WorldWideScience

Sample records for supervolcanic ash blankets

  1. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Sparks, R.S.J. [University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom); Valdes, Paul J. [University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Supervolcanoes are large caldera systems that can expel vast quantities of ash, volcanic gases in a single eruption, far larger than any recorded in recent history. These super-eruptions have been suggested as possible catalysts for long-term climate change and may be responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Here, we consider the previously neglected climatic effects of a continent-sized ash deposit with a high albedo and show that a decadal climate forcing is expected. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, covering much of North America. Reflectivity measurements of dry volcanic ash show albedo values as high as snow, implying that the effects of an ash blanket would be severe. The modeling results indicate major disturbances to the climate, particularly to oscillatory patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Atmospheric disruptions would continue for decades after the eruption due to extended ash blanket longevity. The climatic response to an ash blanket is not significant enough to investigate a change to stadial periods at present day boundary conditions, though this is one of several impacts associated with a super-eruption which may induce long-term climatic change. (orig.)

  2. Breeding blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proust, E. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DRN/DMT/SERMA, CE, Saclay (France)); Anzidei, L. (ENEA/FUS, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Casini, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Center, Ispara (Italy)); Dalle Donne, M. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Giancarli, L. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DRN/DMT/SERMA, CE, Saclay (France)); Malang, S. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the main design features, their rationale, and the main critical issues for the development, of the four DEMO-relevant blanket concepts presently being investigated within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme. (orig.)

  3. Breeding blanket for Demo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proust, E.; Giancarli, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Anzidei, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia; Casini, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Dalle Donne, M.; Malang, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents the main design features, their rationale, and the main critical issues for the development, of the four DEMO-relevant blanket concepts presently investigated within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme.

  4. Low activity aluminum blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenati, R.; Tichler, P.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The basic design of the breeding blanket consists of cylindrical aluminium canisters filled with a ceramic bed of moderating, shielding, and breeding materials all suitably cooled. A technical analysis of the blanket for an EPR design is given. Activation studies are presented. The effect of pulsed magnetic fields on module structure is investigated. (MOW)

  5. Flexible armored blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.S.

    1978-05-01

    An exploratory development contract was undertaken on December 23, 1977 which had as its purpose the development and demonstration of a flexible armored blanket design suitable for providing ballistic protection to nuclear weapons during shipment. Objectives were to design and fabricate a prototype blanket which will conform to the weapon shape, is troop-handleable in the field, and which, singly or in multiple layers, can defeat a range of kinetic energy armor piercing (AP) ammunition potentially capable of damaging the critical portion of the nuclear weapon. Following empirical testing, including the firing of threat ammunition under controlled laboratory and field test conditions, materials were selected and assembled into two blanket designs, each weighing approximately 54 kg/m{sup 2} (11 lbs/ft{sup 2}) and estimated to cost from $111 to $180 per ft{sup 2} in production. A firing demonstration to evidence blanket performance against terrorist/light infantry weapons, heavy infantry weapons, and aircraft cannon was conducted for representatives of the DOD and interested Sandia employees on April 12, 1978. The blankets performed better than anticipated defeating bullets up to 7.62 mm x 51 mm AP with one layer and projectiles up to 23 mm HEI with two layers. Based on these preliminary tests it is recommended that development work be continued with the following objectives: (1) the selection by the DOD of priority applications, (2) the specific design and fabrication of sufficient quantities of armored blankets for field testing, (3) the evaluation of the blankets by DOD operational units, with reports to Sandia Laboratories to enable final design.

  6. The Haida Button Blanket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vesta

    In the Haida nation, there are two phratries, Eagle and Raven, divided into a number of clans sharing one or more emblems. These emblems, inherited from the mother's line, adorn the button blankets which are the traditional ceremonial robes that serve to identify the family of the wearer. Written instructions and diagrams guide students in…

  7. Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Single layer and multilayer insulating blankets for high-temperature service fabricated without sewing. TABI woven fabric made of aluminoborosilicate. Triangular-cross-section flutes of core filled with silica batting. Flexible blanket formed into curved shapes, providing high-temperature and high-heat-flux insulation.

  8. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  9. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  10. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  11. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices or... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanketing interference. 22.353 Section 22.353... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.353 Blanketing interference. Licensees of...

  12. Crucial issues on liquid metal blanket design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Leroy, P. (CEA, CEN Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Casini, G.P. (CEC, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra (Italy)); Mattas, R.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Strebkov, Yu. (Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    Typical design concepts of liquid metal breeder blankets for power reactors are explained and characterized. The major problems of these concepts are described for both water-cooled blankets and self-cooled blankets. Three crucial issues of liquid metal breeder blankets are investigated. They are in the fields of magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control and safety. The influence of the magnetic field on liquid metal flow is of special interest for self-cooled blankets. The main problems in this field and the status of the related R and D work are described. Tritium permeation losses to the cooling water is a crucial issue for water-cooled blankets. Methods for its reduction are discussed. An inherent problem of all liquid breeder blankets is the potential release of activated products in the case of chemical reactions between the breeder material and water or reactive gases. The most important issues in this field are described. (orig.).

  13. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  14. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  15. Beryllium in the ITER blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper consists of viewgraphs used in a presentation on the application of beryllium in breeding blankets for ITER and JET. The paper brings together data on the physical, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of beryllium and beryllium oxide for this type of application, as well as issues of compatibility with construction materials, and irradiation experience. It includes the results from testing programs carried out to arrive at some of the information, including fabrication work, irradiation experiments, and sample tests performed both in and out of the irradiation piles.

