valores de torque foram encontrados quando a articulação do cotovelo não foi restringida. O controle de torque não foi influenciado pela posição da articulação do cotovelo. Maior variabilidade, irregularidade e menor precisão na resposta de torque foram registradas com o aumento progressivo dos níveis submáximos de torque. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a posição do cotovelo não é um fator determinante para exercícios de reabilitação que incluam torque em supinação do antebraço.BACKGROUND: Large numbers of cases of pathological conditions in the forearm and elbow that have been reported in the

  2. Characterization of SO/sub 2/ damage to field-, grassland- and forest-stands. [Agrostis stolonifera; Nardus stricta; Arrhenatherum elatius; Poa alpina; Silene cucubalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, L.

    1984-01-01

    The development of vegetation in an industrial area of South Kaernten (Austria) under the influence of SO/sub 2/ and heavy metals is described. Following a historical overview of the environmental impact of these ecotoxicants the author reports about comparative investigations on the effects of SO/sub 2/ on field- and forest stands. Although the concentration of heavy metals in the upper layers of the soil were high woodlands with herbplantpopulations could survive, but since 1951 the SO/sub 2/-immision destroyed completely several of these herbplantpopulations and reduced the growth of Quercus robur to a hight of 15-50 cm. In pasture lands the effects are characterized by increased occurrence of adapted species like Agrostis stolonifera and Nardus stricta and by a reduction of the root growth of Arrhenatherum elatius from the normal length in this area of ca. 130 cm to a length of 35 cm. Ecotypes of Agrostis stolonifera, Poa alpina and Silene cucubalus are further described in relation to their occurrence on the contaminated habitats of the area investigated. In some cases the damage on crops as barley and on grassland plants can be greater than on trees.

  3. 西藏野生波伐早熟禾坪用性状及应用%Turf characteristics of wild Poa poiphagorum and its application in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关法春; 苗彦军; 王超; 洛桑旺久; 次仁多吉

    2011-01-01

    为了明确西藏野生波伐早熟禾(Poapoiphagorum)的使用性能,研究采用草坪坪用价值综合评价系统,在自然条件和人工栽培条件下对波伐早熟禾的坪用性状进行了研究。结果表明,草坪质地、株高、绿期、草坪强度和戍坪速度等指标评分较好,色泽指标评分中等,而草坪植株密度、均一性和生物量3个指标评分较低,波伐早熟禾作为草坪植物使用,需通过加强栽培管理措施或者育种手段来解决这些问题;对波伐早熟禾使用性能的综合评定结果说明,相对于作为观赏型草坪(综合评定值为3.1),波伐早熟禾更适合作为保土型草坪来应用(综合评定值为3%The comprehensive evaluation system of turf quality was used to evaluate the turf characteristics of wild Poa poiphagorum under the natural and artificial environments for defining the usability of this turf grass. This study showed that the turf texture, height, persistence, intensity and speed of turf estab- lishment performed well, and the turf color was not bad, but the turf density, uniformity, biomass was poor. Optimal cultivation and management measures or breeding methods would benefit the application of wild P. poiphagorum. This study also suggested that the P. poiphagorum was better used to establish the conservation erosion than to establish the landscape turf.

  4. Aplicação de processo oxidativo avançado (POA) como pré-tratamento de efluente de laticínio para posterior tratamento biológico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar

    2009-01-01

    O foco deste trabalho foi desenvolver um sistema de tratamento híbrido, constituído por um pré-tratamento fotocatalítico heterogêneo (POA) e posterior tratamento biológico por lodo ativado (SLA), para a redução da carga orgânica de efluentes laticinista oriundos do processamento de lácteos líquidos, como por exemplos, cremes, iogurte e beneficiamento de leite. Para a caracterização analítica do efluente in natura e tratado empregaram-se as metodologias Standard Methods, validadas em função do...

  5. YNEC土壤改良剂对早熟禾土壤微生物的影响%Effects of YNEC Soil Conditioner on Soil Microbes of Kentucky bluegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 王有国

    2012-01-01

    通过对草坪土壤施加不同剂量的土壤改良剂,采用实验室平板涂抹记数法,观测不同处理下土壤微生物数量的变化,对土壤改良剂的施用效果做出评价。结果表明:根际细菌数量与土壤改良剂剂量呈正相关,随着土壤改良剂剂量的增加根际细菌数量呈上升趋势;根际放线菌数量随土壤改良剂剂量的增加呈先下降后上升的趋势;根际真菌数量与土壤改良剂剂量呈负相关,随着剂量的增加,根际真菌的数量逐渐减少。%Different amounts of the soil conditioner applied to Kentucky bluegrass soil, the number of soil microbes was observed by introduced flat counting process and the effect of different soil conditioner treatments was evaluated. The main results showed that the quantity of microbes presented positive correlation with soil nutrients and the quantity showed increase with the amount increase of soil condition while the quantity of rhizosphere fungi presented negative correlation with soil condition and it increased gradually with decrease of the soil condition.

  6. 草地早熟禾根际固氮菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of nitrogen fixation strains from rhizosphere of Kentucky bluegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许沛冬; 赵艳; 张晓波; 李新英

    2014-01-01

    选用无氮培养基(NFM)对草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)根际土壤样品中的固氮菌株进行了分离和纯化,共获得21个固氮菌株的纯培养,对其形态学和生理生化特性进行了研究.结果表明,草地早熟禾根际的固氮菌以Azoobacter为主,其次为Pseudomonas、Bacillus及Enterobacter,菌株细胞基本形状为杆状或类球状,有少量的菌株(N1、N5、N8、N16)存在芽孢;过氧化氢酶、溶菌酶试验均为阳性反应,不能水解果胶,不产生吲哚,在pH为5.7的营养肉汤培养液中都生长不良,在厌氧性测定反应中除了菌株N13和N14能厌氧生长外,其他菌株均为好氧生长.

  7. Phenotypic plasticity of two varieties of Poa pratensis in vegetation concrete%两种早熟禾品种在植被砼上的表型可塑性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费永俊; 刘志雄; 武平

    2006-01-01

    研究了2个早熟禾(poa pratensis)品种Nublue、Kenblue建植在植被砼和田园土的表型可塑性(phenotypic plasticity).结果表明:从叶长、叶宽、株高、基部直径4个方面相比较,Kenblue在植被砼与田园土上表现出显著的差异;但植被砼上Nublue与田园土上的比较,除叶长、叶宽、株高3个方面表现了显著的差异外,其基径并没有表现出显著的差异.就成坪性的综合指标而言,建植在植被砼上的Nublue要好于植被砼上的Kenblue.

  8. Physiological response of Kentucky bluegrass calli under NaCl treatment%草地早熟禾愈伤组织对NaCl胁迫的生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海鹏; 李慧萍; 金小煜; 金宁; 牛奎举; 马晖玲

    2016-01-01

    以草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)午夜Ⅱ号愈伤组织为材料,研究NaC1胁迫对其生长、细胞膜相对透性、游离脯氨酸、丙二醛、可溶性蛋白及抗氧化酶活性的影响.结果表明,低浓度NaC1胁迫对午夜Ⅱ号愈伤组织的生长有促进作用,高浓度NaC1胁迫对愈伤组织生长具有抑制作用,且当NaCl浓度高于1.5%时愈伤组织开始出现褐化的现象;随NaC1浓度的升高,其胁迫程度也随之加强,丙二醛(MDA)和可溶性蛋白含量呈现先升高后降低的趋势,游离脯氨酸(Pro)含量和细胞膜相对透性则呈现出一直增加的趋势;过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性随NaCl胁迫程度的增加呈先升高后降低的趋势,在NaC1浓度为1.5%时酶活性达到最高.研究结果为草地旱熟禾愈伤组织耐盐突变体的筛选奠定了基础.

  9. Study of tourism landscape Poa pratensis L.reasonable fertilization experiment%旅游景观园林早熟禾合理施肥试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉立

    2012-01-01

    The lawn will be significant degradation after planting four years in Daqing city, soil fertilization can improve the nutritional status and effectively delay the degradation process of the lawn. The test used soil testing and formula fertilization mode to study Poa pratensis L growth variation. The results showed that; All fertilization treatments organic matter reduced amount was less than control and NPK content were higher than the control and pH values was lower than the control in final test; The treatment with nitrogen and phosphorus tiller density was significantly higher than other treatments in 7 ~ 10 months; The 50% fermented soybean cake treatment leaf width maximum and nitrogen treatment followed in 6 ~ 7 months and nitrogen and phosphorus treatment followed in 8 ~ 10 months; Nitrogen and phosphorus treatment chlorophyll content highest that promote chlorophyll content increased was best; Nitrogen and phosphorus treatment turf cover highest that significantly higher than the control and 50% fermented soybean cake treatment followed in the growing season; Nitrogen and phosphorus treatment could significantly promote the growth of Poa pratensis L. and 50% fermented soybean cake treatment followed. Comprehensive analysis that with nitrogen and phosphorus to promote the growth of Poa pratensis L. was best and 100% fermented soybean cake treatment was worst and fermented soybean cake treatment application ratio of not more than 50%.%大庆市草坪建植4年后会出现明显的退化现象,土壤施肥可以改善早熟禾营养状况,有效延缓草坪退化进程.试验采取测土配方施肥的方法研究早熟禾生长变化规律,结果表明:试验末期施肥处理的有机质降低量少于对照,氮磷钾含量高于对照,pH值略低于对照;氮磷配合处理的分蘖密度7~10月显著高于其他处理;50%饼肥处理的叶片宽度最大,6~7月氮肥处理次之,8~10月氮磷处理次之;氮磷肥处理的叶绿素含量最

  10. Performance of low-input turfgrass species as affected by mowing and nitrogen fertilization in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Minnesota, most lawns and higher cut turfgrass areas consist primarily of species such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) that require significant management inputs such as frequent mowing and nitrogen fertility. Several studies have shown that oth...

  11. The dynamic change of GA3 and the relationship analysis on growth of Kentucky Bluegrass under different fertilizer treatments%不同施肥下草地早熟禾GA3含量动态变化与生长相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锁科; 马晖玲

    2015-01-01

    The kentucky bluegrass (Midnight Ⅱ,Baron,Kentucky)were used as material.GA3 content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),the relationship was analyzed on the growth of plant and the changes of GA3 content,and the fertilizer combination was optimized.The results showed that the turf quality was significantly improved by using the fertilizer combination with 6 .5 2 g di-amine+7.18 g urea+30 g bacterial manure+1.5 g citrate (treatment 5).The texture of leaf was the smoothest with 2.13 mm,the chlorophyll content was 3.10 mg/g,the density was 123.11 plants/m2 ,cover degree was 98.20% and the maximum height was 19.37 cm.Meanwhile,roots had most vigorous growth after above fertilizer treatments.The root length was 7.43 cm,the maximum root cap ratio was 2.26,root volume was 0.058 8 cm3 and root activity was 200.99 mg/(g·h).GA3 contents of roots,stems and leaves were reached the highest under the fertilizer treatments.GA3 content of aboveground and underground was 537.25 ng/g and 478.45 ng/g under treatment 5.This study also confirmed that the methods was simple, high precision and good reproducibility.%以草地早熟禾‘午夜2号’为材料,采用高效液相色谱法(HLPC),测定了不同施肥处理下草地早熟禾的GA3含量,着重分析了 GA3含量的变化与其生长的相关性.并以研究结果为依据筛选出最优的施肥组合.结果表明:施用6.52 g二铵+7.18 g尿素+30 g 菌肥+1.5 g 柠檬酸(处理5),草地早熟禾地上部分生长状况优良,叶片质地最为纤细,为2.13 mm,叶绿素含量最高为3.10μg/g,最大密度为123.11株/m2,最大盖度为98.20%,高度可达19.37 cm.且根系生长旺盛,根长最长,为7.43 cm,最小根冠比为2.26,根体积可达0.0588 cm3,根系活力高达200.99μg/(g·h).说明:适宜的内源激素水平决定着植株体生长发育的状态,不同施肥处理下草地早熟禾各部位在不同生长时期内 GA3含量随着施肥时间的增长而上升.在处理5

  12. Effects of Tracked Vehicle Activity on Terrestrial Mammals, Birds, and Vegetation at Fort Knox, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    stem (A. scoparious), and danthonia ( Danthonia spicata). Collectively, these grasses were more important than the lespedeza or the camphor. Other...species in this cleared site. Several grasses were well established, including panic grass ( Panicum spp.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense), and foxtail...of soils is abandoned, perennial herbs become established, in- cluding asters, goldenrods, poverty grass , and dozens of associated spe- cies. If soil

  13. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    nevadensis 1 Idaho Fescue Festuca idahoensis 2 Indian Rice Grass Oryzopsis hymenoides 1 Needle-and-Thread Grass Stipa comata 1 Blue Wild Rye ...detailed in Table 2-2. Table 2-2. Proposed Reclamation Seed Mix Seed Mixture Scientific Name lbs/acre Great Basin Wild Rye Elymus cinereus 0.5...Bluebunch Wheatgrass Agropyron spicatum 2 Mountain Timothy Phleum alpinum 1 Squirrel Tail Grass (Bottle Brush) Stianion hystrix 1 Nevada Bluegrass Poa

  14. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    LeMonte, Joshua J.; Jolley, Von D.; Summerhays, Jeffrey S.; Richard E Terry; Hopkins, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer coated urea (PCU) is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3) and aqueous (NO3(-)) N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.)...

  15. Responses of two grass species to plant growth regulators, fertilizer N, chelated Fe, salinity and water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nabati, Daryoosh A.

    1991-01-01

    A series of studies were initiated to investigate growth responses of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa praetensis L.) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) to foliar applications of two plant growth regulators (PGR) and/or chelated Fe (Na Fe diethylene triamine pentaacetate). Environmental variables considered were N levels, soil moisture regimes, and saline irrigations The two materials investigated for PGR properties were a commercial product called Roots (a cold-water extract of seaw...

  16. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  17. 4种除草剂防除保护性耕作麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性%Efficacy and Selectivity of Four Herbicides on Poa annua L. in Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of formulated pyroxsulam 7.5%WG,mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6%WG,fenoxaprop 6.9%EW,and clodinafop-propargyl 15%WP to control Poa annua and their selectivity to wheat were studied under field con-ditions.Pyroxsulam 7.5%WG (187.5 g hm2 ) and mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6% WG (450 g hm2 ) controlled 84%and 85% P.annua,respectively,based on fresh weight determinations.Both herbicide treatments were highly se-lective to spring wheat cv.Tongmai 1 although mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron caused slight crop phytotoxicity.Fenoxaprop and clodinafop-propargyl did not provide adequate control of the grass weed.Given the efficacy,selectivity and long-term control provided by pyroxsulam 7.5%WG at 187.5 g hm2 ,its use can be recommended in the field.%通过田间试验,比较4种除草剂药后不同时期对保护性耕作麦田早熟禾的防效及其增产效果,进而比较7.5%啶磺草胺WG、3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG、15%炔草酸WP、6.9%精唑禾草灵EW 4种除草剂防除早熟禾效果和对小麦的安全性。采用田间药效试验方法,对麦田早熟禾采用喷雾处理,进行4种除草剂防除麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性试验。7.5%啶磺草胺WG 187.50 g/hm2和3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG 450.00 g/hm2对早熟禾鲜质量防效分别为83.58%、84.87%。3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG对春小麦通麦1号品种有一定的药害,药害程度:甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐>啶磺草胺。6.9%精唑禾草灵EW、15%炔草酸WP对早熟禾达未到防治要求。187.50 g/hm27.5%啶磺草胺WG,安全性好、防效高、持续期长,可进一步示范推广使用。

  18. 水培碱性胁迫法对4个草种的抗碱性研究%The Effects of Different PH Solution on Four Kinds of Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费永俊; 赵宇瑛; 陈万刚

    2004-01-01

    以白三叶(White clover,Trifoluum L.)、拂浪(Fine lawn,Festuca Schreb)、纽布鲁(Kentucky bluegrass Poa L.)和普特(Putter Agrostis L.)作为试材,采用水培法研究了不同pH值对其叶绿素含量等生理指标的影响.结果表明,在这4个草种中,纽布鲁具有较强的抗碱性.

  19. 76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/news.shtml . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Andrea Huberty, Branch Chief, Regulatory and Environmental Analysis Branch, Biotechnology Regulatory... restriction is necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest or noxious weed into the United States or...

  20. Education's Quest for the Grail: The Search for Fiscal Equity in the Bluegrass State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, Betty E.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes Kentucky's progress toward educational equity, concentrating on (1) the Kentucky Supreme Court's 1989 decision declaring the state's educational finance system unconstitutional and (2) a description and preliminary evaluation of the state's new four-part funding formula featuring pupil weighted averages for expenditure by wealth…

  1. Membrane separation using nano-pores; Nano poa wo riyoshita makubunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, S. [Fukuoka Women`s Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    The membrane constituted by nano-pore only (NF membrane) is sold on the market recently as the membranes used for the matter separations in addition to the reverse osmosis membrane for changing seawater into fresh water, dialysis membrane used for artificial kidney, ultrafiltration membrane used for the separation and condensation of protein and the micro-filter used for removing microbe. It is possible for the membrane constituted by nano-pore to remove the virus with the size being from 20 to 300 nm. In this paper, the pore structure of NF membrane is explained, and then its application as the membrane for removing virus is described. Especially, it is possible for NF membrane to remove the virus with smallest size (parvovirus, etc.), prion albumen (bovine serum pathogen, etc.) and the special gene such as cancer, and it is further applied to the condensation and refining of virus and genes. The broader application of nano-pore to the control of the transportation of micro-particles in the future is expected. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  3. Effects of nematicides on nematode densities in turf in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P M

    1978-04-01

    The plant-parasitic nematodes Criconemoides lobatum, Hoplolaimus tylenchiformis, and Tylenchorhynchus dubius were present in the top 7.5 cm of sod consisting of numerous stolons and fibrous roots. Phenamiphos and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) controlled all three species, whereas ethoprop and oxamyl controlled H. tylenchiformis and T. dubius but not C. lobatum. Benomyl and carbofuran controlled H. tylenchiformis but had poor control of C. lobatum and T. dubius. The effectiveness of carbofuran varied with the type of formulation, being most effective as a quick-release formulation. C. lobatum was the most difficult to control with chemicals. No chemical treatment improved the growth of 'Astoria colonial' bentgrass (A. tenuis Sibth.) or Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under the moist condtions prevalent in these tests.

  4. Retrospective study comparing breast planning in supine and prone using Acess(Qfix); Estudo retrospectivo comparativo do planejamento de mama em posicao supina e a de prona com acessorio Acess-Qfix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setti, Marcela C.; Fernandes, Izabela L.S.; Padua, Marcelo L.A.; Cunha, Fredstone R. [Cot - Radioterapia, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Retrospective study comparing breast planning in supine and prone using Acess(Qfix) immobilization accessory. 10 participants were evaluated for the period from November 2015 to April 2016. In the comparative analysis of healthy organs heart, lung and healthy breast, lung had only difference with significance statistics. Regarding the coverage of the tumor volume and gradient there was also no statistically significant difference. (author)

  5. Geochemical evolution of the acid crater lake of Poas volcano (Costa Rica): Insights into volcanic-hydrothermal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Cruz, María

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the evolution of Laguna Caliente, an acid crater lake at the summit of Po:is, a persistently active volcano in central Costa Rica. The appearance, volume, temperature and chemical composition of the lake have continuously changed over the entire known period of its existence. O

  6. Research Analysis of Vermicompost Influence on Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Common Meadow-Grass (Poa pratensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domas Laurinaitis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The more intensive growth of agricultural crops adding mineral fertilizers, environmental pollution make the soil degraded: reduce the fertility of soil, increase the concentration of heavy metals. Especially dangerous is a common, synergistic effect of heavy metals. Vermicompost optimizes pH, texture and organic material content – the soil indicators, which are the major contributors to migration of heavy metals in the soil and to the plants from it. In the article there is an investigation of vermicompost influence on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in common meadow-grass. After experimental research it is determined that immobilization of heavy metals was the best in soil-vermicompost substrate, prepared in a ratio 1:2. The cadmium (Cd concentrations were lowest and the difference of HM content determined between roots and shoots was the most in biomass grown up in that mixture. In the underground part of plant the concentration equal to 11.10 mg/kg and in the part of above ground – 1.05 mg/kg. The situation of lead (Pb and copper (Cu is analogous. This is the optimal ratio of mixture preparation.

  7. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  8. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project Near Surface Test Facility 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of the reclamation project for the Hanford Site Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF), its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation project is to return disturbed sites as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native species. Gable Mountain is dominated by two plant communities: a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) -- Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii) community and a stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida) -- Sandberg's bluegrass community. Disassembly of the site installations began on March 15, 1988, and the site was returned to original contours by December 12, 1988. Two separate revegetation methods were employed at the NSTF to meet differing site constraints. Vegetative cover and density in the revegetation plots were assessed in April 1989 and again in June 1989 and 1990. It is extremely unlikely that the sand pit, borrow pit, box cuts, generator pad area, or ventilation fan area will reach the reclamation objectives set for these areas within the next 50 years without further intervention. These areas currently support few living plants. Vegetation on revegetated native soils appears to be growing as expected. Vegetation growth on the main waterline is well below the objective. To date, no shrubs have grown on the area, growth of native grasses is well below the objective, and much of the area has been covered with the pit run material, which may not support adequate growth. Without further treatments, the areas without the pit run material will likely revert to a nearly pure cheatgrass condition. 44 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Region-wide ecological responses of arid Wyoming big sagebrush communities to fuel treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Shaff, Scott E.; Lindgren, Andrew I.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Burnham, Jeffrey S.; Huso, Manuela M.

    2014-01-01

    If arid sagebrush ecosystems lack resilience to disturbances or resistance to annual invasives, then alternative successional states dominated by annual invasives, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), are likely after fuel treatments. We identified six Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) locations (152–381 mm precipitation) that we believed had sufficient resilience and resistance for recovery. We examined impacts of woody fuel reduction (fire, mowing, the herbicide tebuthiuron, and untreated controls, all with and without the herbicide imazapic) on short-term dominance of plant groups and on important land health parameters with the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fire and mowing reduced woody biomass at least 85% for 3 yr, but herbaceous fuels were reduced only by fire (72%) and only in the first year. Herbaceous fuels produced at least 36% more biomass with mowing than untreated areas during posttreatment years. Imazapic only reduced herbaceous biomass after fires (34%). Tebuthiuron never affected herbaceous biomass. Perennial tall grass cover was reduced by 59% relative to untreated controls in the first year after fire, but it recovered by the second year. Cover of all remaining herbaceous groups was not changed by woody fuel treatments. Only imazapic reduced significantly herbaceous cover. Cheatgrass cover was reduced at least 63% with imazapic for 3 yr. Imazapic reduced annual forb cover by at least 45%, and unexpectedly, perennial grass cover by 49% (combination of tall grasses and Sandberg bluegrass [Poa secunda J. Presl.]). Fire reduced density of Sandberg bluegrass between 40% and 58%, decreased lichen and moss cover between 69% and 80%, and consequently increased bare ground between 21% and 34% and proportion of gaps among perennial plants > 2 m (at least 28% during the 3 yr). Fire, mowing, and imazapic may be effective in reducing fuels for 3 yr, but each has potentially undesirable consequences

  10. Research on Influence of Different Substrate Formulation on Growth Status of Slope Restoration Plants%不同基质配比对边坡修复植物生长的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 裴宗平; 卢中华; 周江

    2012-01-01

    The authors took reprehensive slope restoration plant-bluegrass as experiment material, chose cement, water retaining agent, fertilizer and humus as plant media. Designing pot experiment by orthogonal test L9(34) to research the influence on growth status of bluegrass in nine different formulas mixed by fore medias, then measured and analyzed the physical and chemical properties of different substrate formulation, the buds rate, survival rate and plant height on fifty day of bluegrass. The results showed that the influence of different substrate formulation on growth status of bluegrass was different. By range analysis, the results were showed as follows: the order of four factors which affect the buds rate of plants was water retaining agent> humus> cement> fertilizer; the order affecting the survival rate of plants was water retaining agent> cement> fertilizer> humus; the order affecting the plant height on fifty day was water retaining agent> fertilizer> humus> cement. In the end, the optimum combination was treatment-9 consisting of 15.0% cement, 1.0% water retaining agent, 6.0% fertilizer and 6.0% humus which can raise both buds rate and survival rate significantly and promote the growth of bluegrass. Then, treatment-5 consisting of 10.0% cement, 0.5% water retaining agent, 9.0% fertilizer and 6.0% humus ensures higher survival rate and plant height on fifty day.%采用盆栽试验的方法,以典型的边坡绿化植物早熟禾(Poa annua)为供试材料,水泥、保水剂、肥料和腐殖质为基质原材料,选用L9(34)正交表进行试验,对比研究在4种基质原材料的9种不同配比下早熟禾生长状况的差异性,并对9种配比基质的物理性质、化学性质、植物出芽率、植物存活率及50天植物株高等指标进行测定与分析.结果表明,不同基质配比对早熟禾的生长状况影响不同.通过极差分析得出,4个因素对植物出芽率影响的主次顺序为:保水剂>腐殖质>水泥>肥料;对

  11. An investigation into the potential use and sustainability of surfactant coated turfgrass seed for the green industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanza, Michael; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stan; Madsen, Matthew D.

    2014-05-01

    Turfgrass seed germination and emergence is influenced mostly by water and oxygen availability, temperature, nutrition and biological activity in the rootzone. In many areas globally, seed germination and subsequent turfgrass establishment is greatly diminished due to inadequate irrigation water amount and quality, and the problem is further compound due to water repellent soils. Successful turfgrass seed germination is critical when attempting to establish a more sustainable turfgrass species in place of an existing, high-input required turf stand. Greenhouse research investigations were conducted in 2013 in Pennsylvania (USA), to evaluate surfactant coated perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) seed for germination and emergence, seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality. Both turfgrasses tested are cool-season or C3 grasses, and perennial ryegrass has a bunch-type growth habit while Kentucky bluegrass is rhizomatous. Perennial ryegrass is used world-wide as a principal component in sports turf mixes and in overseeding programs, and typically germinates rapidly in 3 to 10 days after seeding. Kentucky bluegrass also is used world-wide for sports turf as well as lawns and landscapes, and germinates slowly in 7 to 28 days. Research results indicate that surfactant coated seed of both species germinated one to three days faster compared to uncoated seed, and that seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality was better with surfactant coated seed compared to uncoated seed. In a study with only perennial ryegrass, surfactant-coated seed without fertilizer (i.e., N and Ca) applied at time of sowing resulted in seedling vigor and quality considered to be similar or better than uncoated seed with fertilizer applied at time of sowing. Therefore, the potential benefits with seed germination and emergence, and seedling vigor and turfgrass quality also may be attributed to the surfactant coating and not only a fertilizer response. The

  12. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of N- [ 2- (4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin -2-yloxy) benzylidene ] substituted amine derivatives%N-[2-(4,6-二甲氧基嘧啶-2-氧基)苯亚甲基]取代胺类衍生物的合成及除草活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元祥

    2011-01-01

    Six title compounds (3a - 3f) were synthesized using 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde as starting material by substitute reaction,addition reaction and elimination reaction. Thereinto,3a -3d were new compounds. All of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay results showed that the inhibition rate of synthesized compounds to the Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Bluegrass ,Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album reached 80% , except 3f to the E. Crus-galli was 55% at the application rate of 150 g a. I. /hm2. The inhibition rate of some of the compounds to E. Crus-galli,Poa annua,A. Retroflexus or C. Album reached 100% at the application rate of 150 g/hm2.%以水杨醛为原料,经取代、加成和消除反应合成了6个标题化合物(3a~3f),其中4个(3a~3d)为新化合物,其结构经核磁共振氢谱、质谱和元素分析确认.初步的除草活性测试结果表明,在有效成分150 g/hm2的剂量下,除化合物3f对稗草Echinochloa crus-galli的抑制率为55%外,其余5个化合物对供试杂草的抑制率均在80%以上,部分化合物对稗草、早熟禾Poa annua、反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus或小藜Chenopodium album的抑制率达100%.

  13. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    increased the most in restricted areas compared to irregularly and regularly grazed sites. When analyzing soil properties, Generalized mixed models revealed reliable results in the differences among categories of grazing types and intensity. These differences were only noticeable in calcium concentration being calcium the most decreased by medium grazing intensity and the most increased by irregular grazing. Grazing had significant effects on individual plant species occurrences and covers. Horses decreased presence of Anthoxanthum odoratum and regular grazing sites as well as fences had significantly higher occurrence of trampling tolerant species Nardus stricta compared to sites with irregular grazing. The type of grazing herbivores influenced covers of Agrostis capillaris, A. rupestris, Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. The grazing types significantly altered covers of Agrostis capillaris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Nardus stricta, and Potentilla ternata (Potentilla aurea subsp. chrysocraspeda). The intensity of grazing had important impact on covers of Agrostis rupestris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Poa alpina, Potentilla ternata, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. Key words: alpine meadows; pastures; GLMM; NMDS; (nested) PERMANOVA

  14. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Allelopathy. III. A Model for Curve-Fitting Allelochemical Dose Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, Ian R.; Lovett, John V.

    2003-01-01

    Bioassay techniques are often used to study the effects of allelochemicals on plant processes, and it is generally observed that the processes are stimulated at low allelochemical concentrations and inhibited as the concentrations increase. A simple empirical model is presented to analyze this type of response. The stimulation-inhibition properties of allelochemical-dose responses can be described by the parameters in the model. The indices, p% reductions, are calculated to assess the allelochemical effects. The model is compared with experimental data for the response of lettuce seedling growth to Centaurepensin, the olfactory response of weevil larvae to α-terpineol, and the responses of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L., cv. Ensylva), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., cv. Kenblue), perennial ryegrass (L. perenne L., cv. Manhattan), and Rebel tall fescue (F. arundinacea Schreb) seedling growth to leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue. The results show that the model gives a good description to observations and can be used to fit a wide range of dose responses. Assessments of the effects of leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue clearly differentiate the properties of the allelopathic sources and the relative sensitivities of indicators such as the length of root and leaf. PMID:19330111

  16. Emissions of non-methane organic compounds from a grassland site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Yoshiko; Doskey, P.V.

    1996-03-01

    A mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons (OxHCs), isoprene, and monoterpenes was detected in the emissions from a grassland site in the Midwestern United States. A plot dominated by crown vetch (Coronilla varia) and bluegrass (Poa spp.), exhibited a constant decrease in emissions of total non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) from 580 {mu}g m{sup -2} hr{sup -1} in June 1992 to 150 {mu}g m{sup - 2} hr{sup -1} in October 1992, except for a slight increase in August. Oxygenated hydrocarbons (methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and terpenes (isoprene, limonene, myrcene, {alpha}-pinene, and {beta}- pinene) composed about 90% and 10% of the identified NMOC emissions, respectively. Isoprene represented about 10% of the terpene emissions. Total NMOC emission rates based on vegetative biomass averaged 2.3 {mu}g g{sup -1} hr{sup -1}, with 10% of the identified NMOCs attributed to monoterpenes and the remainder mainly OxHCs. Over the course of the investigation, the relationship between the monoterpene emission rate and the temperature for a single plot was logarithmic and similar to the one between compound vapor pressure and temperature. However, emission rates normalized to temperature decreased throughout the summer and fall, indicating that parameterizations of emission rates from herbaceous plants must include a factor to compensate for environmental conditions such as soil moisture and nutrient deposition, which affect plant phenology and the seasonal pattern of species dominance.

  17. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonte, Joshua J.; Jolley, Von D.; Summerhays, Jeffrey S.; Terry, Richard E.; Hopkins, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer coated urea (PCU) is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3) and aqueous (NO3-) N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha-1 (control) to 200 kg N ha-1 applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®). Application of urea resulted in 127–476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41–49% and N2O emissions by 45–73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3- among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass. PMID:26764908

  18. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Allelopathy. III. A Model for Curve-Fitting Allelochemical Dose Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, Ian R; Lovett, John V

    2003-01-01

    Bioassay techniques are often used to study the effects of allelochemicals on plant processes, and it is generally observed that the processes are stimulated at low allelochemical concentrations and inhibited as the concentrations increase. A simple empirical model is presented to analyze this type of response. The stimulation-inhibition properties of allelochemical-dose responses can be described by the parameters in the model. The indices, p% reductions, are calculated to assess the allelochemical effects. The model is compared with experimental data for the response of lettuce seedling growth to Centaurepensin, the olfactory response of weevil larvae to alpha-terpineol, and the responses of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L., cv. Ensylva), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., cv. Kenblue), perennial ryegrass (L. perenne L., cv. Manhattan), and Rebel tall fescue (F. arundinacea Schreb) seedling growth to leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue. The results show that the model gives a good description to observations and can be used to fit a wide range of dose responses. Assessments of the effects of leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue clearly differentiate the properties of the allelopathic sources and the relative sensitivities of indicators such as the length of root and leaf.

  20. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J LeMonte

    Full Text Available Polymer coated urea (PCU is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3 and aqueous (NO3(- N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha(-1 (control to 200 kg N ha(-1 applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®. Application of urea resulted in 127-476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41-49% and N2O emissions by 45-73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3(- among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass.

  1. 新型包膜肥在早熟禾上的试验研究%Application of Homemade-Coated Fertilizers on Poa Pratensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓日; 刘兴斌; 孙振涛; 战秀梅; 王月; 刘小虎

    2007-01-01

    通过自制长效包膜肥与常规施肥在草地早熟禾盆栽上的试验研究表明,在同一施肥量的情况下作基肥一次施入,长效包膜肥在整个试验期间可以满足早熟禾整个试验期对养分的需求,但常规施肥则出现了缺肥症状.包膜肥加工过程及加入缓释剂对N素养分和P、K养分的释放规律有所不同:缓释剂的加入有利于提高N肥效但却加速了肥料中P、K的释放;包膜却对N、P、K均有延缓释放的作用.

  2. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    . The present investigation was initiated to investigate the effect of post-harvest treatments on dry matter production in autumn, carbohydrate content, the number of reproductive tillers and seed yield in a turf-type cultivar ‘Conni' of smooth-stalked meadow grass. The results show that post-harvest treatments...

  3. Vincristine, doxorubicin and mitomycin (VAM) in patients with advanced breast cancer previously treated with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF). A clinical trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association (POA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S K; Muss, H B; Westrick, M A; Cooper, M R; Jackson, D V; Richards, F C; White, D R; Stuart, J J; Christian, R M; Ramseur, W

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six evaluable patients with advanced breast cancer who had failed prior CMF therapy [15 (42%) as adjuvant treatment and 21 (58%) for advanced disease] were treated with a combination of vincristine, doxorubicin, and mitomycin (VAM). There was one CR and 10 PR, giving a response rate of 31% (P, 95% confidence interval, 15%-47%). Response was not significantly related to age, performance status, disease-free interval, dominant site of disease, number of sites of disease, or estrogen receptor status. The median duration of response was 5 months for patients attaining CR or PR and 4.6 months for patients with stable disease. The median survival for patients with CR or PR of 7.9 months was not better than for those with stable disease (8.0 months), but both groups had significantly longer survival than those with initial progression. Patients who received VAM after failing adjuvant CMF had a 53% response rate (8 of 15), as against a 14% response rate (3 of 21) in those failing CMF for advanced disease (P less than 0.05). In spite of this difference, the survival distributions for these two groups were not significantly different. Myelosuppression was moderate and no cardiac toxicity was seen. The addition of mitomycin to vincristine and doxorubicin in previously treated patients does not appear to improve the results obtained with vincristine and doxorubicin alone.

  4. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Temperate grass species require a period of short days/low temperature to respond to flower induction stimuli. The same environmental conditions stimulate the increase in carbohydrate concentration in aboveground biomass and the accumulation of reserve carbohydrates in the basal plant parts...

  5. Predicting foundation bunchgrass species abundances: Model-assisted decision-making in protected-area sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Sheley, Roger L.; Smith, Brenda S.; Hoh, Shirley; Esposito, Daniel M.; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Foundation species are structurally dominant members of ecological communities that can stabilize ecological processes and influence resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Being common, they are often overlooked for conservation but are increasingly threatened from land use change, biological invasions, and over-exploitation. The pattern of foundation species abundances over space and time may be used to guide decision-making, particularly in protected areas for which they are iconic. We used ordinal logistic regression to identify the important environmental influences on the abundance patterns of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), Thurber's needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum), and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) in protected-area sagebrush steppe. We then predicted bunchgrass abundances along gradients of topography, disturbance, and invasive annual grass abundance. We used model predictions to prioritize the landscape for implementation of a management and restoration decision-support tool. Models were fit to categorical estimates of grass cover obtained from an extensive ground-based monitoring dataset. We found that remnant stands of abundant wheatgrass and bluegrass were associated with steep north-facing slopes in higher and more remote portions of the landscape outside of recently burned areas where invasive annual grasses were less abundant. These areas represented only 25% of the landscape and were prioritized for protection efforts. Needlegrass was associated with south-facing slopes, but in low abundance and in association with invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Abundances of all three species were strongly negatively correlated with occurrence of another invasive annual grass, medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae). The rarity of priority bunchgrass stands underscored the extent of degradation and the need for prioritization. We found no evidence that insularity reduced invasibility; annual grass invasion represents

  6. Evaluation on the resistance of 13 Kentucky bluegrass cultivars to 3 root fungi pathogens%13个草地早熟禾品种对3种根部病原菌的抗性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳剑; 袁虹霞; 邢小萍; 李洪连

    2010-01-01

    对13个草坪早熟禾品种分别接种茄类镰刀菌(Fusarium solani)、立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani)、禾草离蠕孢菌(Bipolaris sorokiniana)3种病原菌 ,进行品种的室内抗病性测定,结果表明:早熟禾属的品种抗病性差异明显,在接种茄类镰刀菌的处理中,抢手股、浪潮、优异和蓝鸟4个品种的抗病性较好;在接种立枯丝核菌的处理中,巴润和午夜的抗病性最好;在接种禾草离蠕孢菌的处理中,康尼表现出较好的抗病性.

  7. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  8. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  9. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Stefanie L.; Limb, Ryan F.; Daigh, Aaron L.; Volk, Jay M.; Wick, Abbey F.

    2017-03-01

    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  10. Protein supplementation of ruminants consuming low-quality cool- or warm-season forage: differences in intake and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, D W; DelCurto, T; Clark, A A; Merrill, M L; Falck, S J; Harmon, D L

    2011-11-01

    An in situ study (Exp. 1) using 4 ruminally cannulated steers (343 ± 11 kg of BW) in a completely randomized design was used to compare ruminal degradation characteristics of low-quality cool-season (C3; Kentucky bluegrass straw; Poa pratensis; 6.3% CP; DM basis) and warm-season (C4; tallgrass prairie; 5.7% CP; DM basis) forage. Four ruminally cannulated steers (252 ± 8 kg of BW; Exp. 2) and 4 wethers (38 ± 1 kg of BW; Exp. 3) were used in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments to determine the influence of supplemental CP (CPSupp; soybean meal; 0.09 and 0.19% of BW, CP basis, for steers and lambs, respectively) on nutrient intake and digestion of C3 and C4 forages. Steers and wethers were allotted to separate 4 × 4 Latin squares that ran simultaneously with 20-d periods. In Exp. 1, C3 had a greater A fraction (fraction of total pool disappearing at a rate too rapid to measure) and effective degradability of DM and NDF compared with C4 (P ruminal liquid retention time (P = 0.02; CPSupp decreased retention by 3.6 h with C4 and by only 0.6 h with C3 forage) and particulate passage rate (P = 0.02; CPSupp increased passage by 46% with C4 and by 10% with C3 forage). As in Exp. 2, a CPSupp × forage interaction (P = 0.01; CPSupp increased digestibility by 18% with C4 and by 7% with C3 forage) was observed with DM digestibility in Exp. 3. In contrast, only N balance (P ruminants are not similar and, more important, that the physiological response of ruminants to protein supplementation of low-quality forage is dependent on forage type.

  11. Gibberellin-Stimulation of Rhizome Elongation and Differential GA-Responsive Proteomic Changes in Two Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiqing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and extensive rhizome development is a desirable trait for perennial grass growth and adaptation to environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to determine proteomic changes and associated metabolic pathways of gibberellin (GA) -regulation of rhizome elongation in two perennial grass species differing in rhizome development. Plants of a short-rhizome bunch-type tall fescue (TF; Festuca arundinacea; ‘BR’) and an extensive rhizomatous Kentucky bluegrass (KB; Poa pratensis; ‘Baron’) were treated with 10 μM GA3 in hydroponic culture in growth chambers. The average rhizome length in KB was significantly longer than that in TF regardless of GA3 treatment, and increased significantly with GA3 treatment, to a greater extent than that in TF. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was performed to further investigate proteins and associated metabolic pathways imparting increased rhizome elongation by GA. A total of 37 and 38 differentially expressed proteins in response to GA3 treatment were identified in TF and KB plants, respectively, which were mainly involved in photosynthesis, energy and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, defense and cell development processes. Accelerated rhizome elongation in KB by GA could be mainly associated with the increased abundance of proteins involved in energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and ATP synthase), amino acid metabolism (S-adenosylmethionine and adenosylhomocysteinase), protein synthesis (HSP90, elongation factor Tu and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A), cell-wall development (cell dividion cycle protein, alpha tubulin-2A and actin), and signal transduction (calreticulin). These proteins could be used as candidate proteins for further analysis of molecular mechanisms controlling rhizome growth. PMID:27446135

  12. An emerging crisis across northern prairie refuges: Prevalence of invasive plants and a plan for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T.A.; Flanders-Wanner, B.; Shaffer, T.L.; Murphy, R.K.; Knutsen, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the northern Great Plains, native prairies managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) can be pivotal in conservation of North America's biological diversity. From 2002 to 2006, we surveyed 7,338 belt transects to assess the general composition of mixed-grass and tallgrass prairie vegetation across five "complexes" (i.e., administrative groupings) of national wildlife refuges managed by the Service in North Dakota and South Dakota. Native grasses and forbs were common (mean frequency of occurrence 47%-54%) on two complexes but uncommon (4%-13%) on two others. Conversely, an introduced species of grass, smooth brome (Bromus inermis), accounted for 45% to 49% of vegetation on two complexes and another species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) accounted for 27% to 36% of the vegetation on three of the complexes. Our data confirm prior suspicions of widespread invasion by introduced species of plants on Service-owned tracts of native prairie, changes that likely stem in part from a common management history of little or no disturbance (e.g., defoliation by grazing or fire). However, variability in the degree and type of invasion among prairie tracts suggests that knowledge of underlying causes (e.g., edaphic or climatic factors, management histories) could help managers more effectively restore prairies. We describe an adaptive management approach to acquire such knowledge while progressing with restoration. More specifically, we propose to use data from inventories of plant communities on Service-owned prairies to design and implement, as experiments, optimal restoration strategies. We will then monitor these experiments and use the results to refine future strategies. This comprehensive, process-oriented approach should yield reliable and robust recommendations for restoration and maintenance of native prairies in the northern Great Plains. ??2009 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

  13. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Carrots, garden beets, sugar beets, horseradish, parsnips, radishes, rutabagas, salsify roots, turnips..., barley, oats, rice, rye (each in grain form). (25) Alfalfa, Bermuda grass, bluegrass, brome...

  14. Effects of Enhanced UV-C Radiation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Poa pratensis%紫外线(UV-C)辐射对早熟禾生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 王兰兰; 马莲菊; 陶思源; 代保清; 于龙

    2008-01-01

    采用室内盆栽试验方法研究了不同时间紫外线UV-C辐射后,CO2浓度增加、光合有效辐射变化对早熟禾(Poapratensis)生理特性的影响.结果表明,UV-C辐射对早熟禾的净光合速率产生了明显的抑制作用,而且随辐射时间的延长,抑制作用增大.在1 600μmol·m-2·s1光合有效辐射条件下,早熟禾净光合速率较800μmol·m-2·s-1光合有效辐射的净光合速率降低.CO2浓度增加可使早熟禾净光合速率增加.Logistic模拟分析表明,在CO2浓度不断增加条件下,早熟禾的最大净光合速率随UV-C辐射时间的延长下降,而且在强光下其最大值具有降低的趋势.相关分析表明,UV-C辐射是导致早熟禾气孔下降的主要因素,与CO2浓度增高相关性较低.蒸腾速率的变化规律与气孔导度相同.

  15. Formation of charge separated state P+OA- and triplet state 3P at low temperature in Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R-26) reaction centers in which bacteriopheophytin a is replaced by plant pheophytin a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuropatov Aya; Proskuryakov, I I; Shkuropatova, V A; Zvereva, M G; Shuvalov, V A

    1994-09-05

    Low temperature optical and photochemical properties of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R-26) reaction centers, in which bacteriopheophytin a has been replaced by plant pheophytin a, are reported. Modified reaction centers preserve the ability for photoinduced electron transfer from the primary electron donor P to the primary quinone acceptor QA at 80K. The triplet state ESR signal of modified reaction centers with prereduced QA at 10K shows an electron spin polarization pattern and ZFS parameters analogous to those for the triplet state 3P in non-treated reaction centers. It was found that at low temperature both P+QA- and 3P states are formed via a precursor radical pair P+I- in which I is the introduced plant pheophytin molecule. This shows that acceptor systems of bacterial and plant (photosystem II) reaction centers are mutually replacable in structural and functional aspects.

  16. DEGRADATION OF CAFFEINE AND METHYLENE BLUE BY ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOPs = DEGRADAÇÃO DE CAFEÍNA E AZUL DE METILENO POR PROCESSOS OXIDATIVOS AVANÇADOS (POA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelton Fagnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of two compounds of pharmaceutical interest, caffeine (CAF and methylene blue (MB, was studied using physical process (photolysis-UV254nm, chemical process (peroxidation-H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes: photoperoxidation (UV/H2O2, Fenton's reagent (Fe(II/H2O2, photo-Fenton (Fe(II/H2O2/UV and heterogeneous photocatalysis (UV/TiO2. The aqueous samples were recirculated in the photoreactor and the processes were monitored using scanning spectrophotometry in the UV-Vis region and analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The advanced oxidation processes were more effective in modifying the structure of molecules and the reduction of DOC than the physical or chemical processes. The photo-Fenton process (120 min was the most efficient and the DOC reduction was about 75, 85, and 81% for CAF, MB, and CAF/MB solution, respectively. Thus, the photo-Fenton process was the most efficient in the degradation of substances assayed, followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis. = No presente trabalho foi feita uma avaliação da degradação de dois compostos de interesse farmacêutico, a cafeína (CAF e o azul de metileno (AZM, por vários processos: físico (fotólise-UV254nm; químico (peroxidação-H2O2 e oxidativos avançados, empregando-se a fotoperoxidação (UV/H2O2, o reagente de Fenton (Fe (II /H2O2, o foto-Fenton (Fe (II /H2O2/UV e a fotocatálise heterogênea (UV/TiO2. As amostras aquosas foram recirculadas em um fotorreator de bancada e o monitoramento de cada um dos processos foi realizado usando-se a espectrofotometria de varredura na região do UV-Vis e a análise de carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD. Os processos oxidativos avançados foram mais eficientes na modificação da estrutura de ambas as moléculas e na redução da concentração de COD. Em 120 min. de ensaio com o processo foto-Fenton, o mais eficiente, houve uma redução de COD de 75, 85, e 81% para a CAF, AZM, e a solução composta por ambos, respectivamente. Conclui-se então que o processo foto-Fenton foi o mais eficiente na degradação dos princípios ativos ensaiados, seguido pela fotocatálise heterogênea.

  17. Combinação de adsorção por carvão ativado com Processo Oxidativo Avançado (POA) para tratamento de efluentes contendo fenol

    OpenAIRE

    Muranaka, Cínthia Tiemi

    2010-01-01

    L'adsorption sur charbon actif est une technique relativement répandue de post-traitement des effluents aqueux. Cependant il ne s'agit pas d'un traitement ultime, puisque les polluants restent concentrés sur la surface solide. Des techniques de régénération doivent donc être mises en œuvre. C'est dans ce contexte qu'ont été étudiés ici les procédés d'oxydation avancée Fenton et photo-Fenton, dont l'efficacité est reconnue pour éliminer la pollution organique. Plus précisément, l'objet de cett...

  18. Germination of Winter Annual Grass Weeds under a Range of Temperatures and Water Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda; Melander, Bo; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2017-01-01

    Silky windgrass and annual bluegrass are among the most troublesome weeds in northern European winter crops, while problems with rattail fescue have been especially linked to direct-drilling practices. This study investigated the germination patterns of silky windgrass, annual bluegrass, and ratt......Silky windgrass and annual bluegrass are among the most troublesome weeds in northern European winter crops, while problems with rattail fescue have been especially linked to direct-drilling practices. This study investigated the germination patterns of silky windgrass, annual bluegrass......, and rattail fescue in multiple water potentials and temperature regimes. Temperature and water potential effects were similar between silky windgrass and rattail fescue, but differed from annual bluegrass. The three grass weeds were able to germinate under low water potential (−1.0 MPa), although water...

  19. Dry deposition of gaseous elemental mercury to plants and soils using mercury stable isotopes in a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Andrew P.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Creswell, Joel E.; Olson, Michael R.; Robinson, Michael; Collins, Ryan M.; Parman, Andrew M.; Katzman, Tanya L.; Mallek, Justin L.

    2011-02-01

    Uptake of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0(g)) by three plant species and two soil types was measured using mercury vapor enriched in the 198 isotope ( 198Hg 0(g)). The plant species and soil types were: White Ash ( Fraxinus Americana; WA); White Spruce ( Picea Glauca; WS); Kentucky Bluegrass ( Poa Partensis; KYBG); Plano Silt Loam (4% organic matter; PSL); and Plainfield Sand/Sparta Loamy Sand (1.25-1.5% organic matter: PS). The plants and soils were exposed to isotopically enriched Hg 0(g) in a 19 m 3 controlled environment room for 7 days under optimal plant growth conditions (20 °C, 140 Wm -2 between 300 nm and 700 nm; 70% RH) and atmospherically relevant Hg 0(g) concentrations. Mercury was recovered from the samples using acidic digestions and surface leaches, and then analyzed for enrichments in 198Hg by ICPMS. The method was sensitivity enough that statistically significant enrichments in 198Hg were measured in the plant foliage at the end of Day 1. Whole leaf digestions and surface-selective leaches revealed that accumulative uptake was predominantly to the interior of the leaf under the conditions studied. Uptake fluxes for WA increased between the first and third days and remained constant thereafter (WA; Day 1 = 7 ± 2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Days 3-7 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10 -4 ng m -2 s -1; where m 2 refers to one sided leaf area). KYBG demonstrated similar behavior although no Day 3 measurement was available (Day 1 = 7.5 ± 0.5 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Day 7 = 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10 -4 ng m -2 s -1). Fluxes to White Spruce were lower, with little difference between Days 1 and 3 followed by a decrease at Day 7 (WS; Days 1-3 = 5 ± 2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1; Day 7 = 2.4 ± 0.2 × 10 -5 ng m -2 s -1). Uptake of Hg to soils was below the method detection limit for those media (PSL = 3 × 10 -2 ng m -2 s -1; PS = 3 × 10 -3 ng m -2 s -1) over the 7 day study period. Foliar resistances calculated for each species compared well to previous studies.