  16. Lithium as a blanket coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent re-assessment of tokamak reactors which move towards smaller size and lower required field strength (higher beta)/sup 2/ change the picture as regards the magnitude of MHD effects on flow resistance for lithium coolant. Perhaps the most important consequence of this as regards use of this coolant is that of clear acceptability of such effects when the flow is predominantly transverse to the magnetic field. This permits defining a blanket that consists entirely of round tubes containing the circulated lithium with voids between the tubes. Required thermal-hydraulic calculations are then on bases which are well established, especially in view of recent results dealing with perturbations of ducts and magnetic fields. Mitigation of MHD effects is feasible through tapering of tube wall thickness or use of insulated layers, but their use was not mandatory for the assumed conditions. Blanket configurations utilizing flowing lithium in round tubes immersed in static lithium may be suitable, but calculational methods do not now exist for this situation. Use of boiling potassium or cesium appears to be prohibitive in terms of vapor flow area when temperature levels are consistent with stainless steel. Liquid sodium, in addition to not being a breeding material, requires higher velocity than lithium for the same heat removal.

  17. Design and analysis of ITER shield blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Junji; Hatano, Toshihisa; Ezato, Kouichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-12-01

    This report includes electromagnetic analyses for ITER shielding blanket modules, fabrication methods for the blanket modules and the back plate, the design and the fabrication methods for port limiter have been investigated. Studies on the runaway electron impact for Be armor have been also performed. (J.P.N.)

  18. Insights into the Toba Super-Eruption using SEM Analysis of Ash Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, E.; Achyuthan, H.; Durant, A. J.; Gibbard, P.; Mokhtar, S.; Oppenheimer, C.; Raj, R.; Shridar, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ~74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) super-eruption of Toba volcano, Northern Sumatra, was the largest eruption of the Quaternary (magnitude M= 8.8) and injected massive quantities of volcanic gases and ash into the stratosphere. YTT deposits covered at least 40,000,000 km2 of Southeast Asia and are preserved in river valleys across peninsular India and Malaysia, and in deep-sea tephra layers in the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and South China Sea. Initial studies hypothesized the eruption caused immediate and substantial global cooling during the ~ 1 kyr between Dansgaard-Oeschger events 19 and 20 which devastated ecosystems and hominid populations. A more recent review argues against severe post-YTT climatic deterioration and cannot find clear evidence for considerable impacts on ecosystems or bio-diversity. The determination of the eruptive parameters is crucial in this issue to document the eruption and understand the potential impacts from future super-volcanic eruptions. Volcanic ash deposits can offer dramatic insights into key eruptive parameters, including magnitude, duration and plume height. The composition and shape of volcanic ashes can be used to interpret physical properties of an erupting magma and tephra transport, while textural characteristics such as grain roughness and surface vescicularity can provide insights into degassing history, volatile content and explosive activity of the volcano. We present a stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of YTT deposits in stratified contexts at three localities in India, at two sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and at several localities around Lake Toba and on Samosir Island, Sumatra. These sites offer excellent constraints on the spatial distribution of YTT deposits which can be used to infer dispersal directions of the cloud, and provide insights into environmental controls on preservation of tephra beds. The research aims at a systematic interpretation of the Toba tephra to understand the volcanic

  19. Classification Using Markov Blanket for Feature Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Luo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Selecting relevant features is in demand when a large data set is of interest in a classification task. It produces a tractable number of features that are sufficient and possibly improve the classification performance. This paper studies a statistical method of Markov blanket induction algorithm...... induction as a feature selection method. In addition, we point out an important assumption behind the Markov blanket induction algorithm and show its effect on the classification performance....... for filtering features and then applies a classifier using the Markov blanket predictors. The Markov blanket contains a minimal subset of relevant features that yields optimal classification performance. We experimentally demonstrate the improved performance of several classifiers using a Markov blanket...

  20. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  1. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  2. Exploratory Study of Blanket Liquid Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGang; HUANGJinhua; FENGKaiming

    2003-01-01

    Blankets and other in-vessel components are easily damaged owing to their circumstance of high radiation and high heat. To protect them, first wall design should be considered. Owing to its high heat removal nd self-refreshing capability, liquid metal first wall has been seen as a potential first wall for a fusion reactor in the future. Blanketliquid curtain is actually a special liquid metal wall to protect blanket.

  3. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  5. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  6. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs)....

  7. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  8. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....303 Blanket purchase agreements....

  9. Review: BNL graphite blanket design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    A review of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) minimum activity graphite blanket designs is made. Three designs are identified and discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a thick graphite screen (typically 30 cm or greater, depending on type as well as application-experimental power reactor or commercial reactor). Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy. This energy is then either radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or is removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the structural material of the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude by the graphite screen, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma, whatever the degree of radiation damage.

  10. Fidget Blankets: A Sensory Stimulation Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroustos, Kelly Reilly; Trautwein, Heidi; Kerns, Rachel; Sobota, Kristen Finley

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) include behaviors such as aberrant motor behavior, agitation, anxiety, apathy, delusions, depression, disinhibition, elation, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep or appetite changes. A student-led project to provide sensory stimulation in the form of "fidget blankets" developed into a community outreach program. The goal was to decrease the use of antipsychotics used for BPSD.

  11. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Technologies for Blanket Jamming Localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju; WU Si-liang; ZENG Tao

    2005-01-01

    The localization of the blanket jamming is studied and a new method of solving the localization ambiguity is proposed. Radars only can acquire angle information without range information when encountering the blanket jamming. Netted radars could get position information of the blanket jamming by make use of radars' relative position and the angle information, when there is one blanket jamming. In the presence of error, the localization method and the accuracy analysis of one blanket jamming are given. However, if there are more than one blanket jamming, and the two blanket jamming and two radars are coplanar, the localization of jamming could be error due to localization ambiguity. To solve this confusion, the Kalman filter model is established for all intersections, and through the initiation and association algorithm of multi-target, the false intersection can be eliminated. Simulations show that the presented method is valid.