  20. Climate sensitivity of gaseous elemental mercury dry deposition to plants: impacts of temperature, light intensity, and plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Andrew P; Schauer, James J; Shafer, Martin M; Creswell, Joel; Olson, Michael R; Clary, Alois; Robinson, Michael; Parman, Andrew M; Katzman, Tanya L

    2011-01-15

    Foliar accumulations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were measured in three plant species between nominal temperatures of 10 and 30 °C and nominal irradiances of 0, 80, and 170 W m(-2) (300 nm-700 nm) in a 19 m(3) controlled environment chamber. The plants exposed were as follows: White Ash (Fraxinus americana; WA); White Spruce (Picea glauca; WS); and Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa partensis; KYBG). Foliar enrichments in the mercury stable isotope ((198)Hg) were used to measure mercury accumulation. Exposures lasted for 1 day after which the leaves were digested in hot acid and the extracted mercury was analyzed with ICPMS. Resistances to accumulative uptake by leaves were observed to be dependent on both light and temperature, reaching minima at optimal growing conditions (20 °C; 170 W m(-2) irradiance between 300-700 nm). Resistances typically increased at lower (10 °C) and higher (30 °C) temperatures and decreased with higher intensities of irradiance. Published models were modified and used to interpret the trends in stomatal and leaf interior resistances to GEM observed in WA. The model captured the experimental trends well and revealed that stomatal and internal resistances were both important across much of the temperature range. At high temperatures, however, stomatal resistance dominated due to increased water vapor pressure deficits. The resistances measured in this study were used to model foliar accumulations of GEM at a northern US deciduous forest using atmospheric mercury and climate measurements made over the 2003 growing season. The results were compared to modeled accumulations for GEM, RGM, and PHg using published deposition velocities. Predictions of foliar GEM accumulation were observed to be a factor of 5-10 lower when the temperature and irradiance dependent resistances determined in this study were used in place of previously published data. GEM uptake by leaves over the growing season was shown to be an important deposition pathway (2

  1. Mohawk Run Shrub Fen Complex research Natural Area Non-invasive Plant Management Plan Erie National Wildlife Refuge March 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Drooping Bluegrass, Thin Leaved Cotton Grass, Slender Spikerush, and Swampfly Honeysuckle on Erie National Wildlife Refuge discusses the...

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    to his vegetation type include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), needle-and thread, phlox, lupine (Lupinus sp.), and buckwheat (Montana...Common species include common snowberry, Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), bluegrass, western wheatgrass, lupine , yarrow (Achillea millefolium

  3. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Explosive Ordnance Disposal Detonation Site on Juniper Butte Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix), phlox (Phlox sp.), Lupine (Lupinus sp.), and Indian paintbrush (Castilleja sp.). Rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) is...longifolia), Hood’s phlox (Phlox hoodii), low pussytoes (Antennaria dimorpha), Sandbergs bluegrass, lupine (Lupinus arbustus), and bottlebrush

  4. Erie National Wildlife Refuge Mohawk Run Shrub Fen Complex Invasive Plant Species Management Plan For Erie National Wildlife Refuge 2003-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Drooping Bluegrass, Thin Leaved Cotton Grass, Slender Spikerush, and Swampfly Honeysuckle on Erie National Wildlife Refuge discusses the...

  5. 78 FR 56611 - Safety Zone, Shallowbag Bay; Manteo, NC; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...: A. Background On October 4, 2013 fireworks will be launched from a barge located in Shallowbag Bay in Manteo, North Carolina as part of the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. The temporary safety zone...

  6. Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common grasses that can cause allergies are: Bermuda grass Johnson grass Kentucky bluegrass Orchard grass Sweet ... Health Sciences 111 T.W. Alexander Drive Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27709 NIEHS Staff: Request an ...

  7. 78 FR 66011 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ..., perennial rye, Timothy, and Kentucky bluegrass mixed pollens allergen extract tablet for sublingual use... recommendations on the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy grass pollen allergen extract tablet...

  8. Preparation and properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hang; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Yen, Chuan-Yu; Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Su, Ay; Yen, Ming-Yu; Lin, Yu-Feng; Liu, Po-Lan

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with different molecular weights 400 and 2000 poly(oxyalkylene)-amine bearing the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy (POA400-DGEBA and POA2000-DGEBA) oligomers. The oxidized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) are converted to the acid chloride-functionalized MWCNTs, followed by the reaction with POA-DGEBAs to prepare the MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA and MWCNTs/POA2000-DGEBA. FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) reveal that the POA-DGEBAs are covalently attached to the surface of MWCNTs. The morphology of MWCNTs/POA-DGEBA is observed by TEM. The POA400-DGEBA coated on the MWCNTs is thicker and more uniform. However, the coating of POA2000-DGEBA on the MWCNTs shows a worm-like bulk substance and the MWCNT surface is bare. In addition, the flexural strength and the bulk electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates are measured 59% and 505% higher than those of the original composite bipolar plates by adding 8 phr of MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA. The maximum current density and power density of the single cell test for the nanocomposite bipolar plate with 4 phr MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA are 1.32 A cm -2 and 0.533 W cm -2, respectively. The overall performance confirms the functionalized MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates prepared in this study are suitable for PEMFC application.

  9. Preparation and properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Shu-Hang; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Yen, Chuan-Yu.; Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Yen, Ming-Yu.; Liu, Po-Lan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30043 (China); Tsai, Ming-Chi [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30043 (China); Su, Ay [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Tao-Yuan 32003 (China); Lin, Yu-Feng [Plastics Industry Development Center, Tai-Chung 40768 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with different molecular weights 400 and 2000 poly(oxyalkylene)-amine bearing the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy (POA400-DGEBA and POA2000-DGEBA) oligomers. The oxidized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) are converted to the acid chloride-functionalized MWCNTs, followed by the reaction with POA-DGEBAs to prepare the MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA and MWCNTs/POA2000-DGEBA. FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) reveal that the POA-DGEBAs are covalently attached to the surface of MWCNTs. The morphology of MWCNTs/POA-DGEBA is observed by TEM. The POA400-DGEBA coated on the MWCNTs is thicker and more uniform. However, the coating of POA2000-DGEBA on the MWCNTs shows a worm-like bulk substance and the MWCNT surface is bare. In addition, the flexural strength and the bulk electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates are measured 59% and 505% higher than those of the original composite bipolar plates by adding 8 phr of MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA. The maximum current density and power density of the single cell test for the nanocomposite bipolar plate with 4 phr MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA are 1.32 A cm{sup -2} and 0.533 W cm{sup -2}, respectively. The overall performance confirms the functionalized MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates prepared in this study are suitable for PEMFC application. (author)

  10. Using Measured Plane-of-Array Data Directly in Photovoltaic Modeling: Methodology and Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine; Freestate, David; Riley, Cameron; Hobbs, William

    2016-11-01

    Measured plane-of-array (POA) irradiance may provide a lower-cost alternative to standard irradiance component data for photovoltaic (PV) system performance modeling without loss of accuracy. Previous work has shown that transposition models typically used by PV models to calculate POA irradiance from horizontal data introduce error into the POA irradiance estimates, and that measured POA data can correlate better to measured performance data. However, popular PV modeling tools historically have not directly used input POA data. This paper introduces a new capability in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) to directly use POA data in PV modeling, and compares SAM results from both POA irradiance and irradiance components inputs against measured performance data for eight operating PV systems.

  11. Using Measured Plane-of-Array Data Directly in Photovoltaic Modeling: Methodology and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine; Freestate, David; Hobbs, William; Riley, Cameron

    2016-06-05

    Measured plane-of-array (POA) irradiance may provide a lower-cost alternative to standard irradiance component data for photovoltaic (PV) system performance modeling without loss of accuracy. Previous work has shown that transposition models typically used by PV models to calculate POA irradiance from horizontal data introduce error into the POA irradiance estimates, and that measured POA data can correlate better to measured performance data. However, popular PV modeling tools historically have not directly used input POA data. This paper introduces a new capability in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) to directly use POA data in PV modeling, and compares SAM results from both POA irradiance and irradiance components inputs against measured performance data for eight operating PV systems.

  12. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search, Buckley Air National Guard Base, Aurora, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Scarlet Glowmallow Wild Lettuce Scarlet Gaura Winter Fat Big Bluestem Green Needlegrass Blazing Star Drummonds Wildvetch Blue Grama Small Flower ...Cone Flower Prairie Clover Squirrel Tail Canada Ryegrass Switch Grass Wormwood Lamberts Loco Sanbergs Bluegrass Cheat Grass Six-Week Fescue Non-Native...Kentucky Bluegrass Japanese Chess Russian Thistle Yellow Sweet Clover Common Dandelion Crested Wheatgrass Source: T. Eaman, SCS, August 1975. D-2 I

  13. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Enzymes of Two Turfgrass Species Under Salinity Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.XU; M.YAMADA; H.FUJIYAMA

    2013-01-01

    Salinity stress is a major factor limiting the growth of turfgrass irrigated with recycled wastewater.The change in lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT),ascorbate peroxide (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the shoots and roots of Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue were investigated under salinity stress.Plants were subjected to 0,50,100,150 and 200 mmol L-1 NaCl for 40 d.The MDA content under salinity stress was lower in tall fescue than in Kentucky bluegrass in both shoots and roots.Activities of SOD in the shoots of both species increased with salinity stress.The activities of CAT and APX decreased in Kentucky bluegrass,but no significant difference in the activities of CAT and APX was observed in tall fescue.The activities of SOD,CAT and APX in the shoots of tall rescue were higher than those in Kentucky bluegrass.In the roots of Kentucky bluegrass,SOD and GR activities increased and CAT and APX activities decreased in comparison with the control.In the roots of tall rescue,salinity increased the activities of SOD,CAT,and APX.These results suggested that tall fescue exhibited a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher SOD,CAT and APX activities than Kentucky bluegrass.

  14. Effect of polarization orientation angle shift on X-band TDM SAR COSSC product of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asmita; Kumar, Shashi; Pandey, Uttara

    2016-05-01

    Polarization orientation angle (POA) shift in the backscattered SAR wave induced, due to irregularity of the target surface. Polarimetric signatures of the backscatter SAR wave gets affected by the POA shift, causes error in the decomposition modelling as shift in POA makes coherency matrix asymmetric. POA shift compensation is very necessary to avoid misinterpretation of decomposition modelling results. POA shift effect has been observed using coherency matrix and decomposition model results. This study is conducted over Dudhwa National Park in the state of Uttar Pradesh, using high resolution, TDM SAR COSSC Product of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X in Bistatic mode. Present study mainly focused on the comparative analysis of resultant scattering component of decomposition model before and after POA shift compensation. Shift in POA is investigated using circular polarization technique. Yamaguchi four component decomposition model is used to express total backscatter information in terms of volume, double bounce, surface and helix scattering. Volume scattering is overestimated however double bounce and surface scattering is under estimated in decomposition model due to POA shift present in the backscatter SAR wave. Different scattering mechanisms resulted after POA compensation were analyzed using 100 random points taken from forest structure. The results obtained by TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X shows an overall increase in double bounce scattering and decrease in volume scattering component after POA shift compensation. It is observed that there is negligible effect of POA shift on surface scattering. POA shift compensation necessarily required to improve the accuracy of decomposition models used in the forest parameter retrieval applications.

  15. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  16. Effects of shade on soil respiration,temperature and biomass in mixed cool season turf%遮荫对冷季型混播草坪土壤呼吸速率、温度及生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任健; 杨春勐; 代微然; 宋丽梅; 尹以爽

    2014-01-01

    以草地早熟禾、多年生黑麦草和高羊茅组成的冷季型混播草坪为研究对象,测定了树冠遮荫41%和全光照下的草坪的土壤呼吸速率、叶绿素和地上生物量等指标。试验结果表明:(1)遮荫下混播草坪在白天的土壤呼吸速率低于光照充足下的草坪,尤其在14∶00时有着显著差异(P <0.05);(2)从土壤温度和土壤水分的日变化分析,遮荫降低了混播草坪的土壤温度,到14∶00以后与全光照处理趋于一致;土壤水分含量的变化呈先降低,后升高的趋势,从8∶00~12∶00,遮荫下的土壤水分含量均高于全光照混播草坪;(3)全光照下草坪的土壤呼吸速率与土壤水分含量存在显著的正相关,但遮荫下二者的相关性不显著;(4)遮荫显著地提高了草坪草的叶绿素 a、b 及整个叶绿素含量,降低了地上部生物量。%The paper studied the effects of tree canopy shade (41%)on soil respiration rate,chlorophyll con-tent and aboveground biomass in the mixed cool season turf with Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis ),perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne )and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea ).The results showed that:1)The soil respira-tion rate of the mixed turf under tree canopy shade was lower than the turf under full sun light.There was sig-nificant difference in the soil respiration rate between two treatmens at 14:00 (P <0.05 ).2)In term of daily change of soil temperature and soil moisture,the shade decreased soil temperature,however,the soil temperature was the same between two treatments after 14∶00.However,the soil moisture in the turf under shade was high-er than that in the turf under sunlight from 8∶00~12∶00.3)There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and the soil moisture in the turf under the sunlight.However,there was no correlation between the two indictors in the truf under shade.4)Shade significantly increased content of chlorophyll a and b

  17. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  18. 果园生草试验及适生草种评价%Orchard Grass Cultivation Experiment and Adaptable Forages Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳东; 吕德国; 于云政; 徐田伟; 杜国栋; 秦嗣军

    2012-01-01

    试验以自然生草和自然生草+人工生草(紫花苜蓿、白三叶、红三叶、早熟禾、高羊茅和黑麦草)的‘寒富’苹果园为研究对象,以清耕为对照,研究了自然生草对土壤理化性质、微生物数量和酶活性的影响,并对自然生草条件下的人工草种进行了初步评价。结果表明,与对照相比,自然生草处理土壤pH值、有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾、细菌、真菌、放线菌、脲酶和磷酸酶明显升高,全钾增幅较小,但含水量降低了。通过适宜草种评价的初步研究可知,以生草覆盖为目的、刈割次数少的可选择白三叶、高羊茅和黑麦草等品种;为增加土壤有机质、提高土壤肥力,需要刈割用于覆盖的则应选择紫花苜蓿、红三叶等产草量较高的草种。%The present experiment studied the impact of ‘Natural vegetation of grasses' on the soil properties,microbial quantity and enzyme activity,and made a preliminary evaluation on ‘Sowing vegetation of grasses' the under natural grass conditions simultaneously,used ‘Hanfu' apple orchard with ‘Natural vegetation of grasses' and ‘Natural vegetation of grasses plus Sowing vegetation of grasses [alfafa(Medicago sativa L.),white clover(Trifoliurn repens L.),red clover(Trifolium pratense L.),bluegrass(Poa pratensis L.),tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass(Lolium Perenne L.)]' as materials,and ‘Clean cultivation' as control.The results showed that,the soil pH,the content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,total phosphorus,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium,and the quantity of bacteria,fungi and actinomycetes,and the activity of urease and phosphatase of Natural vegetation of grasses were significantly increased,the content of total potassium increased little,but the soil moisture reduced,compared with ‘Clean cultivation'.Preliminary study of optimal grass species

  19. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Blood Supply from Parasitized Omental Artery: Angiographic Appearance And Chemoembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Gao; Ren-jie Yang; Jia-hong Dong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To analyze angiographic appearance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with blood supply from parasitized omental artery (POA),and evaluate the technical feasibility,safety and therapeutic efficacy of chemoembolization via the POAs.Methods:A total of 1,221 HCC patients who had undergone chemoembolization procedures were evaluated retrospectively.The evaluated indexes included the incidence rate of POAs,success rate of superselective catheterization,post-reaction after chemoembolization,and the cumulative survival rates.Results:Totally 1,221 HCC patients had undergone 3,639 chemoembolization procedures,and 32 patients with POAs were enrolled,with 97 POAs found in 76 angiography procedures,giving an incidence rate of 2.09%.POA was observed mostly at the right lobe and left medial lobe except the segment Ⅱ,and 62 POAs underwent superselective catheterization with microcatheter,giving a success rate of 63.9%.The angiographic appearance was:(1) hypertrophic POAs participating in tumor staining (n=28); (2) stiff and distorted POA (n=11),displaced due to tumor's oppression (n=8); and (3) defective tumor staining close to either gastrocolic omentum distribution or liver capsule (n=7).In 19 patients,chemoembolization via POAs was performed successfully (A group),while the remaining 13 patients failed (B group).Except 1 acute edema pancreatitis case,no serious complication was recorded.The cumulative survival rates of 6-,12-,18-and 24-month were 78.9%,47.4%,31.6% and 21.1% respectively for A group; correspondingly,61.5%,30.g%,15.4% and 7.7%% for B group,in which 2 patients died of ruptured HCC.Conclusion:Chemoembolization with microcatheter via POAs is a relatively safe,feasible and valuable method.

  20. POSIÇÃO CORPORAL E OXIGENAÇÃO PARTE 2 — PACIENTES COM DISFUNÇÃO PULMONAR BILATERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos Pimenta

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito das posições sentada, supina e laterais sobre os gases do sangue arterial, em portadores de disfunção pulmonar bilateral, no período pós-operatório recente de cirurgia cardíaca. A análise dos gases foi feita após o paciente permanecer 15 minutos em cada posição. Não se constatou diferenças estatisticamente significativas 15 níveis da Pa02 e PaC02, nas quatro posições. No entanto, pelo tratamento descritivo dos dados, detectou-se indicios de melhores níveis na Pa02 na posição supina, e de piores níveis na posição sentada.

  1. 77 FR 76487 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... by applying consumer price index data. DATES: Effective date: This notice is effective December 28... use of privately owned automobiles (POA), POAs when Government owned automobiles (GOA) are authorized... the internet at www.gsa.gov/ftr . This process, implemented in FTR ] Amendment 2010-07 (75 FR...

  2. 78 FR 76626 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... by applying consumer price index data. DATES: Effective date: This notice is effective December 18... use of privately owned automobiles (POA), POAs when Government owned automobiles (GOA) are authorized... the internet at www.gsa.gov/ftr . This process, implemented in FTR Amendment 2010-07 (75 FR 72965,...

  3. 75 FR 82029 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... conducting motorcycle and aircraft studies, and/or by applying consumer price index data. DATES: This notice... rates for the use of privately owned automobiles (POA), POAs when Government owned automobiles (GOA) are authorized, and motorcycles for official purposes. No change resulted for the use of privately...

  4. Understanding the etiology of prescription opioid abuse: implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K; Murphy, John W

    2013-07-01

    Although studies on the initiation of substance abuse abound, the body of literature on prescription opioid abuse (POA) etiology is small. Little is known about why and how the onset of POA occurs, especially among high-risk populations. In this study we aimed to fill this important knowledge gap by exploring the POA initiation experiences of 90 prescription opioid abusers currently in treatment and their narrative accounts of the circumstances surrounding their POA onset. This research was conducted within a storyline framework, which operates on the premise that the path to drug abuse represents a biography or a process rather than a static condition. Audiotapes of in-depth interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Analyses revealed the presence of four trajectories leading to POA. This study adds to the limited research on POA etiology by not only illuminating the psychosocial factors that contribute to POA onset, but also by situating initiation experiences within broader life processes. The study findings provide crucial insights to policymakers and interventionists in identifying who is at risk for POA, and more important, when and how to intervene most efficaciously.

  5. Influences of load pattern selection and higher modes on pushover analysis for R.C. structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shuang; OU Jin-ping

    2008-01-01

    Load pattern selection is one of the critical issues in pushover analysis (POA) when the influence of higher modes is evident. In terms of interstory drift, comparisons between the nonlinear time history analysis (NL-THA) and the pushover analysis (POA) were conducted for three typical RC frame buildings under a va-riety of ground motion levels. Eight typical earthquake inputs, including four earthquake records and four artifi-cial earthquake waves, were employed as the input of NL-THA; five typical lateral load patterns were consid-ered in POA. By means of modal participation factor, the higher mode effect in POA was quantified considering floor numbers and the ground motion intensity. Suggestions about load pattern selection in POA were provided when higher mode influence was found evident.

  6. Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

  7. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered... engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate should not be listed as a Federal noxious weed and... noxious weeds. Our decision is based on our analysis of available scientific data, our weed risk...

  8. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions a

  9. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  10. 78 FR 13049 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Project, LLC, Wildorado Wind, LLC, Sleeping Bear, LLC, CL Power Sales Eight, L.L.C., CP Power Sales... Applicants: Bluegrass Generation Company, L.L.C., Blythe Energy, LLC, Calhoun Power Company, LLC, Cherokee... following electric rate filings: Docket Numbers: ER10-3069-003; ER10-3070-003. Applicants: Alcoa...

  11. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral preoptic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, T

    2012-12-13

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature, which response is mediated, at least in part, by noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rostromedial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. In the accompanying paper, it was shown that glutamatergic activation of the lateral POA also evokes hypothermic responses. Here, I tested the hypothesis that the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA is critically involved in the neural mechanism of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O(2)-90% N(2), 5 min) as well as a single microinjection of NA (50 pmol) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (8.4 nmol) into the rostromedial POA evoked an increase in the tail skin temperature and a decrease in the colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. All of these responses were greatly attenuated by pretreatment with multiple microinjections of kynurenic acid (10 nmol, four locations), a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by those with saline solution, in the bilateral rostral and central parts of the lateral POA. These results suggest that the NA- and NO-sensitive structure in the rostromedial POA activated the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA to mediate hypoxia-induced hypothermia.

  12. Preoperative Anxiety in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis and Risk for Myasthenic Crisis After Extended Transsternal Thymectomy: A CONSORT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianyong; Su, Chunhua; Lun, Xueping; Liu, Weibing; Yang, Weiling; Zhong, Beilong; Zhu, Haoshuai; Lei, Yiyan; Luo, Honghe; Chen, Zhenguang

    2016-03-01

    A thymectomy can ameliorate the symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG) and prevent the progression of ocular MG (OMG) to generalized MG (GMG). However, postoperative myasthenic crisis (POMC) is a serious post-thymectomy complication. Preoperative anxiety (POA) is common but typically neglected in MG patients. The association of POA with POMC has not yet been examined.From June 2007 to December 2013, 541 cases of MG were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China). All cases underwent extended transsternal thymectomy (ETT). The clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients, including POA and POMC, were analyzed.A total of 179 patients experienced POA and 67 patients experienced POMC. Patients with POA were more likely to have POMC, a thymoma, and an ectopic thymus. Univariate analysis showed that POMC correlated with POA, presence of an ectopic thymus, dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR), presence of a thymoma, MGFA stage, preoperative myasthenic crisis, and postoperative pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors for POMC were POA, preoperative myasthenic crisis, higher dose of PYR, and postoperative pneumonia.Our results suggest that clinicians should consider the risk factors for POMC-especially preoperative anxiety-before performing a thymectomy in patients with MG.

  13. Synthesis,Charactarization and Crystal Structures of Lanthanide Phenoxyacetate Complexes with1,10—Phenanthroline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓洪; 蔡跃鹏; 巢晖; 陈春龙; 蒋才武; 陈超球; 计亮年

    2003-01-01

    Three new lanthanide phenoxyacetate complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline,[Nd(POA)3(phen)]2·2C2H5OH(1),[Eu(POA)3-(phen)]2·2C2H5OH(2) and [Sm(POA)2(DMSO)(phen)]2-(ClO4)2 (3)(POA=phenoxyacetate,phen=1,10-phenanthroline,DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide),were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses,IR,UV-vis and FAB-MS spectra.Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.In complexes 1 and 2,the carboxlyate groups are bonded to Ln3+ ion in three modes:the chelating bidentate,the bridging bidentate and the bridging tridentate.In complex3,the carboxylate groups are bonded to Sm3+ ion only involved in one mode:the bridging bidentate.The luminescence behavior of complex 2 was also studied by means of emission spectra.

  14. GWAS for susceptibility genes of primary open-angle glaucoma%原发性开角型青光眼易感基因研究中 GWAS 的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐冰花; 曹文俊

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma(PoaG)is a kind of complex diseases caused by interaction between multiple genes and environmental factors,and genetic factors play important roles in PoaG development. Genome-wide association study(GWas)is widely applied into genetic research for PoaG,and it has obtained a series of research results. this method can analyze candidate susceptibility genes in PoaG patients,and quantitatively analyze related genes of endophenotypes. Vertical cup-disc ratio(VCDr),intraocular pressure(IoP),central corneal thickness(CCt)and optic disc area(oDa)can also be analyzed. these abnormal phenotype-related genes are crucial in the development of PoaG. this article reviews the findings of GWas for PoaG.%原发性开角型青光眼(PoaG)是由多个基因及环境因素相互作用所致的复杂疾病,遗传因素在其发生发展中起重要作用。全基因组关联研究(GWas)方法被广泛应用到该病的遗传学研究中,并取得了一系列研究成果。该方法除可分析 PoaG 患者的候选易感基因外,还可定量分析 PoaG 内在表型有关基因,包括垂直杯盘比(VCDr)、眼内压(IoP)、中央角膜厚度(CCt)和视神经盘区(oDa),这些异常表型的相关基因在PoaG 的发展中是至关重要的。文章归纳了 GWas 在 PoaG 易感基因研究中的应用。

  15. Evolutionary modes of emergence of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Anja; Schmidt, Thomas; Wenke, Torsten

    2017-08-30

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for de novo (or improvement of) annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations. We comparatively analyzed the structural features, distribution, evolutionary relation and abundance of 32 SINE families and subfamilies within grasses, comprising 11 052 individual copies. The investigation of activity profiles within the Poaceae provides insights into their species-specific diversification and amplification. We found that Poaceae SINEs (PoaS) fall into two length categories: simple SINEs of up to 180 bp and dimeric SINEs larger than 240 bp. Detailed analysis at the nucleotide level revealed that multimerization of related and unrelated SINE copies is an important evolutionary mechanism of SINE formation. We conclude that PoaS families diversify by massive reshuffling between SINE families, likely caused by insertion of truncated copies, and provide a model for this evolutionary scenario. Twenty-eight of 32 PoaS families and subfamilies show significant conservation, in particular either in the 5' or 3' regions, across Poaceae species and share large sequence stretches with one or more other PoaS families. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Spray Dried Aerosol Particles of Pyrazinoic Acid Salts for Tuberculosis Therapy. [Corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, P G; Zhang, Y; German, N; Mortensen, N; Dhillon, J; Mitchison, D A; Fourie, P B; Hickey, A J

    2015-08-03

    Tuberculosis is the most serious infectious disease caused by a single organism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The standard of care is a protracted and complex drug treatment regimen made more complicated and of longer duration by the incidence of multiple and extensively drug resistant disease. Pulmonary delivery of aerosols as a supplement to the existing regimen offers the advantage of delivering high local drug doses to the initial site of infection and most prominent organ system involved in disease. Pyrazinamide is used in combination with other drugs to treat tuberculosis. It is postulated that the action of pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active moiety of pyrazinamide, may be enhanced by local pH adjustment, when presented as a salt form. POA was prepared as leucine (POA-leu) and ammonium salts (POA-NH4), spray dried, and characterized in terms of physicochemical properties (melting point, crystallinity, moisture content), aerodynamic performance (aerodynamic particle size distribution, emitted dose), and in vitro inhibitory effect on two mycobacteria (Mtb and Mycobacterium bovis). Particles were prepared in sizes suitable for inhalation (3.3 and 5.4 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter and 61 and 40% of the aerodynamic particle size distribution less than 4.46 μm, as measured by inertial impaction, for POA-leu and POA-NH4, respectively) and with properties (stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of salt to drug, melting points at ∼180 °C, with water content of <1%) that would support further development as an inhaled dosage form. In addition, POA salts demonstrated greater potency in inhibiting mycobacterial growth compared with POA alone, which is promising for therapy.

  17. Terrestrial Biological Inventory, Hillview Drainage and Levee District, Greene and Scott Counties, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Illinois: Grasses - Bromus to Paspalum . Southern Ill. Univ. Press, Carbondale, Ill. 332 pp. Mohleubrock, R.K. 1973. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois: Grasses ... Grass ) Paspalum ciliatifolium Hichx. (Hairy Lens Grass ) Phalaris arundinacea L. (Reed Canary Grass ) Poa annua L. (Mnus1 Blue Grass ) Poa Pratensis L...broad bottom- lands of this section. On the mesic prairie Andropogon gerardii Vitman. (Big Bluestem), Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. (Indian Grass

  18. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Collation and Interpretation of Data for Times Beach Confined Disposal Facility, Buffalo, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    tenuifolia hispida 4 Glyceria striata 0 Taraxacum officinale -1 Hordeum juba turn 5 Thalictrum dasycarpum 3 Impatiens capensis 2 Tovara virginiana 5 Iris...fragilis - Taraxacum officinale A3 Populus deltoides 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 9 Lvs Sts Rts Rhs FRS 95 Sohidago altissima - Poa compressa - Poa pratensis - Rhus...I Solidago altissima I Convolvulus sepium 3 Solidago gigantea 6 Cornus stolonifera 4 Sphenopholis intermedia I Cynanchum nigrum 0 Taraxacum off

  19. Effects of NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors in the medial preoptic area on body temperature in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Trina; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate when microinjected at the medial preoptic area (mPOA) influences brain temperature (Tbr) and body temperature (Tb) in rats. Glutamate and its various receptors are present at the mPOA. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of each of the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors at the mPOA on changes in Tbr and Tb in freely moving rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n=40) were implanted with bilateral guide cannula with indwelling styli above the mPOA. A telemetric transmitter was implanted at the peritoneum to record Tb and locomotor activity (LMA). A precalibrated thermocouple wire implanted near the hypothalamus was used to assess Tbr. Specific agonist for each ionotropic glutamate receptor was microinjected into the mPOA and its effects on temperature and LMA were measured in the rats. The rats were also microinjected with the respective ionotropic receptor antagonists, 15min prior to the microinjection of each agonist. Amongst amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid, AMPA increased Tb and LMA when injected at the mPOA. Specific antagonists for AMPA receptors was able to attenuate this increase (ptemperature.

  20. Oxalicumone A, a new dihydrothiophene-condensed sulfur chromone induces apoptosis in leukemia cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Qiao-Li; Nong, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Fei

    2016-07-15

    Oxalicumone A (POA1), a novel dihydrothiophene-condensed sulfur chromone isolated from the marine fungus Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023, showed cytotoxicity against several cancer cells previously. In this study, its anti-cancer activity and underlying mechanism of this action were investigated in leukemia cells like KG-1a, HL60, U937, and K562. The results showed that POA1 inhibited dose-/time-dependently cell growth and induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. Also, POA1 caused cleavages of caspase-3, 8, 9 and PARP1, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, up-regulations of phosphorylated p38 and JNK, and activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Furthermore, 4-PBA (an ER stress inhibitor) but not SP600125 and SB203580 (JNK and p38 inhibitor, respectively) could largely inhibit POA1-induced growth suppression. Additionally, 4-PBA obstructed mitochondrial depolarization and cleavage of PARP1. These data suggested that ER stress pathway might be an important mediator in POA1-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, POA1 may have antitumor effects in leukemia cells through the induction of ER stress pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of cisplatin-resistance by RNA interference targeting metallothionein using reducible oligo-peptoplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Chae, Ji-Won; Kim, Jang Kyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Jee Young; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2015-10-10

    Effective intracellular level of a platinum anti-cancer drug, cisplatin, following repeated injections can be decreased either by the active efflux via ATP pump or by interactions with glutathione and metallothionein. Cisplatin in cytoplasm preferably binds to cysteine-rich proteins such as glutathione and metallothionein (MT). Detoxification of cisplatin by intracellular thiol-containing proteins has been considered to be major hurdles to overcome. The short hairpin RNA targeting MT (shMT) was tested to down-regulate MT and recover cisplatin resistance. A reducible polymer, poly(oligo-d-arginine) (rPOA), formed stable complex with shMT and demonstrated superior transfection efficiency. Efficient transfection of shMT/rPOA oligo-peptoplexes was found to significantly inhibit MT over-expression, resulting in 45% decrease of cell viability compared to the cisplatin alone group. This decrease was mediated by the synergistic effect of shMT/rPOA oligo-peptoplex and cisplatin. Co-administration of shMT/rPOA oligo-peptoplex and cisplatin in in vivo tumor model showed noticeable tumor-suppressing effect by inducing reversal of cisplatin resistance following effective intracellular delivery of shMT by rPOA. Combination therapy through co-administration of shMT/rPOA oligo-peptoplex and cisplatin was found to effectively reverse cisplatin resistance by RNA interference and consequently improve anti-cancer activity of cisplatin.

  2. Análisis crítica de los beneficios del parto normal en distintas posiciones

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo es vencedor del premio Abramge de 2007. Como no hay unanimidad de criterios médicos sobre como deben ser atendidos los partos en seres humanos, el autor estudia el proceso de nacimiento comparando la posición supina con la vertical o de cuclillas, utilizando un modelo teórico con seis variables independientes - Acción de la gravedad; Compresión de los grandes vasos maternos; Diámetros del canal del parto; Ángulo de encaje de la presentación; Ventilación pulmonar y equilibrio áci...

  3. Advance directives and power of attorney for health care in the oldest-old - results of the AgeQualiDe study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Rodriguez, Francisca S; Wiese, Birgitt; van der Leeden, Carolin; Heser, Kathrin; Bickel, Horst; In der Schmitten, Jürgen; Koenig, Hans-Helmut; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mamone, Silke; Mallon, Tina; Wagner, Michael; Weeg, Dagmar; Fuchs, Angela; Brettschneider, Christian; Werle, Jochen; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-04-13

    Completion of advance directives (ADs) and power of attorney (POA) documents may protect a person's autonomy in future health care situations when the individual lacks decisional capacity. As such situations become naturally much more common in old age, we specifically aimed at providing information on (i) the frequency of ADs/POA in oldest-old individuals and (ii) factors associated with having completed ADs/POA. We analyzed data of oldest-old primary care patients (85+ years; including community-dwelling and institutionalized individuals) within the German AgeQualiDe study. Patients were initially recruited via their general practitioners (GPs). We calculated frequencies of ADs and POA for health care with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and used multivariable logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between having ADs and POA and participants' socio-demographic, cognitive, functional, and health-related characteristics. Among 868 GP patients participating in AgeQualiDe (response = 90.9%), n = 161 had dementia and n = 3 were too exhausted/ill to answer the questions. Out of the remaining 704 (81.1%) dementia-free patients (mean age = 88.7 years; SD = 3.0), 69.0% (95%-CI = 65.6-72.4) stated to having ADs and 64.6% (95%-CI = 61.1-68.2) to having a POA for health care. Individual characteristics did not explain much of the variability of the presence/absence of ADs and POA (regression models: Nagelkerke's R(2) = 0.034/0.051). The most frequently stated reasons for not having ADs were that the older adults trust their relatives or physicians to make the right decisions for them when necessary (stated by 59.4% and 44.8% of those without ADs). Among the older adults with ADs, the majority had received assistance in its preparation (79.0%), most frequently from their children/grandchildren (38.3%). Children/grandchildren were also the most frequently stated group of designated persons (76.7%) for those with a POA for health care. Our

  4. High performance graphene-poly (o-anisidine) nanocomposite for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnayaka, Punya A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Ram, Manoj K., E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Nanotechnology Research and Education Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Stefanakos, Lee [Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Our previous exciting results on graphene (G)-conducting polymer (polyaniline (PANI) and polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT)) supercapacitors have prompted the investigation of G-substituted conducting polymer nanocomposites used as electrode materials in supercapacitors. The solubility of ortho-substituted PANI derivatives in a few common solvents has allowed the fabrication of stretchable films by the casting technique. The G-poly (o-anisidine) (G-POA) nanocomposites were synthesized with different weight ratios of G to o-anisidine by chemical methods, and characterized by various techniques, such as, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and cyclic voltammetry. The electrical conductivity and specific capacitance obtained for the G-POA nanocomposites were found to be dependent on the weight ratios of G to o-anisidine. The specific capacitance and the charging–discharging behavior of the POA and G-POA supercapacitors were investigated in a 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 0.2 M LiClO{sub 4} and 1 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF{sub 6}) ionic liquid. The specific capacitance of 380 F g{sup −1} was calculated for the 1:1 weight ratio of G to o-anisidine based G-POA supercapacitor in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The presence of the electron-donating group (–OCH{sub 3}) in the o-anisidine allows the electrons through the lone pair of nitrogen atoms to enhance the electronic charge transport inside the G-POA supercapacitor electrodes. However, the G-POA-based supercapacitors showed a 27% decrease in the specific capacitance in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 16% decrease in the ionic liquid (BMIM-PF{sub 6}) after 1000 cycles of charging and discharging. The higher stability and rate capability of the G-POA based supercapacitor in an ionic liquid (BMIM-PF{sub 6}) as compared to an aqueous electrolytic supercapacitor opens the door for the fabrication of stable

  5. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of screening immigrants schemes for tuberculosis (TB) on arrival from high TB endemic countries to low TB prevalent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanneh, A F N S; Al-Shareef, A M

    2014-09-01

    Immigrants to developed countries are a major source of TB. Therefore amongst strategies adopted for TB control in developed countries include; 1) Screening immigrants at ports of entry referred to as "Port of Arrival Screening" (PoA) and 2) Passive screening (PS) for TB which means screening immigrants through general practices, hospitals, chest-clinics and emergency departments. Evidence of the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these strategies is not consistent. Evaluate efficiency of active PoA TB screening for immigrants from TB endemic-regions compared with Passive Screening of immigrant-populations from TB endemic-regions. Major electronic-databases and reference lists of relevant studies were searched. Experts of immigrants' TB screening were contacted for additional studies published or unpublished. Systematic search of major databases identified only retrospective cohort-studies. Their qualities were assessed using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodological checklist for comparative cohort-studies. Systematic electronic searches identified 1443 citations. Of these 74 studies were retrieved for evaluation against the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria (see study inclusion/exclusion criteria). Four studies met the inclusion criteria (figure 2) which were low in the evidence hierarchy of primary effectiveness studies and had heterogeneities between them. Thus descriptive data-synthesis was performed. Proportionately PoA screening had the lowest percentage of receipt of tuberculin skin test (TST) and the highest percentage of non-attendance for TST reading (table 2). Active PoA screening reduced infectiousness by 34% compared to 30% by passive screening and new entrants screened at PoA were 80% less likely to be hospitalised Odds ratio (OR) = 0.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 - 0.2). [Table: see text]. One cost effectiveness analysis was found that compared the costs of; active PoA screening, general practice screening and

  6. An innovative approach to cessation of thumb-sucking in a child with epilepsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Nidhi; Chhabra, Anuj; Bansal, Samriti

    2012-01-01

    The thumb-sucking habit is acquired in infancy, but if it persists beyond preschool age, it can have deleterious effects on facial growth, oral function, occlusal relationship, and aesthetics, leading to dental and skeletal deformities. This paper presents a clinical case history of using nonpunitive reminder therapy to intercept the thumb-sucking habits of an 8-year-old child with epilepsy. A modified Bluegrass appliance was used along with the positive reinforcement. The modified Bluegrass appliance utilized an acrylic roller and was very comfortable for the patient; it was also successful in eliminating the habit within a short period of time. © 2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle component-based factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Stroud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 in Southern Ontario, Canada, were used to evaluate predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA and two other carbonaceous species, black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO, made for this summertime period by Environment Canada's AURAMS regional chemical transport model. Particle component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factors. A novel diagnostic model evaluation was performed by investigating model POA bias as a function of HOA mass concentration and indicator ratios (e.g. BC/HOA. Eight case studies were selected based on factor analysis and back trajectories to help classify model bias for certain POA source types. By considering model POA bias in relation to co-located BC and CO biases, a plausible story is developed that explains the model biases for all three species.

    At the rural sites, daytime mean PM1 POA mass concentrations were under-predicted compared to observed HOA concentrations. POA under-predictions were accentuated when the transport arriving at the rural sites was from the Detroit/Windsor urban complex and for short-term periods of biomass burning influence. Interestingly, the daytime CO concentrations were only slightly under-predicted at both rural sites, whereas CO was over-predicted at the urban Windsor site with a normalized mean bias of 134%, while good agreement was observed at Windsor for the comparison of daytime PM1 POA and HOA mean values, 1.1 μg m−3 and 1.2 μg m−3, respectively. Biases in model POA predictions also trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. Periods of POA over-prediction were most evident at the urban site on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer

  8. A Cost Benefit Analysis of the Navy Flight Demonstration Team and the U.S. Navy Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2012 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Cost...It is composed of 172 members who make up the Concert Band and six ensembles which play a variety of music from Jazz to Country to Bluegrass. The...the Navy Recruiting budget. For FY11, fuel costs were $9,319,000 (Department of the Navy, 2011). Maintenance teams for the aircraft are covered

  9. Effects of CS Agents on Vegetation. II. Field and Screening Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    Luepinus por’plhyuihs Lindl., lupine 0-10 30-50 Lycopersicum esculenttim Mill., tomato 20-30 50-70 Nicotiana sp.. flowering tobacco 30-50 30-50 Or’za sativa...bluegrass 0-10 20-30 Portulaca grandilhra [look.. portulaca 0-10 20-30 Raphanus sati’a L,. radish 90-100 90- 100 Solanum melrogena L.. eggplant 10-20 30-50

  10. Environmental Assessment: Armory Addition to CATM with Parking at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and alfalfa. Herbaceous plants include little bluestem, goldenrod, green... wildflower species. Two hundred and fifty five taxa were identified in the ND Natural Heritage Inventory and the BS Bioserve biological inventory update...for Grand Forks Air Force Base. Two rare orchid species are known to exist on Grand Forks AFB, the Large and Small Yellow Lady’s Slipper, identified

  11. Environmental Assessment Tent City at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-15

    legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Included in the grasses and legumes vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet...bluestem, Indian grass, switchgrass, blue gramma, buffalo grass, and many native wildflower species. Two hundred and fifty five taxa were...identified in the ND Natural Heritage Inventory and the BS Bioserve biological inventory update for Grand Forks Air Force Base. Two rare orchid species are

  12. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Finding of No Practicable Alternative (FONPA): Construct of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover and alfalfa. Herbaceous plants include little bluestem, goldenrod...bluestem, little bluestem, Indian grass, switchgrass, blue gramma, buffalo grass and many native wildflower species. The Grand Forks AFB Natural...date, 216 species of birds have been identified as present on base property. Several rare and state-listed species have been observed on base near

  13. Environmental Assessment: Construct a CDC Main Entry Addition at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Forks County. Pastures, meadows, and other non- cultivated areas create a prairie-land mosaic of grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants...Included in the grasses and legumes vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and alfalfa . Herbaceous...LAND USE Land use in Grand Forks County consists primarily of cultivated crops with remaining land used for pasture and hay, urban development

  14. Environmental Assessment: Landscape Multiple Areas at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    and other non- cultivated areas create a prairie-land mosaic of grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Included in the grasses and legumes...vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and alfalfa . Herbaceous plants include little bluestem...Grand Forks County consists primarily of cultivated crops with remaining land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife

  15. Environmental Assessment: Construct Airfield Lighting Vault and Demolish Building 531 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Forks County. Pastures, meadows, and other non- cultivated areas create a prairie-land mosaic of grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Included...in the grasses and legumes vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and alfalfa . Herbaceous plants...These are buildings 313, 606, 703, 704, 705, 706, 707, and 714. 3.9 LAND USE Land use in Grand Forks County consists primarily of cultivated crops

  16. The physical and chemical characteristics of marine primary organic aerosol: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gantt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physical characteristics and chemical composition of marine organic aerosols is needed for the quantification of their effects on solar radiation transfer and cloud processes. This review examines research pertinent to the chemical composition, size distribution, mixing state, emission mechanism, photochemical oxidation and climatic impact of marine primary organic aerosol (POA associated with sea-spray. Numerous measurements have shown that both the ambient mass concentration of marine POA and size-resolved organic mass fraction of sea-spray aerosol are related to surface ocean biological activity. Recent studies have also indicated that fine mode (smaller than 200 nm in diameter marine POA can have a size distribution independent from sea-salt, while coarse mode aerosols (larger than 1000 nm in diameter are more likely to be internally mixed with sea-salt. Modelling studies have estimated global submicron marine POA emission rates of ~10 ± 5 Tg yr−1, with a considerable fraction of these emissions occurring over regions most susceptible to aerosol perturbations. Climate studies have found that marine POA can cause large local increases in the cloud condensation nuclei concentration and have a non-negligible influence on model assessments of the anthropogenic aerosol forcing of climate. Despite these signs of climate-relevance, the source strength, chemical composition, mixing state, hygroscopicity, cloud droplet activation potential, atmospheric aging and removal of marine POA remain poorly quantified. Additional laboratory, field, and modelling studies focused on the chemistry, size distribution and mixing state of marine POA are needed to better understand and quantify their importance.

  17. Simulation of Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Estimation of Global Warming Potential in Turfgrass Systems Using the DAYCENT Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Qian, Yaling; Bremer, Dale J; Kaye, Jason P

    2013-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (NO) emissions are an important component of the greenhouse gas budget for turfgrasses. To estimate NO emissions and global warming potential, the DAYCENT ecosystem model was parameterized and applied to turfgrass ecosystems. The annual cumulative NO emissions predicted by the DAYCENT model were close to the measured emission rates of Kentucky bluegrass ( L.) sites in Colorado (within 16% of the observed values). For the perennial ryegrass ( L.) site in Kansas, the DAYCENT model initially overestimated the NO emissions for all treatments (urea and ammonium sulfate at 250 kg N ha yr and urea at 50 kg N ha yr) by about 200%. After including the effect of biological nitrification inhibition in the root exudate of perennial ryegrass, the DAYCENT model correctly simulated the NO emissions for all treatments (within 8% of the observed values). After calibration and validation, the DAYCENT model was used to simulate NO emissions and carbon sequestration of a Kentucky bluegrass lawn under a series of management regimes. The model simulation suggested that gradually reducing fertilization as the lawn ages from 0 to 50 yr would significantly reduce long-term NO emissions by approximately 40% when compared with applying N at a constant rate of 150 kg N ha yr. Our simulation indicates that a Kentucky bluegrass lawn in Colorado could change from a sink to a weak source of greenhouse gas emissions 20 to 30 yr after establishment.

  18. Bioaccumulation of zinc, lead, copper, and cadmium from contaminated sediments by native plant species and Acrida cinerea in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Song, Na; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jia-Chao; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, An-Wei; Zhen, Jia-Mei

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to search and identify spontaneously growing heavy metal-tolerant plant species that are potentially useful for phytoremediation in contaminated sediment. Five sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted shore (river bank) sediment of the Xiang River, China. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in plants, sediments, and grasshoppers were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS700, Perkin-Elmer, USA). Considering translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor, Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae), Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae), and Lagopsis supina (Labiatae) could be potentially useful for phytostabilization of metals. R. crispus can be considered potentially useful for phytoextraction of Cd. In light of the biomagnification factors, grasshoppers are deconcentrators for Pb and Cd, microconcentrators for Zn and macroconcentrators for Cu to the plants, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd accumulation in R. crispus and L. supina, providing a pioneer contribution to the very small volume of data available on the potential use of native plant species from contaminated sediments in phytostabilization and phytoremediation technologies.

  19. Coraco- or Costoclavicular Paraosteoarthropathies in Patients with Severe Central Neurological Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacout, A.; Mompoint, D.; Perrier, Y.; Vallee, C.A.; Carlier, R.Y. (Service de Radiologie, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Paraosteoarthropathy (POA) is a frequent disabling orthopedic complication after severe central neurological impairment. The hip is the most frequently affected joint (32.1%) followed by the elbow and the shoulder (25%). Purpose: To evaluate coraco- and costoclavicular paraosteoarthropathy in patients with severe central neurological disorders. Material and Methods: We report a series of five consecutive patients with severe central neurological disorders who developed a POA of the clavicular region (coracoclavicular or costoclavicular POA). Every patient underwent a clinical, radiological, and computed tomographic (CT) examination of the shoulder region. Results: Four patients had a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and one an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). They developed POA of the clavicular region, although not around the glenohumeral joint. The patients complained of shoulder pain and of moderate limitation of movements. Radiological and CT examinations showed the presence of a bony formation in the coracoclavicular space in four cases and extending from the clavicle to the first rib around the costoclavicular joint in one case. Conclusion: In patients with severe brain lesions suffering from shoulder pain and moderate limitation of joint movements, POAs of the clavicular region are rare but should be considered

  20. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF MOMENT-RESISTING CONCRETE FRAMES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE EXCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FADZLI MOHAMED NAZRI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moment-resisting concrete frames (MRCFs were designed based on Eurocodes 2 and 8, which indicate the seismic provisions and requirements for building design and construction. This study aims to investigate the damage measure of MRCFs subjected to earthquake excitation by pushover analysis (POA and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA. In POA, inverted triangular lateral load and uniform lateral load patterns were used to produce a base shear–drift curve. In IDA, seven far-field and seven near-field ground motion records were selected to establish the base shear–drift relationship. Structural response and damage measures were examined by the performance-based seismic design limit states. Vision 2000 proposed four performance states, namely, fully operational, operational, life safety (LS, and near collapse. The results showed that the designed structures have low stiffness because all MRCFs failed to meet the LS limit state. The base shear–drift relationship produced a higher demand in IDA than in POA. In POA, the lateral uniform load pattern produced higher demand than the lateral inverted triangular load pattern. In IDA, the farfield effect produced higher demand than the near-field effect. POA approximated IDA accurately at the elastic stage, but the approximation failed after the yield point.

  1. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Study of Low-Lying Absorption and Fluorescence Band Shapes for Phenylene-Containing Oligoacenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ye

    2015-12-24

    Low-lying band shapes of absorption and fluorescence spectra for a member of a newly synthesized family of phenylene-containing oligoacenes (POA 6) reported in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012 , 134 , 15351 are studied theoretically with two different approaches with TIPS-anthracene as a comparison. Underlying photophysics and exciton-phonon interactions in both molecules are investigated in details with the aid of the time-dependent density functional theory and multimode Brownian oscillator model. The first two low-lying excited-states of POA 6 were found to exhibit excitation characteristics spanning entire conjugated backbone despite the presence of antiaromatic phenylene section. Absorption and fluorescence spectra calculated from both time-dependent density functional theory and multimode Brownian oscillator model are shown to reach good agreement with experimental ones. The coupling between phonon modes and optical transitions is generally weak as suggested by the multimode Brownian oscillator model. Broader peaks of POA 6 spectra are found to relate to stronger coupling between low frequency phonon modes such as backbone twisting (with frequency <300 cm(-1)) and optical transitions. Furthermore, POA 6 exhibits weaker exciton-phonon coupling for the phonon modes above 1000 cm(-1) compared to TIPS-anthracene owing to extended conjugated backbone. A significant coupling between an in-plane breathing mode localized around the antiaromatic phenylene segment with frequency at 1687 cm(-1) and optical transitions for the first two excited-states of POA 6 is also observed.

  2. Use of disposed waste ash from landfills to replace Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2009-09-01

    In this study, waste ash was utilized as a pozzolanic material in blended Portland cement in order to reduce negative environmental effects and landfill volume required to dispose of waste ash. The influence of waste ash, namely palm oil fuel ash, rice husk ash and fly ash on compressive strength and sulfate resistance in mortar were studied and evaluated by some accelerated short-term techniques in sodium sulfate solutions. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was partially replaced with ground palm oil fuel ash (POA), ground rice husk ash (RHA) and classified fly ash (FA). Single pozzolan and a blend of equal weight portions of POA, RHA and FA were also used. The resistance to sulfate attack of mortar improves substantially with partial replacement of OPC with POA, RHA and FA. The use of a blend of equal weight portions of FA and POA or RHA produced mixes with good strength and resistance to sulfate attack. POA, RHA and FA have a high potential to be used as a pozzolanic material.

  3. Pd-Cu/poly(o-Anisidine) nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for formaldehyde oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Sayed Reza, E-mail: r.hosseini@umz.ac.ir [Nanochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Shahram; Gholami, Zahra [Nanochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • o-Anisidine monomer was electro-polymerized at the pCPE surface in acid medium. • Palladium/copper NPs were prepared by galvanic replacement method at the POA/pCPE. • Pd-Cu NPs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards formaldehyde oxidation. • The bimetallic Pd-Cu NPs/POA nanocomposite showed satisfactory long-term stability. - Abstract: In this work, for the first time, the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution at spherical bimetallic palladium-copper nanoparticles (Pd-Cu NPs) deposited on the poly (o-Anisidine) film modified electrochemically pretreated carbon paste electrode (POA/pCPE) has been investigated. Highly porous POA film prepared by electropolymerization onto the pCPE was used as a potent support for deposition of the Pd-Cu NPs. The Pd-Cu NPs were prepared through spontaneous and irreversible reaction via galvanic replacement between Pd{sup II} ions and the Cu{sup 0} particles. The prepared Pd-Cu NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The obtained results showed that the utilization of Cu nanoparticles and pretreatment technique enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode towards formaldehyde oxidation. The influence of several parameters on formaldehyde oxidation as well as stability of the Pd-Cu/POA/pCPE has been investigated.

  4. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  5. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  6. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle-component-based factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Stroud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 in southern Ontario (ON, Canada, were used to evaluate Environment Canada's regional chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA. Environment Canada's operational numerical weather prediction model and the 2006 Canadian and 2005 US national emissions inventories were used as input to the chemical transport model (named AURAMS. Particle-component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factors. Co-located carbon monoxide (CO, PM2.5 black carbon (BC, and PM1 SO4 measurements were also used for evaluation and interpretation, permitting a detailed diagnostic model evaluation.

    At the urban site, good agreement was observed for the comparison of daytime campaign PM1 POA and HOA mean values: 1.1 μg m−3 vs. 1.2 μg m−3, respectively. However, a POA overprediction was evident on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer. Biases in model POA predictions trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. This trend has several possible explanations, including (1 underweighting of urban locations in particulate matter (PM spatial surrogate fields, (2 overly-coarse model grid spacing for resolving urban-scale sources, and (3 lack of a model particle POA evaporation process during dilution of vehicular POA tail-pipe emissions to urban scales. Furthermore, a trend in POA bias was observed at the urban site as a function of the BC/HOA ratio, suggesting a possible association of POA underprediction for diesel combustion sources. For several time periods, POA overprediction was also observed for sulphate-rich plumes, suggesting that our model POA fractions for the PM2.5 chemical

  7. Plan de acción ambiental para el municipio de Corn Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romer Altamirano Guerrero

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available El desorden territorial, producto del inadecuado uso actual del suelo, el irracional de los recursos naturales y el deterioro de la calidad ambiental del Municipio de Corn Island, son los puntos de partida del presente estudio que consiste en la elaboración del Plan de ordenamiento Ambiental del Municipio (POA de Corn Island. Dicho POA se enmarca en la estrategia del Plan de Acción para el manejo de los recursos naturales del Municipio de Corn Island, realizado en 1999, y posteriormente impulsado por la Unidad de Zonas Costeras y Humedales de la Dirección de Biodiversidad y Recursos Naturales del Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales (MARENA y la Alcaldía de Corn Island. El Plan de Acción define como una de sus prioridades, estructurar el POA para el Municipio.

  8. [Immunomodulation of Uncaria tomentosa over dendritic cells, il-12 and profile TH1/TH2/TH17 in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, César; Lozada-Requena, Iván; Ysmodes, Tíndara; Zegarra, Daniel; Saldaña, Fatima; Aguilar, José

    2015-10-01

    Objetives. This study aimed to research the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of an Uncaria tomentosa hydroalcoholic extract standardized (5.03%, pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids) (UT-POA) on the immunophenotype of dendritic cells (DC) subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL-12 cytokines from patients with stage II breast cancer (BCII) and healthy women (H). Blood of 11 H and 7 BCII was obtained, PBMC were isolated and cultured for 2h with/without various concentrations of UT-POA and stimulated or not with LPS for 24h. PBMC were labeled with specific antibodies for DC and in the supernatant we measured Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, both by flow cytometry. Furthermore IL-12 was measured by ELISA. UT-POA did not alter DC or accessory molecules expression in BCII. However, H exhibited a decrease in the percentage of mDC (myeloid DC) and an increase in HLA-DR and CD86 expression at 1000 μg/mL. IL-12 secretion was modified only in the H group, increasing p70 subunit and decreasing p40 subunit. UT-POA increased Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Th17 (IL-17) secretion in both groups. UT-POA increased the production of cytokines related with anti-tumoral response at concentrations of 500-1000 μg/mL. This positive effect should be evaluated not only systemically but also in the tumor microenvironment in further studies. UT-POA may be a useful phytochemical in chemoprevention and in the alternative use in cancer therapies.

  9. Impact of date stamping on patient safety measurement in patients undergoing CABG: Experience with the AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukamel Dana B

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs provide information on hospital risk-adjusted rates for potentially preventable adverse events. Although designed to work with routine administrative data, it is unknown whether the PSIs can accurately distinguish between complications and pre-existing conditions. The objective of this study is to examine whether the AHRQ PSIs accurately measure hospital complication rates, using the data with present-on-admission (POA codes to distinguish between complications and pre-existing conditions Methods Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery in California conducted using the 1998–2000 California State Inpatient Database. We calculated the positive predictive value of selected AHRQ PSIs using information from the POA as the gold standard, and the intra-class correlation coefficient to assess the level of agreement between the hospital risk-adjusted PSI rates with and without the information contained in the POA modifier. Results The false positive error rate, defined as one minus the positive predictive value, was greater than or equal to 20% for four of the eight PSIs examined: decubitus ulcer, failure-to-rescue, postoperative physiologic and metabolic derangement, and postoperative pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis. Pairwise comparison of the hospital risk-adjusted PSI rates, with and without POA information, demonstrated almost perfect agreement for five of the eight PSI's. For decubitus ulcer, failure-to-rescue, and postoperative pulmonary embolism or DVT, the intraclass-correlation coefficient ranged between 0.63 to 0.79. Conclusion For some of the AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators, there are significant differences in the risk-adjusted rates of adverse events depending on whether the POA indicator is used to distinguish between pre-existing conditions and complications. The use of the POA indicator

  10. Model evaluation of marine primary organic aerosol emission schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gantt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several marine primary organic aerosol (POA emission schemes have been evaluated using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in order to provide guidance for their implementation in air quality and climate models. These emission schemes, based on varying dependencies of chlorophyll a concentration ([chl a] and 10 m wind speed (U10, have large differences in their magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality. Model comparison with weekly and monthly mean values of the organic aerosol mass concentration at two coastal sites shows that the source function exclusively related to [chl a] does a better job replicating surface observations. Sensitivity simulations in which the negative U10 and positive [chl a] dependence of the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol are enhanced show improved prediction of the seasonality of the marine POA concentrations. A top-down estimate of submicron marine POA emissions based on the parameterization that compares best to the observed weekly and monthly mean values of marine organic aerosol surface concentrations has a global average emission rate of 6.3 Tg yr−1. Evaluation of existing marine POA source functions against a case study during which marine POA contributed the major fraction of submicron aerosol mass shows that none of the existing parameterizations are able to reproduce the hourly-averaged observations. Our calculations suggest that in order to capture episodic events and short-term variability in submicron marine POA concentration over the ocean, new source functions need to be developed that are grounded in the physical processes unique to the organic fraction of sea spray aerosol.

  11. Model evaluation of marine primary organic aerosol emission schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Sciare, J.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, several marine primary organic aerosol (POA) emission schemes have been evaluated using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in order to provide guidance for their implementation in air quality and climate models. These emission schemes, based on varying dependencies of chlorophyll a concentration ([chl a]) and 10 m wind speed (U10), have large differences in their magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality. Model comparison with weekly and monthly mean values of the organic aerosol mass concentration at two coastal sites shows that the source function exclusively related to [chl a] does a better job replicating surface observations. Sensitivity simulations in which the negative U10 and positive [chl a] dependence of the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol are enhanced show improved prediction of the seasonality of the marine POA concentrations. A top-down estimate of submicron marine POA emissions based on the parameterization that compares best to the observed weekly and monthly mean values of marine organic aerosol surface concentrations has a global average emission rate of 6.3 Tg yr-1. Evaluation of existing marine POA source functions against a case study during which marine POA contributed the major fraction of submicron aerosol mass shows that none of the existing parameterizations are able to reproduce the hourly-averaged observations. Our calculations suggest that in order to capture episodic events and short-term variability in submicron marine POA concentration over the ocean, new source functions need to be developed that are grounded in the physical processes unique to the organic fraction of sea spray aerosol.

  12. Allergen identification in 5 grasses by means of crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, C.; Skibbe, K.; Jaeger, L. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1984-01-01

    Using crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis aqueous extracts from pollen of Phleum pratense, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Festuca pratensis and Alopecurus pratensis were investigated for allergen composition. Between 24 and 32 antigens were detected. Employing sera from 11 patients with well established hay fever, IgE binding could be demonstrated in 15 out of 28 antigens in Phleum pratense, 13 out of 32 in Lolium perenne, 14 out of 26 in Poa pratensis, 12 out of 24 Festuca pratensis and 12 out of 24 antigens in Alopecurus pratensis. The 11 patients showed an individual pattern of sensitization against the various pollen allergens.

  13. Synthesis and Properties of Poly (n-Octyl Acrylate) with Uniform Polystyrene Grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Poly (n-octyl acrylate) with uniform polystyrene grafts (POA-g-PS) was obtained by radical copolymerization of n-octyl acrylate (OA) with PS macromer, in solution. The reactivity ratio and effects of copolymerization conditions on grafting efficiency were studied. The crude products were purified by extraction with cyclohexane and n-butanol successively. POA-g-PS exhibited a very good compatibilizing effect on the acrylic rubber/polystyrene blends. 2%-3% of the graft copolymer was enough for enhancing the tensile strength of the blends. DSC and SEM demonstrated the enhancement of compatibility in the presence of the graft copolymer.

  14. Preparação e caracterização de fotocatalisadores heterogêneos de titânio e nióbio e avaliação do potencial de fotodegradação

    OpenAIRE

    Inara Fernanda Lage Gallo

    2016-01-01

    É urgente o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias para o tratamento de água nos dias atuais. Neste contexto, os processos oxidativos avançados (POA) tem sido bem-sucedido no tratamento de contaminantes presentes em efluentes industriais e na rede de esgoto doméstico. Neste trabalho, estudamos um dos POA, a fotocatáliseheterogênea por meio da síntese de fotocatalisadores mistos de nióbio e titânio utilizando-se o método Pechini, com uma temperatura de calcinação de 470 oC. Foram sintetizados os...

  15. Luminescence properties and crystal structure of europium complexes with phenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ai-Ling; Zhou, Dan; Wei, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Qu, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Chen, Ying-Nan; Li, Jing-Jing; Chu, Hai-Bin, E-mail: binghai99@gmail.com; Zhao, Yong-Liang, E-mail: hxzhaoyl@163.com

    2015-04-15

    Using anion ligand phenoxyacetic acid (HPOA) and neutral ligand 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ), two complexes Eu{sub 2}(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O and EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O have been synthesized and one crystal EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·2CH{sub 3}OH has been obtained. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, ICP-AES, IR and UV absorption spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra, luminescence lifetimes and emission quantum efficiencies of the complexes have been studied. The results show that the complex EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O exhibits stronger luminescence intensity, longer luminescent lifetime and higher emission quantum efficiency than Eu{sub 2}(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction of EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·2CH{sub 3}OH reveals that the crystal is heteronuclear and crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with following unit cell parameters a=12.2411(10) Å, b=13.2294(11) Å, c=13.5232(11) Å, α=74.8596(13)°, β=82.9593(16)°, γ=87.1641(14)°, and V=2097.7(3) Å{sup 3}. Each metal ion coordinates with three nitrogen atoms of one TPTZ and seven oxygen atoms of three POA{sup −} ions. And there exist two coordination forms between POA{sup −} and metal ions in the crystal. One is chelating bidentate, the other is the single-atom bridge. - Highlights: • One Eu/Y heteronuclear crystal and two complexes with HPOA and TPTZ were prepared. • Each metal ion in the crystal coordinates with three nitrogen and seven oxygen atoms. • The two complexes exhibit strong luminescence emissions. • The heteronuclear complex shows better luminescent properties than the homonuclear one. • The structure of the crystal and the sensitization mechanism are deeply discussed.

  16. Análise da modulação autonômica do coração em repouso e atividade eletromiográfica relacionada à variabilidade da frequência cardíaca durante o exercício dinâmico em cicloergômetro

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca (VFC) tem sido utilizada como um marcador fisiológico do controle autonômico do coração, enquanto a eletromiografia de superfície (EMGs) tem mostrado ser uma ferramenta útil de análise para avaliar a resposta muscular frente ao exercício físico. Assim os objetivos do presente estudo foram: avaliar o controle autonômico do coração a partir das respostas da freqüência cardíaca e de sua variabilidade nas condições de repouso, nas posições supina e sentada, ...

  17. Toxicity of tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Toru; Sato, Masashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Mohamed, Ahmed S A; Fujii, Kyoko; Tsukioka, Junko

    2002-08-01

    Toxicities of gallo- and condensed tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is dependent on the tannins' molecular sizes. In the present paper we investigate the toxicity of ellagitannins to C elegans and the toxicity of ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins to the brine shrimpArtemia salina. Ellagitannins 1 and 2 were isolated from Euphorbia supina and identified as tellimagrandin I and rugosin A methyl ester, respectively. An ellagitannin preparation from Cornus officinalis was chromatographically fractionated into ellagitannins A through H, having different molecular weights and specific rotations. Three of the ten ellagitannins, 2, G, and H produced significant toxicity towards C. elegans, showing the presence of an activity-structure relationship, as opposed to the results from tests of gallo- and condensed tannins. Ellagi-, gallo-, and condensed tannins also produced toxicity in A. salina.

  18. Ephemeral wetland communities of Isoëto-Nano-Juncetea class – new data from south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation data (70 relevés of ephemeral wetlands collected in both permanent and temporal water basins were analyzed. Numerical classification of the data revealed two distinct subsets, the first comprised communities of Eleocharition ovatae Philippi 1968 alliance, the second combined communities dominated by Alisma lanceolatum, Isolepis supina or Elatine alsinastrum (Alisma lanceolatum group. Phytocoenoses of Eleocharition ovatae were widely distributed in the study area and developed, most frequently, on exposed bottoms of fishponds. This group could be divided into four types of communities. Patches representing Alisma lanceolatum group were found only in mid-field depressions periodically filled with water and concentrated in Volhynian Upland. In this group, two lower vegetation units were distinguished.

  19. Camptocormia secundária à polimiosite

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Andrade Mattar; Joara Martins da Silva Gordo; Ari Stiel Radu Halpern; Samuel Katsuyuki Shinjo

    2013-01-01

    A camptocormia é uma doença postural caracterizada por flexão anormal da coluna toracolombar que surge na posição ereta, aumenta durante a caminhada e desaparece na posição supina. Na literatura, há descrição de apenas cinco casos de camptocormia secundária a miopatias inflamatórias idiopáticas. No presente relato de caso, descrevemos um paciente do sexo masculino, de 67 anos, com polimiosite há 18 anos, cursando com quadro compatível com camptocormia (estável e sem progressão do quadro clíni...

  20. Procedures, Requirements and Challenges Associated with Analysis of Environmental Samples for Chemical Warfare Material (CWM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    TN • Edwards AFB , CA • Ogden, UT • Ft. McClellan , AL • Camp Sibert, AL • Brooksville AAF, FL • Cleveland Plant, OH • Holloman AFB , NM • Lowry BGR...0.064) 19 (0.018) 100 (0.053) Approved for Public Release CONUS Projects • England AFB , LA • Redstone Arsenal, AL • Spring Valley DC • Memphis Depot...Deseret Chemical Depot, UT • Rocky Mt Arsenal, CO • Dover AFB , DE • Bluegrass, KY• Newport, IN • Dugway, UT Approved for Public Release OCONUS Projects

  1. Native grasses for reclaiming mine sites in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darroch, B.A.; Woosaree, J.; James, B.T. [Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, AB (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    A research project to select, test, and develop varieties of four native grass species for revegetating mine sites at high elevations in the Rocky Mountains and foothills is described. Multi-location trials show that lines of alpine bluegrass and slender wheatgrass perform much better than check varieties at mountain sites, and in some cases are better at lower elevations. Three varieties of these grasses have been developed for reclamation uses, and more will be released later. Several more years of research are needed to develop varieties of Rocky Mountain fescue and spike trisetum. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch for peripheral neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Peppin JF; Majors K; Webster LR; Simpson DM; Tobias JK; Vanhove GF

    2011-01-01

    John F Peppin1, Kristine Majors2, Lynn R Webster3, David M Simpson4, Jeffrey K Tobias5, Geertrui F Vanhove51The Pain Treatment Center of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY, USA; 2Integrated Clinical Trial Services, Inc, West Des Moines, IA, USA; 3Lifetree Clinical Research and Pain Clinic, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 5NeurogesX, Inc, San Mateo, CA, USABackground/purpose: NGX-4010 (QUTENZA™; NeurogesX Inc, San Mateo, CA), a capsaicin 8% dermal p...

  3. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, in conjunction with three topical anesthetic formulations for the treatment of neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Webster LR; Peppin JF; Murphy FT; Tobias JK; Vanhove GF

    2012-01-01

    Lynn R Webster1, John F Peppin2, Frederick T Murphy3,4, Jeffrey K Tobias5, Geertrui F Vanhove51Lifetree Clinical Research and Pain Clinic, Lifetree Medical Inc, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Clinical Research Division, The Pain Treatment Center of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Altoona Center for Clinical Research, Duncansville, PA, USA; 4University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5NeurogesX Inc, San Mateo, CA, USABackground: The objective of this study was to ass...

  4. [Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells and cytokine profiles in mice with melanoma treated with Uncaria tomentosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Requena, Iván; Núñez, César; Alvárez, Yubell; Kahn, Laura; Aguilar, José

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells (DC), Th1 / Th2 / Th17 and inflammatory cytokines on systemic level and/or in the tumor microenvironment of mice with or without melanoma. Peripheral blood and/or primary tumors samples were obtained of mice with B16 melanoma treated or not with a hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) with 5.03% of pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (UT-POA) obtained from the bark of the plant. All cell assays and cytokine measurements were performed by flow cytometry. UT-POA systemically increased CD4/CD8a relation while cell activation was inversely proportional; increased the proportion of DCm; induced a pro-inflammatory Th1 profile and reduced Th17 response. TNF-α and IL-17A positively and negatively correlated with CD4/CD8a relation. The increase of Th1 (TNF-α) may result in the increase of CD4 or M1 macrophage activation. Although UT-POA shows increased DCm, is not dose-dependent. Th17(IL-17A) decreased can support the function of CD8a lymphocytes. UT-POA shows better systemic immunomodulatory effects than intratumoral.

  5. Primer on CDM programme of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Lescano, A.D. (A2G Carbon Partners (Peru)); Alvarez, J.M. (Ministerio del Ambiente del Peru (Peru)); Avendano, F.M. (EEA Fund Management Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    As an advanced modality introduced in 2005, the Programmatic CDM (POA) is expected to address asymmetries of participation, especially of very small-scale project activities in certain areas, key sectors and many countries with considerable potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions, not reached by the traditional single-project-based CDM. Latest experiences with POAs and the recently finalized official guidance governing the Programmatic CDM are the grassroots of this Primer, which has the purpose of supporting the fully understanding of rules and procedures of POAs by interpreting them and analyzing real POA cases. Professional and experts from the public and private entities have contributed to the development of this Primer, produced by the UNEP Risoe Centre, as part of knowledge support activities for the Capacity Development for the CDM (CD4CDM) project. The overall objective of the CD4CDM is to develop the capacities of host countries to identify, design, approve, finance, implement CDM projects and commercialize CERs in participating countries. The CDM4CDM is funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (author)

  6. Characterization of a phenylacetate-CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Martijn J.; Jekel, Peter A.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic activation of PAA (phenylacetic acid) to phenylacetyl-CoA is an important step in the biosynthesis of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin G by the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. CoA esters of PAA and POA (phenoxyacetic acid) act as acyl donors in the exchange of the aminoadipyl side cha

  7. HERBIVORE POPULATION CRASHES AND WOODLAND STRUCTURE IN EAST-AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT; VANDERJEUGD, HP

    1993-01-01

    1. Between 1985 and 1991, bush encroachment was serious in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Shrub cover increased by c. 20%. The increase was independent of initial (1985) shrub cover. 2. Since 1987 there has been a steep decline in the number of African elephant in the Park due to poa

  8. Use and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioid Analgesics in the General Population of Canada and Correlations with Dispensing Levels in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, harm from nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic (POA use (NMPOU has increased in recent years; however, there are limitations to the current estimates of NMPOU. The 2009 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey presents an opportunity to produce more accurate estimates of NMPOU.

  9. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2014-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  10. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2000-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  11. HERBIVORE POPULATION CRASHES AND WOODLAND STRUCTURE IN EAST-AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT; VANDERJEUGD, HP

    1993-01-01

    1. Between 1985 and 1991, bush encroachment was serious in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Shrub cover increased by c. 20%. The increase was independent of initial (1985) shrub cover. 2. Since 1987 there has been a steep decline in the number of African elephant in the Park due to poa

  12. Individual- and Population-based Diversity in Restriction-modification Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagie, L.; Hogeweg, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the grass genus Poa a wide variation in final leaf size and leaf growth rate exists. In this thesis leaf growth was analyzed at different levels. At the cellular level, inherent variation in leaf elongation rate and final leaf size was correlated to the length of the elongation zone and to merist

  13. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  14. Syntheses and fluorescent properties of complexes of Eu(Ⅲ) with HTTA,TPPO and benzoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Xuehui; XIAO Zhongliang; ZHAN Hanhui; ZHAO Xuehui; ZHOU Suian; LI Fei

    2009-01-01

    A series of Eu(Ⅲ) complexes of α-thenoyltrifluoroacetone(HTTA) with trioctylphosphine oxide(TPPO) and benzoic acid(BA) or its two derivatives, p-toluic acid(PTA) and p-methoxybenzoic acid(POA) were synthesized and were characterized with elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and fluorescent spectra. The complexes were revealed to be Eu(BA)(TTA)2TPPO2, Eu(PTA)(TTA)2TPPO2 and Eu(POA)(TTA)2TPPO2. The excitation and absorption spectra of the complex Eu(POA)(TTA)2TPPO2 in MeOH solution were investigated in detail. The experimental result showed that relatively cheap materials with sharp red luminescence could be pre-pared, when benzoic acid or its two derivatives were added in Eu(Ⅲ) complexes of α-thenoyltdfluoroacetone with trioctylphosphine oxide. The relative fluorescence intensity of the Eu(Ⅲ) complexes decreased in the following order: Eu(POA)(TTA)2TPPO2> Eu(PTA)(TTA)2TPPO2>Eu(BA)(TTA)2TPPO2.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Adverse Events in Older Surgical Patients: Impact of the Present on Admission Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsoo; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Kovner, Christine; Zhao, Zhonglin; Boockvar, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine the effects of the present on admission (POA) indicator on the prevalence of and factors associated with postsurgical adverse events in older patients. Design and Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of 82,898 surgical patients aged 65 years or older in 252 acute care hospitals in California in 2004. Four…

  16. On some Western European Aphids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille Ris Lambers, D.

    1939-01-01

    1. The genus Atheroides Haliday Of this genus 3 Western European species are known : A. serrulatus Hal. (syn. festucae Mordv.?), A. hirtellus Hal. (syn. A. junci Laing) and A. brevicornis Laing. a) A. serrulatus Hal. is quite common. It lives on Poa annua often, but prefers species of grass with nar

  17. CHANGES IN THE PARAMETERS OF BLOOD LIPIDS AND CYTOKINES IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY OSTEOARTHRITIS DURING TREATMENT WITH ARTHRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yu Alexenko

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. The POA patients treated with Arthra displayed improvements in LPO profile and antioxidant defense and lower blood concentrations of cholesterol and LDL cholesterol along with a decline in the levels of the blood cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and CRP.

  18. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan; Walker, Emer A.

    2013-01-01

    on invaded soil, in Poa trivialis with H. mantegazzianum seed extract, and negative effects of the essential oil bergapten were found in three species. In P. trivialis the results of the seed extract were not supported by the experiment with added seeds of the invasive plant. Thus, there is limited evidence...

  19. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... posted on the Internet at http://www.gsa.gov/ftr . This amendment also revises the reimbursement amount... (TDY) and choose to use their privately owned automobile (POA) instead; updates the definition of... periodically published in FTR Bulletins; updates the definition of ``official station''; clarifies what...

  20. Modelling of organic aerosols over Europe (2002–2007 using a volatility basis set (VBS framework with application of different assumptions regarding the formation of secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simpson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new organic aerosol (OA module has been implemented into the EMEP chemical transport model. Four different volatility basis set (VBS schemes have been tested in long-term simulations for Europe, covering the six years 2002–2007. Different assumptions regarding partitioning of primary OA (POA and aging of POA and secondary OA (SOA, have been explored. Model results are compared to filter measurements, AMS-data and source-apportionment studies, as well as to other model studies. The present study indicates that many different sources contribute significantly to OA in Europe. Fossil POA and oxidised POA, biogenic and anthropogenic SOA (BSOA and ASOA, residential burning of biomass fuels and wildfire emissions may all contribute more than 10% each over substantial parts of Europe. Simple VBS based OA models can give reasonably good results for summer OA but more observational studies are needed to constrain the VBS parameterisations and to help improve emission inventories. The volatility distribution of primary emissions is an important issue for further work. This study shows smaller contributions from BSOA to OA in Europe than earlier work, but relatively greater ASOA. BVOC emissions are highly uncertain and need further validation. We can not reproduce winter levels of OA in Europe, and there are many indications that the present emission inventories substantially underestimate emissions from residential wood burning in large parts of Europe.

  1. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    1974-01-01

    A number of species and varieties are mentioned as new to the adventitious flora of the Netherlands, viz. Zingeria trichopoda (Boiss.) P. Smirn.; Poa trivialis L. var. silvicola (Guss.) Hack.; Galium floribundum Sibth. & Sm., G. murale All.; Lallemantia iberica (Bieb.) Fisch. & Mey.; Veronica cf. gr

  2. Effects of high-temperature diluted-H2 annealing on effective mobility of 4H-SiC MOSFETs with thermally-grown SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hirohisa; Kita, Koji

    2016-04-01

    The impact of post-oxidation annealing (POA) in diluted-H2 ambient on a 4H-SiC/SiO2 interface was investigated with a cold wall furnace. Effective mobility (μeff) was extracted from lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) by applying the split capacitance-voltage (C-V) technique to the determination of charge density and a calibration technique using two MOSFETs with different gate lengths to minimize the contribution of parasitic components. POA at 1150 °C in diluted-H2 ambient resulted in an enhancement of μeff compared with that for POA in N2 ambient. It was indicated that the effects of POA in diluted H2 should be attributed to the reduction in the density of near interface traps, which disturb the electron transportation in the inversion channel, from the measurement temperature dependence of μeff as well as from the C-V curves of MOS capacitors fabricated on n-type SiC.

  3. Serotonergic integration of circadian clock and ultradian sleep-wake cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Hamada, Kozo; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-17

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus generates a 24 h rhythm of sleep and arousal. While neuronal spiking activity in the SCN provides a functional circadian oscillator that propagates throughout the brain, the ultradian sleep-wake state is regulated by the basal forebrain/preoptic area (BF/POA). How this SCN circadian oscillation is integrated into the shorter sleep-wake cycles remains unclear. We examined the temporal patterns of neuronal activity in these key brain regions in freely behaving rats. Neuronal activity in various brain regions presented diurnal rhythmicity and/or sleep-wake state dependence. We identified a diurnal rhythm in the BF/POA that was selectively degraded when diurnal arousal patterns were disrupted by acute brain serotonin depletion despite robust circadian spiking activity in the SCN. Local blockade of serotonergic transmission in the BF/POA was sufficient to disrupt the diurnal sleep-wake rhythm of mice. These results suggest that the serotonergic system enables the BF/POA to couple the SCN circadian signal to ultradian sleep-wake cycles, thereby providing a potential link between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disorders.

  4. Characterization of a phenylacetate-CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Martijn J.; Jekel, Peter A.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic activation of PAA (phenylacetic acid) to phenylacetyl-CoA is an important step in the biosynthesis of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin G by the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. CoA esters of PAA and POA (phenoxyacetic acid) act as acyl donors in the exchange of the aminoadipyl side

  5. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, S.; Alink, L.R.A.; Pannebakker, F.; Vogels, T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school

  6. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  7. Tracking the Genetic Stability of a Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Breeding Program With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Beaman, Lorraine

    2017-08-01

    A genetic stock identification (GSI) assay was developed in 2008 to distinguish Russian honey bees from other honey bee stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. Probability of assignment (POA) values have been collected and maintained since the stock release in 2008 to the Russian Honey Bee Breeders Association. These data were used to assess stability of the breeding program and the diversity levels of the contemporary breeding stock through comparison of POA values and genetic diversity parameters from the initial release to current values. POA values fluctuated throughout 2010-2016, but have recovered to statistically similar levels in 2016 (POA(2010) = 0.82, POA(2016) = 0.74; P = 0.33). Genetic diversity parameters (i.e., allelic richness and gene diversity) in 2016 also remained at similar levels when compared to those in 2010. Estimates of genetic structure revealed stability (FST(2009/2016) = 0.0058) with a small increase in the estimate of the inbreeding coefficient (FIS(2010) = 0.078, FIS(2016) = 0.149). The relationship among breeding lines, based on genetic distance measurement, was similar in 2008 and 2016 populations, but with increased homogeneity among lines (i.e., decreased genetic distance). This was expected based on the closed breeding system used for Russian honey bees. The successful application of the GSI assay in a commercial breeding program demonstrates the utility and stability of such technology to contribute to and monitor the genetic integrity of a breeding stock of an insect species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. c-Fos expression in the paternal mouse brain induced by communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Liang, Mingkun; Akther, Shirin; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-09-11

    Appropriate parental care by fathers greatly facilitates health in human family life. Much less is known from animal studies regarding the factors and neural circuitry that affect paternal behavior compared with those affecting maternal behavior. We recently reported that ICR mouse sires displayed maternal-like retrieval behavior when they were separated from pups and caged with their mates (co-housing) because the sires receive communicative interactions via ultrasonic and pheromone signals from the dams. We investigated the brain structures involved in regulating this activity by quantifying c-Fos-immunoreactive cells as neuronal activation markers in the neural pathway of male parental behavior. c-Fos expression in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) was significantly higher in sires that exhibited retrieval behavior (retrievers) than those with no such behavior (non-retrievers). Identical increased expression was found in the mPOA region in the retrievers stimulated by ultrasonic vocalizations or pheromones from their mates. Such increases in expression were not observed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) or ventral palladium (VP). On the following day that we identified the families of the retrievers or non-retrievers, c-Fos expression in neuronal subsets in the mPOA, VTA, NAcc and VP was much higher in the retriever sires when they isolated together with their mates in new cages. This difference was not observed in the singly isolated retriever sires in new cages. The non-retriever sires did not display expression changes in the four brain regions that were assessed. The mPOA neurons appeared to be activated by direct communicative interactions with mate dams, including ultrasonic vocalizations and pheromones. The mPOA-VTA-NAcc-VP neural circuit appears to be involved in paternal retrieval behavior.

  9. Muscarinic Receptors Types 1 and 2 in the Preoptic-Anterior Hypothalamic Areas Regulate Ovulation Unequally in the Rat Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira L. López-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic receptors types 1 (m1AChR and 2 (m2AChR in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA were counted, and the effects of blocking these receptors on spontaneous ovulation were analysed throughout the rat oestrous cycle. Rats in each phase of the oestrous cycle were assigned to the following experiments: (1 an immunohistochemical study of the number of cells expressing m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA and (2 analysis of the effects of the unilateral blockade of the m1AChR (pirenzepine, PZP or m2AChR (methoctramine, MTC on either side of the POA-AHA on the ovulation rate. The number of m2AChR-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher at 09:00 h on each day of the oestrous cycle in the POA-AHA region, while no changes in the expression profile of m1AChR protein were observed. The ovulation rate in rats treated with PZP on the oestrous day was lower than that in the vehicle group. Animals treated on dioestrous-1 with PZP or MTC had a higher ovulation rate than those in the vehicle group. In contrast, on dioestrous-2, the MTC treatment decreased the ovulation rate. These results suggest that m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA could participate in the regulation of spontaneous ovulation in rats.

  10. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  11. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Nutsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here, we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, versus animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience.

  12. Global combustion sources of organic aerosols: model comparison with 84 AMS factor-analysis data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-07-01

    Emissions of organic compounds from biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel combustion strongly influence the global atmospheric aerosol load. Some of the organics are directly released as primary organic aerosol (POA). Most are emitted in the gas phase and undergo chemical transformations (i.e., oxidation by hydroxyl radical) and form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work we use the global chemistry climate model ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) with a computationally efficient module for the description of organic aerosol (OA) composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE). The tropospheric burden of open biomass and anthropogenic (fossil and biofuel) combustion particles is estimated to be 0.59 and 0.63 Tg, respectively, accounting for about 30 and 32 % of the total tropospheric OA load. About 30 % of the open biomass burning and 10 % of the anthropogenic combustion aerosols originate from direct particle emissions, whereas the rest is formed in the atmosphere. A comprehensive data set of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements along with factor-analysis results from 84 field campaigns across the Northern Hemisphere are used to evaluate the model results. Both the AMS observations and the model results suggest that over urban areas both POA (25-40 %) and SOA (60-75 %) contribute substantially to the overall OA mass, whereas further downwind and in rural areas the POA concentrations decrease substantially and SOA dominates (80-85 %). EMAC does a reasonable job in reproducing POA and SOA levels during most of the year. However, it tends to underpredict POA and SOA concentrations during winter indicating that the model misses wintertime sources of OA (e.g., residential biofuel use) and SOA formation pathways (e.g., multiphase oxidation).

  13. Role of hypothalamus nociceptin/orphanin FQ in pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge of estrogen and progesterone-primed, ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fei AN; Jiang-yi YU; Yi FENG; Bo-ying CHEN; Su-lin ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of hypothalamus nociceptin/orphanin FQ (OFQ) and its endogenous receptor, the opioid receptor-likel receptor (ORL1 receptor) in the estrus cycle of female rats. Method: Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the effect of the intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of OFQ and/or the ORL1 receptor antagonist [Nphel]Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 that is, NC13 on luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of estrogen- and progesterone (EBP)-primed, ovariectomized (OVX) rats (EBP-primed OVX rats). RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohis- tochemistry techniques were adopted to observe the changes of OFQ and the ORL1 receptor in the pre-optic area (POA) and the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of the estrus cycle of female rat. Results: Pre-ovulatory LH surges in EBP-primed, OVX rats were significantly reduced by icv administration of 20 and 200 nmol OFQ (P<0.05), and the effect of 20 nmol OFQ could be abolished by pretreat-ment with 20 nmol NC13. The OFQ mRNA level in the POA on pro-estrus was lowered markedly compared to diestrus and estrus (P<0.05), while the mRNA and protein levels of the ORL1 receptor showed no significant changes in the POA and MBH across the estrus cycle. Meanwhile, the number of OFQ-immunoreac-tive neurons in the medial POA, ventromedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus on pro-estrus was significantly decreased compared to diestrus and es-trus (P<0.05). Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of OFQ on the LH surge of EBP-primed, OVX rats and its downregulation in POA and MBH on pro-estrus sug-gests that it might play a negative modulatory role in the estrus cycle.

  14. Protracted effects of chronic stress on serotonin dependent thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Reka; Northrop, Nicole A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is known to affect serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission in the brain and to alter body temperature. Body temperature is controlled in part, by the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (mPOA). To investigate the effect of chronic stress on 5HT and how it affects body temperature regulation, we examined whether exposure to a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm (CUS) produces long-term alterations in thermoregulatory function of the mPOA through decreased 5HT neurotransmission. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 21 days of CUS. Four days after last stress exposure, basal body temperature in the home cage and body temperature in a cold room maintained at 10°C were recorded. CUS rats had significantly higher subcutaneous basal body temperature at 13:00 h compared to unstressed (NoStress) rats. Whereas the NoStress rats were able to significantly elevate body temperature from basal levels at 30 and 60 min of exposure to the cold room, the CUS rats showed a hypothermic response to the cold. Treatment during CUS with metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, blocked stress-induced decrease in body temperature in response to the cold challenge. CUS also decreased 5HT transporter protein immunoreactivity in the mPOA and 5HT2A/C agonist injection into the mPOA after CUS exposure caused stressed rats to exhibit a sensitized hyperthermic response to cold. These results indicate that CUS induced changes to the 5HTergic system alters mPOA function in thermoregulation. These findings help explain mechanisms underlying chronic stress induced disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome wherein long lasting thermoregulatory deficits are observed. PMID:26414686

  15. Protracted effects of chronic stress on serotonin-dependent thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Reka; Northrop, Nicole A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is known to affect serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission in the brain and to alter body temperature. The body temperature is controlled in part, by the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of chronic stress on 5HT and how it affects body temperature regulation, we examined whether exposure to a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) paradigm produces long-term alterations in thermoregulatory function of the mPOA through decreased 5HT neurotransmission. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 21 d of CUS. Four days after the last stress exposure, basal body temperature in the home cage and body temperature in a cold room maintained at 10 °C were recorded. The CUS rats had significantly higher subcutaneous basal body temperature at 13:00 h compared to unstressed (NoStress) rats. Whereas the NoStress rats were able to significantly elevate body temperature from basal levels at 30 and 60 min of exposure to the cold room, the CUS rats showed a hypothermic response to the cold. Treatment during CUS with metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, blocked stress-induced decrease in body temperature in response to the cold challenge. CUS also decreased 5HT transporter protein immunoreactivity in the mPOA and 5HT2A/C agonist injection into the mPOA after CUS exposure caused stressed rats to exhibit a sensitized hyperthermic response to cold. These results indicate that the CUS induced changes to the 5HTergic system alter mPOA function in thermoregulation. These findings help us to explain the mechanisms underlying chronic stress-induced disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome wherein long lasting thermoregulatory deficits are observed.

  16. Scoring Tools for the Analysis of Infant Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alejandro Robles-Rubio

    Full Text Available Infants recovering from anesthesia are at risk of life threatening Postoperative Apnea (POA. POA events are rare, and so the study of POA requires the analysis of long cardiorespiratory records. Manual scoring is the preferred method of analysis for these data, but it is limited by low intra- and inter-scorer repeatability. Furthermore, recommended scoring rules do not provide a comprehensive description of the respiratory patterns. This work describes a set of manual scoring tools that address these limitations. These tools include: (i a set of definitions and scoring rules for 6 mutually exclusive, unique patterns that fully characterize infant respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP signals; (ii RIPScore, a graphical, manual scoring software to apply these rules to infant data; (iii a library of data segments representing each of the 6 patterns; (iv a fully automated, interactive formal training protocol to standardize the analysis and establish intra- and inter-scorer repeatability; and (v a quality control method to monitor scorer ongoing performance over time. To evaluate these tools, three scorers from varied backgrounds were recruited and trained to reach a performance level similar to that of an expert. These scorers used RIPScore to analyze data from infants at risk of POA in two separate, independent instances. Scorers performed with high accuracy and consistency, analyzed data efficiently, had very good intra- and inter-scorer repeatability, and exhibited only minor confusion between patterns. These results indicate that our tools represent an excellent method for the analysis of respiratory patterns in long data records. Although the tools were developed for the study of POA, their use extends to any study of respiratory patterns using RIP (e.g., sleep apnea, extubation readiness. Moreover, by establishing and monitoring scorer repeatability, our tools enable the analysis of large data sets by multiple scorers, which is essential

  17. Beta-endorphin regulation of LHRH release at the median eminence level: immunocytochemical and physiological evidence in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contijoch, A M; Malamed, S; Sarkar, D K; Advis, J P

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect that beta-endorphin (beta END) might have at the median eminence (ME) on luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone (LHRH) during the ovulatory cycle of domestic hens. Thus, we assessed (a) the immunocytochemical distribution of beta END and LHRH in the hen ME, (b) the temporal changes in ME and preoptic area (POA) LHRH and beta END content, in both a spontaneous and a premature C2 ovulatory model. The premature C2 ovulation occurs 6-7 h after the administration of progesterone (P4) injected 14 h before the spontaneous second (C2) ovulation of a sequence and therefore 7-8 h earlier than expected, (c) the ME in vitro release of beta END in both models, and (d) the effect of beta END and naloxone on in vitro ME-LHRH release in the two models. In the hen, beta END cell bodies are located in the periarcuate area with axons projecting to both the ME and the POA. LHRH perikarya are located in the medial POA and anterior hypothalamus and project to the ME and infundibulum through the ventrolateral hypothalamus. In the spontaneous C2 ovulatory model, both beta END and LHRH content in the ME remained unchanged during the 14 h preceding the C2 ovulation. However, POA-LHRH content was increasing at the time of the LH surge (4 h before the expected C2 ovulation) and remained elevated until the C2 ovulation occurred. In contrast, POA-beta END content was lowest at the time of the LH surge and remained low until the C2 ovulation occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Entre prouesse et dérision Between prowess and derisionNoise imitation in American folklore at the beginning of the xxth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Stoichita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur un type de virtuosité qui consiste à imiter des sons non musicaux dans le cadre de performances musicales. Il s'attache à décrire les modalités de ces moments d'acrobatie dans le bluegrass et la country music en Amérique du Nord. Pour mettre en lumière l'évolution historique de ce régime de virtuosité, l'analyse suit les transformations d'une mélodie particulière, connue sous le nom de Orange Blossom Special, qui reste à ce jour l'une des plus fameuses imitations de trains dans la musique nord-américaine.This article focuses on a type of virtuosity which involves the imitation of non-musical sounds in the context of musical performances. It attempts to describe the modalities of these moments of acrobatics in bluegrass and country music in North America. To highlight the historical evolution of this virtuosity system, the analysis follows the transformation of a particular melody, known as the Orange Blossom Special, which remains to this day one of the most famous imitations of trains in North American music.

  19. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  20. Nmunomodulación de Uncaria tomentosa sobre células dendríticas, il-12 y perfil TH1/TH2/TH17 en cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Núñez

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto inmunomodulador del extracto estandarizado (5,03%, alcaloides oxindólicos pentacíclicos de Uncaria tomentosa (UT-POA sobre el inmunofenotipo de células dendríticas (DC y IL-12/Th1/Th2/Th17 en pacientes con cáncer de mama estadio II (BCII y mujeres sanas (H. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvó sangre de 11 H y 7 BCII, se aislaron y cultivaron PBMC por 2 h con/sin distintas concentraciones de UT-POA y se estimularon o no con LPS por 24 h. Las PBMC fueron marcadas con anticuerpos específicos para DC y en el sobrenadante se midió las citoquinas Th1/Th2/Th17, ambos por citometría de flujo. Además, se midió IL-12 por ELISA. Resultados. UT-POA no alteró a las DC o la expresión de moléculas accesorias en BCII. Sin embargo, en H mostró una disminución en el porcentaje de DC mieloides (mDC con incremento de HLA-DR y CD86 a 1000 μg/mL. La secreción de IL-12 fue modificada solo en H, incrementando la subunidad p70 y disminuyendo la p40. UT-POA incremento Th1 (IFN-γ y IL-2, Th2 (IL-4 y Th17 (IL-17 en BCII y H. Conclusiones. UT-POA incrementa la producción de citoquinas relacionadas con la respuesta antitumoral a concentraciones entre el rango de 500-1000 μg/mL. Este efecto positivo debería ser evaluado no solo sistemicamente sino también en el microambiente tumoral. La UT-POA puede ser un fitoquímico útil en la quimioprevención y en el uso alternativo con terapias contra el cáncer

  1. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and lab studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Cubison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA. This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ±0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass =−0.01 to ~0.07, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~25%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~9 Tg OA yr−1 is estimated, of the order of 5% of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a

  2. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Cubison

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA. This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ± 0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA and a surrogate of organic O:C, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass = −0.01 to ~0.05, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~19%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~8 ± 7 Tg OA yr−1 is estimated, of the order of 5 % of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data

  3. Primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopy during the 2008 EUCAARI campaign in the Po Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, M.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Hillamo, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Finessi, E.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Fuzzi, S.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Swietlicki, E.; Eriksson Stenström, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Massoli, P.; Canaragatna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Decesari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric organic aerosols are generally classified into primary and secondary (POA and SOA) according to their formation processes. An actual separation, however, is challenging when the timescales of emission and of gas-to-particle formation overlap. The presence of SOA formation in biomass burning plumes leads to scientific questions about whether the oxidized fraction of biomass burning aerosol is rather of secondary or primary origin, as some studies would suggest, and about the chemical compositions of oxidized biomass burning POA and SOA. In this study, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the functional group composition of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols during an intensive field campaign in the Po Valley, Italy. The campaign was part of the EUCAARI project and was held at the rural station of San Pietro Capofiume in spring 2008. Factor analysis applied to the set of NMR spectra was used to apportion the wood burning contribution and other organic carbon (OC) source contributions, including aliphatic amines. Our NMR results, referred to the polar, water-soluble fraction of OC, show that fresh wood burning particles are composed of polyols and aromatic compounds, with a sharp resemblance with wood burning POA produced in wood stoves, while aged samples are clearly depleted of alcohols and are enriched in aliphatic acids with a smaller contribution of aromatic compounds. The comparison with biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) determined by high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-AMS) at the site shows only a partial overlap between NMR BB-POA and AMS BBOA, which can be explained by either the inability of BBOA to capture all BB-POA composition, especially the alcohol fraction, or the fact that BBOA account for insoluble organic compounds unmeasured by the NMR. Therefore, an unambiguous composition for biomass burning POA could not be derived from this study, with NMR analysis indicating a higher O / C

  4. Primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy during the 2008 EUCAARI campaign in the Po Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, M.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Hillamo, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Finessi, E.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Fuzzi, S.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Swietlicki, E.; Eriksson Stenström, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Massoli, P.; Canaragatna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Decesari, S.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric organic aerosols are generally classified as primary and secondary (POA and SOA) according to their formation processes. An actual separation, however, is challenging when the timescales of emission and gas-to-particle formation overlap. The presence of SOA formation in biomass burning plumes leads to scientific questions about whether the oxidized fraction of biomass burning aerosol is rather of secondary or primary origin, as some studies would suggest, and about the chemical compositions of oxidized biomass burning POA and SOA. In this study, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the functional group composition of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols during an intensive field campaign in the Po Valley, Italy. The campaign was part of the EUCAARI project and was held at the rural station of San Pietro Capofiume in spring 2008. Factor analysis applied to the set of NMR spectra was used to apportion the wood burning contribution and other organic carbon (OC) source contributions, including aliphatic amines. Our NMR results, referred to the polar, water-soluble fraction of OC, show that fresh wood burning particles are composed of polyols and aromatic compounds, with a sharp resemblance to wood burning POA produced in wood stoves, while aged samples are clearly depleted of alcohols and are enriched in aliphatic acids with a smaller contribution of aromatic compounds. The comparison with biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) determined by high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-AMS) at the site shows only a partial overlap between NMR BB-POA and AMS BBOA, which can be explained by either the inability of BBOA to capture all BB-POA composition, especially the alcohol fraction, or the fact that BBOA account for insoluble organic compounds unmeasured by the NMR. Therefore, an unambiguous composition for biomass burning POA could not be derived from this study, with NMR analysis indicating a higher O / C ratio

  5. Nmunomodulación de Uncaria tomentosa sobre células dendríticas, il-12 y perfil TH1/TH2/TH17 en cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Núñez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto inmunomodulador del extracto estandarizado (5,03%, alcaloides oxindólicos pentacíclicos de Uncaria tomentosa (UT-POA sobre el inmunofenotipo de células dendríticas (DC y IL-12/Th1/Th2/Th17 en pacientes con cáncer de mama estadio II (BCII y mujeres sanas (H. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvó sangre de 11 H y 7 BCII, se aislaron y cultivaron PBMC por 2 h con/sin distintas concentraciones de UT-POA y se estimularon o no con LPS por 24 h. Las PBMC fueron marcadas con anticuerpos específicos para DC y en el sobrenadante se midió las citoquinas Th1/Th2/Th17, ambos por citometría de flujo. Además, se midió IL-12 por ELISA. Resultados. UT-POA no alteró a las DC o la expresión de moléculas accesorias en BCII. Sin embargo, en H mostró una disminución en el porcentaje de DC mieloides (mDC con incremento de HLA-DR y CD86 a 1000 μg/mL. La secreción de IL-12 fue modificada solo en H, incrementando la subunidad p70 y disminuyendo la p40. UT-POA incremento Th1 (IFN-γ y IL-2, Th2 (IL-4 y Th17 (IL-17 en BCII y H. Conclusiones. UT-POA incrementa la producción de citoquinas relacionadas con la respuesta antitumoral a concentraciones entre el rango de 500-1000 μg/mL. Este efecto positivo debería ser evaluado no solo sistemicamente sino también en el microambiente tumoral. La UT-POA puede ser un fitoquímico útil en la quimioprevención y en el uso alternativo con terapias contra el cáncer

  6. Investigations on the performance of poly(o-anisidine)/graphene nanocomposites for the electrochemical detection of NADH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangamithirai, D. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Narayanan, V. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Muthuraaman, B. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Stephen, A., E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2015-10-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) based on poly(o-anisidine)/graphene (POA/GR) nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was explored for the first time. POA/GR nanocomposites were synthesized via chemical oxidative polymerization method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and UV–Vis spectroscopy results demonstrate that nanocomposites are successfully synthesized. An intriguing composite structure was observed using different ratios of o-anisidine monomer and graphene. The electrical properties and electrochemical properties of these nanocomposites are investigated by impedance spectroscopy technique and cyclic voltammetric (CV) method, respectively. The synthesized nanocomposites were used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and the modified electrodes were found to exhibit electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of NADH at low potential range of + 0.045 V in a neutral environment. The fabricated sensor based on POA/GR31-modified GCE exhibited enhanced current response with very high sensitivity of 47.1 μA μM{sup −1} for the detection of NADH. The developed POA/GR-modified GCE exhibited excellent reproducibility, stability, and selectivity for the determination of NADH. The practical analytical utility of the proposed method was demonstrated by NADH spiked ascorbic acid (AA) and the results confirmed that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of NADH in the presence of AA. This can open up new opportunities for simple and selective detection of NADH and provide a promising platform for biosensor designs. - Highlights: • NADH sensor was prepared by poly(o-anisidine)/graphene nanocomposite modified GCE. • FESEM technique revealed the growth of POA nanofibers on the surface of graphene. • Good

  7. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  8. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out...... during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out...... in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens...