  13. Blanket selection for the Starlite project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tillack, M.S. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; El-Guebaly, L.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Waganer, L.M. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Starlite team was asked to develop a power plant study for the US Demo. To define the mission of the Demo, a Utility Advisory Committee (UAC) was organized to establish the mission and requirement for the Demo power plant. Based on this input, the Starlite team outlined a set of top level requirements based on the advice provided by the UAC. With the mission and requirements thus established, the Starlite engineering team investigated various combinations of the structural material, breeding material and coolant for the blanket and shield. The reference design selected was with V-alloy as the structural material and Li as the coolant and breeder. The ability of this blanket to satisfy the top level requirements was also assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Kenneth; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Porcelli, Don; Thackrey, Scott; Parnell, John

    2008-04-01

    Ejecta blankets around impact craters are rarely preserved onEarth. Although impact craters are ubiquitous on solid bodiesthroughout the solar system, on Earth they are rapidly effaced,and few records exist of the processes that occur during emplacementof ejecta. The Stac Fada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Groupin Scotland has previously been described as volcanic in origin.However, shocked quartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressureshock metamorphism, while chromium isotope values and elevatedabundances of platinum group metals and siderophile elementsindicate addition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit isreinterpreted here as having an impact origin. The ejecta blanketreaches >20 m in thickness and contains abundant dark green,vesicular, devitrified glass fragments. Field observations suggestthat the deposit was emplaced as a single fluidized flow thatformed as a result of an impact into water-saturated sedimentarystrata. The continental geological setting and presence of groundwatermake this deposit an analogue for Martian fluidized ejecta blankets.

  15. Stellar model atmospheres with magnetic line blanketing

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Shulyak, D

    2004-01-01

    Model atmospheres of A and B stars are computed taking into account magnetic line blanketing. These calculations are based on the new stellar model atmosphere code LLModels which implements direct treatment of the opacities due to the bound-bound transitions and ensures an accurate and detailed description of the line absorption. The anomalous Zeeman effect was calculated for the field strengths between 1 and 40 kG and a field vector perpendicular to the line of sight. The model structure, high-resolution energy distribution, photometric colors, metallic line spectra and the hydrogen Balmer line profiles are computed for magnetic stars with different metallicities and are discussed with respect to those of non-magnetic reference models. The magnetically enhanced line blanketing changes the atmospheric structure and leads to a redistribution of energy in the stellar spectrum. The most noticeable feature in the optical region is the appearance of the 5200 A depression. However, this effect is prominent only in ...

  16. Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket Deposits From Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Chicxulub impact into a thick sequence of carbonates and sulfates released over a trillion tons of volatiles. The importance of the explosive release of such a large mass of volatiles has been greatly underestimated in studies of ejecta depositional processes. Proximal Chicxulub ejecta blanket deposits recent discovered on Albion Island in Belize provide a key to understanding the role of volatile-rich target material during large impact events.

  17. Conceptual design of Blanket Remote Handling System for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jianghua, E-mail: weijh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Pei, Kun; Zhao, Wenlong; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The concept for the blanket maintenance is carried out, including three sub-systems. • The basic maintenance procedure for blanket between VV and hot cell is carried out. • The primary kinematics study is used to verify the feasibility of BRHS. • Virtual reality is adopted as another approach to verify the concept design. - Abstract: The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR), which is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed by China, has a mission to achieve a high duty time (0.3–0.5). To accomplish this great mission, the big modular blanket option has been adopted to achieve the high efficiency of the blanket maintenance. Considering this mission and the large and heavy blanket module, a novel conceptual blanket maintenance system for CFETR has been carried out by us over the past year. This paper presents the conceptual design of the Blanket Remote Handling System (BRHS), which mainly comprises the In-Vessel-Maintenance-System (IVMS), Lifting System and Blanket-Tool-Manipulator System (BTMS). The BRHS implements the extraction and replacement between in-vessel (the blanket module operation configuration location) and ex-vessel (inside of the vertical maintenance cask) by the collaboration of these three sub systems. What is more, this paper represents the blanket maintenance procedure between the docking station (between hot cell building and tokamak building) and inside the vacuum vessel, in tokamak building. Virtual reality technology is also used to verify and optimize our concept design.

  18. Analysis of Consistency of Printing Blankets using Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an analytical tool to quantify material consistency of offset printing blankets. Printing blankets are essentially viscoelastic rubber composites of several laminas. High levels of material consistency are expected from rubber blankets for quality print and for quick recovery from smash encountered during the printing process. The present study aims at determining objectively the consistency of printing blankets at three specific torque levels of tension under two distinct stages; 1. under normal printing conditions and 2. on recovery after smash. The experiment devised exhibits a variation in tone reproduction properties of each blanket signifying the levels of inconsistency also in thicknessdirection. Correlation technique was employed on ink density variations obtained from the blanket on paper. Both blankets exhibited good consistency over three torque levels under normal printing conditions. However on smash the recovery of blanket and its consistency was a function of manufacturing and torque levels. This study attempts to provide a new metrics for failure analysis of offset printing blankets. It also underscores the need for optimizing the torque for blankets from different manufacturers.

  19. Analysis of Consistency of Printing Blankets using Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaraman Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an analytical tool to quantify material consistency of offset printing blankets. Printing blankets are essentially viscoelastic rubber composites of several laminas. High levels of material consistency are expected from rubber blankets for quality print and for quick recovery from smash encountered during the printing process. The present study aims at determining objectively the consistency of printing blankets at three specific torque levels of tension under two distinct stages; 1. under normal printing conditions and 2. on recovery after smash. The experiment devised exhibits a variation in tone reproduction properties of each blanket signifying the levels of inconsistency also in thickness direction. Correlation technique was employed on ink density variations obtained from the blanket on paper. Both blankets exhibited good consistency over three torque levels under normal printing conditions. However on smash the recovery of blanket and its consistency was a function of manufacturing and torque levels. This study attempts to provide a new metrics for failure analysis of offset printing blankets. It also underscores the need for optimising the torque for blankets from different manufacturers.

  20. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m/sup 2/ and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma.

  1. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  2. [Ash Meadows Purchase Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A proposal sent to the Richard King Mellon Foundation for a loan to fund the purchase of Ash Meadows by the Nature Conservancy. Ash Meadows, set outside of Las Vegas...

  3. Numerical modelling of dynamic sludge blanket behaviour in secondary clarifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, M; Krebs, P; Rodi, W

    2001-01-01

    New developments in numerical modelling of turbulent and density-affected flow in secondary clarifiers are reported. The sludge blanket is included in the computation domain which allows us to account for sedimentation and resuspension of sludge as well as the growth and diminution of the sludge blanket and at the same time respecting mass conservation. It is shown how strongly the prediction of the sludge-blanket height depends on the approaches to describe the settling behaviour of the sludge and the rheological properties within the sludge blanket. Further, an example of dynamic simulation is presented and discussed. This demonstrates how the sludge blanket behaves during load variation and that instabilities may occur at the interface of sludge blanket and supernatant, potentially resulting in sludge wash-off during transient phases, which is not only during load increase but also during load decrease.

  4. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  5. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  6. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  7. Development of the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, G., E-mail: giacomo.aiello@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aubert, J.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The HCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • The new design has been developed with the aim to capitalize on TBM experience in ITER. • A new attachment system for the modules has been proposed. - Abstract: The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket is one of the candidate European blanket concepts selected for the DEMOnstration fusion power plant that should follow ITER. In a fusion power plant, the blanket is one of the key components because of its impact on the plant performance, availability, safety and economics. In 2012, the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the previous 2007 HCLL-DEMO blanket design to those specifications. A new segmentation has been defined assuming straight surfaces for all blanket modules. Following the Multi Module Segment (MMS) option, all modules are attached to a common back supporting structure which also serves as manifold for Helium and PbLi distribution. A detailed CAD design of the central outboard module has been defined. Thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses on of the First Wall and Breeder Zone have been carried out. For the attachment of the modules to the common backplate, a new solution based on the use of Tie Rods, derived from the design of the corresponding HCLL Test Blanket Module for ITER, has been proposed. This paper also identifies the priorities for further development of the HCLL blanket design.

  8. Objectives and status of EUROfusion DEMO blanket studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccaccini, L.V., E-mail: lorenzo.boccaccini@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Aiello, G.; Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion, PPPT, Garching (Germany); Barrett, T. [CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Forest, L. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hernandez, F.; Norajitra, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Porempovic, G. [Fuziotech Engineering Ltd (Hungary); Rapisarda, D. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sardain, P. [CEA/IRFM, 13115 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance (France); Utili, M. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Vala, L. [Centrum výzkumu Řež, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Short description of the new Breeding Blanket Project in the EUROfusion consortium for the design of the EU PPPT DEMO: objectives. • Presentation of the design approach used in the development of the Breeding Blanket design: requirements. • Breeding Blanket design; in particular the four blanket concepts included in the study are presented, recent results highlighted and the status discussed. • Auxiliary systems and related R&D programme: in particular the work areas addressed in the Project (Tritium Technology, Pb-Li and Solid Breeders Technology, First Wall Design and R&D, Manufacturing) are presented, recent results highlighted and the status discussed. - Abstract: The design of a DEMO reactor requires the design of a blanket system suitable of reliable T production and heat extraction for electricity production. In the frame of the EUROfusion Consortium activities, the Breeding Blanket Project has been constituted in 2014 with the goal to develop concepts of Breeding Blankets for the EU PPPT DEMO; this includes an integrated design and R&D programme with the goal to select after 2020 concepts on fusion plants for the engineering phase. The design activities are presently focalized around a pool of solid and liquid breeder blanket with helium, water and PbLi cooling. Development of tritium extraction and control technology, as well manufacturing and development of solid and PbLi breeders are part of the programme.

  9. 75 FR 51482 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11557). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of woven electric blankets,...

  10. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  11. 48 CFR 8.405-3 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase... Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). (a)(1) Establishment. Ordering activities may establish BPAs under any..., before placing an order exceeding the micro-purchase threshold, the ordering activity shall— (i)...

  12. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-12-31

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  13. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-01-01

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  14. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  15. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  16. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  17. Simulation of sludge blanket height in clarifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhen; WU Zhi-chao; WANG Zhi-wei; GU Guo-wei

    2009-01-01

    Sludge blanket height (SBH) is an important parameter in the clarifier design,operation and control.Based on an overview and classification of SBH algorithms,a modifed SBH algorithm is proposed by incorporating a threshold concentration limit into a relative concentration sharp change algorithm to eliminate the disturbance of compression interfaces on the correct simulation of SBH.Pilot-scale test data are adopted to compare reliability of three SBH algorithms reported in literature and the modified SBH algorithm developed in this paper.Calculated results demonstrate that the three SBH algorithms give results with large deviation (>50%) from measured SBH,especially under low solid flux conditions.The modified algorithm is computationally efficient and reliable in matching the measured data.It is incorporated into a onedimensional clarifier model for stable simulation of pilot-scale experimental clarifier data and into dynamic simulation of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) clarifier data.