  9. An improved modal pushover analysis procedure for estimating seismic demands of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jianmeng; Zhai Changhai; Xie Lili

    2008-01-01

    The pushover analysis (POA) procedure is difficult to apply to high-rise buildings, as it cannot account for the contributions of higher modes. To overcome this limitation, a modal pushover analysis (MPA) procedure was proposed by Chopra et al. (2001). However, invariable lateral force distributions are still adopted in the MPA. In this paper, an improved MPA procedure is presented to estimate the seismic demands of structures, considering the redistribution of inertia forces after the structure yields. This improved procedure is verified with numerical examples of 5-, 9- and 22-story buildings. It is concluded that the improved MPA procedure is more accurate than either the POA procedure or MPA procedure. In addition, the proposed procedure avoids a large computational effort by adopting a two-phase lateral force distribution..

  10. Comparison of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 particles collected in urban environments and volcanic areas of metropolitan Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PM10 and PM2,5 were sampled simultaneously in urban and volcanic environments in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica from October to November 2012. Higher mass concentrations (42-29 μgm-3 of PM10 and PM2,5 were found at industrial and commercial areas with high traffic flow (La Uruca, Heredia and Belen compared with those found in the volcanic areas. The daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 obtained in the Poas Volcano ranged from 3 -14 μgm-3 and 2-11 μgm-3, respectively. However the acidity of the collected particles in the Poas volcano was higher than those sampled in urban environments probably due to a lower occurrence rate of neutralization. The contribution of secondary ions was more important to the volcanic PM10 composition (around 40%, unlike the PM10 collected in urban areas.

  11. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  12. Optimized conditions for application of organic flocculant aids in water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Polasek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic flocculant aid (OFA to a system undergoing aggregation has a direct effect on the quality of purified water as well as the settleability of resultant agglomerates. The optimum conditions for OFA application exist when the formation of aggregates by means of destabilisation (aggregation – CPE reagent reaches flocculation optimum, i.e. the measure of flocculation γ=1, prior to OFA addition. Such method of OFA application is called the Post-Orthokinetic Agglomeration (POA process. The POA process results in the formation of the fastest settleable agglomerates and the best quality of purified water matching that attainable without the use of OFA. Recirculation of the sludge conditioned by OFA back to the process of particle aggregation was found undesirable as it adversely affects the purified water quality as well as the settleability of produced agglomerates.

  13. Increased risk of revision in patients with non-traumatic femoral head necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Camilla; Fenstad, Ann M; Furnes, Ove

    2014-01-01

    is not associated with poor outcome. We compared the risk of revision after operation with THA due to FHN or POA in the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) database including Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Patients and methods - 427,806 THAs performed between 1995 and 2011 were included......Background and purpose - Previous studies of patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to femoral head necrosis (FHN) have shown an increased risk of revision compared to cases with primary osteoarthritis (POA), but recent studies have suggested that this procedure...... groups was 86% (95% CI: 86-86) and 77% (CI: 74-80). After adjusting for covariates, the relative risk (RR) of revision for any reason was higher in patients with FHN for both periods studied (up to 2 years: RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.34-1.54; p

  14. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

  15. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Koo, Bonyoung; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2016-03-01

    Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations utilizing the traditional organic aerosol (OA) treatment (CMAQ-AE6) and a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment for OA (CMAQ-VBS) were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)) and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign to examine important sources of OA in southern California. Traditionally, CMAQ treats primary organic aerosol (POA) as nonvolatile and uses a two-product framework to represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. CMAQ-VBS instead treats POA as semivolatile and lumps OA using volatility bins spaced an order of magnitude apart. The CMAQ-VBS approach underpredicted organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE and CSN sites to a greater degree than CMAQ-AE6 due to the semivolatile POA treatment. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements collected at Pasadena, CA, indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate for SOA) concentration by a factor of 5.2, representing a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions (factor of 24 lower than AMS). We use two new methods, one based on species ratios (SOA/ΔCO and SOA/Ox) and another on a simplified SOA parameterization, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5 × lower than observed at Pasadena using -log(NOx : NOy)), low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2 × for Pasadena), and low emissions or excessive dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3 × too low/excessive). The first and third factors are common to CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation efficiency for that model is

  16. Lesão do bíceps distal: avaliação funcional e dinamometria digital da sua reconstrução pela técnica da minidupla via de mayo Isokinetic and functional: evaluation of the distal biceps reconstruction by using the mayo technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Garcia Júnior

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado funcional de pacientes com lesão do bíceps distal, operados pela técnica da minidupla via de Mayo, com seguimento mínimo de seis meses pós-cirurgia através de dinamometria digital isocinética, goniometria e escores subjetivos a fim de estabelecer padrões objetivos e subjetivos de melhora e discutir a efetividade do procedimento. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados nove pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para tratamento de lesão do bíceps distal através de dinamometria digital com Cybex® utilizando velocidade angular de 30°/s, cinco repetições e 120°/s, 15 repetições, comparando com o lado não lesado. Foram utilizados também DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, MayoElbow Score e goniometria convencional. RESULTADOS: A dinamometria digital mostrou que à velocidade angular de 30°/s com cinco repetições a flexão apresentou déficit médio de 9,6% e a supinação déficit médio de -28,97%. Com velocidade angular de 120°/s com 15 repetições, a flexão teve déficit médio de 4,43%; a supinação de -24,1%. CONCLUSÕES: A Perda de flexão segue o padrão já demonstrado na literatura; entretanto, em nossa série houve ganho de força para supinação, possivelmente devido ao protocolo rígido de reabilitação. A técnica empregada neste estudo mostrou-se segura, de baixo custo e com poucas complicações, apresentando bons resultados funcionais.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional outcome among patients with distal biceps injuries who were operated using the Mayo mini-double route technique, with a minimum follow-up of six months after surgery, through digital isokinetic dynamometry, goniometry and subjective scores in order to establish objective and subjective improvement patterns and discuss the effectiveness of the procedure. METHODS: Nine patients who underwent surgery to treat distal biceps injury were evaluated by means of Cybex digital dynamometry using an angular velocity of 30

  17. Poblaciones linfocitarias, células dendríticas y perfil de citoquinas en ratones con melanoma tratados con Uncaria tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Lozada-Requena

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto inmunomodulador sobre poblaciones linfocitarias, células dendríticas (DC, citoquinas Th1/Th2/Th17 (T-helper e inflamatorias en el ámbito sistémico y/o en el microambiente tumoral de ratones con o sin melanoma. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre periférica y/o de tumores primarios de ratones con melanoma B16 tratados o no con un extracto hidroalcohólico de Uncaria tomentosa (UT con 5,03% de alcaloides oxindólicos pentacíclicos (UT-POA obtenido de la corteza de la planta. Todos los ensayos de medición de células y citoquinas fueron realizados por citometría de flujo. Resultados. UT-POA a nivel sistémico incrementa la relación CD4/CD8a (Cluster of Differenciation, mientras que la activación celular es inversamente proporcional; incrementa la proporción de DCm (DC mieloides; induce un perfil Th1 proinflamatorio y reduce la respuesta Th17. TNF-a (tumor necrosis factor alpha y IL-17A (interleuquina correlacionan positiva y negativamente con la relación CD4/CD8a. Conclusiones. El incremento de Th1 (TNF-a puede tener como consecuencia el incremento de linfocitos CD4 o la activación de macrófagos M1. Aunque UT-POA muestra un incremento de DCm, este no es dosis-dependiente. La disminución de Th17 (IL-17A puede favorecer el funcionamiento de los linfocitos CD8a. UT-POA muestra mejores efectos inmunomoduladores en el ámbito sistémico que intratumoral

  18. Release of norepinephrine in the preoptic area activates anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons and stimulates the surge of luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawka, Raphael E; Poletini, Maristela O; Leite, Cristiane M; Bernuci, Marcelo P; Kalil, Bruna; Mendonça, Leonardo B D; Carolino, Ruither O G; Helena, Cleyde V V; Bertram, Richard; Franci, Celso R; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2013-01-01

    The role of norepinephrine (NE) in regulation of LH is still controversial. We investigated the role played by NE in the positive feedback of estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian-steroid control over NE release in the preoptic area (POA) was determined using microdialysis. Compared with ovariectomized (OVX) rats, estradiol-treated OVX (OVX+E) rats displayed lower release of NE in the morning but increased release coincident with the afternoon surge of LH. OVX rats treated with estradiol and progesterone (OVX+EP) exhibited markedly greater NE release than OVX+E rats, and amplification of the LH surge. The effect of NE on LH secretion was confirmed using reverse microdialysis. The LH surge and c-Fos expression in anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons were significantly increased in OVX+E rats dialyzed with 100 nm NE in the POA. After Fluoro-Gold injection in the POA, c-Fos expression in Fluoro-Gold/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons increased during the afternoon in the A2 of both OVX+E and OVX+EP rats, in the locus coeruleus (LC) of OVX+EP rats, but was unchanged in the A1. The selective lesion of LC terminals, by intracerebroventricular N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, reduced the surge of LH in OVX+EP but not in OVX+E rats. Thus, estradiol and progesterone activate A2 and LC neurons, respectively, and this is associated with the increased release of NE in the POA and the magnitude of the LH surge. NE stimulates LH secretion, at least in part, through activation of anteroventral periventricular neurons. These findings contribute to elucidation of the role played by NE during the positive feedback of ovarian steroids.

  19. Effects of photoperiod on kisspeptin neuronal populations of the ewe diencephalon in connection with reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivoix, S; Bagnolini, A; Caraty, A; Cognié, J; Malpaux, B; Dufourny, L

    2010-02-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) is a key regulator of reproductive function in both prepubertal and adult mammals. Its expression appears to vary throughout the year in seasonal species. We aimed to determine the impact of a change of photoperiod on the size of Kiss neuronal populations found in the preoptic area (POA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the ewe brain. Using immunocytochemistry, we first examined the proportion of neurones expressing Kiss, using HuC/D as a neuronal marker, at different time-points after transition from long days (LD; 16 : 8 h light/dark cycle) to short days (SD; 8 : 16 h light/dark cycle). Luteinising hormone (LH) secretion was measured in ovariectomised oestradiol replaced ewes from the month preceding the transition to SD until the sacrifice of the animals at days 0, 45 and 112 from this photoperiodic transition. High LH levels were only observed in animals killed at day 112. The number of Kiss neurones/mm(2) doubled in the caudal ARC at day 112. The percentage of neurones showing Kiss immunoreactivity increased significantly in both the POA and ARC in the day 112 group. In a second experiment, ewes kept in LD received an i.c.v. injection of colchicine 20 h before sacrifice. Colchicine treatment increased the number and the percentage of neurones with Kiss in both the POA and caudal ARC. The data obtained suggest that the increase in Kiss neurones detected in the POA and caudal ARC after transition to SD stemmed from an increase in Kiss synthesis. This up-regulation of Kiss content under the shorter day condition appears to be a late event within the cascade activated by a longer secretion of melatonin, which is a critical factor in switching gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion to a breeding season profile.

  20. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, X.; M.J. Newchurch; Kim, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or

  1. Joint Operational Fires in the Offense: The Southwest Pacific Campaign to Isolate Rabaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    machine gun, the rifle, tommy-gun, grenade and knife are the weapons carried by men who fly to war, jump in parachutes , are carried in gliders and who...Operation Iraqi Freedom PIR Parachute Infantry Regiment POA Pacific Ocean Areas PT Patrol Torpedo (Boat) RAAF Royal Australian Air Force RCT Regimental...peninsula would require two Australian divisions and the American 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR). The 503rd would parachute directly onto

  2. Central circuitries for body temperature regulation and fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Body temperature regulation is a fundamental homeostatic function that is governed by the central nervous system in homeothermic animals, including humans. The central thermoregulatory system also functions for host defense from invading pathogens by elevating body core temperature, a response known as fever. Thermoregulation and fever involve a variety of involuntary effector responses, and this review summarizes the current understandings of the central circuitry mechanisms that underlie nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, shivering thermogenesis in skeletal muscles, thermoregulatory cardiac regulation, heat-loss regulation through cutaneous vasomotion, and ACTH release. To defend thermal homeostasis from environmental thermal challenges, feedforward thermosensory information on environmental temperature sensed by skin thermoreceptors ascends through the spinal cord and lateral parabrachial nucleus to the preoptic area (POA). The POA also receives feedback signals from local thermosensitive neurons, as well as pyrogenic signals of prostaglandin E(2) produced in response to infection. These afferent signals are integrated and affect the activity of GABAergic inhibitory projection neurons descending from the POA to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) or to the rostral medullary raphe region (rMR). Attenuation of the descending inhibition by cooling or pyrogenic signals leads to disinhibition of thermogenic neurons in the DMH and sympathetic and somatic premotor neurons in the rMR, which then drive spinal motor output mechanisms to elicit thermogenesis, tachycardia, and cutaneous vasoconstriction. Warming signals enhance the descending inhibition from the POA to inhibit the motor outputs, resulting in cutaneous vasodilation and inhibited thermogenesis. This central thermoregulatory mechanism also functions for metabolic regulation and stress-induced hyperthermia.

  3. Cold-induced thermogenesis mediated by GABA in the preoptic area of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    Bilateral microinjections of GABA (300 mM, 100 nl) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (100 microM, 100 nl) into the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus increased the rate of whole body O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and the body core (colonic) temperature of urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. The most sensitive site was the dorsomedial POA at the level of the anterior commissure. The GABA-induced thermogenesis was accompanied by a tachycardic response and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the femoral or neck muscles. Pretreatment with muscle relaxants (1 mg/kg pancuronium bromide + 4 mg/kg vecuronium bromide i.v.) prevented GABA-induced EMG activity but had no significant effect on GABA-induced thermogenesis. However, pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor propranolol (5 mg/kg i.v.) greatly attenuated the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) and tachycardic responses. Accordingly, the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) reflected mainly nonshivering thermogenesis. On the other hand, cooling of the shaved back of the rat by contact with a plastic bag containing 28 degrees C water also elicited thermogenic, tachycardic, and EMG responses. Bilateral microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (500 microM, 100 nl), but not the vehicle saline, into the POA blocked these skin cooling-induced responses. These results suggest that GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the POA mediate cold information arising from the skin for eliciting cold-induced thermogenesis.

  4. Esters of Pyrazinoic Acid Are Active against Pyrazinamide-Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Naturally Resistant Mycobacteria In Vitro and Ex Vivo within Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Emília; Simões, Marta Filipa; Carmo, Nuno; Testa, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is active against major Mycobacterium tuberculosis species (M. tuberculosis, M. africanum, and M. microti) but not against M. bovis and M. avium. The latter two are mycobacterial species involved in human and cattle tuberculosis and in HIV coinfections, respectively. PZA is a first-line agent for the treatment of human tuberculosis and requires activation by a mycobacterial pyrazinamidase to form the active metabolite pyrazinoic acid (POA). As a result of this mechanism, resistance to PZA, as is often found in tuberculosis patients, is caused by point mutations in pyrazinamidase. In previous work, we have shown that POA esters and amides synthesized in our laboratory were stable in plasma (M. F. Simões, E. Valente, M. J. Gómez, E. Anes, and L. Constantino, Eur J Pharm Sci 37:257–263, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2009.02.012). Although the amides did not present significant activity, the esters were active against sensitive mycobacteria at concentrations 5- to 10-fold lower than those of PZA. Here, we report that these POA derivatives possess antibacterial efficacy in vitro and ex vivo against several species and strains of Mycobacterium with natural or acquired resistance to PZA, including M. bovis and M. avium. Our results indicate that the resistance probably was overcome by cleavage of the prodrugs into POA and a long-chain alcohol. Although it is not possible to rule out that the esters have intrinsic activity per se, we bring evidence here that long-chain fatty alcohols possess a significant antimycobacterial effect against PZA-resistant species and strains and are not mere inactive promoieties. These findings may lead to candidate dual drugs having enhanced activity against both PZA-susceptible and PZA-resistant isolates and being suitable for clinical development. PMID:26438493

  5. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for photovoltaic system modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford W.; Pohl, Andrew Phillip; Jordan, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    We report an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for modeling DC energy from photovoltaic systems. We consider two systems, each comprised of a single module using either crystalline silicon or CdTe cells, and located either at Albuquerque, NM, or Golden, CO. Output from a PV system is predicted by a sequence of models. Uncertainty in the output of each model is quantified by empirical distributions of each model's residuals. We sample these distributions to propagate uncertainty through the sequence of models to obtain an empirical distribution for each PV system's output. We considered models that: (1) translate measured global horizontal, direct and global diffuse irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance; (2) estimate effective irradiance from plane-of-array irradiance; (3) predict cell temperature; and (4) estimate DC voltage, current and power. We found that the uncertainty in PV system output to be relatively small, on the order of 1% for daily energy. Four alternative models were considered for the POA irradiance modeling step; we did not find the choice of one of these models to be of great significance. However, we observed that the POA irradiance model introduced a bias of upwards of 5% of daily energy which translates directly to a systematic difference in predicted energy. Sensitivity analyses relate uncertainty in the PV system output to uncertainty arising from each model. We found that the residuals arising from the POA irradiance and the effective irradiance models to be the dominant contributors to residuals for daily energy, for either technology or location considered. This analysis indicates that efforts to reduce the uncertainty in PV system output should focus on improvements to the POA and effective irradiance models.

  6. Evaluation and Implementation of Media-Independent Handover in Hastily Formed Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Mobile IPv6 FN foreign network GSM Global System for...Handover Function MIPv6 Mobile IPv6 MN Mobile Node NIC Network Interface Card NMM Network Mobility Manager NOC Network Operation Center ODTONE Open...Dot Twenty ONE OPMIPv6 Open Proxy Mobile IPv6 PMIPv6 Proxy Mobile IPv6 PoA Points of Attachment PoS Points of Service QoS Quality of Service

  7. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    OpenAIRE

    R. Chirico; P. F. DeCarlo; M. F. Heringa; Tritscher, T.; Richter, R.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; WEHRLE G; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA) and the correspo...

  8. Impact of aftertreatment devices on primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation potential from in-use diesel vehicles: results from smog chamber experiments

    OpenAIRE

    R. Chirico; P. F. DeCarlo; M. F. Heringa; Tritscher, T.; Richter, R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; WEHRLE G; Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a significant source of aerosol in urban areas and has been linked to adverse health effects. Although newer European directives have introduced increasingly stringent standards for primary PM emissions, gaseous organics emitted from diesel cars can still lead to large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Here we present results from smog chamber investigations characterizing the primary organic aerosol (POA) and th...

  9. Esters of pyrazinoic acid are active against pyrazinamide-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other naturally resistant mycobacteria in vitro and ex vivo within macrophages.

    KAUST Repository

    Pires, David

    2015-10-05

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is active against major Mycobacterium tuberculosis species (M. tuberculosis, M. africanum, and M. microti), but not against M. bovis and M. avium. The latter two are mycobacteria species involved in human and cattle tuberculosis and in HIV co-infections, respectively. PZA is a first-line agent for the treatment of human tuberculosis and requires activation by a mycobacterial pyrazinamidase to form the active metabolite pyrazinoic acid (POA). As a result of this mechanism, resistance to PZA as often found in tuberculosis patients is caused by point mutations in pyrazinamidase. In previous work, we have shown that POA esters and amides synthesized in our laboratory were stable in plasma. Although the amides did not present significant activity, the esters were active against sensitive mycobacteria at concentrations 5-to-10 fold lower than those of PZA. Here, we report that these POA derivatives possess antibacterial efficacy in vitro and ex vivo against several species and strains of Mycobacterium with natural or acquired resistance to PZA, including M. bovis and M. avium. Our results indicate that the resistance was probably overcome by cleavage of the prodrugs into POA and a long-chain alcohol. Although it is not possible to rule out that the esters may have intrinsic activity per se, we bring evidence here that long-chain fatty alcohols possess a significant anti-mycobacterial effect against PZA-resistant species and strains and are not mere inactive promoieties. These findings may lead to candidate dual-drugs having enhanced activity against both PZA-susceptible and PZA-resistant isolates and being suitable for clinical development.

  10. Control of an electro-hydrostatic actuation system for the nose landing gear of an "all electric aircraft"

    OpenAIRE

    Greissner, Carsten; Carl, Udo

    2004-01-01

    The EU research Project Power Optimised Aircraft (POA) investigates the approach to replace primary hydraulic supply by extended electric power systems towards a More or All Electric Aircraft. This contribution presents an electrically powered actuation system for nose landing gears using an EHA (electrohydrostatic actuator) approach. One motor pump unit supplies door and gear actuation as well as the steering system. Different control strategies for the individual actuators are introduced. T...

  11. Neural growth hormone: regional regulation by estradiol and/or sex chromosome complement in male and female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Quinnies, Kayla M; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Harris, Erin P; Shetty, Savera RJ; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) are well documented and coordinate maturation and growth. GH and its receptor are also produced in the brain where they may impact cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and estradiol produces Gh sex differences in rat hippocampus. In mice, circulating estradiol increases Gh mRNA in female but not in male medial preoptic area (mPOA); therefore, additional factors regulate sexually dimorphic Gh expression in the brain. Thus, we h...

  12. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background: Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasse...

  13. Poblaciones linfocitarias, células dendríticas y perfil de citoquinas en ratones con melanoma tratados con Uncaria tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Lozada-Requena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto inmunomodulador sobre poblaciones linfocitarias, células dendríticas (DC, citoquinas Th1/Th2/Th17 (T-helper e inflamatorias en el ámbito sistémico y/o en el microambiente tumoral de ratones con o sin melanoma. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre periférica y/o de tumores primarios de ratones con melanoma B16 tratados o no con un extracto hidroalcohólico de Uncaria tomentosa (UT con 5,03% de alcaloides oxindólicos pentacíclicos (UT-POA obtenido de la corteza de la planta. Todos los ensayos de medición de células y citoquinas fueron realizados por citometría de flujo. Resultados. UT-POA a nivel sistémico incrementa la relación CD4/CD8a (Cluster of Differenciation, mientras que la activación celular es inversamente proporcional; incrementa la proporción de DCm (DC mieloides; induce un perfil Th1 proinflamatorio y reduce la respuesta Th17. TNF-a (tumor necrosis factor alpha y IL-17A (interleuquina correlacionan positiva y negativamente con la relación CD4/CD8a. Conclusiones. El incremento de Th1 (TNF-a puede tener como consecuencia el incremento de linfocitos CD4 o la activación de macrófagos M1. Aunque UT-POA muestra un incremento de DCm, este no es dosis-dependiente. La disminución de Th17 (IL-17A puede favorecer el funcionamiento de los linfocitos CD8a. UT-POA muestra mejores efectos inmunomoduladores en el ámbito sistémico que intratumoral

  14. Prolonged androgen deprivation may influence the autoregulation of estrogen receptors in the brain and pelvic floor muscles of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Erik; Calich, Hannah J; Currie, R William; Wassersug, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Androgen deprivation in males has detrimental effects on various tissues and bodily functions, some of which can be restored by estradiol (E2) administration. We investigated how the duration of androgen deprivation affects the autoregulation of estrogen receptors (ERs) levels in core brain areas associated with sexual behavior and cognition, as well as in pelvic floor muscles (PFM). We also measured c-Fos levels in brain areas associated with sexual behavior shortly after the rats mated. Prolonged castration increases ERα levels in the preoptic area (POA) and E2 treatment reverses these effects. In the POA, c-Fos levels after mating are not affected by the duration of androgen deprivation and/or E2 treatment. ERβ levels in the POA as well as c-Fos levels in the POA and the core area of nucleus accumbens correlate with the mounting frequency for E2-treated Short-Term castrates. Additionally, ERβ levels in the medial amygdala are positively correlated with the mounting frequency of Long-Term castrates that received E2 treatment. In the hippocampus, ERs are downregulated only when E2 is administered early after castration, whereas downregulation of ERα in the prefrontal cortex only occurs with delayed E2 treatment. Early, but not delayed, E2 treatment after castration increases ERβ levels in the bulbocavernosus and ERα levels in the levator ani of male rats. Our data suggest that the duration of androgen deprivation may influence the autoregulation of ERs by E2 treatment in select brain areas and pelvic floor muscles of male rats.

  15. Metabolism of selenite to selenosugar and trimethylselenonium in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Matthew I; Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Impaired S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent transmethylation and methylation capacity feature in diseases related to obesity or aging, and selenium (Se) metabolism is altered in these states. We tested the hypothesis that SAM metabolism is required for methylation and excretion of Se in a rat...... model. Four hours after selenite and periodate-oxidized adenosine (POA; an inhibitor of SAM metabolism) were administered, circulating markers of single-carbon status were unchanged, except for decreased circulating phosphatidylcholine (P...

  16. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  17. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E.; Soriano, Renato N.; Fernandez, Rodrigo A. R.; Francescato, Heloísa D. C.; Saia, Rafael S.; Coimbra, Terezila M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G. S.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release. PMID:28118407

  18. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Soriano, Renato N; Fernandez, Rodrigo A R; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Saia, Rafael S; Coimbra, Terezila M; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release.

  19. Development and initial application of the sesquiversion of MADRID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, B. K.

    2008-06-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) models are typically formulated on the basis of empirical parameters or from first principles based on molecular constituents and properties. The overarching theme of sesqui-MADRID is the representation of primary and secondary organic aerosol constituents using surrogate molecular structures. Empirical partitioning characteristics guide the selection of surrogate secondary OA (SOA). Semivolatile primary OA (POA) are represented by selective compounds of key source types. The assignment of surrogate structures allows the use of group contribution methods for the calculation of thermodynamic properties such as activity coefficients, vapor pressures, and enthalpies of vaporization. A new activity coefficient model represents the interactions among POA, SOA, and water. The inclusion of water increases the total OA concentration by increasing the absorbing medium. If activity coefficients are assumed to be unity, OA increases substantially. Treatment of nonideality is essential in OA modules. When thermodynamically favorable, two phases with different hydrophobicity are modeled. Phase separation of OA is more common when water is considered as part of the absorbing medium than when it is not. Phase separation results in a small increase in total OA, because hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds can exist in two liquid phases rather than repel each other in a single phase. Allowing POA to evaporate reduces the fraction of POA relative to SOA. The decrease can lead to a less than proportional decrease (or an increase) in total OA due to changes in composition, activity coefficients, and partitioning of individual constituents. A three-dimensional demonstration of sesqui-MADRID for a typical summer day shows an overall increase in OA in the southeastern United States compared to an empirical approach. Sesqui-MADRID predicts higher contributions from volatile and hydrophilic constituents and similar concentrations for constituents that are hydrophobic

  20. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  1. 雌性小鼠下丘脑生殖功能相关基因mRNA表达水平的增龄性变化%Profiles of reproduction-related mRNA expressions in hypothalamus of female mice with advancing age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 杨璐萌; 潘晓东; 陈晓春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of aging on the levels of reproduction-related mRNA genes including Gnrh,KISS1/KISS1r,estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα),estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) in hypothalamus.Methods Proestrus and metestrus in young (3-4 months) and middle-aged (10-11 months) female mice and diestrus in senile (18-19 months) female mice were observed.And the levels of related mRNA genes in preoptic area anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results In middle-aged mice on proestrus,the level of Gnrh mRNA in POA-AH (0.896 ± 0.049) was significantly lower than that in young mice (1.228 ±0.147,P =0.049).The level of ERα mRNA in POAAH decreased in young mice on proestrus whereas increased in middle-aged mice (0.432 ± 0.063 vs 0.603 ±0.018,P =0.016).The level of ERα mRNA of POA-AH,both in middle-aged mice (0.432 ± 0.063,P =0.014) and senile mice (0.403 ±0.145,P =0.020) on diestrus,were significantly lower than that in young mice.The PR mRNA expression in middle-aged mice on proestrus (1.037 ± 0.037) was markedly lower than that in young mice(1.251 ± 0.081,P =0.031).In senile mice,the levels of Gnrh mRNA (1.520 ± 0.146,P =0.004) and ERβ mRNA (1.572 ± 0.184,P =0.011) increased in POA-AH compared with that in young mice on metestrus.Aging had no effect upon KISS1 and KISS1r mRNA levels in POA-AH.In contrast,KISS1 mRNA level of MBH in middle-aged (1.663 ±0.398,P =0.037) and senile (2.622 ± 0.454,P =0.014) mice obviously increased compared with the young mice group.Conclusion Higher levels of ERα mRNA and decreases of PR and Gnrh mRNA in POA-AH in middle-aged mice on proestrus may play an important role in declining reproductive function.%目的 探讨增龄对下丘脑生殖功能相关基因-Gnrh、KISS1/KISS1r、ERα、ERβ及PRmRNA表达水平的影响.方法 以年轻、中年和老年的雌性小鼠为对象,依据动情周期

  2. Global Modeling of the Oceanic Source of Organic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Myriokefalitakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The global marine organic aerosol budget is investigated by a 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model considering recently proposed parameterisations of the primary marine organic aerosol (POA and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the oxidation of marine volatile organic compounds. MODIS and SeaWiFS satellite data of Chlorophyll-a and ECMWF solar incoming radiation, wind speed, and temperature are driving the oceanic emissions in the model. Based on the adopted parameterisations, the SOA and the submicron POA marine sources are evaluated at about 5 Tg yr−1 (∼1.5 Tg C yr−1 and 7 to 8 Tg yr−1 (∼4 Tg C yr−1, respectively. The computed marine SOA originates from the dimethylsulfide oxidation (∼78%, the potentially formed dialkyl amine salts (∼21%, and marine hydrocarbon oxidation (∼0.1%. Comparison of calculations with observations indicates an additional marine source of soluble organic carbon that could be partially encountered by marine POA chemical ageing.

  3. Automatic Mining of Numerical Classification Rules with Parliamentary Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIZILOLUK, S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, classification rules mining has been one of the most important data mining tasks. In this study, one of the newest social-based metaheuristic methods, Parliamentary Optimization Algorithm (POA, is firstly used for automatically mining of comprehensible and accurate classification rules within datasets which have numerical attributes. Four different numerical datasets have been selected from UCI data warehouse and classification rules of high quality have been obtained. Furthermore, the results obtained from designed POA have been compared with the results obtained from four different popular classification rules mining algorithms used in WEKA. Although POA is very new and no applications in complex data mining problems have been performed, the results seem promising. The used objective function is very flexible and many different objectives can easily be added to. The intervals of the numerical attributes in the rules have been automatically found without any a priori process, as done in other classification rules mining algorithms, which causes the modification of datasets.

  4. 高寒半干旱地区4种牧草的适应性及坪用价值%Study of Forage Breeding in High and Semi-arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵年武; 郭连云; 侯万红; 张梅兰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] By introduction and breeding of Poa crymophila, Festuca sinensis cv. , Puccinella tenuiflora and wild Poa pratensis, the adaptability and turf performance of small seeds were observed, to select the varieties of artificial turf with strong resistance, extensive management and using as urban green, and to lay a good foundation for development of species resources. [ Method] The 4 turf varieties were planted at the Mugetan in the Gonghe Basin, Qinghai Province in 2009. And their over-wintering characteristics, growth habits, adaptability and turf performance were observed in 2010. [ Result] The over- wintering rate of the 4 turf varieties were all more than 95. 0% , showing strong cold resistance and over-wintering characteristics. The growth period of Festuca sinensis cv. Was the longest, followed by Poa crymophila , Puccinella tenuiflora and wild Poa pratensis were the shortest. Continued hot and dry weather had significant effect on the growth and development of Festuca sinensis cv. , while had a little effect on the other 3 turf varieties. The actual seeds yield of the 4 turf varieties were in order Festuca sinensis cv. > wild Poa pratensis > Poa crymophila > Puccinella tenuiflora. The grass output and above-ground biomass of Festuca sinensis cv. Was higher than the other 3 turf varieties. The seed yield of Festuca sinensis cv. Was the biggest, followed by Puccinella tenuiflora, that of Poa crymophila and wild Poa pratensis was the same and the least. [Conclusion] Poa crymophila, Festuca sinensis cv. , Puccinella tenuiflora and wild Poa pratensis adapt to plant in the area that the altitude is over 3 000 m.%[目的]通过冷地早熟禾(Poa crymophila)、中华羊茅(Festuca sinensis cv.)、星星草(Puccynella tenuiflora)和野生早熟禾(wild Poa pratensis)4种小草籽的引进繁育,观察小草籽品种的适应性和坪用性,筛选出抗逆性强、管理粗放、适应城市绿化栽植的人工草坪地植被品种.为品种资源的

  5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIABILITY IN THE Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw WILD POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw is a vine widely distributed throughout the South-American rainforest. Many studies investigating the chemical composition of cat's claw have focused on the pentacyclic (POA and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA, quinovic acid glycosides (QAG, and polyphenols (PPH. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain how environmental factors affect chemical groups. The aim of this work was to better understand the influence of environmental factors (geographic origin, altitude, and season on cat's claw chemical composition. Stem bark, branches and leaf samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The data obtained were explored by multivariate analysis (HCA and PCA. Higher amounts of oxindole alkaloids and PPH were found in leaves, followed by stem bark and branches. No clear relationship was verified among geographic origin or altitude and chemical composition, which remained unchanged regardless of season (dry or rainy. However, three oxindole alkaloid chemotypes were clearly recognized: chemotype I (POA with cis D/E ring junction; chemotype II (POA with trans D/E ring junction; and chemotype III (TOA. Thus, environmental factors appear to have only a minor influence on the chemical heterogeneity of the cat's claw wild population. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different chemotypes based on alkaloid profiles seems to be clear.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are present on Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, K K; Eidesen, P B; Davey, M L; Axelsen, J; Courtecuisse, E; Flintrop, C; Johansson, A G; Kiepert, M; Larsen, S E; Lorberau, K E; Maurset, M; McQuilkin, J; Misiak, M; Pop, A; Thompson, S; Read, D J

    2017-07-10

    A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp. arctica, Trisetum spicatum, Coptidium spitsbergense, Ranunculus nivalis, Ranunculus pygmaeus, Ranunculus sulphureus and Taraxacum arcticum) sampled from 10 sites. Both coarse AM endophyte, with hyphae of 5-10 μm width, vesicles and occasional arbuscules, and fine endophyte, consisting of hyphae of 1-3 μm width and sparse arbuscules, were recorded in roots. Coarse AM hyphae, vesicles, arbuscules and fine endophyte hyphae occupied 1.0-30.7, 0.8-18.3, 0.7-11.9 and 0.7-12.8% of the root lengths of colonised plants, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated no associations between the abundances of AM structures in roots and edaphic factors. We conclude that the AM symbiosis is present in grass and forb roots on Spitsbergen.

  7. A short-stem hip implant with metaphyseal anchorage in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Stefan; Floerkemeier, Thilo; Thorey, Fritz; Ezechieli, Marco; Claassen, Leif; Ettinger, Max; Bredow, Jan; Windhagen, Henning; Lewinski, Gabriela von

    2016-03-18

    Short-stem implants are routinely used for total hip arthroplasty in younger patients that are more likely to have secondary osteoarthritis than older patients. To investigate the applicability of short-stem hip implants for secondary osteoarthritis due to developmental dysplasia of the hip. This study analyzed the clinical and radiological results of patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, 58 hips) and compared them to those of patients with primary osteoarthritis (POA, 59 hips) treated with the metaphyseal total hip arthroplasty (Metha®) short stem with metaphyseal fixation. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up periods were 2.9 ± 1.1 years and 3.8 ± 1.9 years, respectively. The mean Harris Hip Score (HHS) significantly increased in both groups over this period (p< 0.0001). The caput-collum-diaphysis (CCD) angle was significantly lower in the POA group prior to surgery and significantly increased in the POA and and decreased in DDH groups, respectively. The preoperative femoral offset was lower in the DDH group and increased significantly after surgery. The Metha® short stem in patients with DDH allows good reconstruction of joint biomechanics with a good clinical outcome.

  8. Connectivity and neurochemistry of the commissura anterior of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzner, Sara; Simon, Annika; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-02-01

    The anterior commissure (AC) and the much smaller hippocampal commissure constitute the only interhemispheric pathways at the telencephalic level in birds. Since the degeneration study from Zeier and Karten (), no detailed description of the topographic organization of the AC has been performed. This information is not only necessary for a better understanding of interhemispheric transfer in birds, but also for a comparative analysis of the evolution of commissural systems in the vertebrate classes. We therefore examined the fiber connections of the AC by using choleratoxin subunit B (CTB) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Injections into subareas of the arcopallium and posterior amygdala (PoA) demonstrated contralateral projection fields within the anterior arcopallium (AA), intermediate arcopallium (AI), PoA, lateral, caudolateral and central nidopallium, dorsal and ventral mesopallium, and medial striatum (MSt). Interestingly, only arcopallial and amygdaloid projections were reciprocally organized, and all AC projections originated within a rather small area of the arcopallium and the PoA. The commissural neurons were not GABA-positive, and thus possibly not of an inhibitory nature. In sum, our neuroanatomical study demonstrates that a small group of arcopallial and amygdaloid neurons constitute a wide range of contralateral projections to sensorimotor and limbic structures. Different from mammals, in birds the neurons that project via the AC constitute mostly heterotopically organized and unidirectional connections. In addition, the great majority of pallial areas do not participate by themselves in interhemispheric exchange in birds. Instead, commissural exchange rests on a rather small arcopallial and amygdaloid cluster of neurons.

  9. Effects of electrical lesions of the medial preoptic area and the ventral pallidum on mate-dependent paternal behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-06-06

    In laboratory animals, less is known about the neural circuits that mediate paternal behavior than those that influence maternal behavior. In mice, we recently reported that when sires are separated with their mate dams from their pups, ultrasound and pheromonal signals from the dams can evoke and initiate maternal-like retrieval behavior in the sires upon reunion with the offspring; this is termed mate-dependent paternal care. We used electrolytic brain lesion (EBL) methods to identify the potential roles of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventral pallidum (VP) regions in regulating paternal care, areas known to be critical for the expression of maternal behavior. Electrolytic lesions of the mPOA or VP disrupted mate-dependent paternal care; latencies to initiate pup retrieval, grooming and crouching were longer in the EBL-treated sires relative to the sham-operated mice. The number of grooming episodes and duration of crouching were also lower in sires with the EBL in both areas. These results indicate that the mPOA and VP regions are essential for mate-dependent paternal care in mice.

  10. Analysis of A-DLTS spectra of MOS structures with thin NAOS SiO2 layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockicko, Peter; Bury, Peter; Sidor, Peter; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Takahashi, Masao; Yanase, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    A set of MOS structures with thin SiO2 layers prepared by nitric acid oxidation (NAOS) method was investigated using acoustic deep level transient spectroscopy (A-DLTS) to explain the role of annealing treatment (post-oxidation annealing (POA) and post-metallization annealing (PMA)) at different conditions on the distribution of interface states. The activation energies of interface states and the corresponding capture cross-section were calculated both from Arrhenius plots constructed for individual peaks of the A-DLTS spectra and applying the method of modeling of measured acoustic spectra. The energy distribution of the interface states was determined also from the dependence of acoustoelectric response signal (ARS) on the external bias voltage (U ac - V G curves). By comparing the A-DLTS spectra, U ac - V G characteristics and some electrical measurements (G-V, I-V curves) of investigated MOS structures with no treatment with those treated with POA and/or PMA, the role of individual treatments was observed. The definite decrease of the interface states in the structures with the PMA treatment in comparison with the POA treatment was confirmed too.

  11. A INFLUÊNCIA DO DECÚBITO VENTRAL NA APNÉIA DA PREMATURIDADE: REVISÃO BIBLIOGRÁFICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A apnéia do prematuro pode ser definida como a interrupção do fluxo gasoso pelas vias aéreas, que pode ser provocado ou por cessação dos movimentos respiratórios, ou por obstrução das vias aéreas impedindo a passagem de ar. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão bibliográfica de forma sistematizada sobre a influência do decúbito ventral no tratamento da apnéia do prematuro, bem como das suas repercussões na vida do neonato. Metodologia: Revisão da literatura, na qual foram selecionados seis artigos na base de dados Medline e Lilacs, publicados no período de 2000-2010, que avaliaram os efeitos das posições prono e supina na função respiratória de recém-nascidos. Resultados: Foram encontrados seis estudos relevantes à revisão. Segundo Maynard  et al., a posição prono parece ter maiores vantagens mecânicas do que a supino, por melhorar o STA. Leipälä et al. e Kassim et al. apresentaram resultados controversos, Antunes et al. concluiram que a posição prono é uma posição segura e benéfica para o desmame, contribuindo para o seu sucesso, Elder et al. relataram que a posição supina parece ser apropriada para RNPTs com DPOC e Oliveira et al. que a posição prona promoveu diminuição significativa da assincronia toracoabdominal, sem influenciar o padrão respiratório e a saturação periférica de oxigênio. Considerações finais: A posição em prono mostrou-se mais benéfica quando comparada à em supino, no referente ao sincronismo toracoabdominal; porém o mesmo não pode ser sugerido quando se analisam as pressões respiratórias máximas e os volumes pulmonares. A saturação periférica de oxigênio também sofreu influência da posição prona, mostrando resultados positivos. Assim, tal posicionamento parece ser melhor para RNPTs tendo em vista a função respiratória.Palavras chave: Apnéia. Decúbito ventral. Prematuro.

  12. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7 and Earth-Probe (EP TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure 200 hPa for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa. Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production

  13. Transformation of logwood combustion emissions in a smog chamber: formation of secondary organic aerosol and changes in the primary organic aerosol upon daytime and nighttime aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiitta, Petri; Leskinen, Ari; Hao, Liqing; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kortelainen, Miika; Grigonyte, Julija; Tissari, Jarkko; Lamberg, Heikki; Hartikainen, Anni; Kuuspalo, Kari; Kortelainen, Aki-Matti; Virtanen, Annele; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Komppula, Mika; Pieber, Simone; Prévôt, André S. H.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Czech, Hendryk; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli

    2016-10-01

    Organic aerosols (OA) derived from small-scale wood combustion emissions are not well represented by current emissions inventories and models, although they contribute substantially to the atmospheric particulate matter (PM) levels. In this work, a 29 m3 smog chamber in the ILMARI facility of the University of Eastern Finland was utilized to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from a small-scale modern masonry heater commonly used in northern Europe. Emissions were oxidatively aged in the smog chamber for a variety of dark (i.e., O3 and NO3) and UV (i.e., OH) conditions, with OH concentration levels of (0.5-5) × 106 molecules cm-3, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of up to 18 h. An aerosol mass spectrometer characterized the direct OA emissions and the SOA formed from the combustion of three wood species (birch, beech and spruce) using two ignition processes (fast ignition with a VOC-to-NOx ratio of 3 and slow ignition with a ratio of 5).Dark and UV aging increased the SOA mass fraction with average SOA productions 2.0 times the initial OA mass loadings. SOA enhancement was found to be higher for the slow ignition compared with fast ignition conditions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to separate SOA, primary organic aerosol (POA) and their subgroups from the total OA mass spectra. PMF analysis identified two POA and three SOA factors that correlated with the three major oxidizers: ozone, the nitrate radical and the OH radical. Organonitrates (ONs) were observed to be emitted directly from the wood combustion and additionally formed during oxidation via NO3 radicals (dark aging), suggesting small-scale wood combustion may be a significant ON source. POA was oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA, and after 7 h of aging more than 75 % of the original POA was transformed. This process may involve evaporation and homogeneous gas-phase oxidation as well as heterogeneous oxidation of particulate organic matter

  14. Modeling regional air quality and climate: improving organic aerosol and aerosol activation processes in WRF/Chem version 3.7.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Khairunnisa; Glotfelty, Timothy; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    Air quality and climate influence each other through the uncertain processes of aerosol formation and cloud droplet activation. In this study, both processes are improved in the Weather, Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) version 3.7.1. The existing Volatility Basis Set (VBS) treatments for organic aerosol (OA) formation in WRF/Chem are improved by considering the following: the secondary OA (SOA) formation from semi-volatile primary organic aerosol (POA), a semi-empirical formulation for the enthalpy of vaporization of SOA, and functionalization and fragmentation reactions for multiple generations of products from the oxidation of VOCs. Over the continental US, 2-month-long simulations (May to June 2010) are conducted and results are evaluated against surface and aircraft observations during the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Among all the configurations considered, the best performance is found for the simulation with the 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) and the VBS SOA module with semivolatile POA treatment, 25 % fragmentation, and the emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds being 3 times the original POA emissions. Among the three gas-phase mechanisms (CB05, CB6, and SAPRC07) used, CB05 gives the best performance for surface ozone and PM2. 5 concentrations. Differences in SOA predictions are larger for the simulations with different VBS treatments (e.g., nonvolatile POA versus semivolatile POA) compared to the simulations with different gas-phase mechanisms. Compared to the simulation with CB05 and the default SOA module, the simulations with the VBS treatment improve cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) predictions (normalized mean biases from -40.8 % to a range of -34.6 to -27.7 %), with large differences between CB05-CB6 and SAPRC07 due to large differences in their OH and HO2 predictions. An advanced aerosol activation parameterization based on the Fountoukis and Nenes

  15. Research about Turf Mixtures in South Transition Zone%南过渡带混播草坪组合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连春; 张晓庆

    2012-01-01

    Under the environment and the management measures in south transition zone,we studied species mixed ratio of turfgrass, and the designed mixtures had been compared to each other. The results were as follows: The mixture of Barlexas 40%+Barrera 30%+Baronie 20%+Pinnacle 10% was the best ,the other mixtures were second to it. The variety of density and the speed of growth were according to the logic curve. From the expression of the mixtures during seeding stage,we could conclude that the higher proportion of Tall fescue or Perennial ryegrass in the mixtures the better it would be.But the proportion of Perennial ryegrass would be better to be less than 20 percent .With the growth of the turfgrass ,the propotion of the Tall rescue was steady,while the proportion of Perennial ryegrass and Kentucky bluegrass had been on the decline .But after some time about one year ,the proportion of Kentucky bluegrass had been becoming more and more again.The Creeping bent grass would be better to be seeded singly.Bermuda grass could be mixed with Tall rescue or Kentucky bluegrass.but in winter the view of it was not good. Finally,in the view of turf formation speed,quality of turf ,insectpest and disease etc ,the ideal ratio of Tallfescue,Kentucky bluegrass and Perennial ryegrass was 7:2:1,and it would be better if the Tall fescue consisted of defferent species.%在南过渡带的生境及一定的养护条件下,对多种混播草坪组合设计进行了评比,结果表明:混播组合高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)凌志40%+高羊茅锐步30%+早熟禾(Poapratensis)男爵20%+黑麦草(Loliumperenne)顶峰10%表现最好。其次为高羊茅凌志30%+高羊茅锐步30%+早熟禾巴润20%+黑麦草顶峰20%;其余表现不好。从苗期表现来看,黑麦草及高羊茅的比例高者表现好。从成坪后期来看,黑麦草的比例不宜过多,最好不超过20%。混播组合中,随着草坪利用年限的延

  16. Phytoremediation of disturbed lands in Polar Regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinova, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In the Northern regions the problem of restoration of disturbed lands as a result of anthropogenic activities is particularly acut. A large role for the success of native plants to take hold and re-establish themselves is to allow the natural process to work without human intervention. However observation shows that low reserves of available moisture, poor soil nutrients, exposure to wind and water erosion make impossible of a complete restoration of lands due to natural revegetation. One of the methods used to minimize the effect of these factors is the phytoremediation. Research on the Pelyatinskom gas condensate field in the Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal district revealed the efficacy of biological remediation of awnless brome, wildrye siberian, red fescue and kentucky bluegrass. Geobotanical studies of the tailings fields in Yakutia showed that for the phytoremediation of tailings of alluvial deposits of diamonds slough grass can be successfully used, and on the dumps of coal deposits with a high degree of survival of the willow, poplar, larch, alder stand and pine. Development of technology for remediation of placer gold deposits of the Komsomol mine and Bilibino in Chukotka has shown the effectiveness of sowing common oat, wildrye and larch. The study of the experience of recultivation on objects of the "Transneft-Baltic" in the North-Western Federal district allowed us to select as the recommended mixtures of species: meadow fescue, cocksfoot, timothy grass, white and alsike clover and alfalfa. The multicomponent mixture of red fescue, awnless brome, meadow fescue, timothy grass, couch grass, kentucky bluegrass, beckman's grass were successfully used at the mine of the Bovanenkovo oil and gas condensate field. On the technological grounds of the complex pumping station in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous area willows were planted. Pine and willow trees were planted on quarry workings in the Northern taiga of Western Siberia land .Planting of pines has shown

  17. Morphological Comparisons Between Xiphinema rivesi Daimasso and X. americanum Cobb Populations from the Eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowlcz, M R; Golden, A M; Forer, L B; Stouffer, R F

    1982-10-01

    Though in the past Xiphinema americanum has been the most commonly reported dagger nematode in the eastern United States, our studies revealed the presence in Pennsvlvania of a previously unrecognized and unreported species related to X. americanum, Morphometric data and photomicrographs establish the identity of this form as X. rivesi and show expected variations in populations of this species from various locations. Similar data and illustrations are given for X. americanum populations from Pennsylvania and other areas, showing variations and relationships. Xiphinema rivesi is widely distributed in the fruit producing area of south-central Pennsylvania and is also reported herein from raspberry in Vermont and apple in Maryland and New York. This species is frequently found in fruit growing areas of Pennsylvania associated with tomato ringspot virus-induced diseases and is also found associated with corn, bluegrass sod, and alfalfa.

  18. 论生物安全法的风险预防原则——从美国联邦地区法院的一则判例谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文轩

    2007-01-01

    @@ 2003年,美国食品安全中心、Klamath-Siskiyou荒地保护中心和其他个人和组织以美国农业部(USDA)为被告提起了一起联邦诉讼.诉讼的争议焦点是斯科兹公司(Scotts)和孟山都公司(Monsanto)采用转基因技术生产的新品种匍匐剪股颖(Creeping Bentgrass)和草地早熟禾(Kentucky Bluegrass),这两种产品具有抗"农达"(孟山都公司生产的一种广泛使用的除草剂)特性.

  19. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  20. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  1. Leaf water absorption and desorption functions for three turfgrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xi; Su, Derong; Yin, Shuxia; Wang, Zhi

    2009-09-01

    SummaryPlant leaf can absorb water when the leaf is in contact with water. This happens when the rainfall is intercepted by plant leaves, where the intercepted part of rain remains on the leaf surface. When the intercepted water is either absorbed or subsequently evaporated into the atmosphere, the plant leaves can dissipate water through the desorption process until the plant is dry or rewatered. In this paper, two symptomatic models in the form of exponential functions for leaf water absorption and leaf water desorption were derived and validated by experimental data using leaves of three turfgrasses (Tall fescue, Perennial ryegrass and Kentucky bluegrass). Both the models and measured data showed that the rate of leaf water absorption was high at the low initial leaf water content and then gradually leveled off toward the saturated leaf water content. The rate of leaf water desorption was high at the high initial leaf water content then decreased drastically over time toward zero. The different plant leaves showed different exponents and other parameters of the functions which indicate the difference of plant species. Both the absorption and desorption rates were relatively higher for the Kentucky bluegrass and lower for the Tall fescue and Perennial ryegrass. The concept of specific leaf area ( SLA) was used to understand the saturated leaf water content ( C s) of the three turfgrasses. Linear relationships were found between C s and SLA. The leaf water absorption and desorption functions are useful for deriving physiological parameters of the plant such as permanent wilting leaf water content, naturally irreducible leaf water content, exponential leaf water absorption coefficient, and exponential leaf desorption coefficient, as well as for evaluating the effects of rainfall interception on plant growth and water use efficiency.

  2. Avaliação da motricidade ampla e fina na Síndrome de Williams: relato de caso Findings of the gross and fine motor in the Syndrome William Case: case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Melo Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os achados da motricidade ampla e fina de uma criança de 8 anos de idade portador da Síndrome de Williams. Foram coletados dados biológicos da criança e da mãe durante a gestação e história pré, peri e pós-natal da criança e suas condições clínicas. O desenvolvimento motor amplo e fino foi avaliado pelo Inventário Portage Operacionalizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a criança revelou maior dificuldade na motricidade fina em relação à ampla, apresentando dificuldades na escrita, em manipular objetos que necessite fazer movimento de pronação e supinação e dificuldade no movimento de pinça.This study aimed to analyze the findings of motor and fine of an 8 years old holder of Williams Syndrome. Data were collected biological child and mother during pregnancy and history of pre, peri and postnatal child and their clinical conditions. The development and fine motor function was assessed by Portage Guide. The results showed that children showed greater difficulty with fine motor skills in relation to gross skills, having difficulty in writing, to manipulate objects that need to make movement of pronation and supination and difficulty in of the pincer movement.

  3. Autecological traits determined two evolutionary strategies in Mediterranean plants during the Quaternary: low differentiation and range expansion versus geographical speciation in Linaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Pastor, J L; Vargas, P

    2013-11-01

    The evolutionary patterns of the Mediterranean flora during the Quaternary have been relatively well documented based on phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses, but few studies have addressed the evolutionary traits that determined diversification and range expansion success during this period. We analysed previously published and newly generated sequences of three plastid noncoding regions (rpl32-trnL(UAG) , trnS-trnG and trnL-trnF), the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a low-copy nuclear gene intron (AGT1) of Linaria sect. Supinae, a group of angiosperms that diversified in the Quaternary. The origin and recent colonization dynamics of closely related lineages were inferred by biogeographic reconstruction and phylogeographic analyses, while breeding system experiments coupled with ecological and morphological data were used to test association with range expansion and diversification. A combination of traits, including selfing, short lifespan and the ability to tolerate a wide variety of substrates, were key factors underlying range expansion after long-distance dispersal throughout the Mediterranean basin. By contrast, self-incompatibility may have promoted higher diversification rates in narrow ranges of the Iberian Peninsula. We argue that a few traits contributed to the adoption of two contrasting strategies that may have been predominant in the evolution of Mediterranean angiosperms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ajustes da pressão positiva expiratória final ideal na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo na posição prona Best positive end expiratory pressure settlement in acute respiratory discomfort syndrome and prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogério de Carvalho Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A posição em decúbito ventral (posição prona aplicada em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA, tem demonstrado melhora da oxigenação em mais de 70% dos casos. Uma vez que essa posição promove uma série de alterações pulmonares, inclusive na mecânica pulmonar, abre-se a hipótese da necessidade de otimizar os parâmetros ventilatórios após a instalação deste novo decúbito, principalmente do valor da pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da posição prona no cálculo da PEEP ideal, titulada pela melhor complacência pulmonar e comparar as alterações pulmonares de mecânica, de oxigenação e de ventilação nas posições supina e prona. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo realizado no Serviço de Terapia Intensiva da Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Foram comparadas três fases. Fase 1: na posição supina, após o cálculo de PEEP ideal. Fase 2: após duas horas o decúbito do paciente era modificado para prona, após cálculo da PEEP. O paciente era mantido por seis horas neste decúbito. Fase 3: após este período, era colocado na posição supina, realizando-se novo cálculo da PEEP e nova coleta gasométrica, após duas horas. Foi comparada a fase 1 versus fase 2, fase 2 versus fase 3 e fase 3 versus fase 1. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças nos valores de PEEP ideal nas três fases do estudo: fase 1 = 14 ± 4,43, fase 2 = 14,73 ± 4,77 e fase 3 = 13,65 ± 4,92. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença de PEEP ideal quando na posição prona ou supina. Portanto, de acordo com este estudo não há necessidade de se readequar a PEEP a cada mudança de decúbito.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In acute respiratory discomfort syndrome (ARDS patients, prone position improves oxygenation in more than 70% of the cases. It is well known that prone position promotes a lot of pulmonary changes, including

  5. 乌桕不同器官除草活性研究%Study on Herbicidal Activities of Different Organs of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 罗小勇

    2011-01-01

    在10 g/L的浓度下,乌桕不同器官粉末对生菜和小麦幼苗的生长均有较高的抑制活性,且以叶器官活性最高,果实最低.而叶在0.1~10.0 g/L的不同浓度下对夏至草、反枝苋、生菜、荠菜、小麦和黄瓜幼苗的生长具有不同程度的抑制作用,且抑制活性随浓度的增加而提高,其中以夏至草的敏感性最高,而黄瓜最低.%Inhibition activety of different organs of Sapium sebiferum on seedlings growth of Lactuca sativa and Triticum aestivum is much higher at the concentration of 10 g/L, and the leaves and fruits show the highest and lowest inhibition activity respectively. Moreover, the leaves of S. Sebiferum present different inhibition effects on seedling growth of Lagop-sis supina, Amaranthus TetToflexus, L. Sativa, Capsella bursa - pastoris, T. Aestivum and Cucumis sativus respectively at the concentration of 0. 1 ~ 10. 0 g/L, and the inhibition activety increases as the treat concentrations increase. Among all the receiver plants, L supine seedlings present the highest sensitivity and C. Sativus seedlings present the lowest sensitivity to the leaves of S. Sebiferum.

  6. Meiotic studies in some selected angiosperms from the Kashmir Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Mudassir JEELANI; Santosh KUMARI; Raghbir Chand GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    As a part of our program to explore and evaluate genetic diversity of flowering plants of the Kashmir Himalayas,meiotic studies have been carried out on 150 wild species.Of these,Caltha alba (2n =32),Delphinium roylei (2n =16),D.uncinatum (2n =16),Ranunculus palmatifidus (2n =28),and Sedum heterodontum (2n =14) have been cytologically worked out for the first time.New intraspecific diploid or polyploid cytotypes have been recorded for Alchemilla vulgaris (2n =34,96),Arabis amplexicaulis (2n =16),Impatiens amphorata (2n =14),Ⅰ.racemosa (2n =12),Ⅰ.sutcata (2n =16,12),Meconopsis latifolia (2n =14),Potentilla supina (2n =14),Saxifraga cernua (2n =16),Sium latijugam (2n =24),and Vicatia coniifolia (2n =44).Four species,Arabidopsis thaliana (2n =10),Berberis vulgaris (2n =28),Potentilla nubicola (2n =14),and P.sericea (2n =28),have been cytologically reported for the first time from India.A large number of meiotic abnormalities have been observed in most of these species,leading to a reduction in pollen fertility and production of heterogeneous-sized pollen grains.

  7. Camptocormia secundária à polimiosite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Andrade Mattar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A camptocormia é uma doença postural caracterizada por flexão anormal da coluna toracolombar que surge na posição ereta, aumenta durante a caminhada e desaparece na posição supina. Na literatura, há descrição de apenas cinco casos de camptocormia secundária a miopatias inflamatórias idiopáticas. No presente relato de caso, descrevemos um paciente do sexo masculino, de 67 anos, com polimiosite há 18 anos, cursando com quadro compatível com camptocormia (estável e sem progressão do quadro clínico. A polimiosite é uma miopatia inflamatória idiopática caracterizada clinicamente por fraqueza muscular simétrica predominantemente proximal dos membros. Entretanto, sendo uma doença autoimune sistêmica, é plausível que ocorra acometimento de musculatura esquelética de forma difusa, incluindo a paravertebral, podendo manifestar-se com camptocormia.

  8. Influence of Municipal Solid Waste Compost on Soil Properties and Plant Reestablishment in Peri-Urban Environments Efecto de la Aplicación de Compost de Residuos Sólidos Municipales sobre las Propiedades de los Suelos y el Establecimiento de Plantas en Ambientes Peri-Urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Civeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soils in urban areas often present characteristics that might submit these environments to erosion processes. Applying municipal solid wastes (MSW composts to soils have been suggested as a means to improve physical and chemical properties. A field experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted in a Typic Argiudoll from a degraded area in Buenos Aires City. The objective was to evaluate the effect of MSW compost application on soil properties, residue decomposition and Poa (Poa pratensis L. reestablishment. At the beginning of the trial, compost was prepared and applied in a bare soil on 0.25 m² square plots afterwards litterbags were incorporated and Poa was sown. Compost amounts were: 0 (control; 2 (low; 4 (medium and 7 kg m-2 (high on fresh matter basis. During the trial residue decomposition and aerial dry matter (DM: g treatment-1 were evaluated, at the end soil physical and chemical parameters were measured. Medium and high compost rates increased organic C, total N and extractable P. Addition of 2 kg m-2 affected soil organic C as well, but in a minor fee. Soil physical properties were improved after MSW compost addition. In medium and high doses, augmentations in organic matter reduced bulk densities and enhanced water infiltration. Aerial DM was significantly affected by treatments (p Los suelos de las áreas urbanas presentan características que pueden someter estos ambientes a procesos erosivos. La aplicación de composts de residuos sólidos urbanos (MSW a los suelos es una práctica que mejora sus propiedades. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del compost de MSW sobre las propiedades, la descomposición de residuos y el restablecimiento de la especie Poa (Poa pratensis L. en estos suelos. En un Argiudol típico degradado de la ciudad de Buenos Aires se realizó un ensayo con diseño completamente aleatorizado. Se preparó e incorporó compost en parcelas de 0,25 m² en las siguientes cantidades: 0

  9. Characterization of the sources and processes of organic and inorganic aerosols in New York City with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Sun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol particles (PM1 were measured in-situ using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS during the summer 2009 Field Intensive Study at Queens College in New York City. Organic aerosol (OA and sulfate are the two dominant species, accounting for 54% and 24%, respectively, of total PM1 mass on average. The average mass size distribution of OA presents a small mode peaking at ~150 nm (Dva in addition to an accumulation mode (~550 nm that is internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. The diurnal cycles of sulfate and OA both show pronounced peaks between 01:00–02:00 p.m. EST due to photochemical production. The average (±1σ oxygen-to-carbon (O/C, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C, and nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C ratios of OA in NYC are 0.36 (±0.09, 1.49 (±0.08, and 0.012(±0.005, respectively, corresponding to an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC ratio of 1.62(±0.11. Positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high resolution mass spectra identified five OA components: a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, two types of oxygenated OA (OOA including a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA and a semi-volatile OOA (SV-OOA, a cooking-emission related OA (COA, and a unique nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA. HOA appears to represent primary OA (POA from urban traffic emissions. It comprises primarily of reduced species (H/C=1.83; O/C=0.06 and shows a mass spectral pattern very similar to those of POA from fossil fuel combustion, and correlates tightly with traffic emission tracers including elemental carbon and NOx. LV-OOA, which is highly oxidized (O/C=0.63 and correlates well with sulfate, appears to be representative for regional, aged secondary OA (SOA. SV-OOA, which is less oxidized (O/C=0.38 and correlates well with non-refractory chloride, likely represents less photo-chemically aged, semi-volatile SOA. COA shows a similar spectral pattern to the reference spectra of POA from

  10. The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (NCCN are derived using Köhler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated NCCN is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, NCCN may be derived within ~20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition if great majority of particles has an overall κ (hygroscopicity parameter value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its κ from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA and black carbon (BC particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their κ to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, NCCN may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also

  11. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Woody

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model simulations utilizing the volatility basis set (VBS treatment for organic aerosols (CMAQ-VBS were evaluated against measurements collected at routine monitoring networks (Chemical Speciation Network (CSN and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE and those collected during the 2010 California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex field campaign to examine important sources of organic aerosol (OA in southern California. CMAQ-VBS (OA lumped by volatility, semivolatile POA underpredicted total organic carbon (OC at CSN (−25.5 % Normalized Median Bias (NMdnB and IMPROVE (−63.9 % NMdnB locations and total OC was underpredicted to a greater degree compared to the CMAQ-AE6 (9.9 and −55.7 % NMdnB, respectively; semi-explicit OA treatment, SOA lumped by parent hydrocarbon, nonvolatile POA. However, comparisons to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements collected at Pasadena, CA indicated that CMAQ-VBS better represented the diurnal profile and the primary/secondary split of OA. CMAQ-VBS secondary organic aerosol (SOA underpredicted the average measured AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, a surrogate of SOA concentration by a factor of 5.2 (4.7 μg m−3 measured vs. 0.9 μg m−3 modeled, a considerable improvement to CMAQ-AE6 SOA predictions, which were approximately 24× lower than the average AMS OOA concentration. We use two new methods, based on species ratios and on a simplified SOA parameterization from the observations, to apportion the SOA underprediction for CMAQ-VBS to too slow photochemical oxidation (estimated as 1.5× lower than observed at Pasadena using − log (NOx: NOy, low intrinsic SOA formation efficiency (low by 1.6 to 2× for Pasadena, and too low emissions or too high dispersion for the Pasadena site (estimated to be 1.6 to 2.3× too low/high. The first and third factors will be similar for CMAQ-AE6, while the intrinsic SOA formation

  12. Organic aerosol concentration and composition over Europe: insights from comparison of regional model predictions with aerosol mass spectrometer factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fountoukis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx was applied over Europe focusing on the formation and chemical transformation of organic matter. Three periods representative of different seasons were simulated, corresponding to intensive field campaigns. An extensive set of AMS measurements was used to evaluate the model and, using factor analysis results, gain more insight into the sources and transformations of organic aerosol (OA. Overall, the agreement between predictions and measurements for OA concentration is encouraging with the model reproducing two thirds of the data (daily average mass concentrations within a factor of two. Oxygenated OA (OOA is predicted to contribute 93% to total OA during May, 87% during winter and 96% during autumn with the rest consisting of fresh primary OA (POA. Predicted OOA concentrations compare well with the observed OOA values for all periods with an average fractional error of 0.53 and a bias equal to −0.07 (mean error = 0.9 μg m−3, mean bias = −0.2 μg m−3. The model systematically underpredicts fresh POA in most sites during late spring and autumn (mean bias up to −0.8 μg m−3. Based on results from a source apportionment algorithm running in parallel with PMCAMx, most of the POA originates from biomass burning (fires and residential wood combustion and therefore biomass burning OA is most likely underestimated in the emission inventory. The model performs well at all sites when the PMF-estimated low volatility OOA is compared against the OA with C* ≤ 0.1 μg m−3 and semivolatile OOA against the OA with C* > 0.1 μg m−3 respectively.

  13. Effects of ghrelin on Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Li, Xiao Feng; Kinsey-Jones, James; O'Byrne, Kevin

    2009-08-28

    The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the HPG axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of ghrelin-induced suppression of LH. Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and blood samples collected for detection of LH pulses prior to and after intravenous administration of ghrelin (3nM/250 microl) or saline (250 microl) during ad libitum feeding or after overnight fasting. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), collected 6h following administration of ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly lowered LH pulse frequency in fed rats, an effect significantly enhanced by food deprivation. Fasting, ghrelin or their combination down-regulated Kiss1, without affecting Kiss1r, expression in the mPOA, and affected the expression of neither in the ARC. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin signalling in the activation of the HPG axis, the ability of ghrelin to down-regulate Kiss1 expression in mPOA may be a contributing factor in ghrelin-related suppression of pulsatile LH secretion.

  14. Chemically-resolved volatility measurements of organic aerosol fom different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J A; Docherty, K S; Mohr, C; Cubison, M J; Ulbrich, I M; Ziemann, P J; Onasch, T B; Jimenez, J L

    2009-07-15

    A newly modified fast temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) was coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for rapid determination of chemically resolved volatility of organic aerosols (OA) emitted from individual sources. The TD-AMS system was used to characterize primary OA (POA) from biomass burning, trash burning surrogates (paper and plastic), and meat cooking as well as chamber-generated secondary OA (SOA) from alpha-pinene and gasoline vapor. Almost all atmospheric models represent POA as nonvolatile, with no allowance for evaporation upon heating or dilution, or condensation upon cooling. Our results indicate that all OAs observed show semivolatile behavior and that most POAs characterized here were at least as volatile as SOA measured in urban environments. Biomass-burning OA (BBOA) exhibited a wide range of volatilities, but more often showed volatility similar to urban OA. Paper-burning resembles some types of BBOA because of its relatively high volatility and intermediate atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio, while meat-cooking OAs (MCOA) have consistently lower volatility than ambient OA. Chamber-generated SOA under the relatively high concentrations used intraditional experiments was significantly more volatile than urban SOA, challenging extrapolation of traditional laboratory volatility measurements to the atmosphere. Most OAs sampled show increasing O/C ratio and decreasing H/C (hydrogen-to-carbon) ratio with temperature, further indicating that more oxygenated OA components are typically less volatile. Future experiments should systematically explore a wider range of mass concentrations to more fully characterize the volatility distributions of these OAs.

  15. Effect of short-term and prolonged stress on the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus and GnRHR in the pituitary of ewes during various physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, M; Łapot, M; Antkowiak, B; Mateusiak, K; Paruszewska, E; Malewski, T; Paluch, M; Przekop, F

    2016-11-01

    Using an ELISA assay, the levels of GnRH and GnRHR were analysed in the preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk/median eminence (SME); and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of non-breeding and breeding sheep subjected to short-term or prolonged stress. The ELISA study was supplemented with an analysis of plasma LH concentration. Short-term footshock stimulation significantly increased GnRH levels in hypothalamus in both seasons. Prolonged stress elevated or decreased GnRH concentrations in the POA and the VM, respectively during anoestrus, and lowered GnRH amount in the POA-hypothalamus of follicular-phase sheep. An up-regulation of GnRHR levels was noted in both, anoestrous and follicular-phase animals. In the non-breeding period, a prolonged stress procedure increased GnRHR biosynthesis in the VM and decreased it in the SME and AP, while in the breeding time the quantities of GnRHR were significantly lower in the whole hypothalamus. In follicular-phase ewes the fluctuations of GnRH and GnRHR levels under short-term and prolonged stress were reflected in the changes of LH secretion, suggesting the existence of a direct relationship between GnRH and GnRH-R biosynthesis and GnRH/LH release in this period. The study showed that stress was capable of modulating the biosynthesis of GnRH and GnRHR; the pattern of changes was dependent upon the animal's physiological state and on the time course of stressor application. The obtained results indicate that the disturbances of gonadotropin secretion under stress conditions in sheep may be due to a dysfunction of GnRH and GnRHR biosynthetic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural progenitor cell proliferation in the hypothalamus is involved in acquired heat tolerance in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Hara, Toshiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was intraperitoneally injected daily for five consecutive days (50 mg/kg/day) after commencing heat exposure. The number of hypothalamic BrdU-immunopositive (BrdU+) cells in STHA and LTHA rats was determined immunohistochemically in brain samples and found to be significantly greater than those in respective CN groups. In LTHA rats, approximately 32.6% of BrdU+ cells in the preoptic area (POA) of the anterior hypothalamus were stained by GAD67, a GABAergic neuron marker, and 15.2% of BrdU+ cells were stained by the glutamate transporter, a glutamatergic neuron marker. In addition, 63.2% of BrdU+ cells in the POA were immunolabeled with c-Fos. Intracerebral administration of the mitosis inhibitor, cytosine arabinoside (AraC), interfered with the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and acquired heat tolerance in LTHA rats, whereas the selected ambient temperature was not changed. These results demonstrate that heat exposure generates heat responsive neurons in the POA, suggesting a pivotal role in autonomic thermoregulation in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

  17. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  18. Wind speed dependent size-resolved parameterization for the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gantt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For oceans to be a significant source of primary organic aerosol (POA, sea spray aerosol (SSA must be highly enriched with organics relative to the bulk seawater. We propose that organic enrichment at the air-sea interface, chemical composition of seawater, and the aerosol size are three main parameters controlling the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol (OMSSA. To test this hypothesis, we developed a new marine POA emission function based on a conceptual relationship between the organic enrichment at the air-sea interface and surface wind speed. The resulting parameterization is explored using aerosol chemical composition and surface wind speed from Atlantic and Pacific coastal stations, and satellite-derived ocean concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon. Of all the parameters examined, a multi-variable logistic regression revealed that the combination of 10 m wind speed and surface chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chl-a] are the most consistent predictors of OMSSA. This relationship, combined with the published aerosol size dependence of OMSSA, resulted in a new parameterization for the organic mass fraction of SSA. Global emissions of marine POA are investigated here by applying this newly-developed relationship to existing sea spray emission functions, satellite-derived [Chl-a], and modeled 10 m winds. Analysis of model simulations shows that global annual submicron marine organic emission associated with sea spray is estimated to be from 2.8 to 5.6 Tg C yr−1. This study provides additional evidence that marine primary organic aerosols are a globally significant source of organics in the atmosphere.

  19. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw): Chemotype relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Samuel; Carvalho, Ânderson Ramos; Pittol, Vanessa; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Manica, Fabiana; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Oliveira, Luis Flávio Souza; Oliveira Battastini, Ana Maria; Ortega, George González

    2016-08-02

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) or cat's claw is a climber vine from the South American rainforest used in folk medicine for cancer treatment. Its antitumor activity has been mostly ascribed to pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) from stem bark and leaves while the activity of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA) remains unknown. In recent times, the occurrence of three chemotypes based on its oxindole alkaloid profile was noticed in U. tomentosa, namely, chemotype I (POA cis D/E ring junction); chemotype II (POA trans D/E ring junction) or chemotype III (TOA). Consequently, the relationship between the chemotype and cytotoxic and genotoxic activities deserves attention. To evaluate the influence of cat's claw chemotypes on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity against non malignant and malignant human cell line models. Four authentic stem bark cat's claw samples (SI-SIV) and two leaf samples (LII and LIII) were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, properly extracted and fractioned by ion-exchange to obtain oxindole alkaloid purified fractions (OAPFs). The freeze-dried fractions were assayed for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity against human leukocytes (non malignant cell line) by the micronuclei frequency method and the alkaline comet DNA assay, and the trypan blue method, respectively. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of each OAPF was evaluated against a human bladder cancer cell line (T24) and human glioblastoma cell line (U-251-MG) by MTT method (malignant cell lines). Additionally, the isomerization of oxindole alkaloids throughout the course of cell incubation was monitored by HPLC-PDA. Based on HPLC-PDA analyses, sample SI was characterized as chemotype I, while samples SII and LII were characterized as chemotype II, and samples SIII, SIV and LIII as chemotype III. The chemotypes showed comparable cytotoxic activity toward malignant cell lines (T24 and U-251-MG) unlike human leukocytes (non malignant cell line), where this activity was clearly distinct

  20. Micro-Mechanical Modeling of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) on the micro- the meso- as well as the macro-level, i.e. modeling aspects of fiber-matrix interaction, overall constitutive modeling and structural modeling. Emphasis is placed on the micro- and meso-aspects, however, some basic results on the macro-level are also......The paper is a contribution to the course Cement-Based Composites for the Building Industry, organized by POA Foundation for Postgraduate Studies in Civil Engineering in cooperation with Priority Programme Material Research (PPM) in the Netherlands. The text deals with mechanical modeling aspects...

  1. Midiendo el impacto económico del gasto turístico de los visitantes a los parques nacionales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, Juan Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcán Poas National Park is the most visited of Costa Rica, because its easy access, proximity to main population centers and good highways. Between March and April of 2006 product of some intra-crater eruptions, the park was limited in access for three weeks. The study reported estimates the economic impact of the closing during that period. The estimates are the products of a census of the 28 business affected. This type of information and methodology permit the communities to know what took place in economic terms and thus to avoid frustrations in terms of financial gain expected that do not materialize.

  2. Development of a validation algorithm for 'present on admission' flagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Diana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of routine hospital data for understanding patterns of adverse outcomes has been limited in the past by the fact that pre-existing and post-admission conditions have been indistinguishable. The use of a 'Present on Admission' (or POA indicator to distinguish pre-existing or co-morbid conditions from those arising during the episode of care has been advocated in the US for many years as a tool to support quality assurance activities and improve the accuracy of risk adjustment methodologies. The USA, Australia and Canada now all assign a flag to indicate the timing of onset of diagnoses. For quality improvement purposes, it is the 'not-POA' diagnoses (that is, those acquired in hospital that are of interest. Methods Our objective was to develop an algorithm for assessing the validity of assignment of 'not-POA' flags. We undertook expert review of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM to identify conditions that could not be plausibly hospital-acquired. The resulting computer algorithm was tested against all diagnoses flagged as complications in the Victorian (Australia Admitted Episodes Dataset, 2005/06. Measures reported include rates of appropriate assignment of the new Australian 'Condition Onset' flag by ICD chapter, and patterns of invalid flagging. Results Of 18,418 diagnosis codes reviewed, 93.4% (n = 17,195 reflected agreement on status for flagging by at least 2 of 3 reviewers (including 64.4% unanimous agreement; Fleiss' Kappa: 0.61. In tests of the new algorithm, 96.14% of all hospital-acquired diagnosis codes flagged were found to be valid in the Victorian records analysed. A lower proportion of individual codes was judged to be acceptably flagged (76.2%, but this reflected a high proportion of codes used Conclusion An indicator variable about the timing of occurrence of diagnoses can greatly expand the use of routinely coded data for hospital quality

  3. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol – Part 1: Model improvements and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7. Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA, phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA and methane sulfonate (MS are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr−1, for the Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr−1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m−3, with values up to 400 ng m−3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that both Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011 parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The largest increases (up to 20 % in CCN (at a supersaturation (S of 0.2 % number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides

  4. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  5. Final Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowsell, David Leon [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and fuel element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move fuel elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.

  6. Ooaspectz y diagramas de clase orientados a los aspectos para la modelación orientada a aspectos (msoa)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Silva, Cristian; Saens, Rodrigo; Del Río, Carolina; Villarroel, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    En la búsqueda de desarrollo del software modularizado, la Programación Orientada a Aspectos (POA) identifica y representa de manera separada funcionalidades cruzadas en la etapa de programación del ciclo de desarrollo del software. Para las etapas previas del ciclo de desarrollo del software, particularmente, en la especificación de requerimientos y el diseño estructural de los datos y comportamientos, este trabajo propone y aplica OOAspectZ para la especificación formal de requerimientos or...

  7. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  8. Barnacle fouling on reliect foraminiferal specimens from the western continental margin of India: An indicator of paleosealevel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Henriques, P.J.; Wagh, A.B.

    in Pleistocene sediments off the Gulf of Mexico and the Carribean, to plot the location of fossil reefs and note the times of lower water levels. SIDNER and POA~ (1972) also used the presence of this genus as an indicator of changing water depth. This means... Geology, 6, 139-147. SIDNER B. R. and C. W. POAG (1972) Late Quaternary climates indicated by foraminifers from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Gulf Coast Association Geological Society Transactions, 22,305-313. SINGH G., R. D. JosHI and A. B. SIN...

  9. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals in some herbaceous plants collected in urban areas; Indagine sull`accumulo di metalli pesanti in piante erbacee raccolte in aree urbane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusto, Domenico; Pedrani, Fabio [Milan, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell`Ambiente e del Territorio

    1997-06-01

    The amount of some heavy metals [zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb)] accumulated in Lolium perenne, Plantago major, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Taraxacum officinale e Trifolium pratense is reported. The herbaceous plants were collected since 1990 three times every year (spring, summer and autumn) in urban areas in Milan and in one area in the countryside near Monza. In this work the data for the year 1994 are reported. In this year a decrease of the amount of lead compared with the previous years is noted.

  11. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Pristine Aerosol Particles During the wet Season of Amazonia - Detection of Primary Biological Particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Zorn, S. R.; Freutel, F.; Borrmann, S.; Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Flores, M.; Roldin, P.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    The contribution of primary biological aerosol (POA) particles to the natural organic aerosol is a subject of current research. Estimations of the POA contribution to the total aerosol particle concentration range between 25 and 80%, depending on location and season. Especially in the tropical rain forest it is expected that POA is a major source of supermicron, possibly also of submicron particles. During AMAZE (Amazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment), a field project near Manaus, Brazil, in February/March 2008, an Aerodyne ToF-AMS was equipped with a high pressure aerodynamic lens. This high pressure lens (operating pressure 14.6 torr) is designed with the objective to extend the detectable size range of the AMS into the supermicron size range where primary biological particles are expected. Size distribution measured by the AMS were compared with size distribution from an optical particle counter and indicate that the high pressure lens has a 50% cut-off at a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 1 μm, but still has significant transmission up to a vacuum aerodynamic diameter of about 2 μm, thus extending the detectable size range of the AMS into the coarse mode. The measuring instruments were situated in a container at ground level. The aerosol was sampled through a 40 m vertical, laminar inlet, which was heated and dried to maintain a relative humidity between 30 and 40%. The inlet was equipped with a 7 μm cut-off cyclone. Size distributions recorded with an optical particle counter parallel to the AMS show that the inlet transmitted aerosol particles up to an optically detected diameter of 10 μm. POA particles like plant fragments, pollen, spores, fungi, viruses etc. contain chemical compounds as proteins, sugars, amino acids, chlorophyll, and cellular material as cellulose. Laboratory experiments have been performed in order to identify typical mass spectral patterns of these compounds. These laboratory data were compared to size resolved particle

  12. Study on optimization method of test conditions for fatigue crack detection using lock-in vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qing-xu; Zhu, Jun-zhen; Feng, Fu-zhou; Xu, Chao; Sun, Ji-wei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the lock-in vibrothermography (LVT) is utilized for defect detection. Specifically, for a metal plate with an artificial fatigue crack, the temperature rise of the defective area is used for analyzing the influence of different test conditions, i.e. engagement force, excitation intensity, and modulated frequency. The multivariate nonlinear and logistic regression models are employed to estimate the POD (probability of detection) and POA (probability of alarm) of fatigue crack, respectively. The resulting optimal selection of test conditions is presented. The study aims to provide an optimized selection method of the test conditions in the vibrothermography system with the enhanced detection ability.

  13. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  14. The Relationship Between the Signature of Subducted Sediments in Volcanic Gases and Volatile Flux along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T. P.; Zimmer, M. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, A. M.; Cameron, B. I.; Walker, J. A.; Molina C., E.

    2002-05-01

    Volcanic arcs are locations where elements are recycled from the Earth's surface into the mantle. Fluxes of volcanic volatile emissions can vary significantly along a single arc and a fundamental aim of arc-related studies is to quantify these variations and compare them to subduction zone parameters. As part of the Central American arc study, we report N2, He and Ar abundance relationships and N-isotope ratios for 7 volcanic centers in Guatemala to complement on-going studies in Costa Rica. In Guatemala, the arc crust is thicker and older than in Costa Rica and the entire sediment sequence on the down-going plate is likely to contribute to the slab flux. Sulfur dioxide fluxes vary significantly along the arc (2001 measurements): in the Guatemala segment, Fuego and Pacaya emit a total of ~1500 t/day whereas in Costa Rica, Arenal and Poas are emitting only ~190 t/day. The Guatemalan volcanic centers of Amatitlan-Pacaya, Fuego, Moyuta, Tecuamburro, Amatitlan, Zunil and San Marcos have N2/He ratios ranging from 2200 - 8100, typical for arc-related fluids. N2/Ar ratios (40-500) and the high N2/He indicate addition of N2 from subducted sediments or arc crust to a mantle derived component (N2/He Guatemala are in contrast to typical mantle-derived N2/He ratios (160 - 600) measured at Poas and Turialba, Costa Rica. Nitrogen isotope ratios for the Guatemalan volcanic centers range from δ 15N = + 1.0‰ for San Marcos to + 5.8‰ for Fuego (δ 15N air = 0.0‰ ), indicating a sedimentary nitrogen component. The mantle-derived N2/He ratios for Poas (- 3.0‰ ) are consistent with a more mantle-like δ 15N. In Guatemala, the highest 3He/4He ratios (7.6 for Pacaya and 7.3 Ra for Fuego) correlate with the lowest N2/He ratios (1500 and 2100) and high δ 15N values (+3.8‰ and +5.8‰ ). Mixing relationships (3He/4He and δ 15N) suggest that at Fuego and Pacaya up to 20% of the nitrogen is of subducted sedimentary origin, contrary to Poas and Turialba where the slab derived

  15. Analysis of Grid Emission Factors for the Electricity Sector in Caribbean Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Desgain, Denis DR; Perez Martín, David

    by undertaking a study to calculate standardized grid emissionfactors (GEF) for sixteen independent nations or groups of countries in the Caribbean region as a basis to the further identification of mitigation activities such as CDM PoAs or any other market-related instrument to be approved by the UNFCCC....... The study analyses the following topics: – Status of the calculation and adoption of grid emissionfactors for each country in the region. – Characteristics of electricity generation units in thedifferent Caribbean countries. – Application of the CDM methodological tool forcalculating a standardized grid......, studies of the electricity sector in the region and public information issued by electric utilities....

  16. Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells and cytokine profiles in mice with melanoma treated with Uncaria tomentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Iván; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Núñez, César; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Alvárez, Yubell; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Kahn, Laura; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Aguilar, José; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells (DC), Th1 / Th2 / Th17 and inflammatory cytokines on systemic level and/or in the tumor microenvironment of mice with or without melanoma. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood and/or primary tumors samples were obtained of mice with B16 melanoma treated or not with a hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) with 5.03% of pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (UT-POA) obtained from the bark of the pl...

  17. Flora of vascular plants of selected Poznań cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Czarna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 395 species of vascular flora at four rarely used cemeteries within the Poznań city was confirmed in 2010. Apart from naturally occurring species, cultivated species were noted equally. Among species appearing spontaneously between the graves, species new for the flora of Poland: Chionodoxa forbesii, Ch. luciliae, Puschkinia scilloides, new for the flora of Wielkopolska: Bidens ferulifolius, Hyacinthoides hispanica and new for the flora of Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, Veronica hederifolia s.s., were recorded. Names of taxa originating from cultivation are underlined.

  18. Estudo da remoção de compostos orgânicos, benzeno e tolueno, em solução aquosa por processo oxidativo avançado do tipo Fenton

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelista, Zuzilene da Silva

    2009-01-01

    A indústria de petróleo e petroquímica em geral é responsável por gerar uma grande quantidade de resíduos e efluentes químicos. Dentre alguns efluentes, é possível encontrar os compostos benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e isômeros de xilenos, conhecidos como BTEX. Esses compostos são bastante voláteis, tóxicos ao meio ambiente e potencialmente causadores de câncer no ser humano. Processos oxidativos avançados, POAs, são tecnologias não convencionais de tratamento de efluente, os q...

  19. Acoplamento das micro-ondas ao processo oxidativo avançado UV/H2O2 para a degradação de corantes ácidos

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Paquese Fracca

    2014-01-01

    Os efluentes corados ainda são um problema em estações de tratamento de esgoto. Os corantes normalmente apresentam estruturas complexas e difíceis de serem degradadas por processos convencionais, entrando no meio ambiente aquático e causando impacto visual, mudanças nas características físico-químicas da água, prejudicam a fotossíntese do meio e podem apresentar efeitos ecotóxicos. Para o tratamento de vários tipos de efluentes, os Processos Oxidativos Avançados (POAs) são eficientes, rápidos...

  20. Cossack Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cossack Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Cossack Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Cossack Star.

  1. Cadet Evaluation Battery: A Comparison of 1975 Male and Female Scores with One Another and with 1971 Male Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    USAEC, Ft Monmouth, ATTN: AMSEL-SI-CB 1 HODA (DACH-PPZ-A) 1 USAEC, Ft Monmouth, ATTN: C, Facl Dev Br 1 HODA (DAPE-HRE) I USA Materials Sys Anal Agcy...ATSM-TE -1 USAftste~lligence Ctr & Sch, Ft Huachuca, ATTN: ATSI-CTD-DT 1 Intelligence Material Dev Ofc, EWL, Ft Holabird 1 USA Intelligence Ctr & Sch...SonObmoe 2 Navy Mod Nwjmftychiatr Rwh Unit, Sari Ofts INov Elaetroic Lab, Sn Oiego, AlYNt Pea Lmb INav TrnmCon, Wa Wloom. A’Tt Codae WO-UJb 1 NavPoa~t~ra

  2. ORACLE: a module for the description of ORganic Aerosol Composition and Evolution in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A computationally efficient module for the description of organic aerosol (OA partitioning and chemical aging has been developed and implemented into the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-climate model. The model simulates the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from semi-volatile (SVOCs, intermediate-volatility (IVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The model distinguishes SVOCs from biomass burning and all other combustion sources using two surrogate species for each source category with an effective saturation concentration at 298 K of C* = 0.1 and 10 μg m−3. Two additional surrogate species with C* = 103 and 105 μg m−3 are used for the IVOCs emitted by the above two source categories. Gas-phase photochemical reactions that change the volatility of the organics are taken into account. The oxidation products (SOA-sv, SOA-iv, and SOA-v of each group of precursors (SVOCs, IVOCs, and VOCs are simulated separately in the module to keep track of their origin. ORACLE efficiently describes the OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere and can be used to (i estimate the relative contributions of SOA and primary organic aerosol (POA to total OA, (ii determine how SOA concentrations are affected by biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, and (iii evaluate the effects of photochemical aging and long-range transport on the OA budget. Here we estimate that the predicted domain-average global surface OA concentration is 1.5 μg m−3 and consists of 7% POA from fuel combustion, 11% POA from biomass burning, 2% SOA-sv from fuel combustion, 3% SOA-sv from biomass burning, 15% SOA-iv from fuel combustion, 28% SOA-iv from biomass burning, 19% biogenic SOA-v, and 15% anthropogenic SOA-v. The tropospheric burden of OA components is predicted to be 0.23 Tg POA, 0.16 Tg SOA-sv, 1.41 Tg SOA-iv, and 1.2 Tg SOA-v.

  3. Long-term particulate matter modeling for health effect studies in California - Part 2: Concentrations and sources of ultrafine organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Jathar, Shantanu; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi; Chen, Shu-Hua; Cappa, Christopher D.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2017-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) is a major constituent of ultrafine particulate matter (PM0. 1). Recent epidemiological studies have identified associations between PM0. 1 OA and premature mortality and low birth weight. In this study, the source-oriented UCD/CIT model was used to simulate the concentrations and sources of primary organic aerosols (POA) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in PM0. 1 in California for a 9-year (2000-2008) modeling period with 4 km horizontal resolution to provide more insights about PM0. 1 OA for health effect studies. As a related quality control, predicted monthly average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) total organic carbon at six major urban sites had mean fractional bias of -0.31 to 0.19 and mean fractional errors of 0.4 to 0.59. The predicted ratio of PM2. 5 SOA / OA was lower than estimates derived from chemical mass balance (CMB) calculations by a factor of 2-3, which suggests the potential effects of processes such as POA volatility, additional SOA formation mechanism, and missing sources. OA in PM0. 1, the focus size fraction of this study, is dominated by POA. Wood smoke is found to be the single biggest source of PM0. 1 OA in winter in California, while meat cooking, mobile emissions (gasoline and diesel engines), and other anthropogenic sources (mainly solvent usage and waste disposal) are the most important sources in summer. Biogenic emissions are predicted to be the largest PM0. 1 SOA source, followed by mobile sources and other anthropogenic sources, but these rankings are sensitive to the SOA model used in the calculation. Air pollution control programs aiming to reduce the PM0. 1 OA concentrations should consider controlling solvent usage, waste disposal, and mobile emissions in California, but these findings should be revisited after the latest science is incorporated into the SOA exposure calculations. The spatial distributions of SOA associated with different sources are not sensitive to the choice of

  4. Presencia y distribución de micofilas en gramíneas de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugo, Mónica A.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mycophyllas were studied in grasses (Poaceae from natural Argentinian grasslands. Festuca fiebrigii Pilg., F. hieronymi Hack. var. expansa (St. Yves Türpe, F. parodii St. Yves, Melica macra Nees, M. stuckertii Hack., Poa hieronymi Hack.. P. holciformis J. Presl, P. lilloi Hack., P. plicata Hack, and P. stuckertii (Hack. Parodi are reponed as new hosts and the distribution área of the association for Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. hieronymi Hack, var. hieronymi and F. tucumanica E.B. Alexeev, has been extended. The interaction was a mutualistic symbiosis. Most of the species had both the culm parenchyma and the fruits colonized, except in Melica macra. Poa hieronymi and P. plicata, where the symbiont was only observed in the parenchyma. On the other hand, variation in the association was observed in relation to the host species, location and altitude.Se realiza un estudio de las micofilas encontradas en gramíneas (Poaceae de pastizales naturales de Argentina. La búsqueda del simbionte fúngico se efectuó en plantas vivas y herborizadas. Se dan a conocer como nuevos hospedantes a Festucafiebrigii Pilg., F. hieronymi Hack, var. expanda (St. Yves Türpe, F. parodii St. Yves, Melica macra Nees, M. stuckertii Hack., Poa hieronymi Hack., P. holciformis J. Presl, P. lilloi Hack., P. plicata Hack, y P. stuckertii (Hack. Parodi, y se amplía el área de distribución de la asociación para Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. hieronymi Hack. var. hieronymi y F. tucumanica E.B. Alexeev. El tipo de interacción observada corresponde a una simbiosis mutualista. En la mayoría de las especies analizadas el endófito colonizó el parenquima de las cañas y los frutos, salvo en Melica macra. Poa hieronymi y P. alicata, en las que solo se observó en el parenquima. Por otro lado, la presencia de micofilas presentó variaciones con relación a la especie del hospedante, altitud y localidad de procedencia.

  5. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol - Part 1: Model improvements and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, B.; Zhang, Y.; Nenes, A.; Ghan, S. J.; Liu, X.; Easter, R.; Zaveri, R.

    2011-07-01

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS-) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr-1, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS- (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr-1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m-3, with values up to 400 ng m-3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increase and decrease in the concentration of CCN over different parts of

  6. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, B.; Zhang, Y.; Nenes, A.; Ghan, S. J.; Liu, X.; Easter, R.; Zaveri, R.

    2011-11-01

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS-) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr-1, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS- (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr-1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m-3, with values up to 400 ng m-3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20%) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2%) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases

  7. Emission of volatile organic compounds and production of secondary organic aerosol from stir-frying spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Liu, Qianyun; Li, Zijun; Huo, Lei; Chan, ManNin; Li, Xue; Zhou, Zhen; Chan, Chak K

    2017-12-01

    Cooking is an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and a potential source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) both indoors and outdoors. In this study, VOC emissions from heating corn oil and stir-frying spices (i.e. garlic, ginger, myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum (Sichuan pepper)) were characterized using an on-line membrane inlet vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). VOC emissions from heating corn oil were dominated by aldehydes, which were enhanced by factors of one order of magnitude when stir-frying spices. Stir-frying any of the spices studied generated large amounts of methylpyrrole (m/z 81). In addition, stir-frying garlic produced abundant dihydrohydroxymaltol (m/z 144) and diallyldisulfide (DADS) (m/z 146), while stir-frying ginger, myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum produced abundant monoterpenes (m/z 136) and terpenoids (m/z 152, 154). SOA formed from emissions of stir-frying spices through reactions with excess ozone in a flow reactor as well as primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions were characterized using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS). Stir-frying garlic and ginger generated similar POA concentrations to those from heating corn oil while stir-frying myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum generated double the amount of emissions. No SOA was observed from stir-frying garlic and ginger. The rates of SOA production from stir-frying myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum were 1.8μgmin(-1)gspice(-1) and 8.7μgmin(-1)gspice(-1), equivalent to 13.4% and 53.1% of their own POA emission rates, respectively. Therefore, the contribution of stir-frying spices to ambient organic aerosol levels is likely dominated by POA. The rates of total terpene emission from stir-frying myrcia and zanthoxylum piperitum were estimated to be 5.1μgmin(-1)gspice(-1) and 24.9μgmin(-1)gspice(-1), respectively. Our results suggest

  8. Self-cloning in Streptomyces griseus of an str gene cluster for streptomycin biosynthesis and streptomycin resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnuki, T; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1985-01-01

    An str gene cluster containing at least four genes (strR, strA, strB, and strC) involved in streptomycin biosynthesis or streptomycin resistance or both was self-cloned in Streptomyces griseus by using plasmid pOA154. The strA gene was verified to encode streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase, a streptomycin resistance factor in S. griseus, by examining the gene product expressed in Escherichia coli. The other three genes were determined by complementation tests with streptomycin-nonproducing muta...

  9. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  10. COMPATIBILITY STUDIES ON POLYMER/WAX AND POLYMER/RESIN-ASPHALTENE BY VISCOMETRY AND PHOTOMICROGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jinwen; QI Guorong; DING Xinzhe; YANG Shiling

    1997-01-01

    The compatibility of mixtures of polymeric pour point depressants, i.e. poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA), poly(EVA-graft-octadecylacrylate) (EVA-g-POA), poly(ethylene-co-octadecylacrylate) (EOA) and poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (EO-co-PO) with wax or resin-asphaltene from crude oil have been studied by means of dilute-solution viscometry. It was found that each mixture pair is incompatible, but the degrees of incompatibility are quite different, which are in good agreement with the results from photomicrography.

  11. Método para análise cinemática dos chutes de lactentes Método para el análisis cinemático de los pataleos de lactantes Method for the kinematic analysis of kicking movement in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelene de Fátima Landgraf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever o método utilizado para a análise cinemática dos movimentos de chutes em lactentes e testar sua viabilidade de uso, empregando o sistema Dvideow. Para adequação do método, quatro lactentes foram filmados, longitudinalmente, nas idades de um a seis meses na posição supina. O experimento teve a duração de dois minutos, subdivididos em duas condições: treinamento e observação. O sistema Dvideow 6.3 foi utilizado para análise das imagens. Foi verificado que o uso de quatro câmeras de vídeo é mais apropriado para garantir a visibilidade de dois marcadores, simultaneamente, permitindo a reconstrução tridimensional do movimento. Além disso, utilizamos 6 fios de prumo para calibrar o sistema e garantir uma precisão de 2 mm. Portanto, concluímos que a utilização do sistema Dvideow para realizar a análise cinemática dos chutes de lactentes mostrou-se adequada e viável, uma vez que esse sistema é acessível, de baixo custo e de fácil utilização para os pesquisadores em geral.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron describir el método utilizado para el análisis cinemático de los movimientos de pataleo en lactantes y probar su factibilidad de uso, empleando el sistema Dvideow. Para la adecuación del método, cuatro lactantes fueron filmados, longitudinalmente, en las edades de uno a seis meses en la posición supina. El experimento tiene una duración de dos minutos, subdivididos en dos condiciones: entrenamiento y observación. El sistema Dvideow 6.3 fue utilizado para el análisis de las imágenes. Fue verificado que el uso de cuatro cámaras de video es más apropiado para garantizar la visibilidad de dos marcadores simultáneos, permitiendo la reconstrucción tridimensional del movimiento. Además, utilizamos seis alambres de plomo para calibrar el sistema y garantizar una precisión de 2 mm. Por lo tanto, concluimos que la utilización del sistema Dvideow para realizar el an

  12. Influência do nível de habilidade e posição corporal no alcance de lactentes Influence of skill level and body position on infants’ reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RP Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Embora o desenvolvimento do alcance em diferentes posições corporais tem sido amplamente estudado, há poucas pesquisas sobre este assunto, considerando o nível de habilidade do lactente. Objetivo: Verificar como as posições corporais afetam os ajustes proximais e distais do alcance manual de lactentes de quatro a seis meses. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dez lactentes classificados como menos (n=6 e mais habilidosos (n=4 foram avaliados no mês de aquisição do alcance (M1 e após um mês de prática espontânea (M2, nas posições supina (0º, reclinada (45º e sentada (70º. Foram analisados os ajustes proximais (alcances uni ou bimanuais e distais (mão aberta, semi-aberta ou fechada, posição das mãos no início do movimento (perto ou longe do corpo e movimentos de preensão. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de alcances unimanuais para os lactentes mais habilidosos. Os lactentes menos habilidosos apresentaram maior freqüência de alcances unimanuais em M1 (sentado e M2 (supino e sentado. Houve predomínio de alcances com as mãos semi-abertas, exceto para lactentes mais habilidosos em M2 na posição reclinada. Lactentes menos habilidosos apresentaram mãos próximas ao corpo em M1 (reclinado e sentado e M2 (reclinado, enquanto os mais habilidosos iniciaram seus alcances com as mãos longe do corpo em M2 (supino. Lactentes mais habilidosos fizeram mais alcances seguidos de preensão em M2 nas posições supina e sentada. CONCLUSÕES: A posição corporal afeta os ajustes proximais e distais do alcance, de acordo com o nível de habilidade do lactente.BACKGROUND: Although the development of reaching under different body position conditions has been widely studied, little research has addressed this issue considering the infant’s skill level. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how different body positions affect proximal and distal reaching adjustments among four to six-month-old infants. Methods: Ten infants classified as less (n

  13. Desenvolvimento motor de crianças prematuras e a termo: uso da Alberta Infant Motor Scale Desarrollo motor de niños prematuros y a término: uso de la Alberta Infant Motor Scale Motor development of preterm and term infants: using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Candeia Maia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar o desenvolvimento motor de crianças nascidas pré-termo e a termo aos quatro e seis meses de idade, aplicando a Alberta Infant Motor Scale-AIMS na versão brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, comparativo, realizado em Fortaleza-Ceará, entre novembro/ 2009 e maio/2010. amostragem por conveniência, foi constituída por 24 crianças pré-termo e 24 a termo. RESULTADOS: Nas crianças de quatro meses, verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na posição em pé (p=0,014 e, nas de seis meses, em todas as posições (prono, supina, sentada, em pé e escores totais. Quanto ao percentil, aos quatro e seis meses, respectivamente, 37,5% das crianças pré-termo mostraram desempenho excelente e 54,2%, normais. CONCLUSÃO: A análise estatística do desempenho motor grosso entre os grupos de crianças estudadas mostrou diferenças no desenvolvimento e evolução dos percentis da AIMS.OBJETIVOS: Comparar el desarrollo motor de niños nacidos pretérmino y a término a los cuatro y seis meses de edad, aplicando la Alberta Infant Motor Scale-AIMS en la versión brasileña. MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal, comparativo, realizado en Fortaleza-Ceará, entre noviembre/2009 y mayo/2010. La muestra por conveniencia, estuvo constituída por 24 niños pretérmino y 24 a término. RESULTADOS: En los niños de cuatro meses, se verificó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la posición podálica (p=0,014 y, en las de seis meses, en todas las posiciones (prona, supina, sentada, podálica y scores totales. En cuanto al percentil, a los cuatro y seis meses, respectivamente, el 37,5% de los niños pretérmino mostraron desempeño excelente y el 54,2%, normales. CONCLUSIÓN: El análisis estadístico del desempeño motor grueso entre los grupos de niños estudiados mostró diferencias en el desarrollo y evolución de los percentiles de la AIMS.OBJECTIVES: To compare the motor development of infants born preterm and term at

  14. Abundance and species richness of Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Parque Estadual do Turvo, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Aline; Schmidt, Letícia S; Brailovsky, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The coreoid fauna from Neotropics is poorly known, especially in terms of community studies. Aiming at contributing to this knowledge, a two-year study was carried out at Parque Estadual do Turvo, Municipality of Derrubadas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the composition, abundance and species richness of Coreoidea. Samplings were conducted in the springs of 2003 and 2004 (October), and autumns of 2004 and 2005 (May), using beating tray method, along two trails of the park. Sampling effort (hours X collectors) totaled 153h. A total of 282 individuals of Coreoidea were collected, distributed in 28 species of Alydidae, Coreidae and Rhopalidae. The most abundant species was the coreid Cebrenis supina Brailovsky, representing 16% of the collected individuals, followed by the rhopalids Jadera aeola (Dallas), and Harmostes sp., with 12.1% and 11.7%, respectively. The estimated richnesses by Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 and Jackknife 2 indicated that the observed richness corresponds to 70% to 80% of the expected for the area. The estimated richness through rarefaction was significantly higher in spring 2003 and autumn 2004 than in the other periods. There was no significant difference, however, between spring of 2003 and autumn of 2004, and between spring of 2004 and autumn of 2005, for the same parameter. Yucumã and Garcia trails did not differ significantly for the estimated richness. Singletons and doubletons represented 32.1% of the recorded species. Additionally, eight other species were obtained qualitatively by using, besides beating tray without protocol, manual collection.