  18. The dispersal of ash during explosive eruptions from central volcanoes and calderas: an underestimated hazard for the central Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpizio, Roberto [CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy); Caron, Benoit; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Santacroce, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, via S. Maria 53, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Giaccio, Biagio [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, CNR, Via Bolognola 7, 00138 Rome (Italy); Paterne, Martine [LSCE, Laboratoire Mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Siani, Giuseppe [IDES-UMR 8148, Universite Paris-XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: r.sulpizio@geomin.uniba.it

    2008-10-01

    The central Mediterranean area comprises some of the most active volcanoes of the northern hemisphere. Some of their names recall myths or events in human history: Somma-Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano, Ischia and Campi Flegrei. These volcanoes are still active today, and produce both effusive and explosive eruptions. In particular, explosive eruptions can produce and disperse large amount of volcanic ash, which pose a threat to environment, economy and human health over a large part of the Mediterranean area. We present and discuss data of ash dispersal from some explosive eruptions of southern Italy volcanoes, which dispersed centimetre -thick ash blankets hundred of kilometres from the source, irrespective of the more limited dispersal of the respective coarse grained fallout and PDC deposits. The collected data also highlight the major role played by lower atmosphere winds in dispersal of ash from weak plumes and ash clouds that accompany PDC emplacement.

  19. Heat transfer problems in gas-cooled solid blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    In all fusion reactors using the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle, a large fraction approximately 80 percent of the fusion energy will be released as approximately 14 MeV neutrons which must be slowed down in a relatively thick blanket surrounding the plasma, thereby, converting their kinetic energy to high temperature heat which can be continuously removed by a coolant stream and converted in part to electricity in a conventional power turbine. Because of the primary goal of achieving minimum radioactivity, to date Brookhaven blanket concepts have been restricted to the use of some form of solid lithium, with inert gas-cooling and in some design cases, water-cooling of the shell structure. Aluminum and graphite have been identified as very promising structural materials for fusion blankets, and conceptual designs based on these materials have been made. Depending on the thermal loading on the ''first'' wall which surrounds the plasma as well as blanket design, heat transfer problems may be noticeably different in gas-cooled solid blankets. Approaches to solution of heat removal problems as well as explanation of: (a) the after-heat problems in blankets; (b) tritium breeding in solids; and (c) materials selection for radiation shields relative to the minimum activity blanket efforts at Brookhaven are discussed.

  20. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations.

  1. Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) blanket design study, December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This work represents only the second iteration of the conceptual design of a DTHR blanket; consequently, a number of issues important to a detailed blanket design have not yet been evaluated. The most critical issues identified are those of two-phase flow maldistribution, flow instabilities, flow stratification for horizontal radial inflow of boiling water, fuel rod vibrations, corrosion of clad and structural materials by high quality steam, fretting and cyclic loads. Approaches to minimizing these problems are discussed and experimental testing with flow mock-ups is recommended. These implications on a commercial blanket design are discussed and critical data needs are identified.

  2. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  3. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction...... of melt in the investigated ashes has been determined as a function of temperature. Ash fusion results have been correlated to the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ashes, to results from a standard ash fusion test and to results from sintering experiments. Furthermore, the ash fusion results......-firing, the model only had a qualitative agreement with the measured ash deposit formation rates.Sintering measurements were carried out by means of compression strength testing of ash pellets. This method showed to not be applicable for the salt rich fly ash derived from straw combustion. For the fly ashes...

  4. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed Phase II research effort is to develop heterogeneous (HG) blankets for improved sound reduction in aircraft structures. Phase I...

  5. Lightweight IMM Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Flexible Blanket Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's recently completed successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 program has established a TRL 3/4 classification for an innovative IMM PV Integrated Modular Blanket Assembly...

  6. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved performance...

  7. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effective for an affiliated marketer with respect to transactions involving affiliated pipelines when an affiliated pipeline receives its blanket certificate pursuant to § 284.284. (2) Should a marketer...

  8. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  9. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite fermentation and distillation wastewater. ... treatment, biogas, granulated anaerobic sludge, industrial wastewater. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol.

  10. Axial blanket for 16NGF Angra 1 fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadde, Luciano Martins; Faria, Eduardo Fernandes [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sadde@inb.gov.br; faria@inb.gov.br; Sang-Keun You [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. (KNFC), Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: skyou@knfc.co.kr

    2007-07-01

    Angra-1, Kori-2 and Krsko are nuclear power plants with the same design. However, the fuel assemblies have some differences in design due to the countries strategies and the differences in the fabrication process. The 16NGF (16x16 Next Generation Fuel) was developed by INB, KNFC and Westinghouse in order to be used in these three nuclear power plants and the 'Axial Blanket' is one of the new features for the 16NGF design. The main purpose of the Axial Blanket Optimization study is to determine which axial blanket enrichment and length would provide the better fuel cycle cost benefit. All of the calculations were performed using Gadolinium as Burnable Absorber and solid pellets type for Axial Blanket. The results indicate 1.8 w/o U235 enrichment and 8 inches length as the best option of Axial Blanket from the fuel cycle cost benefit standpoint. The economy is about 1.8%. The difference in the reload cost in the range between 1.5 and 2.6 w/o U235 enrichment and for the 6 and 8 inches length is not so significant. Due that, from the Fq limit standpoint and also for longer cycle length requirements, a higher axial blanket enrichment (2.6 w/o) and shorter length (6 inches) is recommended. (author)

  11. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  12. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  13. Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

    Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

  14. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  15. Overview of design activities for Li/V blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, D.K.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    Recent fusion power plant design studies in the US have been conducted within the ARIES project. The most recent design of Li/V blankets was conducted as part of the ARIES-RS design. The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirement. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on a Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design.