  15. 草坪杂草发生规律及春季阔叶杂草的防除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学维

    2012-01-01

    本研究采取倒置“W”9点取样法并结合踏查的方法,对廊坊地区草坪杂草进行了为期1年的调查,鉴定出草坪杂草20科53种,其中优势杂草有地锦(Euphorbia humifusa Willd.)、山苦荬(Ixeris chinensis Nakai.)、马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis 'Scop.)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、独行菜(Lepidium apetalum Wild.)、灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)、朝天萎陵菜(Potentilla supina L.)、附地菜(Trigonotis peduncularis Benth.).针对调查结果,选用选择性、触杀型除草剂克草特(10%乙羧酸草醚),对在春季危害草坪草比较严重的阔叶杂草马齿苋和灰菜进行防除试验,结果表明,用药量为100 mL/m2的500~ 4500倍液克草特对马齿苋杂草具有特效而对灰菜防效一般.对新建高羊茅草坪草和已经成坪的碱茅草坪草进行了安全性试验,结果表明,除草剂的最佳防除浓度在1500 ~3500倍;在防除新建植的高羊茅草坪上的杂草时应注意喷药时期最好是在高羊茅的分蘖前期或分蘖期,对于灰菜的防除时期最好选在其出苗期.

  16. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  17. Calcio-ácido linoleico en la prevención de la preeclampsia y la hipertension arterial inducida por el embarazo.

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    Julián A. Herrera M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En 12 centros de salud de Cali, se hizo un ensayo clínico controlado, al azar, que incluyó 91 gestantes primigrávidas, normotensas, con alto riesgo biopsicosocial, una prueba de presión arterial supina positiva y una presión arterial media alta. Las futuras madres se asignaron a 3 grupos: 43 (47.2% al grupo de intervención (Grupo A: calcio elemental, 600 mg, ácido linoleico, 450 mg; y 48 (52.7% a 2 grupos controles [Grupo B: 24 (26.3%, con intervención psicosocial y placebo; Grupo C: otras 24 (26.3% que recibieron doble placebo.] Para comenzar el estudio se hizo una evaluación obstétrica y nutricional, con evaluación prospectiva del resultado perinatal. La edad promedio fue 21.1±4.9 años; no hubo diferencias estadísticas en las variables sociodemográficas. Del total, 20 (21.9% pacientes desarrollaron HIEP; en el Grupo A, 4 (9.3% [RR = 0.22 (i.c. 95% 0.08 - 0.64, p = 0.001]; en el Grupo control B, 4 (16.7%; y en el Grupo control C, 12 (50.0%. El calcio elemental y el ácido linoleico en dosis bajas, durante el tercer trimestre del embarazo, disminuyeron significativamente la incidencia de preeclampsia en pacientes con alto riesgo de desarrollarla.

  18. Phylogenetic evidence for Miocene origin of Mediterranean lineages: species diversity, reproductive traits and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Pablo; Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Heleno, Ruben

    2017-09-11

    A review of 27 species-rich and species-poor plant clades (26 genera) of angiosperms of the Mediterranean floristic region was performed considering phylogenetic and biological data. The emergent pattern is that a majority of the Mediterranean plant clades split from their sister groups between the Miocene (23-5 Ma) and the Oligocene (40-23 Ma), far earlier than the historically proposed onset of the Mediterranean climate (c. 3.2 Ma). In addition, 12 clades of the species-poor group (14 clades) have stem ages inferred for each clade in the Miocene or older, and six clades within the species-rich group (13 clades) show divergence of each stem clade within the Oligocene and/or Miocene. High levels of species diversity may be related not only to an ancient (Paleocene-Miocene) origin but also to recent origin (Pliocene-Pleistocene) followed by active speciation and even explosive radiations - i.e. many species and lineages generated in a short period of time - in some Mediterranean clades (Aquilegia, Cistus, Dianthus, Linaria sect. Supinae, Reseda). In the species-rich group, reproductive key characters were found to be significantly more important for species recognition than vegetative key characters in eight clades, but no difference was found in four clades, and vegetative characters were predominant in one clade (Saxifraga). Geographical differentiation is proposed as predominant over divergence driven by pollination ecology.. We hypothesize an evolutionary process in which lineages adapted to pre-Mediterranean (pre-Pliocene) conditions in relatively small, xeric areas became strongly competitive and expanded when the Mediterranean climate became dominant (Pliocene-Quaternary) across the whole Mediterranean basin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Análisis crítica de los beneficios del parto normal en distintas posiciones

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    Hugo SABATINO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es vencedor del premio Abramge de 2007. Como no hay unanimidad de criterios médicos sobre como deben ser atendidos los partos en seres humanos, el autor estudia el proceso de nacimiento comparando la posición supina con la vertical o de cuclillas, utilizando un modelo teórico con seis variables independientes - Acción de la gravedad; Compresión de los grandes vasos maternos; Diámetros del canal del parto; Ángulo de encaje de la presentación; Ventilación pulmonar y equilibrio ácido básico materno; y Eficiencia de las contracciones uterinas (en el trabajo de parto y período expulsivo - y dos variables dependientes, una materna - pérdida de sangre – y otra neonatal – indique de Apgar al primer minuto de vida. La pérdida sanguínea, medida por la diferencia en las medidas de hematócrito y de hemoglobina antes y después del parto, fue significativamente menor en la posición cócoras-supino (cuando después del parto la madre es invitada a acostarse. La proporción de recién nacidos con Apgar más elevado (>8 al primer minuto fue significativamente mayor en el grupo en el que la posición para el parto fue de cuclillas. E inversamente encontramos significativamente menos recién nacidos con Apgar bajo (0 a 6 en los partos con la madre en posición de cuclillas. Debido a estos resultados, se sugiere que los protocolos oficiales y hospitalarios recomienden esa posición como práctica rutinaria.

  20. Paresia diafragmática bilateral idiopática Idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paresis

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    Mônica Corso Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de um paciente com dispnéia intensa ao se deitar, em que foram excluídas doenças pulmonares, neuromusculares ou cardíacas, cuja investigação revelou paresia diafragmática bilateral. Um sinal chave para o diagnóstico foi a evidência de respiração paradoxal com o doente em decúbito supino. Havia piora da oxigenação e da capacidade vital forçada com a mudança da posição ortostática para supina. A fluoroscopia ortostática foi normal. A pressão inspiratória máxima estava muito reduzida. A estimulação elétrica transcutânea do diafragma foi normal, e a eletroestimulação do nervo frênico mostrou ausência de resposta, permitindo o diagnóstico de paresia bilateral do diafragma.We report the case of a patient with severe dyspnea upon reclining. Lung disease, neuromuscular disorders and heart disease were ruled out. However, during the course of the investigation, bilateral diaphragmatic paresis was discovered. A key sign leading to the diagnosis was evidence of paradoxical respiration in the dorsal decubitus position. When the patient was moved from the orthostatic position to the dorsal decubitus position, oxygenation and forced vital capacity worsened. The orthostatic fluoroscopy was normal. Maximal inspiratory pressure was severely reduced. The responses to transcutaneous electric stimulation of the diaphragm were normal. However, electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve produced no response, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paresis.

  1. Orientações adotadas nas maternidades dos hospitais-escola do Brasil, sobre posição de dormir

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    Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A posição prona para dormir, tem sido relacionada como fator de risco para síndrome da morte súbita do lactente (SMSL. Com o objetivo de identificar qual a posição preferencial para dormir adotada nos hospitais, que orientações são fornecidas aos pais de recém-nascidos sobre a posição preferencial para dormir durante o primeiro ano de vida e prevenção de SMSL, realizamos estudo multicentrico por meio de questionário, sendo selecionados hospitais com programa de Residência Médica em Pediatria. Analisamos as informações referentes a 55 instituições, cuja média de nascimentos/ano variou entre 240 e 11.000 (mediana 2.750. O decúbito lateral é a posição preferencial para dormir (44,4% e a mais orientada para uso domiciliar (67%. Concluímos que, a recomendação da posição supina ao dormir e orientações para prevenção da SMSL, não têm sido realizadas na rotina dos hospitais pesquisados. Entretanto, na alta hospitalar, o incentivo ao aleitamento materno e a importância das imunizações, são enfatizados em 100% das instituições e recomendações sobre evitar fumo, em 85%.

  2. Análisis crítica de los beneficios del parto normal en distintas posiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo SABATINO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es vencedor del premio Abramge de 2007. Como no hay unanimidad de criterios médicos sobre como deben ser atendidos los partos en seres humanos, el autor estudia el proceso de nacimiento comparando la posición supina con la vertical o de cuclillas, utilizando un modelo teórico con seis variables independientes - Acción de la gravedad; Compresión de los grandes vasos maternos; Diámetros del canal del parto; Ángulo de encaje de la presentación; Ventilación pulmonar y equilibrio ácido básico materno; y Eficiencia de las contracciones uterinas (en el trabajo de parto y período expulsivo - y dos variables dependientes, una materna - pérdida de sangre – y otra neonatal – indique de Apgar al primer minuto de vida. La pérdida sanguínea, medida por la diferencia en las medidas de hematócrito y de hemoglobina antes y después del parto, fue significativamente menor en la posición cócoras-supino (cuando después del parto la madre es invitada a acostarse. La proporción de recién nacidos con Apgar más elevado (>8 al primer minuto fue significativamente mayor en el grupo en el que la posición para el parto fue de cuclillas. E inversamente encontramos significativamente menor recién nacidos con Apgar bajo (0 a 6 en los partos con la madre en posición de cuclillas. Debido a estos resultados, se sugiere que los protocolos oficiales y hospitalarios recomienden esa posición como práctica rutinaria.

  3. Venous ulceration results in significant limitation of ankle joint range of movement in adult patients undergoing compression therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Alcayaga Fritis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es establecer que los pacientes adultos con úlcera venosa sometidos a tratamiento con vendaje compresivo como única alternativa, desarrollan una reducción significativa del rango articular de tobillo en el plano sagital en la extremidad ulcerada respecto de la extremidad no ulcerada.Para ello, se trabajó con una muestra de tipo no probabilístico compuesta de 34 pacientes pertenecientes a la "Central de Heridas" del Consultorio de Atención Primaria "Corvallis" dependiente de la Corporación Municipal de Desarrollo Social de Antofagasta, 24 de sexo femenino (Edad promedio 68.3 +- 11.3 años y 10 de sexo masculino (Edad promedio 58.7 +- 16.1 años que cumplían los criterios de inclusión, aceptaron participar del estudio y firmaron su Consentimiento Informado, a quienes se midió el rango pasivo de flexión dorsal y plantar de tobillo en posición supina y sin descarga de peso en la extremidad ulcerada y en la no ulcerada con goniómetro por dos observadores independientes, no existiendo diferencias significativas entre las mediciones interobservadores. Con los datos, se procedió a calcular el promedio del rango en flexión y extensión de tobillo para cada extremidad (ulcerada y no ulcerada y se sometió los datos a un test de Signos Ranquedos de Wilcoxon para muestras dependientes sin supuesto de normalidad, obteniendo como resultado que los promedios de movilidad pasiva entre el segmento ulcerado y el no ulcerado son significativamente diferentes y menores para el segemento ulcerado.

  4. Orientações adotadas nas maternidades dos hospitais-escola do Brasil, sobre posição de dormir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Magda Lahorgue

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A posição prona para dormir, tem sido relacionada como fator de risco para síndrome da morte súbita do lactente (SMSL. Com o objetivo de identificar qual a posição preferencial para dormir adotada nos hospitais, que orientações são fornecidas aos pais de recém-nascidos sobre a posição preferencial para dormir durante o primeiro ano de vida e prevenção de SMSL, realizamos estudo multicentrico por meio de questionário, sendo selecionados hospitais com programa de Residência Médica em Pediatria. Analisamos as informações referentes a 55 instituições, cuja média de nascimentos/ano variou entre 240 e 11.000 (mediana 2.750. O decúbito lateral é a posição preferencial para dormir (44,4% e a mais orientada para uso domiciliar (67%. Concluímos que, a recomendação da posição supina ao dormir e orientações para prevenção da SMSL, não têm sido realizadas na rotina dos hospitais pesquisados. Entretanto, na alta hospitalar, o incentivo ao aleitamento materno e a importância das imunizações, são enfatizados em 100% das instituições e recomendações sobre evitar fumo, em 85%.

  5. Both olfactory epithelial and vomeronasal inputs are essential for activation of the medial amygdala and preoptic neurons of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S; Masaoka, M; Rai, D; Kondo, Y; Sakuma, Y

    2011-12-29

    Chemosensory inputs signaling volatile and nonvolatile molecules play a pivotal role in sexual and social behavior in rodents. We have demonstrated that olfactory preference in male rats, that is, attraction to receptive female odors, is regulated by the medial amygdala (MeA), the cortical amygdala (CoA), and the preoptic area (POA). In this paper, we investigated the involvement of two chemosensory organs, the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), in olfactory preference and copulatory behavior in male rats. We found that olfactory preferences were impaired by zinc sulfate lesion of the OE but not surgical removal of the VNO. Copulatory behaviors, especially intromission frequency and ejaculation, were also suppressed by zinc sulfate treatment. Neuronal activation in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the MeA, the CoA, and the POA was analyzed after stimulation by airborne odors or soiled bedding of estrous females using cFos immunohistochemistry. Although the OE and VNO belong to different neural systems, the main and accessory olfactory systems, respectively, both OE lesion and VNO removal almost equally suppressed the number of cFos-immunoreactive cells in those areas that regulate olfactory preference. These results suggest that signals received by the OE and VNO interact and converge in the early stage of olfactory processing, in the AOB and its targets, although they have distinct roles in the regulation of social behaviors.

  6. Influence of Environmental Changes on Physiology and Development of Polar Vascular Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giełwanowska, Irena; Pastorczyk, Marta; Kellmann-Sopyła, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    Polar vascular plants native to the Arctic and the Antarctic geobotanical zone have been growing and reproducing effectively under difficult environmental conditions, colonizing frozen ground areas formerly covered by ice. Our macroscopic observations and microscopic studies conducted by means of a light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) concerning the anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative and generative tissue in Cerastium arcticum, Colobanthus quitensis, Silene involucrata, plants from Caryophyllaceae and Deschampsia antarctica, Poa annua and Poa arctica, from Poaceae family. In the studies, special attention was paid to plants coming from diversity habitats where stress factors operated with clearly different intensity. In all examinations plants, differences in anatomy were considerable. In Deschampsia antarctica the adaxial epidermis of hairgrass leaves from a humid microhabitat, bulliform cells differentiated. Mesophyll was composed of cells of irregular shapes and resembled aerenchyma. The ultrastructural observations of mesophyll in all plants showed tight adherence of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, surface deformations of these organelles and formation of characteristic outgrowths and pocket concavities filled with cytoplasm with vesicles and organelles by chloroplasts. In reproduction biology of examined Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae plants growing in natural conditions, in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn showed that this plant develops two types of bisexual flowers. Almost all ovules developed and formed seeds with a completely differentiated embryo both under natural conditions in the Arctic and the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn.

  7. Large Scale Explorative Oligonucleotide Probe Selection for Thousands of Genetic Groups on a Computing Grid: Application to Phylogenetic Probe Design Using a Curated Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene Database

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    Faouzi Jaziri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic Oligonucleotide Arrays (POAs were recently adapted for studying the huge microbial communities in a flexible and easy-to-use way. POA coupled with the use of explorative probes to detect the unknown part is now one of the most powerful approaches for a better understanding of microbial community functioning. However, the selection of probes remains a very difficult task. The rapid growth of environmental databases has led to an exponential increase of data to be managed for an efficient design. Consequently, the use of high performance computing facilities is mandatory. In this paper, we present an efficient parallelization method to select known and explorative oligonucleotide probes at large scale using computing grids. We implemented a software that generates and monitors thousands of jobs over the European Computing Grid Infrastructure (EGI. We also developed a new algorithm for the construction of a high-quality curated phylogenetic database to avoid erroneous design due to bad sequence affiliation. We present here the performance and statistics of our method on real biological datasets based on a phylogenetic prokaryotic database at the genus level and a complete design of about 20,000 probes for 2,069 genera of prokaryotes.

  8. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: motion planning with collision avoidance for the on-instrument wavefront sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Edward L.; Dunn, Jennifer; Weiss, Jason; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Riddle, Reed L.; Sohn, Ji Man; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Walth, Gregory; Wright, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be a first-light client instrument for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope. IRIS includes three configurable tip/tilt (TT) or tip/tilt/focus (TTF) On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). These sensors are positioned over natural guide star (NGS) asterisms using movable polar-coordinate pick-ofi arms (POA) that patrol an approximately 2-arcminute circular field-of-view (FOV). The POAs are capable of colliding with one another, so an algorithm for coordinated motion that avoids contact is required. We have adopted an approach in which arm motion is evaluated using the gradient descent of a scalar potential field that includes an attractive component towards the goal configuration (locations of target stars), and repulsive components to avoid obstacles (proximity to adjacent arms). The resulting vector field is further modified by adding a component transverse to the repulsive gradient to avoid problematic local minima in the potential. We present path planning simulations using this computationally inexpensive technique, which exhibit smooth and efficient trajectories.

  9. Social status, breeding state, and GnRH soma size in convict cichlids (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San Amy; Espinoza, Walter A S; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Pakan, Janelle M P; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristian; Wylie, Douglas R; Hurd, Peter L

    2013-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expressing neurons in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in regulating reproductive function through the control of gonadotropin release. Several studies have illustrated the importance of the social environment in modulating the size of GnRH expressing neurons. In the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, the size of the soma of GnRH expressing neurons in the POA varies with social status in males, and with breeding state in females. Territorial males have larger GnRH+ cells than non-territorial males, while brooder females have smaller GnRH+ cells than control females. The lek-like breeding system of A. burtoni is, however, only one type of social system within the diverse assemblage of cichlids. To gain a better understanding of GnRH neuronal plasticity in response to the changes in the social environment, we tested whether similar effects occur in the monogamous New World cichlid, the convict cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus), a model species for the study of social behaviour. Our results indicate that, indeed GnRH expressing neuron soma size, and not cell number, varies with both male territorial status, and manipulations of female breeding state in this monogamous, biparental, New World cichlid.

  10. Genetic sex and the volumes of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell: original data and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jordan E; Cao, Jinyan; Dorris, David M; Meitzen, John

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences are widespread across vertebrate nervous systems. Such differences are sometimes reflected in the neural substrate via neuroanatomical differences in brain region volume. One brain region that displays sex differences in its associated functions and pathologies is the striatum, including the caudate-putamen (dorsal striatum), nucleus accumbens core and shell (ventral striatum). The extent to which these differences can be attributed to alterations in volume is unclear. We thus tested whether the volumes of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core, and nucleus accumbens shell differed by region, sex, and hemisphere in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. As a positive control for detecting sex differences in brain region volume, we measured the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area (SDN-POA). As expected, SDN-POA volume was larger in males than in females. No sex differences were detected in the volumes of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core or shell. Nucleus accumbens core volume was larger in the right than left hemisphere across males and females. These findings complement previous reports of lateralized nucleus accumbens volume in humans, and suggest that this may possibly be driven via hemispheric differences in nucleus accumbens core volume. In contrast, striatal sex differences seem to be mediated by factors other than striatal region volume. This conclusion is presented within the context of a detailed review of studies addressing sex differences and similarities in striatal neuroanatomy.

  11. Comparison of two impression techniques for auricular prosthesis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kasim; Mani, U M; Seenivasan, M K; Vaidhyanathan, A K; Veeravalli, P T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare the accuracy of a new impression technique, the triple-layer impression technique (TLIT), with the conventional impression technique (CIT) to fabricate an auricular prosthesis. Fifteen male subjects (aged 22-45 yr) were selected. Ten markings were made on the subject's ear (super aurale [sa], sub aurale [sba], pre aurale [pra], post aurale [poa], A, A1, B, B1, C, and C1) and five measurements (sa-sba, pra-poa, A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1) were made. Custom-made trays were used to record impression in CIT and TLIT. Impressions were made using alginate, and models were cast with type IV gypsum product. Markings were transferred on the cast. Measurements were rechecked on the models. Distribution analysis of difference in measurements between the two impression techniques and the subject's actual values was evaluated. Sign test was used to analyze the statistical significance. Statistically significant differences were found in measurements A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1 between the two techniques when compared with the subject's actual dimensions (p < 0.01). TLIT was found to produce accurate models when compared with CIT. The TLIT used in the study was cost effective, less technique sensitive, and tailor made to reduce chairside orientation time during wax try-in appointments for rehabilitating patients, especially those with unilateral auricular defects.

  12. Seismic Fragility Curves of Industrial Buildings by Using Nonlinear Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nazri Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the steel fragility curves and performance curves of industrial buildings of different geometries. The fragility curves were obtained for different building geometries, and the performance curves were developed based on lateral load, which is affected by the geometry of the building. Three records of far-field ground motion were used for incremental dynamic analysis (IDA, and the design lateral loads for pushover analysis (POA. All designs were based on British Standard (BS 5950; however, Eurocode 8 was preferred for seismic consideration in the analysis because BS 5950 does not specify any seismic provision. The five levels of performance stated by FEMA-273, namely, operational phase, immediate occupancy, damage control, life safety, and collapse prevention (CP were used as main guidelines for evaluating structural performance. For POA, Model 2 had highest base shear, followed by Model 1 and Model 3, even though Model 2 has a smaller structure compared with Model 3. Meanwhile, the fragility curves showed that the probability of reaching or exceeding the CP level of Model 2 is the highest, followed by that of Models 1 and 3.

  13. Global-scale combustion sources of organic aerosols: sensitivity to formation and removal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-06-01

    Organic compounds from combustion sources such as biomass burning and fossil fuel use are major contributors to the global atmospheric load of aerosols. We analyzed the sensitivity of model-predicted global-scale organic aerosols (OA) to parameters that control primary emissions, photochemical aging, and the scavenging efficiency of organic vapors. We used a computationally efficient module for the description of OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE) of the global chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). A global dataset of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements was used to evaluate simulated primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) OA concentrations. Model results are sensitive to the emission rates of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and POA. Assuming enhanced reactivity of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and IVOCs with OH substantially improved the model performance for SOA. The use of a hybrid approach for the parameterization of the aging of IVOCs had a small effect on predicted SOA levels. The model performance improved by assuming that freshly emitted organic compounds are relatively hydrophobic and become increasingly hygroscopic due to oxidation.

  14. Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions

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    R. Saleh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate light absorption of organic aerosol (OA in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions. The experiments considered residential hardwood fuel (oak and fuels commonly consumed in wild-land and prescribed fires in the United States (pocosin pine and gallberry. Photo-chemical aging was performed in an environmental chamber. We constrained the effective light-absorption properties of the OA using conservative limiting assumptions, and found that both primary organic aerosol (POA in the fresh emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by photo-chemical aging contain brown carbon, and absorb light to a significant extent. This work presents the first direct evidence that SOA produced in aged biomass-burning emissions is absorptive. For the investigated fuels, SOA is less absorptive than POA in the long visible, but exhibits stronger wavelength-dependence and is more absorptive in the short visible and near-UV. Light absorption by SOA in biomass-burning emissions might be an important contributor to the global radiative forcing budget.

  15. Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate light absorption of organic aerosol (OA in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions. The experiments considered residential hardwood fuel (oak and fuels commonly consumed in wild-land and prescribed fires in the United States (pocosin pine and gallberry. Photo-chemical aging was performed in an environmental chamber. We constrained the light-absorption properties of the OA using conservative limiting assumptions, and found that both primary organic aerosol (POA in the fresh emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by photo-chemical aging absorb light to a significant extent, and are categorized as brown carbon. This work presents the first direct evidence that SOA produced in aged biomass-burning emissions is absorptive. For the investigated fuels, SOA is less absorptive than POA in the long visible, but exhibits steeper wavelength-dependence (larger Absorption Ångström Exponent and is more absorptive in the short visible and near-UV. Light absorption by SOA in biomass-burning emissions might be an important contributor to the global radiative forcing budget.

  16. Robust design of multiple trailing edge flaps for helicopter vibration reduction: A multi-objective bat algorithm approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Rajnish; Ganguli, Ranjan; Seetharama Bhat, M.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine an optimal trailing edge flap configuration and flap location to achieve minimum hub vibration levels and flap actuation power simultaneously. An aeroelastic analysis of a soft in-plane four-bladed rotor is performed in conjunction with optimal control. A second-order polynomial response surface based on an orthogonal array (OA) with 3-level design describes both the objectives adequately. Two new orthogonal arrays called MGB2P-OA and MGB4P-OA are proposed to generate nonlinear response surfaces with all interaction terms for two and four parameters, respectively. A multi-objective bat algorithm (MOBA) approach is used to obtain the optimal design point for the mutually conflicting objectives. MOBA is a recently developed nature-inspired metaheuristic optimization algorithm that is based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. It is found that MOBA inspired Pareto optimal trailing edge flap design reduces vibration levels by 73% and flap actuation power by 27% in comparison with the baseline design.

  17. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scebba, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Canaccini, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Castagna, Antonella [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bender, Juergen [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.it

    2006-08-15

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3} (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3}. Significant O{sub 3} effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O{sub 3} induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O{sub 3}-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O{sub 3} depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O{sub 3} when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term.

  18. Hemolymph ecdysteroids during the last three molt cycles of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: quantitative and qualitative analyses and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J Sook

    2010-01-01

    The profiles of circulating ecdysteroids during the three molt cycles prior to adulthood were monitored from the juvenile blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Ecdysteroid patterns are remarkably similar in terms of peak concentrations ranging between 210-330 ng/ml hemolymph. Analysis of hemolymph at late premolt stage revealed six different types of ecdysteroids with ponasterone A (PoA) and 20-OH ecdysone (20-OH E) as the major forms. This ecdysteroid profile was consistent in all three molt cycles. Bilateral eyestalk ablation (EA) is a procedure that removes inhibitory neurohormones including crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and often results in precocious molting in crustaceans. However, the inhibitory roles of these neuropeptides in vivo have not yet been tested in C. sapidus. We determined the regulatory roles of CHH and MIH in the circulating ecdysteroid from ablated animals through daily injection. A daily administration of purified native CHH and MIH at physiological concentration maintained intermolt levels of ecdysteroids in the EA animals. This suggests that Y organs (YO) require a brief exposure to CHH and MIH in order to maintain the low level of ecdysteroids. Compared to intact animals, the EA crabs did not exhibit the level of peak ecdysteroids, and the major ecdysteroid turned out to be 20-OH E, not PoA. These results further underscore the important actions of MIH and CHH in ecdysteroidogenesis, as they not only inhibit, but also control the composition of output of the YO activity. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Advanced oxidation treatment of Abreu e Lima/PE Refinery soil contaminated by oil products; Estudo do tratamento por oxidacao avancada de solos da Refinaria de Abreu e Lima/PE contaminados por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniella Fartes dos Santos e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio Alves da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa, Celmy Maria B. de Menezes; Cavalcanti, Jorge Vinicius Fernandes Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Soil contamination by toxic organic compounds derived from petroleum is a serious environmental problem. Diesel is a petroleum derivative that being used in many transportation is subject to potential accidents and spills. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) which are present in diesel are biorefractory, hydrophobic and recalcitrant, being known to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. The soil is a combination of fragments of rocks, minerals, water, air and living things and is responsible for maintaining the cycle of water and nutrients and protection of groundwater. The advanced oxidation processes (POA) show good results with regard to the decontamination of polluted by oil derivatives. This work used as POA Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}) and photo-Fenton (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}/ UV) via the sodium percarbonate to decontaminate a soil sample contaminated with diesel oil. This work aimed to study the degradation of organic matter contained in the soil, carrying out 10 different experiments in duplicate, following an experimental design. The degradation of total organic carbon obtained exceeded 60% and degradation of some HPA's exceeded 80%. (author)

  20. Daytime and nighttime groundwater contributions to soils with different surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xuguang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Shi, Wenjuan

    2015-12-01

    Contributions of groundwater to the soil-water balance play an important role in areas with shallow water tables. The characteristics of daytime and nighttime water flux using non-weighing lysimeters were studied from June to September 2012 and 2013 in the extremely arid Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China. The study consisted of nine treatments: three surface conditions, bare soil and cotton plants, each with water tables at depths of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m; and plastic mulch with a water table at 1.5 m but with three percentages of open areas (POAs) in the plastic. The groundwater supply coefficient (SC) and the groundwater contribution (GC) generally varied with surface conditions. Both SC and GC decreased in the bare-soil and cotton treatments with increasing depth of the groundwater. Both SC and GC increased in the plastic-mulch treatment with increasing POA. Average nighttime GCs in the bare-soil treatments in July and August (the midsummer months) were 50.8-60.8 and 53.2-65.3 %, respectively, of the total daily contributions. Average nighttime GCs in the cotton treatments in July and August were 51.4-60.2 and 51.5-58.1 %, respectively, of the total daily contributions. The average GCs in June and September, however, were lower at night than during the daytime. Soil temperature may thus play a more important role than air temperature in the upflow of groundwater.

  1. Physiology of immunity in the water flea Daphnia magna: environmental and genetic aspects of phenoloxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucklow, Patrick T; Ebert, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the ecological correlates of immunocompetence in Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera), we tested for variation in immune function in relation to feeding conditions, host conditions, and host genotype. We investigated both phenotypic (environmental dependent and condition dependent) as well as genotypic aspects of the prophenoloxidase activating system (Pro-POAS), which has been described as a key factor in invertebrate immunity. Daphnia magna is an ideal study system to disentangle phenotypic and genetic variation because females can reproduce clonally. Well-fed Daphnia showed higher phenoloxidase (PO) activity than Daphnia kept at a low food level. Wounding provoked a higher level of PO activity, indicating that the Pro-POAS was condition dependent. Further, we found clonal variation in PO activity among four clones of D. magna isolated from four different populations. The same four clones were tested for their resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. High resistance corresponded to high PO activity. Our results suggest adaptive variation in PO activity and suggest that its expression is costly. These costs may influence the evolution of the PO activity level and the maintenance of its genotypic variation.

  2. Test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Questionnaire to detect symptoms of digital ischemia in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Zacharian, Tigran; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2017-06-01

    The Shoulder posterior circumflex humeral artery Pathology and digital Ischemia - questionnaire (SPI-Q) has been developed to enable periodic surveillance of elite volleyball players, who are at risk for digital ischemia. Prior to implementation, assessing reliability is mandatory. Therefore, the test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Q were evaluated among the population at risk. A questionnaire survey was performed with a 2-week interval among 65 elite male volleyball players assessing symptoms of cold, pale and blue digits in the dominant hand during or after practice or competition using a 4-point Likert scale (never, sometimes, often and always). Kappa (κ) and percentage of agreement (POA) were calculated for individual symptoms, and to distinguish symptomatic and asymptomatic players. For the individual symptoms, κ ranged from "poor" (0.25) to "good" (0.63), and POA ranged from "moderate" (78%) to "good" (97%). To classify symptomatic players, the SPI-Q showed "good" reliability (κ = 0.83; 95%CI 0.69-0.97) and "good" agreement (POA = 92%). The current study has proven the SPI-Q to be reliable for detecting elite male indoor volleyball players with symptoms of digital ischemia.

  3. Interaction of attention and acoustic factors in dichotic listening for fused words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Katie; Lachner Bass, Natascha; Dial, Heather; Hiscock, Merrill; Jansen, Ben

    2017-07-01

    Two dichotic listening experiments examined the degree to which the right-ear advantage (REA) for linguistic stimuli is altered by a "top-down" variable (i.e., directed attention) in conjunction with selected "bottom-up" (acoustic) variables. Halwes fused dichotic words were administered to 99 right-handed adults with instructions to attend to the left or right ear, or to divide attention equally. Stimuli in Experiment 1 were presented without noise or mixed with noise that was high-pass or low-pass filtered, or unfiltered. The stimuli themselves in Experiment 2 were high-pass or low-pass filtered, or unfiltered. The initial consonants of each dichotic pair were categorized according to voice onset time (VOT) and place of articulation (PoA). White noise extinguished both the REA and selective attention, and filtered noise nullified selective attention without extinguishing the REA. Frequency filtering of the words themselves did not alter performance. VOT effects were inconsistent across experiments but PoA analyses indicated that paired velar consonants (/k/ and /g/) yield a left-ear advantage and paradoxical selective-attention results. The findings show that ear asymmetry and the effectiveness of directed attention can be altered by bottom-up variables.

  4. The infection process of Colletotrichum graminicola and relative aggressiveness on four turfgrass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Hsiang, T

    2003-07-01

    Detached 3-week-old leaves of Agrostis palustris, Lolium perenne, Poa annua, and Poa pratensis were inoculated with conidial suspensions of two isolates of Colletotrichum graminicola obtained from A. palustris. Inoculated leaves were incubated at 23 degrees C under high relative humidity (>95%). The infection process was investigated by light microscopy from 2 to 168 h after inoculation (AI). Spore germination was observed within 2 h AI, appressoria within 6 h AI, and penetration pores within 8 h AI on all four hosts. Infection hyphae were observed inside epidermal cells within 24 h AI on all four hosts, but significantly greater infection was observed in A. palustris and P. annua than in L. perenne or P. pratensis at both 96 and 120 h AI. Acervuli appeared on leaves of A. palustris at 72 h AI and on L. perenne at 96 h AI but were not found on either P. annua or P. pratensis during the first 168 h AI. The infection process was similar to that reported for C. graminicola from other hosts; however, disease development of the two isolates of C. graminicola from A. palustris was faster or fungal growth more extensive on detached leaf tissue of A. palustris than on other turfgrass species tested.

  5. Effects of environmental chemicals on useful insects and pests. Studies on the aluminium tolerance of some forest ground cover species. Nutz- und Schadinsekten in Abhaengigkeit von Umweltchemikalien. Aluminiumtoleranz von Waldbodenpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Bogenschuetz, H.; Buecking, W.; Hradetzky, J.; Koenig, E.; Kublin, E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present issue one of four contributions deals with the aluminium tolerance of some forest ground cover species. Growth results are indicated for the forest ground cover species Poa nemoralis, Luzula luzuloides, Deschampsia flexuosa, Nardus stricta, Milium effusum and Melica uniflora as potted cultures on sand receiving nitrogen in different ratios of form and in different concentrations, the aluminium concentration being variable in the culture broths with a pH-value of 4.0. Low aluminium concentrations (10.8 mg/l Al) in the culture broths enhanced the growth of all species, some species were adversely affected and showed impaired growth (Poa nemoralis, Milium effusum, Melica uniflora) from high aluminium-ion concentrations (108 mg/l Al), but others had their best growth results - varying according to the form of nitrogen offered - only if aluminium concentrations in the culture broth were high. The species examined accumulate aluminium in their above-ground biomass to varying extents. With 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Embryonic transcription factor expression in mice predicts medial amygdala neuronal identity and sex-specific responses to innate behavioral cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischinsky, Julieta E; Sokolowski, Katie; Li, Peijun; Esumi, Shigeyuki; Kamal, Yasmin; Goodrich, Meredith; Oboti, Livio; Hammond, Timothy R; Krishnamoorthy, Meera; Feldman, Daniel; Huntsman, Molly; Liu, Judy; Corbin, Joshua G

    2017-01-01

    The medial subnucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a central role in processing sensory cues required for innate behaviors. However, whether there is a link between developmental programs and the emergence of inborn behaviors remains unknown. Our previous studies revealed that the telencephalic preoptic area (POA) embryonic niche is a novel source of MeA destined progenitors. Here, we show that the POA is comprised of distinct progenitor pools complementarily marked by the transcription factors Dbx1 and Foxp2. As determined by molecular and electrophysiological criteria this embryonic parcellation predicts postnatal MeA inhibitory neuronal subtype identity. We further find that Dbx1-derived and Foxp2+ cells in the MeA are differentially activated in response to innate behavioral cues in a sex-specific manner. Thus, developmental transcription factor expression is predictive of MeA neuronal identity and sex-specific neuronal responses, providing a potential developmental logic for how innate behaviors could be processed by different MeA neuronal subtypes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21012.001 PMID:28244870

  7. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  8. Monitoring Soil Moisture Deficit Effects on Vegetation Parameters Using Radiative Transfer Models Inversion and Hyperspectral Measurements Under Controlled Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Bagher; Van der Tol, Christiaan; Verhoef, Wouter

    2016-08-01

    Plant-available soil moisture is a key element which affects plant properties in their ecosystems. This study shows Poa pratensis -a species of grass- responses to soil moisture deficit during an artificial drought episode in a greenhouse experiment. We used radiative transfer model inversion to monitor the gradual manifestation of soil moisture deficit effects on vegetation in a laboratory setting. Plots of 21 cm x 14.5 cm surface area with Poa pratensis plants that formed a closed canopy were subjected to water stress for 40 days. In a regular weekly schedule, canopy reflectance was measured. The 1-D bidirectional canopy reflectance model SAIL, coupled with the leaf optical properties model PROSPECT, was inverted using hyperspectral measurements by means of an iterative optimization method to retrieve vegetation biophysical and biochemical parameters (mainly; LAI, Cab, Cw, Cdm and Cs). The relationships between these retrieved parameters with soil moisture content were established in two separated groups; stress and non-stressed. All parameters retrieved by model inversion using canopy spectral data showed good correlation with soil moisture content in the drought episode. These parameters co- varied with soil moisture content under the stress condition (Chl: R2= 0.91, Cw: R2= 0.97, Cs: R2= 0.88 and LAI: R2=0.48) at the canopy level.

  9. Direct photolysis of α-pinene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol: effect on particle mass and peroxide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Scott A; Blair, Sandra L; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2014-10-07

    Primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA) contain a complex mixture of multifunctional chemicals, many of which are photolabile. Much of the previous work that aimed to understand the chemical evolution (aging) of POA and SOA has focused on the reactive uptake of gas-phase oxidants by particles. By stripping volatile compounds and ozone from α-pinene ozonolysis SOA with three 1-m-long denuders, and exposing the residual particles in a flow cell to near-ultraviolet (λ>300 nm) radiation, we find that condensed-phase photochemistry can induce significant changes in SOA particle size and chemical composition. The particle-bound organic peroxides, which are highly abundant in α-pinene ozonolysis SOA (22 ± 5% by weight), have an atmospheric photolysis lifetime of about 6 days at a 24-h average solar zenith angle (SZA) of 65° experienced at 34° latitude (Los Angeles) in the summer. In addition, the particle diameter shrinks 0.56% per day under these irradiation conditions as a result of the loss of volatile photolysis products. Experiments with and without the denuders show similar results, suggesting that condensed-phase processes dominate over heterogeneous reactions of particles with organic vapors, excess ozone, and gas-phase free radicals. These condensed-phase photochemical processes occur on atmospherically relevant time scales and should be considered when modeling the evolution of organic aerosol in the atmosphere.

  10. Photovoltaic System Modeling. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Curtis E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We report an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for modeling AC energy from ph otovoltaic systems . Output from a PV system is predicted by a sequence of models. We quantify u ncertainty i n the output of each model using empirical distribution s of each model's residuals. We propagate uncertainty through the sequence of models by sampli ng these distributions to obtain a n empirical distribution of a PV system's output. We consider models that: (1) translate measured global horizontal, direct and global diffuse irradiance to plane - of - array irradiance; (2) estimate effective irradiance; (3) predict cell temperature; (4) estimate DC voltage, current and power ; (5) reduce DC power for losses due to inefficient maximum power point tracking or mismatch among modules; and (6) convert DC to AC power . O ur analysis consider s a notional PV system com prising an array of FirstSolar FS - 387 modules and a 250 kW AC inverter ; we use measured irradiance and weather at Albuquerque, NM. We found the uncertainty in PV syste m output to be relatively small, on the order of 1% for daily energy. We found that unce rtainty in the models for POA irradiance and effective irradiance to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty in predicted daily energy. Our analysis indicates that efforts to reduce the uncertainty in PV system output predictions may yield the greatest improvements by focusing on the POA and effective irradiance models.

  11. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: motion planning with collision avoidance for the on-instrument wavefront sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Chapin, Edward L; Weiss, Jason; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Riddle, Reed L; Sohn, Ji Man; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Walth, Gregory; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be a first-light client instrument for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope. IRIS includes three configurable tip/tilt (TT) or tip/tilt/focus (TTF) On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). These sensors are positioned over natural guide star (NGS) asterisms using movable polar-coordinate pick-off arms (POA) that patrol an approximately 2-arcminute circular field-of-view (FOV). The POAs are capable of colliding with one another, so an algorithm for coordinated motion that avoids contact is required. We have adopted an approach in which arm motion is evaluated using the gradient descent of a scalar potential field that includes an attractive component towards the goal configuration (locations of target stars), and repulsive components to avoid obstacles (proximity to adjacent arms). The resulting vector field is further modified by adding a component transverse to the repulsive gradient to avoid problematic local m...

  12. Evaluation of the Agricultural Planejamentos for the Subsystem Catolé II and Poço Redondo in the Semi-Árido Nordestino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlin da Silva Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee the reservoirs water use efficiency, because of hydrological uncertainties, has become a great concern for the water resources planning and management in recent years, due to increasing water demands for several uses and environmental degradation, which diminishes the water availability. The objective of this work is to analyze and to compare the performance 2 scenes of agricultural planning for the system of reservoirs Catolé II and Poço Redondo, in the Piancó’s river basin, located in the semiarid region of Paraíba state, through the combination of the optimization and simulation models, both based on sequential linear programming. Each model gets, respectively, from the dry scenario, the performance indicators (reliability, resilience and vulnerability and the settings for an Optimal Agricultural Planning (POA of the system, which is compared with the Agricultural Planning proposed by the State Water Resources Policies for the Piancó’s basin river (PAPD. The results showed that PAPD estimated irrigation water demand is not sustainable to attend during years of drought, failing up to 3 consecutive months, in which the attendance was 20% of the required demand. There were no failing events for the fulfillment of POA estimated irrigated water demand due the reduction of 11,5 % of the plantation area.

  13. Influence of oxidation temperature on the interfacial properties of n-type 4H-SiC MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yifan; Lv, Hongliang; Song, Qingwen; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Li; Wang, Liangyong; Tang, Guangming; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming

    2017-03-01

    The effect of oxidation temperature on interfacial properties of n-type 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors has been systematically investigated. Thermal dry oxidation process with three different oxidation temperatures 1200 °C, 1300 °C and 1350 °C were employed to grow SiO2 dielectric, following by the standard post-oxidation annealing (POA) in NO ambience at 1175 °C for 2 h. The root mean square (RMS) roughness measured by Atomic Force Microscopy for the thermally grown SiO2 before POA process is reduced with increasing the oxidation temperature, obtaining an atomically flat surface with a RMS of 0.157 nm from the sample oxidized at 1350 °C. Several kinds of electrical measurements were used to evaluate the densities of near interface traps and effective fixed dielectric charge for the samples, exhibiting a trend reduced with increasing the oxidation temperature. The interface state density of 3 × 1011 cm-2eV-1 at 0.2 eV from the conduction band edge was achieved from conductance method measurement for the sample oxidized at 1350 °C. The results from Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy demonstrate that high oxidation temperature can reduce the width of transition layer, the excess Si and silicon suboxide compositions near the interface, leading to effective improvement of the interfacial properties.

  14. Quantifying the effect of organic aerosol aging and intermediate-volatility emissions on regional-scale aerosol pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Donahue, Neil M.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Wenjing; Hao, Jiming; Robinson, Allen L.

    2016-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is one of the least understood constituents of fine particles; current widely-used models cannot predict its loadings or oxidation state. Recent laboratory experiments demonstrated the importance of several new processes, including aging of SOA from traditional precursors, aging of primary organic aerosol (POA), and photo-oxidation of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). However, evaluating the effect of these processes in the real atmosphere is challenging. Most models used in previous studies are over-simplified and some key reaction trajectories are not captured, and model parameters are usually phenomenological and lack experimental constraints. Here we comprehensively assess the effect of organic aerosol (OA) aging and intermediate-volatility emissions on regional-scale OA pollution with a state-of-the-art model framework and experimentally constrained parameters. We find that OA aging and intermediate-volatility emissions together increase OA and SOA concentrations in Eastern China by about 40% and a factor of 10, respectively, thereby improving model-measurement agreement significantly. POA and IVOCs both constitute over 40% of OA concentrations, and IVOCs constitute over half of SOA concentrations; this differs significantly from previous apportionment of SOA sources. This study facilitates an improved estimate of aerosol-induced climate and health impacts, and implies a shift from current fine-particle control policies.

  15. Amplification of an MFS Transporter Encoding Gene penT Significantly Stimulates Penicillin Production and Enhances the Sensitivity of Penicillium chrysogenum to Phenylacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yang; Xinxin Xu; Gang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Penicillin is historically important as the first discovered drug against bacterial infections in human.Although the penicillin biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism have been well studied in Penicillium chrysogenum,the compartnentation and molecular transport of penicillin or its precursors are still poorly understood.In search of the genomic database,more than 830 open reading frames (ORFs) were found to encode transmembrane proteins of P.chrysogenum.In order to investigate their roles on penicillin production,one of them (penT) was selected and cloned.The deduced protein of penT belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and contains 12transmembrane spanning domains (TMS).During fermentation,the transcription of penT was greatly induced by penicillin precursors phenylacetic acid (PAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (POA).Knock-down of penT resulted in significant decrease of penicillin production,while over-expression of penT under the promoter of trpC enhanced the penicillin production.Introduction of an additional penT in the wild-type strain of P.chrysogenum doubled the penicillin production and enhanced the sensitivity of P.chrysogenum to the penicillin precursors PAA or POA.These results indicate that penT stimulates penicillin production probably through enhancing the translocation of penicillin precursors across fungal cellular membrane.

  16. A Features Selection for Crops Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Li, Lan; Gu, Xinzhi

    2016-08-01

    Polarization orientation angle (POA) is a major parameter of electromagnetic wave. This angle will be shift due to azimuth slopes, which will affect the radiometric quality of PolSAR data. Under the assumption of reflection symmetrical medium, the shift value of polarization orientation angle (POAs) can be estimated by Circular Polarization Method (CPM). Then, the shift angle can be used to compensate PolSAR data or extract DEM information. However, it is less effective when using high-frequency SAR (L-, C-band) in the forest area. The main reason is that the polarization orientation angle shift of forest area not only influenced by topography, but also affected by the forest canopy. Among them, the influence of the former belongs to the interference information should be removed, but the impact of the latter belongs to the polarization feature information needs to be retained. The ALOS2 PALSAR2 L-band full polarimetric SAR data was used in this study. Base on the Circular Polarization and DEM-based method, we analyzed the variation of shift value of polarization orientation angle and developed the polarization orientation shift estimation and compensation of PolSAR data in forest.

  17. Amplification of an MFS transporter encoding gene penT significantly stimulates penicillin production and enhances the sensitivity of Penicillium chrysogenum to phenylacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Gang

    2012-11-20

    Penicillin is historically important as the first discovered drug against bacterial infections in human. Although the penicillin biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism have been well studied in Penicillium chrysogenum, the compartmentation and molecular transport of penicillin or its precursors are still poorly understood. In search of the genomic database, more than 830 open reading frames (ORFs) were found to encode transmembrane proteins of P. chrysogenum. In order to investigate their roles on penicillin production, one of them (penT) was selected and cloned. The deduced protein of penT belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and contains 12 transmembrane spanning domains (TMS). During fermentation, the transcription of penT was greatly induced by penicillin precursors phenylacetic acid (PAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (POA). Knock-down of penT resulted in significant decrease of penicillin production, while over-expression of penT under the promoter of trpC enhanced the penicillin production. Introduction of an additional penT in the wild-type strain of P. chrysogenum doubled the penicillin production and enhanced the sensitivity of P. chrysogenum to the penicillin precursors PAA or POA. These results indicate that penT stimulates penicillin production probably through enhancing the translocation of penicillin precursors across fungal cellular membrane.

  18. Multiple embryonic origins of nitric oxide synthase-expressing GABAergic neurons of the neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eMagno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical GABAergic interneurons in rodents originate in three subcortical regions: the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE, the lateral/caudal ganglionic eminence (LGE/CGE and the preoptic area (POA. Each of these neuroepithelial precursor domains contributes different interneuron subtypes to the cortex. nNOS-expressing neurons represent a heterogenous population of cortical interneurons. We examined the development of these cells in the mouse embryonic cortex and their abundance and distribution in adult animals. Using genetic lineage tracing in transgenic mice we find that nNOS type I cells originate only in the MGE whereas type II cells have a triple origin in the MGE, LGE/CGE and POA. The two populations are born at different times during development, occupy different layers in the adult cortex and have distinct neurochemical profiles. nNOS neurons are more numerous in the adult cortex than previously reported and constitute a significant proportion of the cortical interneuron population. Our data suggest that the heterogeneity of nNOS neurons in the cortex can be attributed to their multiple embryonic origins which likely impose distinct genetic specification programs.

  19. Microbial Community Shifts during Biogas Production from Biowaste and/or Propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoran Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Propionate is the most delicate intermediate during anaerobic digestion as its degradation is thermodynamically unfavorable. To determine its maximum possible degradation rates during anaerobic digestion, a reactor was fed Monday to Friday with an organic loading rate (OLR of 12/14 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 plus propionate up to a final OLR of 18 kg COD·m−3·d−1. No feed was supplied on weekends as it was the case in full-scale. To maintain permanently high propionate oxidizing activity (POA, a basic OLR of 3 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 all week + 11 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday was supplied. Finally a reactor was operated with an OLR of 12 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday and 5 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 from Friday night to Monday morning to maintain a constant gas production for permanent operation of a gas engine. The propionate degradation rates (PDRs were determined for biowaste + propionate feeding. Decreasing PDRs during starvation were analyzed. The POA was higher after propionate supply than after biowaste feeding and decreased faster during starvation of a propionate-fed rather than a biowaste-fed inoculum. Shifts of the propionate-oxidizing and methanogenic community were determined.