  16. Nuclear Analyses of Indian LLCB Test Blanket System in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, H. L.; Shaw, A. K.; Danani, C.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh

    2017-04-01

    Heading towards the Nuclear Fusion Reactor Program, India is developing Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket for its future fusion Reactor. A mock-up of the LLCB blanket is proposed to be tested in ITER equatorial port no.2, to ensure the overall performance of blanket in reactor relevant nuclear fusion environment. Nuclear analyses play an important role in LLCB Test Blanket System design & development. It is required for tritium breeding estimation, thermal-hydraulic design, coolants process design, radioactive waste management, equipment maintenance & replacement strategies and nuclear safety. The nuclear behaviour of LLCB test blanket module in ITER is predicated in terms of nuclear responses such as tritium production, nuclear heating, neutron fluxes and radiation damages. Radiation shielding capability of LLCB TBS inside and outside bio-shield was also assessed to fulfill ITER shielding requirements. In order to supports the rad-waste and safety assessment, nuclear activation analyses were carried out and radioactivity data were generated for LLCB TBS components. Nuclear analyses of LLCB TBS are performed using ITER recommended nuclear analyses codes (i.e. MCNP, EASY), nuclear cross section data libraries (i.e. FENDL 2.1, EAF) and neutronic model (ITER C-lite v.l). The paper describes a comprehensive nuclear performance of LLCB TBS in ITER.

  17. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  18. 75 FR 38459 - Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries,'' which states: \\23\\ See Certain Woven... International Trade Administration Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China: Final... Department'') has determined that certain woven electric blankets (``woven electric blankets'') from...

  19. Direct LiT Electrolysis in a Metallic Fusion Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Luke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed. The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fusion/fission reactors is critical in order to maintain low concentrations. This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Extraction is complicated due to required low tritium concentration limits and because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering hydrogen and deuterium through an electrolysis step at high temperatures.

  20. MHD pressure drop in ferritic pipes of fusion blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, J.; Buehler, Leo E-mail: leo.buehler@iket.fzk.de; Messadek, K.; Stieglitz, R

    2003-09-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flows in pipes of ferromagnetic material is an important issue for liquid metal blanket concepts using MANET as wall material. Fusion relevant magnetic fields of 4-8 T cause high pressure drop in the blanket header where a massive structure of ferromagnetic material exists. It is briefly outlined that in the blanket the reduction of pressure drop due to magnetic shielding is limited to about 10%. Remarkable reduction of pressure drop is possible by means of electrical insulation that prevents currents from short-circuiting through the very thick walls of the headers. Direct contact of the insulating material with the liquid metal is excluded by using metallic liners. Results are reported on the fabrication of such a test section and corresponding pressure drop measurements confirm the effective contribution of the electrical decoupling.

  1. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Babineau, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Vaquer, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  3. Direct LiT Electrolysis in a Metallic Fusion Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Luke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium-based breeding blankets was developed. The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fusion/fission reactors is critical in order to maintain low concentrations. This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Extraction is complicated due to required low tritium concentration limits and because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering hydrogen and deuterium through an electrolysis step at high temperatures.

  4. Development of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aiello, G.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • Preliminary CAD design of the equatorial outboard module of the WCLL blanket has been developed for DEMO. • Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior in the straight part of the module. - Abstract: The water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) blanket, based on near-future technology requiring small extrapolation from present-day knowledge both on physical and technological aspect, is one of the breeding blanket concepts considered as possible candidates for the EU DEMOnstration power plant. In 2012, the EFDA agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the WCLL blanket design to those specifications. Relatively small modules with straight surfaces are attached to a common Back Supporting Structure housing feeding pipes. Each module features reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as structural material, liquid Lithium-Lead as breeder, neutron multiplier and carrier. Water at typical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) conditions is chosen as coolant. A preliminary design of the equatorial outboard module has been achieved. Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior. Two First Wall (FW) concepts have been proposed, one favoring the thermal efficiency, the other favoring the manufacturability. The Breeding Zone has been designed with C-shaped Double-Walled Tubes in order to minimize the Water/Pb-15.7Li interaction likelihood. The priorities for further development of the WCLL blanket concept are identified in the paper.

  5. MAT 126 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    stylia

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 126 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Written Assignment (Arithmetic and geometric sequence) (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Assignment Is It Fat Free (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Assignment Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126...

  6. First wall and blanket concepts for experimental fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Biggio, M.; Cardella, A.; Daenner, W.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Ponti, C.; Rieger, M.; Vieider, G.

    1985-07-01

    The paper describes the progress of the studies on first wall and liquid breeder blankets for tritium production in the Next European Torus (NET). Two concepts of first wall/blanket segments are described, using 17Li83Pb as breeder and water as coolant. In both concepts the first wall is integrated in a steel box enveloping the breeder units which are cylindrical vessels with an inside heat transfer system. The thermomechanical and neutronics features of the two concepts are evaluated. Finally, the questions related to tritium permeation into coolant and tritium recovery from breeder are discussed on the basis of the analysis in progress in Europe.

  7. Blanket-relevant liquid metal MHD channel flows: Data base and optimization simulation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The problems of generalization and integration of test, theoretical and design data relevant to liquid metal (LM) blanket are discussed in present work. First results on MHD data base and LM blanket optimization codes are presented.

  8. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  9. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Song, Wenli [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Weigang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • A novel method is proposed to analyze fusion characteristics of biomass ash. • T{sub m} can represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. • Compared with AFT, TMA is the better choice to analyze the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. - Abstract: The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, T{sub m}, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates.

  10. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  11. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  12. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  13. First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G.; Davis, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed.

  14. MGT 330 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    alfoniz

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 330 Week 1 Individual Assignment Functions of Management Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 3 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Team Assignment External Internal Factors Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Individual Assignment Delegation (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 W...

  15. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Mattas, R. F.

    1994-06-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The blanket comparison and selection study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper addresses the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (e.g., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data are used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment. Other key issues include development of electrical insulator coatings on the first-wall structural material to MHD pressure drop, and tritium permeation/inventory in self-cooled and indirectly cooled concepts. Acceptable types of coatings (based on their chemical compatibility and physical properties) are identified, and surface-modification avenues to achieve these coatings on the first wall are discussed. The assessment examines the extent of our knowledge on structural materials performance in liquid metals and identifies needed research and development in several of the areas in order to establish performance envelopes for the first wall in a liquid-metal environment.

  16. Remote handling assessment of attachment concepts for DEMO blanket segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.iglesias@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Cooper, Dave; Crowe, Robert; Middleton-Gear, Dave [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sibois, Romain [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Industrial Systems, ROViR, Tampere (Finland); Carloni, Dario [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Vizvary, Zsolt; Crofts, Oliver [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Harman, Jon [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstaße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Loving, Antony [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Challenges are identified for the remote handling of blanket segments’ attachments. • Two attachment design approaches are assessed for remote handling (RH) feasibility. • An alternative is proposed, which potentially simplifies and speeds-up RH operations. • Up to three different assemblies are proposed for the remote handling of the attachments. • Proposed integrated design of upper port is compatible with the attachment systems. - Abstract: The replacement strategy of the massive Multi-Module Blanket Segments (MMS) is a key driver in the design of several DEMO systems. These include the blankets themselves, the vacuum vessel (VV) and its ports and the Remote Maintenance System (RMS). Common challenges to any blanket attachment system have been identified, such as the need for applying a preload to the MMS manifold, the effects of the decay heat and several uncertainties related to permanent deformations when removing the blanket segments after service. The WP12 kinematics of the MMS in-vessel transportation was adapted to the requirements of each of the supports during 2013 and 2014 design activities. The RM equipment envisaged for handling attachments and earth connections may be composed of up to three different assemblies. An In-Vessel Mover at the divertor level handles the lower support and earth bonding, and could stabilize the MMS during transportation. A Shield Plug crane with a 6 DoF manipulator operates the upper attachment and earth straps. And a Vertical Maintenance Crane is responsible for the in-vessel MMS transportation and can handle the removable upper support pins. A final proposal is presented which can potentially reduce the number of required systems, at the same time that speeds-up the RMS global operations.

  17. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pu, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Jia; Peng, ChangHong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by {sup 6}Li(n,α)T reaction. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be{sub 12}Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option

  18. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-03-02

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  19. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  20. MGT 401 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    kennith

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 401 Week 1 Individual Assignment Strategic Management Process Paper (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 Class Activity Week 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Learning Team Business Model Comparison Example (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Class Activity (Ash) MGT 401 Week 3 Individual Assignment Business Plan Evaluation (Ash) ...

  1. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  2. Liquid lithium self-cooled breeding blanket design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Danilov, I.V.; Strebkov, Yu.S. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, 101100 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mattas, R.F.; Hua, T.Q.; Smith, D.L. [Fusion Power Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL 60439 (United States); Gohard, Y. [ITER Garching Joint Work Site, Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    To meet the technical objectives of the ITER extended performance phase (EPP) an advanced tritium breeding lithium/vanadium (Li/V) blanket was developed by two home teams (US and RF). The design is based on the use of liquid Li as coolant and breeder and vanadium alloy (V-Cr-Ti) as structural material. The first wall is coated with a beryllium protection layer. Beryllium is also integrated in the blanket for neutron multiplication and improved shielding. The use of tungsten carbide in the primary shield and in vacuum vessel provides adequate protection for toroidal field coils. A self-healing electrical insulator in the form of CaO or AlN coating layer is utilized to reduce MHD pressure drop in the system. To have a self-consistent ITER design, liquid metal cooling of the divertor and vacuum vessel is considered as well. (orig.) 16 refs.

  3. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  4. Ash in the Soil System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  5. Evaluation of US demo helium-cooled blanket options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; McQuillan, B.W.; Schleicher, R.W. [and others

    1995-10-01

    A He-V-Li blanket design was developed as a candidate for the U.S. fusion demonstration power plant. This paper presents an 18 MPa helium-cooled, lithium breeder, V-alloy design that can be coupled to the Brayton cycle with a gross efficiency of 46%. The critical issue of designing to high gas pressure and the compatibility between helium impurities and V-alloy are addressed.

  6. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  7. MFTF-B Upgrade for blanket-technology testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, K.I.; Doggett, J.N.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-10-22

    Based on preliminary studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we believe the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) could be upgraded for operation in a hot-ion Kelley mode in a portion of the central cell to provide fusion nuclear engineering data, particularly blanket technology information, by the end of the decade. Cost of this mode of operation would be modest compared with that of the other fusion devices considered in the last few years for such purposes.