  20. An evaluation of the use of individual grass species in retaining polluted soil and dust particulates in vegetated sustainable drainage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, S M; Bennett, J; Waite, A

    2016-08-01

    A sustainable means of preventing polluted particulates carried in urban storm water entering rivers, groundwater and lakes is by employing vegetated sustainable drainage system (SUDS) devices, or best management practices to trap or biodegrade them. In the UK, a mixture of grass species is recommended for use in devices such as swales or filter strips. However, there is little evidence in support of the efficiency of the individual grasses or mixtures to deal with such contaminated material. A pot-based pollutant retention study was conducted using processed street dust from central Coventry, UK, as a simulated pollutant to be applied in different quantities to a variety of recommended grasses for vegetated SUDS devices. Analysis was conducted on compost cores, roots and shoots for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Street dust mainly concentrated in the top compost layer for all grasses with only the finer material migrating down the profile. Analysis of roots indicated little accumulation, with ANOVA statistical tests indicating significant differences in heavy metal concentrations, with less in the compost and more in the shoots. Development of root systems on or near the surface possibly explains increased uptake of heavy metals by some species. Overall Agrostis canina and Poa pratensis showed the greatest accumulations compared to their controls although Agrostis capillaris syn.tenuis and Agrostis stolonifera also demonstrated accumulation potential. On ranking, Agrostis canina and Poa pratensis were highest overall. These rankings will assist in selecting the best grasses to address pollution of the urban environment by contaminated particulates.

  1. About the use of radon in the surveillance of volcanoes from Central America; De l`utilisation du radon dans la surveillance des volcans d`amerique centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E. [Obviscori, Heridia (Costa Rica); Garcia Vindas, R.; Monnin, M.; Seidel, J.L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 34 -Montpellier (France). Centre d`Etudes Phytosociologiques et Ecologiques Louis-Emberger; Segovia, N. [ININ, Mexico (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Anomalous fluctuations of radon content in soil gases, fumaroles or thermal sources associated with volcanic systems are considered as precursors of deep degassing phenomena. Radon measurements in soil gases were performed for several years on three active volcanoes of Costa-Rica (Arenal, Irazu, Poas), also on El Chichon and Colima volcanoes in Mexico and more recently on the Popocatepetl since its reactivation in December 1994. Data acquisition was initially performed using plastic detectors with a 15 days integration. Since 1993, autonomous automatic probes are used and give hourly measurements. A nine stations network for ground measurements is installed on the Poas since 1982. Radon and Cl{sup -}, F{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} variations of the main crater lake are examined and correlated with the volcanic activity which led to the decay and disappearing of the lake in April 1989. On the Irazu, five stations were installed in 1982 and 3 automatic ones were added in November 1993. Results obtained so far are discussed according to the phreatic eruption of December 1994. The Popocatepetl measurements obtained since December 1994 are presented too. Abstract only. (J.S.).

  2. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios frente à posição do corpo em recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos ao aumento do volume gástrico Cardiorespiratory effects of the body position in premature newborns submitted to the increase of the gastric volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisley de Pádua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O aumento do volume gástrico observado na alimentação por gavagem traz consequências ao recém-nascido pré-termo, alterando indicadores da função respiratória. OBJETIVO: Investigar as alterações no sistema cardiorrespiratório nas diferentes posições do corpo de recém-nascidos prematuros submetidos ao aumento do volume gástrico através da alimentação por gavagem. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio aleatório, tipo "crossover". Foram estudados 16 recém-nascidos de 31 a 34 semanas de idade gestacional e peso menor ou igual a 2.500 g. Foram incluídos os recém-nascidos com 7 a 10 dias de vida, alimentados via sonda orogástrica (fórmula artificial padronizada e/ou leite materno ordenhado no banco de leite do Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Franca, SP de 3 em 3 horas, volume total de 150 mL/kg/dia, sem oxigenoterapia suplementar. Foi utilizado a cada gavagem um posicionamento diferente e elevado a 30°, tal como: lateral direito, lateral esquerdo, pronação e supinação. Foram observadas as variáveis: frequência respiratória e cardíaca, saturação de oxigênio, tiragem de intercostais, batimento de asa nasal e gemência. Estas variáveis foram coletadas de 2 em 2 minutos, a partir de 5 minutos, antecedendo a gavagem e até 5 minutos após. RESULTADOS: O grupo estudado apresentou média de 32 semanas de idade gestacional (desvio-padrão 1,3, peso médio de 1.722 g (desvio-padrão 276,3. Em supinação e lateral esquerdo, a frequência respiratória média apresentou-se com valores mais altos e a saturação de oxigênio média apresentou os menores valores. Em lateral direito e pronação os níveis de frequência cardíaca média foram mais baixos e estáveis. Os posicionamentos lateral direito e pronação apresentaram maior ausência de tiragem intercostal, batimento de asa nasal e gemência. CONCLUSÃO: Os decúbitos lateral direito e pronação demonstraram maior repercussão positiva (menor aumento da

  3. Deorientation of PolSAR coherency matrix for volume scattering retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Garg, R. D.; Kushwaha, S. P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Polarimetric SAR data has proven its potential to extract scattering information for different features appearing in single resolution cell. Several decomposition modelling approaches have been developed to retrieve scattering information from PolSAR data. During scattering power decomposition based on physical scattering models it becomes very difficult to distinguish volume scattering as a result from randomly oriented vegetation from scattering nature of oblique structures which are responsible for double-bounce and volume scattering , because both are decomposed in same scattering mechanism. The polarization orientation angle (POA) of an electromagnetic wave is one of the most important character which gets changed due to scattering from geometrical structure of topographic slopes, oriented urban area and randomly oriented features like vegetation cover. The shift in POA affects the polarimetric radar signatures. So, for accurate estimation of scattering nature of feature compensation in polarization orientation shift becomes an essential procedure. The prime objective of this work was to investigate the effect of shift in POA in scattering information retrieval and to explore the effect of deorientation on regression between field-estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) and volume scattering. For this study Dudhwa National Park, U.P., India was selected as study area and fully polarimetric ALOS PALSAR data was used to retrieve scattering information from the forest area of Dudhwa National Park. Field data for DBH and tree height was collect for AGB estimation using stratified random sampling. AGB was estimated for 170 plots for different locations of the forest area. Yamaguchi four component decomposition modelling approach was utilized to retrieve surface, double-bounce, helix and volume scattering information. Shift in polarization orientation angle was estimated and deorientation of coherency matrix for compensation of POA shift was performed. Effect of

  4. Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA, their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007 ("ROB" and Grieshop et al. (2009 ("GRI" are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements.

    The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3–6 times with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009, both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal

  5. Modeling regional air quality and climate: improving organic aerosol and aerosol activation processes in WRF/Chem version 3.7.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yahya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and climate influence each other through the uncertain processes of aerosol formation and cloud droplet activation. In this study, both processes are improved in the Weather, Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem version 3.7.1. The existing Volatility Basis Set (VBS treatments for organic aerosol (OA formation in WRF/Chem are improved by considering the following: the secondary OA (SOA formation from semi-volatile primary organic aerosol (POA, a semi-empirical formulation for the enthalpy of vaporization of SOA, and functionalization and fragmentation reactions for multiple generations of products from the oxidation of VOCs. Over the continental US, 2-month-long simulations (May to June 2010 are conducted and results are evaluated against surface and aircraft observations during the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex campaign. Among all the configurations considered, the best performance is found for the simulation with the 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05 and the VBS SOA module with semivolatile POA treatment, 25 % fragmentation, and the emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds being 3 times the original POA emissions. Among the three gas-phase mechanisms (CB05, CB6, and SAPRC07 used, CB05 gives the best performance for surface ozone and PM2. 5 concentrations. Differences in SOA predictions are larger for the simulations with different VBS treatments (e.g., nonvolatile POA versus semivolatile POA compared to the simulations with different gas-phase mechanisms. Compared to the simulation with CB05 and the default SOA module, the simulations with the VBS treatment improve cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC predictions (normalized mean biases from −40.8 % to a range of −34.6 to −27.7 %, with large differences between CB05–CB6 and SAPRC07 due to large differences in their OH and HO2 predictions. An advanced aerosol activation

  6. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

  7. In vitro and in vivo antagonism of pathogenic turfgrass fungi by Streptomyces hygroscopicus strains YCED9 and WYE53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, K; Crawford, D L

    1999-07-01

    Disease prevention is a current practice used to minimize fungal diseases of turfgrasses in lawns and golf greens. Prevention is accomplished through fungicide applications, and by periodic thatch removal. During the development of a microbial biodethatch product utilizing the lignocellulose-degrading Streptomyces hygroscopicus strains YCED9 and WYE53, we demonstrated using in vitro plate antagonism bioassays that both strains are antagonists of various turfgrass fungal pathogens. These activities were present when the cultures were growing on thatch, as demonstrated by antifungal antagonism bioassays with culture filtrates. Experiments conducted using a growth chamber demonstrated that a bio-dethatch formulation containing spores of strains YCED9 and WYE53 in a zeolite carrier, provided protection for Kentucky bluegrass seedlings against turfgrass pathogens, including Pythium ultimum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia homeocarpa, Gaeumannomyces graminis and Microdochium nivale. Results showed that by integrating the use of the S. hygroscopicus YCED9/WYE53 bio-dethatch formulation into routine turf management practices, it should be possible to both minimize thatch build-up while also controlling fungal turfgrass diseases by way of the antifungal biocontrol activity of these strains. This in turn would help control fungal pathogens in turfgrass while minimizing the need for routine chemical fungicide applications.

  8. Divergent evolution in fluviokarst landscapes of central Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J.D.; Martin, L.L.; Nordberg, V.G.; Andrews, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Central Kentucky is characterized by a mixture of karst and fluvial features, typically manifested as mosaic of karst-rich/ channel-poor (KRCP) and channel-rich/karst-poor (CRKP) environments. At the regional scale the location and distribution of KRCP and CRKP areas are not always systematically related to structural, lithological, topographic, or other controls. This study examines the relationship of KRCP and CRKP zones along the Kentucky River gorge area, where rapid incision in the last 1??5 million years has lowered local base levels and modified slopes on the edge of the inner bluegrass plateau. At the scale of detailed field mapping on foot within a 4 km2 area, the development of karst and fluvial features is controlled by highly localized structural and topographic constraints, and can be related to slope changes associated with retreat of the Kentucky River gorge escarpment. A conceptual model of karst/fluvial transitions is presented, which suggests that minor, localized variations are sufficient to trigger a karst-fluvial or fluvial-karst switch when critical slope thresholds are crossed. ?? 2004 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  9. Biochars Derived from Gasified Feedstocks Increase the Growth and Improve Nutrient Acquisition of Triticum aestivum (L. Grown in Agricultural Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Trippe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochars are produced by low-oxygen gasification or pyrolysis of organic waste products, and can be co-produced with energy, achieving waste diversion and delivering a soil amendment that can improve agricultural yields. Although many studies have reported the agronomic benefits of biochars produced from pyrolysis, few have interrogated the ability of gasified biochars to improve crop productivity. An earlier study described the ability of a biochar that was derived from gasified Kentucky bluegrass (KB seed screenings to impact the chemistry of acidic agricultural soils. However, that study did not measure the effects of the biochar amendment on plant growth or on nutrient acquisition. To quantify these effects we conducted a greenhouse study that evaluated wheat grown in agricultural soils amended with either the KB-based biochar or a biochar derived from a blend of woody mixed-waste. Our studies indicated that biochar amended soils promoted the growth of wheat in these agricultural alfisols. Our elemental analysis indicated that an attenuation of metal toxicity was likely responsible for the increased plant growth. The results of our study are placed in the context of our previous studies that characterized KB-sourced biochar and its effects on soil chemistry.

  10. Oral habits--part 1: the dental effects and management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mihiri; Manton, David

    2014-01-01

    Nutritive sucking and non-nutritive sucking are among the most commonly reported oral habits in children. These habits generally cease around four years of age as interaction with other children increases. However, prolonged habits may alter dento-skeletal development, leading to orthodontic problems, which may persist into the permanent dentition. Rewards, reminder therapy, and appliance therapy have been described for the management of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits. Reminder therapy includes the use of gloves, thumb-guards, mittens, and tastants applied to fingers. When other modes of treatment have failed, appliance therapy, such as palatal cribs or Bluegrass appliances, may be necessary to prevent the placement of the digit in its sucking position. These tools are very effective and are associated with few adverse effects; however, they must be used with the cooperation of the child and never as punishment. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians about nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits in children and their impact on dental/skeletal development, and management options.

  11. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  12. The Past Didn’t Go Anywhere: Making Music/Making History in Contemporary American Folk Le Passé n’a pas disparu : musique et histoire dans le folk américain contemporain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Levy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que la musique populaire se préoccupe, bien souvent, de façon quasi-exclusive du présent, la popularité de la musique folk ne se dément pas, comme le montre le regain d’intérêt pour la musique bluegrass qu’a déclenché le film O Brother, Where Art Thou?. En effet, histoire, historiographie et présent immédiat se mêlent dans la musique folk américaine, où s’enchevêtrent des formes enracinées dans l’Histoire et des événements de l’histoire immédiate. Ces transactions entre passé et actualité créent ainsi une tradition américaine, qui se définit par sa capacité à intégrer des éléments européens, africains-américains mais aussi plus spécifiquement locaux. Le paysage de la musique folk — en particulier le rôle de la technologie dans ses techniques d’enregistrement et d’archivage — nous offre un axe d’étude historique et culturel unique de l’Amérique par le biais de ses traditions musicales.

  13. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and South Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. (USGS)

  14. Effect of Perched Water Tables on Aluminosilicate Stability and Soil Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mineral stability and solute activities of soil solution extracted from selected horizons of seven studied pedons of Alfisols in Kentucky, USA, and the relationship between distribution of iron-manganese concretions and the restrictive layers were investigated. The results showed that the genesis and development of these soils and mineral weathering trends were strongly influenced by the depth of bedrock and the presence of perched water tables at lithic (limestone) interfaces due to the dissolution and buffering effect of limestone bedrock. The extractable Mg/Ca ratio as depth function and soil depth above bedrock could be used as indices of weathering and degree of soil development. Maximum iron-manganese concretion accumulation was found to occur in the horizon overlying clay horizon (>40% clay) with a sharp increase in clay content (> 10%), which suggested that zones of Fe-Mn concretion accumulation in soils of the Inner Bluegrass Region appeared to be a sensitive genetic indicator of argillic horizons with restrictive permeability.

  15. Aerosol composition, sources and processes during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major environmental concern among all seasons in megacity Beijing, China. Here we present the results from a winter study that was conducted from 21 November 2011 to 20 January 2012 with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and various collocated instruments. The non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 species vary dramatically with clean periods and pollution episodes alternating frequently. Compared to summer, wintertime submicron aerosols show much enhanced organics and chloride, which on average account for 52% and 5%, respectively of the total NR-PM1 mass. All NR-PM1 species show quite different diurnal behaviors between summer and winter. For example, the wintertime nitrate presents a gradual increase during daytime and correlates well with secondary organic aerosol (OA, indicating a dominant role of photochemical production over gas-particle partitioning. Positive matrix factorization was performed on ACSM OA mass spectra, and identified three primary OA (POA factors, i.e. hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, and coal combustion OA (CCOA, and one secondary factor, i.e. oxygenated OA (OOA. The POA dominates OA during wintertime, contributing 69% with the rest of 31% being SOA. Further, all POA components show pronounced diurnal cycles with the highest concentrations occurring at nighttime. CCOA is the largest primary source during the heating season, on average accounting for 33% of OA and 17% of NR-PM1. CCOA also plays a significant role in chemically-resolved particulate matter (PM pollution as its mass contribution increases linearly as a function of NR-PM1 mass loadings. The SOA however presents a reversed trend, which might indicate the limited SOA formation during high PM pollution episodes in winter. The effects of meteorology on PM pollution and aerosol processing were also explored. In particular, the sulfate mass is largely enhanced

  16. Relationship Between a Sepsis Intervention Bundle and In-Hospital Mortality Among Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Analysis of Real-World Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya A; Shea, Erica R; Shiboski, Stephen; Sullivan, Mary C; Gonzales, Ralph; Shimabukuro, David

    2017-08-01

    Sepsis is a systemic response to infection that can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Efforts have been made to develop evidence-based intervention bundles to identify and manage sepsis early in the course of the disease to decrease sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the relationship between a minimally invasive sepsis intervention bundle and in-hospital mortality using robust methods for observational data. We performed a retrospective cohort study at the University of California, San Francisco, Medical Center among adult patients discharged between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, and who received a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (SS/SS). Sepsis intervention bundle elements included measurement of blood lactate; drawing of blood cultures before starting antibiotics; initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics within 3 hours of sepsis presentation in the emergency department or 1 hour of presentation on an inpatient unit; administration of intravenous fluid bolus if the patient was hypotensive or had a lactate level >4 mmol/L; and starting intravenous vasopressors if the patient remained hypotensive after fluid bolus administration. Poisson regression for a binary outcome variable was used to estimate an adjusted incidence-rate ratio (IRR) comparing mortality in groups defined by bundle compliance measured as a binary predictor, and to estimate an adjusted number needed to treat (NNT). Complete bundle compliance was associated with a 31% lower risk of mortality (adjusted IRR, 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.91), adjusting for SS/SS presentation in the emergency department, SS/SS present on admission (POA), age, admission severity of illness and risk of mortality, Medicaid/Medicare payor status, immunocompromised host status, and congestive heart failure POA. The adjusted NNT to save one life was 15 (CI, 8-69). Other factors independently associated with mortality included SS/SS POA (adjusted IRR, 0.55; CI, 0

  17. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  18. 氯盐融雪剂对4种地被植物种子萌发的影响%Effect of chloride deicing salts on seed germination of four ground covers species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬; 周广柱

    2015-01-01

    The effects of deicing salts on seed germination and growth of shoots and roots of four kinds of ground covers (Poa pratensts, Bromus inermis Layss,Coreopsis basalis,Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. ) were studied. The length of roots and shoots of ground covers were also determined in this paper. The results showed that the inhibition effect on seed germination and growth response in the four kinds of ground covers was increased with increasing concentration of deicing salts. Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.showed the highest tolerance to deicing salts, followed by Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis. The critical value of tolerance to deicing salts were 14.69 g/L, 10.04 g/L, 7.38 g/L and 7.31 g/L forCosmos bipinnatus Cav, Bromus inermis Layss, Coreopsis basalis and Poa pratensis,respectively and the maximum value were 21.08 g/L, 16.51 g/L, 14.67 g/L and 13.50 g/L, respectively.%以草地早熟禾、无芒雀麦、金鸡菊、波斯菊4种地被植物种子为研究材料,探讨不同浓度氯盐类融雪剂对其发芽的影响。结果表明:随着融雪剂浓度的增加,4种地被植物种子萌发、幼芽、幼根生长受到的抑制作用增强。4种地被植物对融雪剂胁迫的耐受能力大小依次为波斯菊>无芒雀麦>金鸡菊>草地早熟禾,耐受临界值分别为14.69 g/L、10.04 g/L、7.38 g/L和7.31 g/L,极限值分别为21.08 g/L、16.51 g/L、14.67 g/L和13.50 g/L。

  19. A new source of oxygenated organic aerosol and oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liggio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large oxygenated organic uptake to aerosols was observed when exposing ambient urban air to inorganic acidic and non-acidic sulfate seed aerosol. For non-acidic seed aerosol the uptake was attributed to the direct dissolution of primary vehicle exhaust gases into the aqueous aerosol fraction, and was correlated to the initial seed sulphate mass. The uptake of primary oxygenated organic gases to aerosols in this study represents a significant amount of organic aerosol (OA that may be considered primary when compared to that reported for primary organic aerosol (POA, but is considerably more oxygenated (O : C ~ 0.3 than traditional POA. Consequently, a fraction of measured ambient oxygenated OA, which correlates with secondary sulphate, may in fact be of a primary, rather than secondary source. These results represent a new source of oxygenated OA on neutral aerosol and imply that the uptake of primary organic gases will occur in the ambient atmosphere, under dilute conditions, and in the presence of pre-existing SO4 aerosols which contain water. Conversely, under acidic seed aerosol conditions, oligomer formation was observed with the uptake of organics being enhanced by a factor of three or more compared to neutral aerosols, and in less than 2 min, representing an additional source of SOA to the atmosphere. This resulted in a trajectory in Van Krevelen space towards higher O : C (slope ~ −1.5, despite a lack of continual gas-phase oxidation in this closed system. The results demonstrate that high molecular weight species will form on acidic aerosols at the ambient level and mixture of organic gases, but are otherwise unaffected by subsequent aerosol neutralization, and that aerosol acidity will affect the organic O : C via aerosol-phase reactions. These two processes, forming oxygenated POA under neutral conditions and SOA under acidic conditions can contribute to the total ambient OA mass and the evolution of ambient aerosol O : C ratios

  20. Variations in ecdysteroid levels and Cytochrome p450 expression during moult and reproduction in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Rewitz, Kim; Lund, Torben

    2004-01-01

    and intermoult. In the testis, 20E and E were present at high levels except in Postmoult Stage A, where low levels were observed. PoA was never observed in the testis. Ecdysteroids were quantified in the red and green colour forms of late intermoult C-4 crabs. In both phenotypes, 20E was the dominating...... had significantly higher testicular E levels than red crabs. Ecdysteroid levels were negatively related to CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 gene expression. CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 mRNA levels were low during intermoult and premoult but high during postmoult. The results suggest that E and 20E are involved in both...

  1. Characterization of quasi-phase-matching gratings in quadratic media through double-pass second-harmonic power measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Baldi, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme for nondestructive characterization of quasi-phase-matching grating structures and temperature gradients through inverse Fourier theory using second-harmonic-generation experiments is proposed. By inserting a mirror to reflect the signals back through the sample, we show how it is po......A new scheme for nondestructive characterization of quasi-phase-matching grating structures and temperature gradients through inverse Fourier theory using second-harmonic-generation experiments is proposed. By inserting a mirror to reflect the signals back through the sample, we show how...... it is possible to retrieve the relevant information by measuring only the generated second-harmonic power, avoiding more complicated phase measurements. The potential of the scheme is emphasized through theoretical and numerical investigations in the case of periodically poled lithium niobate bulk crystals...

  2. Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations in Mexico City using the WRF-CHEM model during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol concentrations are simulated using the WRF-CHEM model in Mexico City during the period from 24 to 29 March in association with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Two approaches are employed to predict the variation and spatial distribution of the organic aerosol concentrations: (1 a traditional 2-product secondary organic aerosol (SOA model with non-volatile primary organic aerosols (POA; (2 a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic components are assumed to be semi-volatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The MCMA 2006 official emission inventory is used in simulations and the POA emissions are modified and distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments for the non-traditional SOA model. The model results are compared to the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations analyzed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF technique at an urban background site (T0 and a suburban background site (T1 in Mexico City. The traditional SOA model frequently underestimates the observed POA concentrations during rush hours and overestimates the observations in the rest of the time in the city. The model also substantially underestimates the observed SOA concentrations, particularly during daytime, and only produces 21% and 25% of the observed SOA mass in the suburban and urban area, respectively. The non-traditional SOA model performs well in simulating the POA variation, but still overestimates during daytime in the urban area. The SOA simulations are significantly improved in the non-traditional SOA model compared to the traditional SOA model and the SOA production is increased by more than 100% in the city. However, the underestimation during daytime is still salient in the urban area and the non-traditional model also fails to reproduce the high level of SOA concentrations in the suburban area. In the non

  3. Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations in Mexico City using the WRF-CHEM model during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol concentrations are simulated using the WRF-CHEM model in Mexico City during the period from 24 to 29 March in association with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Two approaches are employed to predict the variation and spatial distribution of the organic aerosol concentrations: (1 a traditional 2-product secondary organic aerosol (SOA model with non-volatile primary organic aerosols (POA; (2 a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic components are assumed to be semi-volatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 official emission inventory is used in simulations and the POA emissions are modified and distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments for the non-traditional SOA model. The model results are compared to the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations analyzed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF technique at an urban background site (T0 and a suburban background site (T1 in Mexico City. The traditional SOA model frequently underestimates the observed POA concentrations during rush hours and overestimates the observations in the rest of the time in the city. The model also substantially underestimates the observed SOA concentrations, particularly during daytime, and only produces 21% and 25% of the observed SOA mass in the suburban and urban area, respectively. The non-traditional SOA model performs well in simulating the POA variation, but still overestimates during daytime in the urban area. The SOA simulations are significantly improved in the non-traditional SOA model compared to the traditional SOA model and the SOA production is increased by more than 100% in the city. However, the underestimation during daytime is still salient in the urban area and the non-traditional model also fails to reproduce the high level of SOA concentrations in the

  4. The Fate of Sulfur in Late-Stage Magmatic Processes: Insights From Quadruple Sulfur Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, N. S.; Ono, S.; Shaw, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    Multiple sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) have recently been shown to be useful tracers of fluid-rock interaction in seafloor hydrothermal systems [1]. Here we present the application of multiple sulfur isotopes to subaerial volcanoes with the aim of unraveling the various processes fractionating sulfur in the upper volcanic system. We take advantage of the fact that the ascent of volcanic gases through a hydrothermal system causes complex isotopic fractionation between the quaduple sulfur isotopes. δ34S is thought to trace the source of sulfur as well as magma degassing; at equilibrium, δ33S follows a mass-dependent fractionation relationship such that two phases in equilibrium with each other have equal Δ33S values (Δ33S ≡ ln(δ33S+1) - 0.515×ln(δ34S+1)). Disequilibrium Δ33S values can indicate isotope mixing and other fluid-rock interactions. The ultimate aim of this study is to assess the use of quadruple sulfur isotopes to obtain quantitative information on the sulfur cycle at convergent plate margins. The sulfur mass balance at convergent margins is poorly constrained, partly because late-stage processes are challenging to quantify and lead to large uncertainties in the global output fluxes. Quadruple sulfur isotopes provide a powerful tool to untangle the convoluted history of volcanic systems. Here we report the first quadruple sulfur isotopic values for H2S, SO2 and native sulfur from arc volcanoes. Fumarolic gases (˜100°C) and sulfur sublimates were collected from Poas and Turrialba, two actively degassing volcanoes in Costa Rica. The gases were bubbled in situ through chemical traps to separate H2S from SO2: H2S was reacted to form ZnS, and SO2 to form BaSO4. Sulfur was chemically extracted from the solid phases and precipitated as Ag2S, which was fluorinated to SF6 and analysed by IRMS. Poas and Turrialba have H2S/SO2 ˜1 and 0.01, respectively. δ34SH2S and δ34SSO2 are similar to gases measured at other arcs [2], - 7.9‰ and 0.6

  5. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7. Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA, phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA and methane sulfonate (MS are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr−1, for the Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr−1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m−3, with values up to 400 ng m−3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2, both Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011 parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The largest increases (up to 20% in CCN (at a supersaturation (S of 0.2% number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming

  6. [Sustained release of the antitumor drug paclitaxel from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-based microspheres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonartsev, A P; Iaovlev, S G; Filatova, E V; Soboleva, G M; Makhina, T K; Bonartseva, G A; Shaĭtan, K V; Popov, V O; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    Development of systems of medicines with sustained action on the basis of biodegradable polymers is a promising trend in modem pharmacology. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (POA) attract increasing attention due to their biodegradability and high biocompatibility, which make them suitable for development of novel drug dosage forms. We obtained microspheres on the basis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) loaded with the antitumor drug paclitaxel. Morphology, drug release kinetics and effect on tumor cells in vitro of microspheres were studied. The data on the kinetics of drug release, biocompatibility and biological activity of the biopolymer microspheres in vitro showed that the studied system of prolonged drug release had lower toxicity and higher efficiency compared to the traditional dosage forms of paclitaxel.

  7. Effect of some improvement works on the floristic composition of the vegetal cover in Nardus stricta grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Maruşca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The study of the floristic composition of Nardus stricta grasslands improved through fertilisation, amendment and re-sowing for 18 years points out a structural change of the vegetal cover compared to the initial state of the floristic composition. During this time interval, the share of Nardus stricta dropped from 40 to 14% in the variants grazed rationally (without treatments, from 40 to 4% in the variant fertilised with NPK and grazed, and from 40% to the total disappearance of the species in the variants fertilised with NPK, amended, and re-sowed. The species Nardus stricta was replaced by high-fodder value species such as Agrostis capillaris, Poa pratensis, and Trifolium repens.

  8. Degradação do fármaco cloridrato de tetraciclina via processos oxidativos avançados

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA, Andrea Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    Com o avanço das tecnologias, a capacidade produtiva das indústrias aumentou consideravelmente, o que tem levado à contaminação das nossas reservas hídricas. Sob essas condições, a escassez da água aumenta e cria um desequilíbrio hídrico. O reuso da água tem sido praticado em diversos países e em diferentes setores. Para descontaminação dessas águas alguns processos têm sido usados e dentre estes os processos Oxidativos Avançados (POAs) têm surgido como uma tecnologia promissora em função do ...

  9. Geographic and molecular variation in a natural plant transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallenback, Pernilla; Bengtsson, Bengt O; Ghatnekar, Lena

    2010-03-01

    A PCR based survey of Festuca ovina plants from populations around the southern part of the Baltic Sea demonstrates both geographic and molecular variation in the enzyme gene PgiC2, horizontally transferred from a Poa-species. Our results show that PgiC2-a natural functional nuclear transgene-is not a local ephemeral phenomenon but is present in a very large number of individuals. We find also that its frequency is geographically variable and that it appears in more than one molecular form. The chloroplast variation in the region does not indicate any distinct subdivision due to different colonization routes after the last glaciation. Our data illustrate the geographic and molecular variation that may occur in natural populations with a polymorphic, unfixed transgene affected by diverse kinds of mutational and evolutionary processes.

  10. 开放系统中实时中间件关键技术研究%Research on the Key Technology of Real-Time Middleware in Open System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭舰; 俞岭; 董鹏; 刘锦德

    2003-01-01

    The Real-Time Middleware is the best way to deal with open and real-time in the same time in open system. In this paper, the characteristic of open system, the policy of real-time implement in open system and the real-time CORBA specification and development are introduced, then the key technology of real-time CORBA in open system is discussed in detail according to the model of real-time CORBA including the technology of the real-time POA, real-time ORB, thread pool, pluggable network protocol, multiplexing and demultiplexing and presentation layer optimizations etc, which provides a viable method and research for open system real-time extension.

  11. Forage as a primary source of mycotoxins in animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skládanka, Jiří; Nedělník, Jan; Adam, Vojtěch; Doležal, Petr; Moravcová, Hana; Dohnal, Vlastimil

    2011-01-01

    The issue of moulds and, thus, contamination with mycotoxins is very topical, particularly in connexion with forages from grass stands used at the end of the growing season. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and aflatoxins (AFL) are among the most common mycotoxins. The aim of the paper was to determine concentrations of mycotoxins in selected grasses (Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare, Festulolium braunii) and their mixtures with Festuca rubra an/or Poa pratensis during the growing season as a marker of grass safety, which was assessed according to content of the aforementioned mycotoxins. During the growing season grass forage was contaminated with mycotoxins, most of all by DON and ZEA. The contents of AFL and FUM were zero or below the limit of quantification. Moreover, the level of the occurrence of mould was quantified as ergosterol content, which was higher at the specific date of cut. All results were statistically processed and significant changes were discussed.

  12. Social rank modulates brain arginine vasotocin immunoreactivity in false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Eri; Nagai, Yukiko; Sasaki, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    The brain nanopeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its mammalian homolog arginine vasopressin are involved in the regulation of social and reproductive behavior. We investigated the relationship between social rank formation and the brain AVT system in the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris), which forms a social rank that leads to sex differentiation in higher-ranked individuals. Tanks of three sexually immature fish were kept for 90 days and each fish's behavior was observed once a month. The social rank of each individual was distinguishable by behavior, but gonadosomatic index (GSI) did not differ significantly. The number of AVT neurons in the magnocellular layer in the preoptic area (POA) increased in subordinate individuals and declined with increasing hierarchical dominance. These results suggest that social rank formation modulates AVT production in the brain of the clown anemonefish and may influence their later sex differentiation.

  13. Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weed species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997 a study of spatial distribution of most important weeds in apple orchard herbicide strips was performed. This study was continued in 1998, once the trees were cut down. As the time progressed, Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn., Chenopodium album L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Atriplex patulum L. showed an increase in their occurrence. An opposite tendency was found with Erigeron canadensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Taraxacum fficinale Web. Some species grew in patches (Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenopodium album L., Atriplex patulum L., while the others appeared sporadically throughout the orchard. In 1998, the decrease of occurrence of Epilobium Haussk. was observed. Simultaneously, this was coupled with an increase of occurrence of Taraxacum officinale Web., Erigeron caanadensis L. and Chenopodium album L. The predominating species in 1998 was Cerastium vulgatum L., followed by Lolium perenne L., Poa annua L. and Bromus mollis L.

  14. Vulnerability Assessment of Building Frames Subjected to Progressive Collapse Caused by Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nazri Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse is an initial local failure of the structural component and leading to the additional collapse of the building frames. This study investigated the vulnerability of four- and six-storey moment resisting concrete frame (MRCF buildings subjected to progressive collapse. The four- and six-storey MRCF buildings were designed based on British Standard (BS and Eurocode (EC. The differences between these two codes were investigated. Nonlinear static analysis, which is also known as pushover analysis (POA, and nonlinear dynamic analysis or incremental dynamic analysis (IDA, were performed for each model to obtain capacity curve and explore vulnerability measures. IDA was conducted using a sample of ground motion from an earthquake that occurred in Ranau, Sabah in 2015. The four-storey building was more vulnerable than the six-storey building.

  15. Diagnosing Model Errors in Simulations of Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-01

    Transposition models have been widely used in the solar energy industry to simulate solar radiation on inclined PV panels. Following numerous studies comparing the performance of transposition models, this paper aims to understand the quantitative uncertainty in the state-of-the-art transposition models and the sources leading to the uncertainty. Our results suggest that an isotropic transposition model developed by Badescu substantially underestimates diffuse plane-of-array (POA) irradiances when diffuse radiation is perfectly isotropic. In the empirical transposition models, the selection of empirical coefficients and land surface albedo can both result in uncertainty in the output. This study can be used as a guide for future development of physics-based transposition models.

  16. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...... drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes...... maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticide application in meadow-grass every year....

  17. Phytolith assemblages in grasses native to central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Lucrecia; Distel, Roberto A

    2004-12-01

    Phytolith reference collections are a prerequisite for accurate interpretation of soil phytolith assemblages aimed at reconstructing past vegetation. In this study a phytolith reference collection has been developed for several grasses native to central Argentina: Poa ligularis, Piptochaetium napostaense, Stipa clarazii, Stipa tenuis, Stipa tenuissima, Stipa eriostachya, Stipa ambigua, Stipa brachychaeta, Pappophorum subbulbosum, Digitaria californica, Bothriochloa edwardsiana and Aristida subulata. For each species, phytoliths present in the leaf blades were classified into 47 morphotypes, and their relative frequency determined by observing 300-400 phytoliths per sample (n = 5). Data were analyzed by complete linkage cluster analysis, using the Morisita Index as measure of association. The results showed differentiation among phytolith assemblages at species level or at plant functional type level. Cluster analysis separated C3 from C4 species and palatable from non-palatable species. This study highlights the possibility of reconstructing past vegetation in central Argentina grasslands through the analysis of soil phytolith assemblages.

  18. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  19. Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PMCAMx-2008, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, was applied in Europe to quantify the changes in fine particle (PM2.5 concentration in response to different emission reductions as well as to temperature increase. A summer and a winter simulation period were used, to investigate the seasonal dependence of the PM2.5 response to 50% reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, nitrogen oxides (NOx, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA emissions and also to temperature increases of 2.5 and 5 K. Reduction of NH3 emissions seems to be the most effective control strategy for reducing PM2.5, in both periods, resulting in a decrease of PM2.5 up to 5.1 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 (5.5% and 4% on average during summer and winter respectively, mainly due to reduction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 (20% on average in both periods. The reduction of SO2 emissions decreases PM2.5 in both periods having a significant effect over the Balkans (up to 1.6 μg m−3 during the modeled summer period, mainly due to decrease of sulfate (34% on average over the Balkans. The anthropogenic POA control strategy reduces total OA by 15% during the modeled winter period and 8% in the summer period. The reduction of total OA is higher in urban areas close to its emissions sources. A slight decrease of OA (8% in the modeled summer period and 4% in the modeled winter period is also predicted after a 50% reduction of VOCs emissions due to the decrease of anthropogenic SOA. The reduction of NOx emissions reduces PM2.5 (up to 3.4 μg m−3 during the summer period, due to a decrease of NH4NO3, causing although an increase of ozone concentration in major urban areas and over Western Europe. Additionally, the NOx control strategy actually increases PM2.5 levels during the winter period, due to more oxidants becoming available to react with SO2 and VOCs. The increase of temperature results in a decrease of PM2

  20. Spatial correlation between weed species densities and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Mette; Christensen, Svend; Simmelsgaard, Svend Erik

    2002-01-01

    -correlated with the phosphorus content in the soil in all years. The density of Veronica spp. and Poa annua L. was negatively cross-correlated with pH in all three years. Other spatial cross-correlations that were found in this study were inconsistent over time or field site. The densities of some of the weed species were......The spatial cross-correlation between weed species densities and six soil properties within fields was analysed using cross-semivariograms. The survey was carried out in three successive years in two fields. The most consistent relationship between weed species density (numbers m−2) and soil...... spatially cross-correlated with more than one soil property. The results showed that the range of spatial dependence varied not only between fields, but also between weed species and soil properties, as well as between years. This study indicates that the weed pattern is field-specific and that the spatial...

  1. Diagnosing Model Errors in Simulation of Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-11-21

    Transposition models have been widely used in the solar energy industry to simulate solar radiation on inclined PV panels. Following numerous studies comparing the performance of transposition models, this paper aims to understand the quantitative uncertainty in the state-of-the-art transposition models and the sources leading to the uncertainty. Our results show significant differences between two highly used isotropic transposition models with one substantially underestimating the diffuse plane-of-array (POA) irradiances when diffuse radiation is perfectly isotropic. In the empirical transposition models, the selection of empirical coefficients and land surface albedo can both result in uncertainty in the output. This study can be used as a guide for future development of physics-based transposition models.

  2. Dicty_cDB: SFE635 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DV96 5' end, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CK274650 |CK274650.1 EST720728 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sol...anum tuberosum cDNA clone POADI58 5' end, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CK264458 |CK264458.1 EST710536 potato abiotic...nce. 74 3e-09 1 CK264457 |CK264457.1 EST710535 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberosum cDNA clo... Dictyostelium discoideum protein disulfide isomerase (dis) mRNA, complete cds. 1140 0.0 2 CK276824 |CK276824.1 EST722902 potato abio...tic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone POA

  3. Causation and prediction in epidemiology: a guide to the "methodological revolution".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Alex

    2015-12-01

    There is an ongoing "methodological revolution" in epidemiology, according to some commentators. The revolution is prompted by the development of a conceptual framework for thinking about causation here referred to as the Potential Outcomes Approach (POA), and the mathematical apparatus of directed acyclic graphs that accompanies it. But over and above the mathematics, a number of striking theses about causation are evident, for example: that a cause is something that makes a difference; that a cause is something that humans can intervene on; and that causal knowledge enables one to predict under hypothetical suppositions. This is especially remarkable in a discipline that has variously identified factors such as race and sex as determinants of health, since it has the consequence that factors of this kind cannot be treated as causes either as usefully or as meaningfully as was previously supposed. In this paper I seek to explain the significance of this movement in epidemiology, to understand its commitments, and to evaluate them.

  4. Molecular view modeling of atmospheric organic particulate matter: Incorporating molecular structure and co-condensation of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.; Marks, Marguerite C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Asher, William E.; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Most urban and regional models used to predict levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) are based on fundamental equations for gas/particle partitioning, but make the highly simplifying, anonymized-view (AV) assumptions that OPM levels are not affected by either: a) the molecular characteristics of the condensing organic compounds (other than simple volatility); or b) co-condensation of water as driven by non-zero relative humidity (RH) values. The simplifying assumptions have allowed parameterized chamber results for formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g., ;two-product; (2p) coefficients) to be incorporated in chemical transport models. However, a return towards a less simplistic (and more computationally demanding) molecular view (MV) is needed that acknowledges that atmospheric OPM is a mixture of organic compounds with differing polarities, water, and in some cases dissolved salts. The higher computational cost of MV modeling results from a need for iterative calculations of the composition-dependent gas/particle partition coefficient values. MV modeling of OPM that considered water uptake (but not dissolved salts) was carried out for the southeast United States for the period August 29 through September 7, 2006. Three model variants were used at three universities: CMAQ-RH-2p (at PSU), UCD/CIT-RH-2p (at UCD), and CMAQ-RH-MCM (at TAMU). With the first two, MV structural characteristics (carbon number and numbers of functional groups) were assigned to each of the 2p products used in CMAQv.4.7.1 such that resulting predicted Kp,i values matched those in CMAQv.4.7.1. When water uptake was allowed, most runs assumed that uptake occurred only into the SOA portion, and imposed immiscibility of SOA with primary organic aerosol (POA). (POA is often viewed as rather non-polar, while SOA is commonly viewed as moderately-to-rather polar. Some runs with UCD/CIT-RH-2p were used to investigate the effects of POA/SOA miscibility.) CMAQ-RH-MCM used MCM to

  5. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen and precursor aniline impairs masculinisation of male brain and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Finkielman, Olivia T. Ejlstrup; Jensen, Benjamin A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and...... neurobehavioral programming. These findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting the need to limit the widespread exposure and use of APAP by pregnant women....... and precursor of APAP, aniline, resulted in a similar reduction. Decrease in neuronal number in the SDN-POA is associated with reductions in male sexual behaviour. Consistent with the changes, male mice exposed in uteri to APAP exhibited changes in urinary marking behaviour as adults and had a less aggressive...

  6. A sunblock based on bioadhesive nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Ediriwickrema, Asiri; Yang, Fan; Lewis, Julia; Girardi, Michael; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2015-12-01

    The majority of commercial sunblock preparations use organic or inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filters. Despite protecting against cutaneous phototoxicity, direct cellular exposure to UV filters has raised a variety of health concerns. Here, we show that the encapsulation of padimate O (PO)--a model UV filter--in bioadhesive nanoparticles (BNPs) prevents epidermal cellular exposure to UV filters while enhancing UV protection. BNPs are readily suspended in water, facilitate adherence to the stratum corneum without subsequent intra-epidermal or follicular penetration, and their interaction with skin is water resistant yet the particles can be removed via active towel drying. Although the sunblock based on BNPs contained less than 5 wt% of the UV-filter concentration found in commercial standards, the anti-UV effect was comparable when tested in two murine models. Moreover, the BNP-based sunblock significantly reduced double-stranded DNA breaks when compared with a commercial sunscreen formulation.

  7. Phytostabilisation-A Sustainable Remediation Technique for Zinc in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems (Canada); Li, Loretta, E-mail: lli@civil.ubc.c [University of British Columbia, Department of Civil Engineering (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Two studies were conducted to determine a feasible and practical phytoremediation strategy for Zn-contaminated soils. The aim of the first study was to identify promising plant species capable of Zn remediation for the soils and climatic conditions of British Columbia. The purpose of the second study was to assess the effects of soil amendments in modifying the soil properties and providing the right conditions for the plants to immobilise Zn. Promising plants for phytostabilisation in the first study (Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis) were tested in the presence of soil amendments (lime, phosphate and compost, both individually and in combination) in the second study. The efficiency of treatments to stabilise Zn was based on Zn fractionation in the soil and on absorption and partitioning of Zn in plants. Maximum Zn immobilisation was achieved in the soil by a combination of lime, phosphate and compost, in conjunction with growth of P. pratensis.

  8. More than zero tolerance? Burnout and tolerance for patient aggression amongst mental health nurses in China and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, R; Higgins, L

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine attitudes toward patient aggressive behaviour amongst mental health nurses in China and the UK and the relationship between these attitudes and burnout. The UK government policy of 'zero tolerance' of patient aggression may conflict with practitioner attitudes and could potentially increase the risk of aggression occurring. Two surveys of mental health nurses were conducted, one in the People's Republic of China and one in the UK using the Perceptions of Aggression Scale (POAS). The UK sample also completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Some nurses in both groups agreed that patient aggression could sometimes have positive benefits. A sense of personal accomplishment at work (MBI) was significantly associated with a tendency to endorse positive statements about aggression. Nurses seem to have a complex set of attitudes toward this issue that do not simply equate with 'zero tolerance'.

  9. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa [Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, LAQAT-UNA, Universidad Nacional, P.O. Box 86-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Black, Paleah [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, P.O. Box 450 Station A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, David, E-mail: drslean@gmail.com [P.O. Box 309, Apsley, Ontario, K0L 1A0 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. {yields} With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m{sup -3}. {yields} During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. {yields} We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. {yields} With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean

  10. Effect of deicing salts on seed germination and growth of three cool-season turfgrass species%融雪剂对3种冷季型草坪草种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张营; 李法云; 荣湘民; 孙婷婷; 李霞; 程志辉

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two typical deicing salts (mass concentration of NaCl in No. 1 deicing salt was 45.2%, in No. 2 deicing salt 54.6% ) on seed germination and growth of shoots and roots of three kinds of cool-season turfgrasses (Poa pratensis cv. Merit, Lolium perenne cv. Green Emerald and Trifolium repens cv. Riverdel) were studied. The length of roots and shoots, relative water content, relative permeability of plasma membrane, malondialdehyd (MDA) content and peroxidases(POD) activity of turfgrass seedlings were also determined in this paper. The results showed that the inhibition effect on seed germination and growth response in the three kinds of turfgrasses was increased with increasing concentration of deicing salts. Compared with No. 1 deicing salt, the inhibition effect of No. 2 deicing salt was stronger. Lolium perenne showed the highest tolerance to deicing salts, followed by Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens. The critical value of tolerance to deicing salts were 6.25-9.61 g/L, 4.99-6.17 g/L and 1.97-3.11 g/L for Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens, respectively and the maximum value were 12.89-16.85 g/L, 9.79-12.62 g/L and 5.71-8.26 g/L, respectively. The deicing salts mainly inhibited water absorption, disturbed membrane function and induced MDA accumulation via the effect of osmotic and ion toxicity, and POD enzyme of the three kinds of turfgrass seedlings provided some protection against the dcicing salt stress.%以早熟禾(Poa pratensis cv.Merit)、黑麦草(Lolium perenne cv.Green Emerald)和白三叶(Trifolium repens cv.Riverdel)3种冷季型草坪草为材料,探讨2种典型融雪剂(1号融雪剂含NaCl 45.2%,2号融雪剂含NaCl54.6%)对其种子萌发、幼芽和幼根生长的影响,并测定幼苗生长过程中含水量、质膜相对透性、丙二醛含量及过氧化物酶(POD)活性.结果表明:随着融雪剂浓度的增加,3种草坪草种子萌发和幼苗生长受到的抑制作用增强,2号融雪剂对草坪

  11. Tratamento eletroquímico de água produzida sintética para remoção de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Juliana Patrícia Souza Duarte

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho é dirigido ao tratamento de água produzida de petróleo usando uma tecnologia eletroquímica. A água produzida é um dos principais resíduos gerados durante o processo de exploração e produção na indústria petrolífera, onde corresponde a 98 % de todos os efluentes gerados. Várias metodologias estão sendo estudadas visando o tratamento desse efluente, dentre elas estão os processos biológicos, os processos de oxidação avançados (POAs), tratamentos eletroquímicos como eletrooxi...

  12. Climate Change mitigation opportunities in the Energy sector for the Caribbean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doral, Wenceslao Carrera; Chinchilla, Oscar Coto; Delgado, Ivan Relova

    The “Climate change mitigation opportunities in the energy sector for the Caribbean region” has been prepared as part of the implementation of the Caribbean Regional Subcomponent of the MEAs Program for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP MEAs)1. The study has being executed...... in the region interested in linking energyclimate change benefits as part of the on-going and future scaling up efforts for Renewable Energy (RE) dissemination in the Caribbean. The study is based on an analysis of the mitigation potential in 16 countries in the Caribbean Region, due to the interconnection...... in the CDM in the region and narrows on some of the perceived institutional challenges, especially from the perspective of Programme of Activities (CDM PoA) development in the field of renewable energy for the Caribbean Region, as precursors for evolving mitigation activities (under broader climate finance...

  13. Dielectric and relaxation properties of poly(o-anisidine)/graphene nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamithirai, D.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2016-05-01

    Poly(o-anisidine)/graphene (POA/GR) nanocomposite was synthesized via chemical oxidative polymerization of o-anisidine in the presence of graphene sheets in acidic medium. The electrical properties of the nanocomposite are studied using AC impedance spectroscopic technique. It has been found that the room temperature electrical conductivity value enhanced from 1.28 × 10-6 S cm-1 to 4.47 × 10-4 S cm-1 on addition of 10 wt % of graphene into the polymer. An analysis of real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity reveals that both ɛ` and ɛ״ increases with the decrease of frequency at all temperature levels. Frequency dependence of dielectric loss (tan δ) spectrum indicates that hopping frequency increases with temperature and the relaxation time decreases from 2.67 × 10-5 to 7.28 × 10-6 sec.

  14. Hopping of charge carriers and relaxation processes of poly(o-anisidine)/graphene nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamithirai, D.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with a new class of nanocomposite material based on poly(o-anisidine) and graphene (POA/GR) synthesized via chemical oxidative polymerization of o-anisidine in the presence of graphene sheets in acidic medium. The electrical properties of the nanocomposite are studied using AC impedance spectroscopic technique. It has been found that the room temperature electrical conductivity value enhanced from 1.28 × 10-6 S cm-1 to 3.3 × 10-3 S cm-1 on addition of 5 wt % of graphene into the polymer. The non-perturbed shape of the modulus spectra obtained at various temperatures indicated the relaxation mechanism is independent of temperature. Frequency dependence of dielectric loss (tan δ) spectrum indicates that hopping frequency increases with temperature and the relaxation time decreases from 2.67 × 10-6 to 1.73 × 10-6 sec.

  15. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery.

  16. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jianfeng; Xu, Changqiao; Su, Wei; Zhang, Hongke

    2013-01-01

    Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs) to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA) and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery. PMID:24381517

  17. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    malezas gramíneas. El objetivo de este experimento fue optimizar el control de Poa annua y Lolium perenne, ambas especies muy difíciles de controlar sin herbicidas. La biomasa aérea de 72 plantas por tratamiento se cosechó y los pesos secos se registraron en intervalos regulares para investigar cómo las...... y también el índice de floración de las plantas de P. annua. Sin embargo, solamente murieron unas cuantas plantas. El primer tratamiento afectó la biomasa aérea más que el segundo tratamiento. Un intervalo entre tratamientos de siete días proporcionó la mayor reducción de regeneración de L. perenne...

  18. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  19. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifuss, Arturo Alejandro; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda Leite; Fabossi, Isabella Aviles; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Stolf, Aline Maria; Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo; Gomes, Liana de Oliveira; Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Furman, Aline Emmer Ferreira; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Teixeira, Simone; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto; Muscará, Marcelo Nicolás; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves; Acco, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT) brute hydroethanolic (BHE) extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3) and n-butanolic (BuOH), rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1)) or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process) or vehicle (Control) was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  20. A ‘Timed’ Kiss is Essential for Reproduction: Lessons from Mammalian Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Putteeraj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is associated with the circadian system, primarily as a result of the connectivity between the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and reproduction-regulating brain regions, such as preoptic area (POA, anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and arcuate nucleus (ARC. Networking of the central pacemaker to these hypothalamic brain regions is partly represented by close fiber appositions to specialised neurons, such as kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons; accounting for rhythmic release of gonadotropins and sex steroids. Numerous studies have attempted to dissect the neurochemical properties of GnRH neurons, which possess intrinsic oscillatory features through the presence of clock genes to regulate the pulsatile and circadian secretion. However, less attention has been given to kisspeptin, the upstream regulator of GnRH and a potent mediator of reproductive functions including puberty. Kisspeptin exerts its stimulatory effects on GnRH secretion via its cognate Kiss-1R receptor that is co-expressed on GnRH neurons. Emerging studies have found that kisspeptin neurons oscillate on a circadian basis and that these neurons also express clock genes that are thought to regulate its rhythmic activities. Based on the fiber networks between the SCN and reproductive nuclei such as the POA, AVPV, ARC, it is suggested that interactions among the central biological clock and reproductive neurons ensure optimal reproductive functionality. Within this neuronal circuitry, kisspeptin neuronal system is likely to ‘time’ reproduction in a long term during development and ageing, in a medium term to regulate circadian or estrus cycle, and in a short term to regulate pulsatile GnRH secretion.

  1. Primary and secondary aerosols in Beijing in winter: sources, variations and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Du, Wei; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Ge, Xinlei; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Chunmao; Ren, Lujie; Xu, Weiqi; Zhao, Jian; Han, Tingting; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wang, Zifa

    2016-07-01

    Winter has the worst air pollution of the year in the megacity of Beijing. Despite extensive winter studies in recent years, our knowledge of the sources, formation mechanisms and evolution of aerosol particles is not complete. Here we have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols that were measured by an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer from 17 December 2013 to 17 January 2014 along with offline filter analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that submicron aerosols composition was generally similar across the winter of different years and was mainly composed of organics (60 %), sulfate (15 %) and nitrate (11 %). Positive matrix factorization of high- and unit-mass resolution spectra identified four primary organic aerosol (POA) factors from traffic, cooking, biomass burning (BBOA) and coal combustion (CCOA) emissions as well as two secondary OA (SOA) factors. POA dominated OA, on average accounting for 56 %, with CCOA being the largest contributor (20 %). Both CCOA and BBOA showed distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) spectral signatures, indicating that PAHs in winter were mainly from coal combustion (66 %) and biomass burning emissions (18 %). BBOA was highly correlated with levoglucosan, a tracer compound for biomass burning (r2 = 0.93), and made a considerable contribution to OA in winter (9 %). An aqueous-phase-processed SOA (aq-OOA) that was strongly correlated with particle liquid water content, sulfate and S-containing ions (e.g. CH2SO2+) was identified. On average aq-OOA contributed 12 % to the total OA and played a dominant role in increasing oxidation degrees of OA at high RH levels (> 50 %). Our results illustrate that aqueous-phase processing can enhance SOA production and oxidation states of OA as well in winter. Further episode analyses highlighted the significant impacts of meteorological parameters on aerosol composition, size

  2. Evidence for the involvement of dopamine in stress-induced suppression of reproduction in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, A; Ganesh, C B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we examined whether stress-induced suppression of reproduction is mediated through the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the female cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the first experiment, application of antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; a marker for DA) in brain sections revealed the presence of intensely stained TH immunoreactive cells in the preoptic area (POA) and nucleus preopticus (NPO) during the previtellogenic phase. These cells showed weak immunoreactivity during the vitellogenic and prespawning phases concomitant with darkly stained luteinising hormone (LH) immunoreactive content in the proximal pars distalis (PPD) of the pituitary gland and fully ripened follicles (stage V) in the ovary of control fish. However, in fish exposed to aquacultural stressors, TH secreting cells remained intensely stained in POA and NPO regions during the prespawning phase, indicating increased synthetic and secretory activity, which was reflected by a significantly higher DA content compared to controls. Increased DA activity as a result of stress was associated with a decrease in the LH immunoreactive content in the PPD and an absence of stage V follicles in the ovary. In the second experiment, administration of DA caused effects similar to those in stressed fish, whereas DA receptor antagonist domperidone (DOM) treatment significantly increased the LH content in the PPD and the number of stage V follicles in unstressed fish. On the other hand, treatment of stressed fish with DOM resulted in dark accumulations of LH immunoreactive content in the PPD accompanied by the presence of stage V follicles in the ovary. Taken together, these results suggest an additional pathway for the inhibitory effects of stress through dopaminergic neurones along the reproductive axis.

  3. Organic aerosol mixing observed by single-particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ellis Shipley; Saleh, Rawad; Donahue, Neil M

    2013-12-27

    We present direct measurements of mixing between separately prepared organic aerosol populations in a smog chamber using single-particle mass spectra from the high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Docosane and docosane-d46 (22 carbon linear solid alkane) did not show any signs of mixing, but squalane and squalane-d62 (30 carbon branched liquid alkane) mixed on the time scale expected from a condensational-mixing model. Docosane and docosane-d46 were driven to mix when the chamber temperature was elevated above the melting point for docosane. Docosane vapors were shown to mix into squalane-d62, but not the other way around. These results are consistent with low diffusivity in the solid phase of docosane particles. We performed mixing experiments on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) surrogate systems finding that SOA derived from toluene-d8 (a surrogate for anthropogenic SOA (aSOA)) does not mix into squalane (a surrogate for hydrophobic primary organic aerosol (POA)) but does mix into SOA derived from α-pinene (biogenic SOA (bSOA) surrogate). For the aSOA/POA, the volatility of either aerosol does not limit gas-phase diffusion, indicating that the two particle populations do not mix simply because they are immiscible. In the aSOA/bSOA system, the presence of toluene-d8-derived SOA molecules in the α-pinene-derived SOA provides evidence that the diffusion coefficient in α-pinene-derived SOA is high enough for mixing on the time scale of 1 min. The observations from all of these mixing experiments are generally invisible to bulk aerosol composition measurements but are made possible with single-particle composition data.

  4. Competitive neighborhoods and the use of interference indices to assist in the restoration of Amsinckia Grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesley, P.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the on-going efforts to reintroduce the large-flowered fiddleneck (Amsinckia grandiflora) into California native perennial bunch grass communities, we developed indices of competitive interference to predict the fecundity of individuals in populations of this rare annual forb. These indices, developed from aspects of the spatial distribution of neighboring competitors, are used as independent variables in linear regressions to predict plant fecundity of A. grandiflora individuals within a Poa secunda bunch grass population. This was accomplished by examining the distance to each competitor along with the number, basal area, and angular dispersion of competitors within a fixed radius about A. grandiflora individuals. The data was taken from individuals planted within naturally occurring bunch grass populations and within transplanted bunch grass plots controlled for density and distribution. Density, spatial pattern, and basal area all had significant effects upon A. grandiflora individuals within controlled plots. As number of competitors increases within the competitive neighborhood of A. grandiflora individuals, seed (nutlet) output declines. A similar relationship holds true for increasing competitor basal areas. Distance to competitors also influences nutlet output with fecundity falling as more competitors become closer to focal individuals. Complex interactions of the above factors were also significant with the overall trend being reduced nutlet output with increasing dispersion of competitors. Although the above regressions are highly significant (p < 0.01), the variation each describes is low. Density and an indice of distance to competitors were the only significant predictors (p < 0.05) of plant fecundity for A. grandiflora individuals found in naturally occurring Poa secunda populations. These relationships show similar trends as those found for controlled plots.

  5. Diagnostic reliability of an immunochromatographic test for Chagas disease screening at a primary health care centre in a rural endemic area

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    Diego Mendicino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with Chagas disease live in remote communities that lack both equipment and trained personnel to perform a diagnosis by conventional serology (CS. Thus, reliable tests suitable for use under difficult conditions are required. In this study, we evaluated the ability of personnel with and without laboratory skills to perform immunochromatographic (IC tests to detect Chagas disease at a primary health care centre (PHCC. We examined whole blood samples from 241 patients and serum samples from 238 patients. Then, we calculated the percentage of overall agreement (POA between the two groups of operators for the sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values of IC tests compared to CS tests. We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA tests. The readings of the IC test results showed 100% agreement (POA = 1. The IC test on whole blood showed the following values: S = 87.3%; Sp = 98.8%; PPV = 96.9% and NPV = 95.9%. Additionally, the IC test on serum displayed the following results: S = 95.7%; Sp = 100%; PPV = 100% and NPV = 98.2%. Using whole blood, the agreement with ELISA was 96.3% and the agreement with IHA was 94.1%. Using serum, the agreement with ELISA was 97.8% and the agreement with IHA was 96.6%. The IC test performance with serum samples was excellent and demonstrated its usefulness in a PHCC with minimal equipment. If the IC test S value and NPV with whole blood are improved, then this test could also be used in areas lacking laboratories or specialised personnel.

  6. Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, Sasha; Aumont, B.; Baker, A.; Camredon, M.; Hodzic, Alma; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, Eric; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-12-21

    The evolution of organic aerosols (OA) in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere), wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3-10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25) not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15-20 ug m-3, and SOA peaking at 10-15 μg m-3 during mid-day. The majority (> 75%) of the model SOA stems from the large n-alkanes, with the remainder mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by *- hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.

  7. Global thermal niche models of two European grasses show high invasion risks in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-14

    The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species.

  8. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

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    W. Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3 and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC, contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA, secondary OA (SOA, total OA (TOA, and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  9. Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee-Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of organic aerosols (OA in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere, wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3–10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25 not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO. The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA and secondary (SOA organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15–20 μg m−3, and SOA peaking at 10–15 μg m−3 during mid-day. The majority (≥75 % of the model SOA stems from the large n-alkanes, with the remainder mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by δ-hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.

  10. Interactions of Gas-Phase Nitric/Nitrous Acids and Primary Organic Aerosol in the Atmosphere of Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Griffin, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, C. H.; Whitlow, S. I.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J.; Rappenglück, B.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrations of aerosol and gas-phase pollutants were measured on the roof of an 18-story building during the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP) from August 15 through September 28, 2006. Aerosol measurements included size-resolved, non-refractory mass concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and organic aerosol in submicron particles using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS). Particulate water-soluble organic carbon (PWSOC) was quantified using a mist chamber/total organic carbon analysis system. Concentration data for gas-phase pollutants included those for nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), and hydrochloric acid (HCl) collected using a mist chamber/ion chromatographic technique, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) collected using a chemiluminescent method, and carbon monoxide (CO) collected using an infrared gas correlation wheel instrument. Coincident increases in nitrate and organic aerosol mass concentrations were observed on many occasions throughout the measurement campaign, most frequently during the morning rush hour. Based on the lack of organic aerosol processing (defined by the ratio of m/z = 44/57 in the Q-AMS spectra), strong correlation with NOx and CO, and a lack of significant increase in PWSOC concentration, the spikes in organic aerosol were likely associated with primary organic aerosol (POA). During these events, gas-phase HNO3 concentration decreases were observed simultaneously with increases in gas-phase HONO concentrations. These data likely indicate uptake of HNO3 and subsequent heterogeneous conversion to HONO involving POA. Preliminary calculations show that HNO3 partitioning could account for the majority of the observed HONO and aerosol nitrate concentrations during these events. Q-AMS chloride and HCl data also indicate uptake of chloride by particles during these events. This phenomenon was also observed during the night, but these nocturnal events were less

  11. Aplicação de Fenton, foto-Fenton e UV/H2O2 no tratamento de efluente têxtil sintético contendo o corante Preto Biozol UC Application of Fenton, photo-Fenton and UV/H2O2 in treating synthetic textile wastewater containing the dye Black Biozol UC

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    Leonardo Madeira Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efluentes têxteis, geralmente, são carregados de corantes não biodegradáveis, o que dificulta o seu tratamento. Dentre as novas alternativas de tratamento estudadas, estão os Processos Oxidativos Avançados (POA. Os mesmos são processos com potencial de produzir radicais hidroxila (•OH, espécies altamente oxidantes, capazes de mineralizar a matéria orgânica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a aplicação dos POA (Fenton, foto-Fenton e UV/H2O2 no tratamento de efluente têxtil sintético contendo o corante Preto Biozol UC. Dentre os processos estudados, o mais eficiente foi o foto-Fenton (H2O2 = 1.500 mg.L-1 e Fe2+ = 75 mg.L-1, em pH = 3, que obteve 95,4% e 73,0% para as remoções de cor e demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, respectivamente.The textile wastewater is usually loaded with non-biodegradable dyes, which hinder its treatment. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP are among new treatment alternatives. They are processes with potential to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH, highly oxidizing species, capable of mineralizing the organic matter. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the application of the AOP (Fenton, photo-Fenton and UV/H2O2 in the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater containing the Black Biozol UC dye. Among the studied processes, the most efficient was photo-Fenton (H2O2 = 1,500 mg.L-1 and Fe 2+ = 75 mg.L-1, at pH = 3, for color and chemical oxygen demand (COD removals of 95.4% and 73.0%, respectively.

  12. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  13. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosols at an urban site by linear unmixing of aerosol mass spectra

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    V. A. Lanz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Submicron ambient aerosol was characterized in summer 2005 at an urban background site in Zurich, Switzerland, during a three-week measurement campaign. Highly time-resolved samples of non-refractory aerosol components were analyzed with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was used for the first time for AMS data to identify the main components of the total organic aerosol and their sources. The PMF retrieved factors were compared to measured reference mass spectra and were correlated with tracer species of the aerosol and gas phase measurements from collocated instruments. Six factors were found to explain virtually all variance in the data and could be assigned either to sources or to aerosol components such as oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA. Our analysis suggests that at the measurement site only a small (<10% fraction of organic PM1 originates from freshly emitted fossil fuel combustion. Other primary sources identified to be of similar or even higher importance are charbroiling (10–15% and wood burning (~10%, along with a minor source interpreted to be influenced by food cooking (6%. The fraction of all identified primary sources is considered as primary organic aerosol (POA. This interpretation is supported by calculated ratios of the modelled POA and measured primary pollutants such as elemental carbon (EC, NOx, and CO, which are in good agreement to literature values. A high fraction (60–69% of the measured organic aerosol mass is OOA which is interpreted mostly as secondary organic aerosol (SOA. This oxygenated organic aerosol can be separated into a highly aged fraction, OOA I, (40–50% with low volatility and a mass spectrum similar to fulvic acid, and a more volatile and probably less processed fraction, OOA II (on average 20%. This is the first publication of a multiple component analysis technique to AMS organic spectral data and also the first report of the

  14. Neural substrate of cold-seeking behavior in endotoxin shock.

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    Maria C Almeida

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a leading cause of hospital death. Mild systemic inflammation is accompanied by warmth-seeking behavior (and fever, whereas severe inflammation is associated with cold-seeking behavior (and hypothermia. Both behaviors are adaptive. Which brain structures mediate which behavior is unknown. The involvement of hypothalamic structures, namely, the preoptic area (POA, paraventricular nucleus (PVH, or dorsomedial nucleus (DMH, in thermoregulatory behaviors associated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced systemic inflammation was studied in rats. The rats were allowed to select their thermal environment by freely moving in a thermogradient apparatus. A low intravenous dose of Escherichia coli LPS (10 microg/kg caused warmth-seeking behavior, whereas a high, shock-inducing dose (5,000 microg/kg caused cold-seeking behavior. Bilateral electrocoagulation of the PVH or DMH, but not of the POA, prevented this cold-seeking response. Lesioning the DMH with ibotenic acid, an excitotoxin that destroys neuronal bodies but spares fibers of passage, also prevented LPS-induced cold-seeking behavior; lesioning the PVH with ibotenate did not affect it. Lesion of no structure affected cold-seeking behavior induced by heat exposure or by pharmacological stimulation of the transient receptor potential (TRP vanilloid-1 channel ("warmth receptor". Nor did any lesion affect warmth-seeking behavior induced by a low dose of LPS, cold exposure, or pharmacological stimulation of the TRP melastatin-8 ("cold receptor". We conclude that LPS-induced cold-seeking response is mediated by neuronal bodies located in the DMH and neural fibers passing through the PVH. These are the first two landmarks on the map of the circuitry of cold-seeking behavior associated with endotoxin shock.

  15. GnRH neuron firing and response to GABA in vitro depend on acute brain slice thickness and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Stephanie; Piet, Richard; Iremonger, Karl; Hwa Yeo, Shel; Clarkson, Jenny; Porteous, Robert; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-08-01

    The GnRH neurons exhibit long dendrites and project to the median eminence. The aim of the present study was to generate an acute brain slice preparation that enabled recordings to be undertaken from GnRH neurons maintaining the full extent of their dendrites or axons. A thick, horizontal brain slice was developed, in which it was possible to record from the horizontally oriented GnRH neurons located in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA). In vivo studies showed that the majority of AHA GnRH neurons projected outside the blood-brain barrier and expressed c-Fos at the time of the GnRH surge. On-cell recordings compared AHA GnRH neurons in the horizontal slice (AHAh) with AHA and preoptic area (POA) GnRH neurons in coronal slices [POA coronal (POAc) and AHA coronal (AHAc), respectively]. AHAh GnRH neurons exhibited tighter burst firing compared with other slice orientations. Although α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) excited GnRH neurons in all preparations, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was excitatory in AHAc and POAc but inhibitory in AHAh slices. GABA(A) receptor postsynaptic currents were the same in AHAh and AHAc slices. Intriguingly, direct activation of GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors respectively stimulated and inhibited GnRH neurons regardless of slice orientation. Subsequent experiments indicated that net GABA effects were determined by differences in the ratio of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects in "long" and "short" dendrites of GnRH neurons in the different slice orientations. These studies document a new brain slice preparation for recording from GnRH neurons with their extensive dendrites/axons and highlight the importance of GnRH neuron orientation relative to the angle of brain slicing in studying these neurons in vitro.

  16. Hypovolemic hemorrhage induces Fos expression in the rat hypothalamus: Evidence for involvement of the lateral hypothalamus in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktalay, G; Millington, W R

    2016-05-13

    This study tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamus participates in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage by measuring Fos immunoreactivity and by inhibiting neuronal activity in selected hypothalamic nuclei with lidocaine or cobalt chloride. Previously, we reported that inactivation of the arcuate nucleus inhibited, but did not fully prevent, the fall in arterial pressure evoked by hypotensive hemorrhage. Here, we report that hemorrhage (2.2 ml/100g body weight over 20 min) induced Fos expression in a high percentage of cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus as shown previously. Lower densities of Fos immunoreactive cells were also found in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), anterior hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and posterior hypothalamus. Bilateral injection of lidocaine (2%; 0.1 μl or 0.3 μl) or cobalt chloride (5mM; 0.3 μl) into the tuberal portion of the LH immediately before hemorrhage was initiated reduced the magnitude of hemorrhagic hypotension and bradycardia significantly. Lidocaine injection into the VMH also attenuated the fall in arterial pressure and heart rate evoked by hemorrhage although inactivation of the mPOA or rostral LH was ineffective. These findings indicate that hemorrhage activates neurons throughout much of the hypothalamus and that a relatively broad area of the hypothalamus, extending from the arcuate nucleus laterally through the caudal VMH and tuberal LH, plays an important role in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Representation of speech in human auditory cortex: is it special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinschneider, Mitchell; Nourski, Kirill V; Fishman, Yonatan I

    2013-11-01

    Successful categorization of phonemes in speech requires that the brain analyze the acoustic signal along both spectral and temporal dimensions. Neural encoding of the stimulus amplitude envelope is critical for parsing the speech stream into syllabic units. Encoding of voice onset time (VOT) and place of articulation (POA), cues necessary for determining phonemic identity, occurs within shorter time frames. An unresolved question is whether the neural representation of speech is based on processing mechanisms that are unique to humans and shaped by learning and experience, or is based on rules governing general auditory processing that are also present in non-human animals. This question was examined by comparing the neural activity elicited by speech and other complex vocalizations in primary auditory cortex of macaques, who are limited vocal learners, with that in Heschl's gyrus, the putative location of primary auditory cortex in humans. Entrainment to the amplitude envelope is neither specific to humans nor to human speech. VOT is represented by responses time-locked to consonant release and voicing onset in both humans and monkeys. Temporal representation of VOT is observed both for isolated syllables and for syllables embedded in the more naturalistic context of running speech. The fundamental frequency of male speakers is represented by more rapid neural activity phase-locked to the glottal pulsation rate in both humans and monkeys. In both species, the differential representation of stop consonants varying in their POA can be predicted by the relationship between the frequency selectivity of neurons and the onset spectra of the speech sounds. These findings indicate that the neurophysiology of primary auditory cortex is similar in monkeys and humans despite their vastly different experience with human speech, and that Heschl's gyrus is engaged in general auditory, and not language-specific, processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  18. A floristic survey of the Hyrcanian forests in Northern Iran, using two lowland-mountain transects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Naqinezhad; Hassan Zare-Maivan; Hamid Gholizadeh

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition of the Hyrcanian forests and the related forest-steppe ecotone in Northern Iran by using two long ecological transects, from lowland to upper mountain areas. The study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 and yielded the identification of 395 plant taxa belonging to 233 genera and 78 families. Dicots with 300 taxa were the richest groups of the flora, followed by monocots with 75 taxa, pteridophytes with 18 species, and gymnosperms with two species. The largest families were Asteraceae (33 taxa); Rosaceae (32 taxa); and Poa-ceae (30 taxa), and the most diverse genera included Carex (15 taxa); Alchemilla (7 taxa); and Poa, Geranium and Acer (6 taxa each). Hemicryptophytes were the most dominant life forms in the area (40%); followed by geo-phytes (31.4%); phanerophytes (15.4%); therophytes (11.4%);and chamaephytes (1.8%). Phytogeographically, Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian elements (86 taxa, 21.8%) and Euro-Siberian elements (85 taxa, 21.5%) were the most common chorotypes in the area. Out of 395 taxa, 66 taxa (16.7%) were endemics and subendemics in Iran, of which 26 taxa were exclusively endemics of Iran. According to the IUCN Red List Categories, 48 threatened plant taxa were found in the study area. Plant diversity, life form, and chorotypes in the current study were compared with similar transect studies in other areas of the Hyrcanian forests and in different altitudinal belts, using Sørenson similarity indices. Floristic composition of the surveyed transects demonstrated almost 50% similarity between them.

  19. Using Plant Phylogenetic Relatedness as a Predictor for Plants' Control on Soil Microbial Communities and Nitrogen Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.; Bowman, W. D.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the known importance of soil microbes and their influence on soil processes, a mechanistic understanding is still needed to predict how plants and soil microbes interact at scales that are relevant to community and ecosystem-scale processes. Closely related plant species have similar traits aboveground, but we don't know whether this is also true for belowground traits that affect soil microbial community structure and function. Determining how tightly plant phylogeny and plant functional traits are linked to soil microbial communities is a useful approach for discovering plant-microbe associations that are generalizable across plant species (a limitation of studies that employ a single or few plant species). Using this approach, we conducted a greenhouse study with seven congeneric grasses (genus Poa) and their native soils to examine whether plants' influences on microbial community structure were consistent with plant phylogenetic relatedness and/or plant functional traits. Seeds of each Poa species were planted in native soil (from the seed source population) as well as a homogenized soil from all seven populations. Additionally, a nitrogen treatment was added to address how an environmental change (such as nitrogen deposition) alters plant-microbe associations. Rhizosphere community composition of bacteria and fungi was obtained via marker gene sequencing to compare community composition across plant species. Patterns in plant-microbe associations across plant species reveal plant control on nutrient cycling via plant species' influence on microbial community structure. These results determine if we are ready to generalize about plant-microbe interactions at the genus level, an important stepping-stone to applying knowledge of plant-microbe interactions to larger ecological scales.

  20. Quantitative analysis of long-form aromatase mRNA in the male and female rat brain.

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    Nino Tabatadze

    Full Text Available In vitro studies show that estrogens acutely modulate synaptic function in both sexes. These acute effects may be mediated in vivo by estrogens synthesized within the brain, which could fluctuate more rapidly than circulating estrogens. For this to be the case, brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens should be capable of synthesizing them. To investigate this question, we used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of mRNA for the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase, in different brain regions of male and female rats. Importantly, because brain aromatase exists in two forms, a long form with aromatase activity and a short form with unknown function, we targeted a sequence found exclusively in long-form aromatase. With this approach, we found highest expression of aromatase mRNA in the amygdala followed closely by the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and preoptic area (POA; we found moderate levels of aromatase mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex; and aromatase mRNA was detectable in brainstem and cerebellum, but levels were very low. In the amygdala, gonadal/hormonal status regulated aromatase expression in both sexes; in the BNST and POA, castration of males down-regulated aromatase, whereas there was no effect of estradiol in ovariectomized females. In the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex, there were no differences in aromatase levels between males and females or effects of gonadal/hormonal status. These findings demonstrate that long-form aromatase is expressed in brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens, such as the dorsal hippocampus, and that gonadal/hormonal regulation of aromatase differs among different brain regions.

  1. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  2. A dual role of EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling on migrating striatal and cortical neurons originating in the preoptic area: should I stay or go away ?

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    Judith eRudolph

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development the preoptic area (POA gives rise to two populations of neurons which are generated at the same time, cortical interneurons and striatal cells. POA-derived cortical interneurons take a superficial path and avoid the developing striatum when they migrate to their target region. We found that EphB1, which is expressed in the striatal anlage, prevents cortical interneurons from entering the striatum via ephrin-B3 reverse signaling. In contrast, for striatal neurons which also express ephrin-B3, EphB1 acts as a stop signal. This dual role of EphB1 is due to differences in ephrin-B3 reverse signaling cascades. For striatal neurons, binding of EphB1 to ephrin-B3 reduces endogenously high levels of pSrc and pFAK, which then causes the cells to stop migration. In contrast, in cortical interneurons EphB1-ephrin-B3 reverse signaling leads to phosphorylation of Src and FAK which then mediates repulsion. Consistent with these in vitro findings, in an ephrin-B3 knockout mouse line, we discovered misrouted cortical interneurons in the striatum and an over-migration of striatal neurons in their target region. Thus, EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling has a different impact on two sets of neurons which are generated at the same time and place: it can act as a repulsive cue for migrating neurons or it can terminate neuronal migration, a novel role of the Eph/ephrin system.

  3. Perfil clínico e autonômico de pacientes com doença de Alzheimer e demência mista

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    Filipi Leles da Costa Dias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil clínico e a atividade autonômica de pacientes com diagnóstico de doença de Alzheimer ou demência mista (DM. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 54 pacientes com indicação de uso de inibidores da colinesterase, por meio de exame clínico, de eletrocardiograma de repouso e da análise espectral da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC. RESULTADOS: A casuística estudada, constituída por 61,1% de mulheres, apresentava média de 77,1 anos de idade, 3,3 anos de escolaridade, pontuação de 16,4 no miniexame do estado mental e intervalo médio de 26,2 meses entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico. A quase totalidade (90,7% apresentava comorbidades, com o uso, em média, de 3,7 drogas/paciente. Trinta e um (57,4% pacientes apresentavam alterações eletrocardiográficas e nove (16,6%, hipotensão ortostática (HO. Esta apresentou associação com o diagnóstico de DM (p = 0,001 e com valores mais baixos dos componentes de baixa (BF e de alta (AF frequência da VFC na posição supina (p = 0,000 e p = 0,017, além de valores médios menores de BF em ortostatismo (p = 0,006. O diagnóstico de DM se associou a menores valores de BF nas duas posições (p = 0,003 e p = 0,007. CONCLUSÃO: Na amostra estudada, a presença de comorbidades e o uso de vários fármacos foram frequentes. Foram observados sinais de disfunção autonômica, resultando em HO, principalmente nos pacientes com DM.

  4. Efeito da rotação da cabeça na pressão intraocular em decúbito ventral: estudo randomizado

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    M. Nuri Deniz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A elevação da pressão intraocular (PIO, que diminui a pressão de perfusão do nervo óptico, é aumentada pelo posicionamento em decúbito ventral. O objetivo de nosso estudo foi comparar o efeito da rotação lateral da cabeça a 45º em decúbito ventral no aumento da PIO de olhos posicionados para cima e olhos posicionados para baixo em pacientes submetidos à nefrolitotomia percutânea (NLPC. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomicamente alocados em dois grupos. A PIO dos pacientes foi registrada bilateralmente em posição supina antes do início da operação. Os pacientes foram posicionados em decúbito ventral. A cabeça foi posicionada sobre um apoio sem compressão externa direta em ambos os olhos. Os pacientes do Grupo I foram estritamente mantidos em pronação neutra, enquanto os pacientes do Grupo II foram posicionados em pronação com rotação da cabeça a 45º para o lado direito. No fim da operação, os pacientes foram reposicionados em decúbito dorsal e a PIO foi imediatamente medida. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os dados demográficos, na duração da cirurgia, perda de sangue e reposição de líquido dos pacientes. Os valores pós-cirúrgicos da PIO em decúbito ventral aumentaram significativamente em comparação com os valores pré-operatórios em ambos os grupos (p < 0,05. Após a cirurgia em decúbito ventral, os valores da PIO nos olhos posicionados para cima no Grupo II foram significativamente menores do que no Grupo I e nos olhos posicionados para baixo no Grupo II (p < 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A posição em decúbito ventral aumenta a PIO. Nos pacientes posicionados em decúbito ventral com rotação lateral da cabeça a 45º, a PIO nos olhos posicionados para cima foi significativamente menor.

  5. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  6. 草坪杂草发生规律及春季阔叶杂草的防除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学维

    2012-01-01

    本研究采取倒置“W”9点取样法并结合踏查的方法,对廊坊地区草坪杂草进行了为期1年的调查,鉴定出草坪杂草20科53种,其中优势杂草有地锦(Euphorbia humifusa Willd.)、山苦荬(Ixeris chinensis Nakai.)、马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis Scop.)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracca L.)、独行菜(Lcpidium apetalum Wild.)、灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)、朝天萎陵菜(Potentilla supinaL.)、附地菜(Trigonotis peduncularis Benth.)。针对调查结果,选用选择性、触杀型除草剂克草特(10%乙羧酸草醚),对在春季危害草坪草比较严重的阔叶杂草马齿苋和灰菜进行防除试验,结果表明,用药量为100mL/m2的500~4500倍液克草特对马齿苋杂草具有特效而对灰菜防效一般。对新建高羊茅草坪草和已经成坪的碱茅草坪草进行了安全性试验,结果表明,除草剂的最佳防除浓度在1500~3500倍;在防除新建植的高羊茅草坪上的杂草时应注意喷药时期最好是在高羊茅的分蘖前期或分蘖期,对于灰菜的防除时期最好选在其出苗期。

  7. Rolling revisado: utilización del rolling para valorar y tratar la coordinación y control neuromuscular del core y extremidades en atletas

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    Barbara J. Hoogenboom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolling es un patrón de movimiento raramente utilizado por los fisioterapeutas para la evaluación e intervención de pacientes con función neurológica normal. El Rolling, como destreza motriz adulta, combina el uso de las extremidades superiores, core y extremidades inferiores con el movimiento coordinado en el paso de una postura a otra. El Rolling se lleva a cabo partiendo de la posición prona a posición supina y viceversa, aunque el método utilizado varía entre adultos. Desde la perspectiva de la habilidad de completar tareas o la simetría bilateral, el Rolling puede ser beneficioso para el uso de atletas que realizan deportes de rotación parcial tales como el golf, el lanzamiento, el tenis, y los deportes con torsión como la danza, la gimnasia, y el patinaje artístico. Además, cuando es usado como técnica de intervención, los patrones del Rolling tienen la capacidad de influir en disfunciones de la parte superior del cuerpo, core y parte inferior. Aplicando los principios de la facilitación neuromuscular propioceptiva (FNP, el terapeuta puede asistir a pacientes y clientes que son incapaces de completar un patrón de Rolling. Algunos ejemplos citados en el artículo incluyen separación/elongación, compresión, y contacto manual para facilitar el propio Rolling. Los autores defienden que el uso terapéutico de los patrones de desarrollo del Rolling con las técnicas derivadas de FNP es un distintivo en la rehabilitación de pacientes con disfunciones neurológicas que pueden ser también utilizados en la rehabilitación músculo-esquelética de forma creativa y efectiva. Se han obtenido los resultados preliminares de una exploración del mecanismo por el que el Rolling puede influir en la estabilidad y existen evidencias recientes disponibles. El propósito de este comentario clínico es describir las técnicas de análisis, evaluación y tratamiento de disfunción, usando casos ejemplos que incorporan el Rolling.

  8. Fatores associados à violência obstétrica na assistência ao parto vaginal em uma maternidade de alta complexidade em Recife, Pernambuco

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    Priscyla de Oliveira Nascimento Andrade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivos: analisar os fatores associados à violência obstétrica de acordo com as práticas não recomendadas na assistência ao parto vaginal em uma maternidade escola e de referência da Cidade do Recife. Métodos: estudo transversal, prospectivo, com 603 puérperas, realizado entre agosto a dezembro de 2014. Os dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e de acesso à assistência foram obtidos através dos prontuários e de entrevistas com as pacientes. A prevalência da violência obstétrica foi baseada nas recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde sobre as práticas recomendadas para a assistência ao parto vaginal. Para análise dos fatores associados utilizou-se a regressão multivariada de Poisson, considerou-se p<5%. Os dados foram analisados no Stata 12.1 SE. Resultados: a prevalência da violência obstétrica foi de 86,57%. As práticas prejudiciais mais frequentes foram os esforços de puxo (65%, a administração de ocitocina (41% e o uso rotineiro da posição supina/litotomia (39%. Apenas as variáveis não possuir ensino médio completo (p=0,022 e ter sido assistido por um profissional médico (p<0,001 apresentaram associação significante com a violência obstétrica. Conclusões: o grande número de intervenções obstétricas utilizadas consiste em um ato de violência obstétrica e demonstram que apesar do incentivo do Ministério da Saúde para uma assistência humanizada os resultados ainda estão longe do recomendado.

  9. Influência da posição na espirometria de pacientes obesas grau III

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    Ayrton Bentes Teixeira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A mudança de posição sentada para a posição supina, a anestesia geral e o procedimento cirúrgico reduzem os volumes pulmonares, e esse efeito pode ser maior nos obesos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência das posições sentada, inclinação dorsal de 30º e decúbito dorsal horizontal na espirometria de doentes portadores de obesidade grau III. MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 26 pacientes adultos no período pré-operatório, obedecendo aos seguintes critérios de inclusão: portadores de IMC > 40 kg.m-2, maiores de 18 e menores de 60 anos e gênero feminino. As variáveis analisadas foram: idade, peso, altura, IMC, porcentagens dos valores preditos da CVF, VEF1 e VEF1/CVF nas posições sentada (90º, com elevação dorsal de 30º e decúbito dorsal horizontal (0º. A comparação entre as médias dos valores previstos nas diversas posições foi realizada por meio do teste de ANOVA, seguido ou não do teste de Tukey, sendo considerado significativo valor de p inferior a 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os valores das porcentagens da CVF, do VEF1 e da relação VEF1/CVF em relação aos valores previstos nas posições sentada (90º, com elevação dorsal de 30º e decúbito dorsal horizontal (0º e o valor de p da análise estatística correspondente, foram, respectivamente: CVF: 92,8% / 88,2% / 86,5%, p = 0,301 (ANOVA; VEF1: 93,1% / 83,8% / 83,3%, p = 0,023 (ANOVA, p = 0,038 (teste de Tukey - 90º x 0º; VEF1/CVF: 100,8% / 95,5% / 96,8%, p = 0,035 (ANOVA, p = 0,035 (teste de Tukey - 90º x 30º. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças de posição produzem alteração nos resultados da espirometria de pacientes portadores de obesidade grau III.

  10. Evaluación nutricional de niños de 10 a 14 meses de edad Nutrition assessment related to children aged 10 to 14 months

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    Mayleni Carrillo Selles

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la investigación fue realizar la evaluación nutricional de un grupo de niños con edades entre 10 y 14 meses, residentes en Ciudad de La Habana. MÉTODOS. Las variables analizadas fueron la edad decimal, peso, longitud supina e ingestión de energía y macronutrientes. Los índices antropométricos peso para la edad, talla para la edad y peso para la talla se compararon con los valores nacionales e internacionales de referencia. Las encuestas dietéticas fueron analizadas en el programa CERES. RESULTADOS. La mayoría de los individuos fueron normales para los tres índices antropométricos, y aunque las niñas presentaron una ligera tendencia a la obesidad, no existieron diferencias significativas entre hembras y varones. El 87,5 % presentó ingestión excesiva de proteínas y la contribución de los macronutrientes a la energía fue desequilibrada. CONCLUSIONES. Se comprobó que la mayoría de los niños son normales desde el punto de vista antropométrico y que existe un patrón dietético inadecuado.INTRODUCTION: The aim of this research was the carrying out of a nutrition assessment of a group of children aged from 10 to 14 months, in Ciudad de la Habana. METHODS: Variables analyzed included decimal age, weight, supine length and energy and macronutrients consumption. Anthropometric rates for age-weight, age-height and height-weight were compared with reference national and international values. Dietetic surveys were analyzed in CERES program. RESULTS: Most of subjects were normal for the three anthropometric rates, and although girls had a slight trend to obesity, there were not significant differences between both sexes. The 87,5% showed an excessive consumption of proteins and contribution of macronutrients to energy was unstable. CONCLUSIONS: Was proved that most of children are normal from the anthropometric point of view, and that there is an inappropriate dietetic pattern.

  11. Influência da altura do salto de sapatos na função venosa da mulher jovem Influence of shoe heel height on venous function in young women

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    Wagner Tedeschi Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A influência da altura do salto de sapatos na função venosa é ainda assunto controverso na literatura mundial. A importância da ergonomia na qualidade de vida é um fator consagrado e situações que a prejudiquem como permanência prolongada na posição supina, qualidade dos calçados e condições do local de trabalho podem interferir na saúde do indivíduo. OBJETIVO: Estudar a influência da altura do salto do sapato na drenagem venosa dos membros inferiores, utilizando-se a pletismografia a ar (PGA. MÉTODO: Quinze mulheres, com idade média de 24,6 anos, assintomáticas, utilizando calçados de tamanhos apropriados, foram examinadas em três momentos: descalças (0 cm, salto médio (3,5 cm e alto (7 cm. Apresentavam índice de massa corporal BACKGROUND: The influence of shoe heel height on venous function is still a controversial subject in the international literature. The importance of ergonomics for quality of life is a universally accepted factor, and situations that impair it, such as prolonged permanence in the supine position, shoe quality and workplace conditions may interfere with the individual"s health. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of shoe heel height on lower limb venous drainage using air plethysmography. METHOD: Fifteen asymptomatic women with mean age of 24.6 years, wearing shoes of appropriate size were examined in three different situations: barefoot (0 cm, medium heels (3.5 cm and high heels (7 cm. Body mass index was < 25 and the subjects were classified according to the CEAP International Classification based on clinical (C0 or C1, etiologic (Ep, anatomic (As and physiopathological (Pr criteria. The values of venous filling index (VFI, ejection fraction (EF and residual volume fraction (RVF were divided into three categories according to heel height and compared to one another by repeated means analysis of variance (ANOVA. RESULTS: EF was decreased and RVF was increased in the high heel group

  12. Influência da posição corporal no deslocamento da pronga nasal em recém-nascido pré-termo em pressão positiva contínua em vias aéreas

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    Marisa Afonso Andrade Brunherotti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoObjetivo:Analisar a influência da posição corporal no deslocamento da pronga nasal em recém-nascidos pré-termos.Métodos:Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e tipo crossover. Foram estudados recém-nascidos com média de idade gestacional de 29,7±2 semanas, peso de nascimento de 1.353±280 g, 2,9±2,2 dias de vida e em uso da pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas. Avaliou-se o número de vezes em que o dispositivo nasal sofreu deslocamento, além de variáveis cardiorrespiratórias, como frequência respiratória, cardíaca e saturação de oxigênio, conforme a criança foi alocada nas posições corporais prona, lateral direita, lateral esquerda e supina, segundo ordem aleatória previamente estabelecida. As informações em cada posição foram coletadas a cada 10 minutos, por 60 minutos. Foi considerada ocorrência quando o dispositivo nasal se deslocou do orifício das narinas, após o período de três minutos na posição desejada, e houve necessidade de intervenção do examinador.Resultados:Nas 16 crianças estudadas, o deslocamento do dispositivo nasal ocorreu nas posições prona (nove crianças - 56,2% e lateral esquerda (duas crianças - 12,5%. A pronga se deslocou 11 vezes na posição prona, sete delas nos primeiros dez minutos, e duas vezes na posição lateral esquerda, uma nos primeiros dez minutos. Não se detectaram alterações clinicamente significativas nas variáveis cardiorrespiratórias.Conclusões:A posição prona mostrou maior dificuldade para se manter o dispositivo nasal de suporte pressórico não invasivo na forma adequada.

  13. Impacted cisterna magna without syringomyelia associated with lancinating headache, throbbed nuchal pain and paraparesis treated byposterior fossa decompression Cisterna magna impactada sem siringomielia associada a cefaléia lancinante, dor na nuca terebrante e paraparesia tratadas com descompressão da fossa posterior

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    José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman with acute lancinating headache, throbbed nuchal pain and subacute paraparesis underwent brain MRI in supine position that depicted: the absence of the cisterna magna, filled by non herniated cerebellar tonsils and compression of the brain stem and cisternae of the posterior fossa, which are aspects of the impacted cisterna magna without syringomyelia and without hydrocephalus. During eight days, pain was constant and resistant to drug treatment. Osteodural-neural decompression of the posterior fossa, performed with the patient in sitting position, revealed: compression of the brainstem, fourth ventricle and foramen of Magendie by herniated cerebellar tonsils, which were aspirated. Immediately after surgery, the headache and nuchal pain remmited. MRI depicted the large created cisterna magna and also that the cerebellar tonsils did not compress the fourth ventricle, the foramen of Magendie and the brainstem, besides the enlargement of posterior fossa cisternae. Four months after surgery, headache, nuchal pain and paraparesis had disappeared but hyperactive patellar and Achilles reflexes remained.Uma paciente de 29 anos de idade com quadro agudo de cefaléia lancinante, dor terebrante na nuca e paraparesia subaguda foi submetida a RM do encéfalo, em posição supina, que revelou: ausência da cisterna magna, preenchida por tonsilas cerebelares não herniadas e compressão do tronco encefálico e das cisternas da fossa posterior, compatíveis com o diagnóstico de cisterna magna impactada sem siringomielia e sem hidrocefalia. Por oito dias a dor foi constante e resistente aos analgésicos. Com a paciente em posição sentada, foi realizada descompressão osteodural-neural da fossa posterior associada a aspiração das tonsilas cerebelares. Os achados perioperatórios foram caracterizados por herniação das tonsilas cerebelares que comprimiam o tronco cerebral, o quarto ventrículo e o forame de Magendie. No p

  14. Using the Bologna Score to assess normal delivery healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isaiane da Silva; Brito, Rosineide Santana de

    2016-01-01

    Describing the obstetric care provided in public maternity hospitals during normal labour using the Bologna Score in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. A quantitative cross-sectional study conducted with 314 puerperal women. Data collection was carried out consecutively during the months of March to July 2014. Prenatal care was provided to 95.9% of the mothers, beginning around the 1st trimester of pregnancy (72.3%) and having seven or more consultations (51%). Spontaneous vaginal delivery was planned for 88.2% women. All laboring women were assisted by a health professional, mostly by a physician (80.6%), and none of them obtained 5 points on the Bologna Score due to the small percentage of births in non-supine position (0.3%) and absence of a partogram (2.2%). A higher number of episiotomies were observed among primiparous women (75.5%). The score obtained using the Bologna Index was low. Thus, it is necessary to improve and readjust the existing obstetrical model. Descrever a assistência obstétrica prestada em maternidades públicas municipais durante o parto normal na cidade de Natal, Nordeste do Brasil, com uso do Índice de Bologna. Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido com 314 puérperas. A coleta de dados processou-se de forma consecutiva durante os meses de março a julho de 2014. A assistência pré-natal foi prestada a 95,9% das puérperas, com início em torno do 1º trimestre de gestação (72,3%) e realização de sete ou mais consultas (51%). O parto vaginal espontâneo foi planejado para 88,2% mulheres. Todas as parturientes foram assistidas por um profissional de saúde, especialmente pelo médico (80,6%) e nenhuma obteve 5 pontos no Índice de Bologna em virtude dos baixos percentuais de partos em posição não supina (0,3%) e ausência do partograma (2,2%). Houve maior número de episiotomias em primíparas (75,5%). A pontuação obtida por meio do Índice de Bologna foi baixa. Desse modo, é preciso melhorar e

  15. Orientações adotadas nas maternidades dos hospitais-escola do Brasil, sobre posição de dormir Instructions from teaching hospital maternity wards to parents concerning the sleeping position of newborns

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    Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A posição prona para dormir, tem sido relacionada como fator de risco para síndrome da morte súbita do lactente (SMSL. Com o objetivo de identificar qual a posição preferencial para dormir adotada nos hospitais, que orientações são fornecidas aos pais de recém-nascidos sobre a posição preferencial para dormir durante o primeiro ano de vida e prevenção de SMSL, realizamos estudo multicentrico por meio de questionário, sendo selecionados hospitais com programa de Residência Médica em Pediatria. Analisamos as informações referentes a 55 instituições, cuja média de nascimentos/ano variou entre 240 e 11.000 (mediana 2.750. O decúbito lateral é a posição preferencial para dormir (44,4% e a mais orientada para uso domiciliar (67%. Concluímos que, a recomendação da posição supina ao dormir e orientações para prevenção da SMSL, não têm sido realizadas na rotina dos hospitais pesquisados. Entretanto, na alta hospitalar, o incentivo ao aleitamento materno e a importância das imunizações, são enfatizados em 100% das instituições e recomendações sobre evitar fumo, em 85%.The prone sleeping position has been causally linked to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. This survey aimed to determine whether maternity hospitals in Brazil were promoting the prone sleeping position for newborns. Information was also collected on SIDS prevention messages. The study adopted a multicenter collaborative approach in hospitals with training in pediatrics, using questionnaires. Correctly completed questionnaires were received from 55 hospitals. The number of deliveries/year varied at the hospitals from 240 to 11,000 (median 2,750. The majority of hospitals encouraged the lateral (side sleeping position in the normal care nurseries (44.4% and at discharge (67%. In conclusion, the majority of hospitals surveyed are not promoting the supine sleeping position or any other intervention for SIDS prevention, although verbal information is

  16. EFFECTS OF FOOD AND DRINK INGESTION ON BODY COMPOSITION VARIABLES OF ABDOMINAL BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Vázquez, Rosalía; Martínez Blanco, Javier; García Vega, María del Mar; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: conocer los cambios en la grasa del tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral determinado por BIA abdominal, así como otras medidas antropométricas relacionadas con la grasa abdominal o central después de la ingestión de una comida. Métodos: se realizó un protocolo experimental para evaluar un estudio descriptivo de intervención longitudinal. Los participantes fueron 21 sujetos (10 hombres y 11 mujeres), voluntarios que tuvieron acceso a una evaluación médica, con una edad de 74 años ± 13,43. Las mediciones antropométricas fueron: circunferencia de la cintura máxima en posición de pie, circunferencia de la cintura a nivel del ombligo en posición de decúbito supino y diámetro sagital abdominal (SAD). Además se obtuvo la grasa del tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral, por análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica abdominal, con un dispositivo Tanita AB-140 (ViScan), todo ello antes y después de una ración de comida. Resultados: las medidas antropométricas, como la circunferencia de la cintura en posición supina y SAD, no mostraron diferencias significativas (P > 0,05), después de la ingestión de alimentos, a excepción de un aumento significativo de la circunferencia de la cintura máxima en posición de pie (P 0,05). Los cambios porcentuales de las medidas fueron menores del 2% para la circunferencia de la cintura en posición de pie, para la circunferencia de cintura por Viscan, para el diámetro sagital abdominal y la grasa del tronco, y un 5,9% para el nivel de grasa visceral. Conclusiones: los efectos de una comida y bebida sobre la grasa del tronco y el nivel de grasa visceral, medidas por impedancia bioeléctrica abdominal, son mínimas, aunque siempre es recomendable hacerlo en condiciones de ayuno.

  17. 鼠类种群动态:食物资源影响力的实验评估%Dynamics of vole populations: an experimental evaluation of the influence of food resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lowell L. Getz; Arpat Ozgul; Madan K. Oli; Joyce E. Hofmann; Betty McGuire

    2006-01-01

    We studied responses of populations of Microtus ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus in east-central Illinois, USA to supplemental food in intermediate (bluegrass) and low (tallgrass prairie) food habitats. Whereas amplitudes of fluctuation of M. ochrogaster were higher in supplementally fed than in control sites in intermediate food habitat, mean population densities and patterns of fluctuation did not differ between the two sites in either habitat. Mean population densities of M.pennsylvanicus were higher in supplementally fed than in control sites only in low food tallgrass habitat. Supplemental food did not positively influence survival or maturation rates of M. ochrogaster in either habitat; the proportion of reproductively active adult females and adult male body mass were higher only in supplementally fed sites in intermediate food habitat. Supplemental food did not influence any variable of M. pennsylvanicus in bluegrass, nor survival in tallgrass, whereas maturation rates were shortened and proportion reproductively active females, immigration, and male body mass were greater in supplementally fed low food habitat. We conclude that food resources play only a minor role in driving the dynamics of populations of M. ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus.%本研究在美国伊利诺斯州中东部测定了中等食物质量(莓系属的牧草)和低食物质量(高杆草牧场)栖息地内橙腹田鼠(Microtus ochrogaster)和草原田鼠(M.pennsylvanicus)种群对附加食物的响应.在中等食物质量栖息地内投放附加食物,橙腹田鼠种群的波动幅度高于对照样地,但同类型食物质量栖息地内,种群平均密度和波动模式无显著的差异.仅在低等食物质量的高杆草栖息地内,投放附加食物可导致草原田鼠的种群密度高于对照样地.附加食物不直接影响两种栖息地内橙腹田鼠的成活率或成熟率,在中等食物质量栖息地中投放附加食物,繁殖活跃的成熟雌性个体比例

  18. Surface stabilization and revegetation test plots. Fiscal year 1993 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Hayward, W.M.

    1993-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Decommissioning and Decontamination Engineering Group and Environmental Technology and Assessment Groups are developing new technologies to improve revegetation techniques for interim stabilization control over underground waste sites within the Radiation Area Remedial Action Program. Successful revegetation is an integral aspect of waste isolation strategy. Unfortunately, revegetation can be very difficult to achieve on the Hanford Site due to several factors: low annual precipitation, unpredictable timing of precipitation, low fertility of available soils, and coarse physical texture of soils covering waste sites. The tests in this report were performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and include the use of two soil sealants in combination with bare soil and a soil/compost mixture and a comparison of a wheatgrass mixture and a native seed mixture. Hydroprobe access ports were placed in one-half of the test plots and moisture data was collected. Soil fertility and plant community characteristics were monitored during the two years of the test. During the first year all sites with compost provided additional fertility and retained greater amounts of soil moisture than noncomposted sites. The use of Enduraseal soil fixative provided greater soil moisture than the use of Aerospray-77 soil fixative. During the second year the use of compost and soil fixative`s had a lesser effect on soil moisture. During late summer periods all treatments had very similar soil moisture profiles. The use of compost greatly increased vegetative cover and soil fertility in comparison to sites that had no compost added. Testing of the seed mixtures found that Siberian wheatgrass and Sandberg`s bluegrass were the most dominant of the seeded species observed. All plots exhibited a dominant plant cover of volunteer cheatgrass