  8. Laboratory experiments on drought and runoff in blanket peat

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, J; Burt, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming might change the hydrology of upland blanket peats in Britain. We have therefore studied in laboratory experiments the impact of drought on peat from the North Pennines of the UK. Runoff was dominated by surface and near-surface flow; flow decreased rapidly with depth and differed from one type of cover to another. Infiltration depended on the intensity of rain, and runoff responded rapidly to rain, with around 50% of rainwater emerging as overland flow. Drought changed the str...

  9. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  10. Heat Loads Due to Small Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation Blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Heckle, K. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    The main penetrations (supports and piping) through multilayer insulation systems for cryogenic tanks have been previously addressed by heat flow measurements. Smaller penetrations due to fasteners and attachments are now experimentally investigated. The use of small pins or plastic garment tag fasteners to each the handling and construction of multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets goes back many years. While it has long been understood that penetrations and other discontinuities degrade the performance of the MLI blanket, quantification of this degradation has generally been lumped into gross performance multipliers (often called degradation factors or scale factors). Small penetrations contribute both solid conduction and radiation heat transfer paths through the blanket. The conduction is down the stem of the structural element itself while the radiation is through the hole formed during installation of the pin or fastener. Analytical models were developed in conjunction with MLI perforation theory and Fouriers Law. Results of the analytical models are compared to experimental testing performed on a 10 layer MLI blanket with approximately 50 small plastic pins penetrating the test specimen. The pins were installed at 76-mm spacing inches in both directions to minimize the compounding of thermal effects due to localized compression or lateral heat transfer. The testing was performed using a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter (Cryostat-100) with the standard boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K. Results show that the added radiation through the holes is much more significant than the conduction down the fastener. The results are shown to be in agreement with radiation theory for perforated films.

  11. Model problem of MHD flow in a lithium blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepanov, V.Y.

    1978-01-01

    A model problem is considered for a feasibility study concerning controlled MHD flow in the blanket of a Tokamak nuclear reactor. The fundamental equations for the steady flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a uniform transverse magnetic field are solved in rectangular coordinates, in the zero-induction approximation and with negligible induced currents. A numerical solution obtained for a set of appropriate boundary constraints establishes the conditions under which no stagnation zones will be formed.

  12. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Farnum, E.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Vitkovski, I.V. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). MHD-Machines Lab.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed.

  13. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  14. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  15. Neutronic performance issues of the breeding blanket options for the European DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion—Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SERMA, LPEC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moro, F. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Breeder blanket concepts for DEMO—design features. • Neutronic characteristics of breeder blankets. • Evaluation of Tritium breeding potential. • Evaluation of shielding performance. - Abstract: This paper presents nuclear performance issues of the HCPB, HCLL, DCLL and WCLL breeder blankets, which are under development within the PPPT (Power Plant Physics and Technology) programme of EUROfusion, with the objective to assess the potential and suitability of the blankets for the application to DEMO. The assessment is based on the initial design versions of the blankets developed in 2014. The Tritium breeding potential is considered sufficient for all breeder blankets although the initial design versions of the HCPB, HCLL and DCLL blankets were shown to require further design improvements. Suitable measures have been proposed and proven to be sufficient to achieve the required Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) ≥ 1.10. The shielding performance was shown to be sufficient to protect the super-conducting toroidal field coil provided that efficient shielding material mixtures including WC or borated water are utilized. The WCLL blanket does not require the use of such shielding materials due to a very compact blanket support structure/manifold configuration which yet requires design verification. The vacuum vessel can be safely operated over the full anticipated DEMO lifetime of 6 full power years for all blanket concepts considered.

  16. Thermo-mechanical characterization of ceramic pebbles for breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Aquaro, Donato; Scaletti, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental activities to characterize the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. • Compression tests of pebbles. • Experimental evaluation of thermal conductivity of pebbles bed at different temperatures. • Experimental test with/without compression load. - Abstract: An open issue for fusion power reactor is to design a suitable breeding blanket capable to produce the necessary quantity of the tritium and to transfer the energy of the nuclear fusion reaction to the coolant. The envisaged solution called Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket foresees the use of lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) or lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebble beds. The thermal mechanical properties of the candidate pebble bed materials are presently extensively investigated because they are critical for the feasibility and performances of the numerous conceptual designs which use a solid breeder. This study is aimed at the investigation of mechanical properties of the lithium orthosilicate and at the characterization of the main chemical, physical and thermo-mechanical properties taking into account the production technology. In doing that at the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering (DICI) of the University of Pisa adequate experiments were carried out. The obtained results may contribute to characterize the material of the pebbles and to optimize the design of the envisaged fusion breeding blankets.

  17. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured

  18. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  19. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kylling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry are calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres are found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates will underestimate the mass loading by several tens of percent compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles.

  20. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2013-10-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry are calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres are found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates will underestimate the mass loading by several tens of percent compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles.

  1. APT Blanket Safety Analysis: Preliminary Analyses of Downflow Through a Lateral Row 1 Blanket Model Under Near RHR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    To address a concern about a potential maldistribution of coolant flow through an APT blanket module under low flow near RHR conditions, a scoping study of downflow mixed convection in parallel channels was conducted. Buoyancy will adversely effect the flow distribution in module bins with downflow and non-uniform power distributions. This study consists of two parts: a simple analytical model of flow in a two channel network, and a lumped eleven channel FLOWTRAN-TF model of a front lateral Row-1 blanket module bin. Results from both models indicate that the concern about coolant flow in a vertical model being diverted away from high power regions by buoyancy is warranted. The FLOWTRAN-TF model predicted upflow (i.e., a flow reversal) through several of the high power channels, under some low flow conditions. The transition from the regime with downflow in all channels to a regime with upflow in some channels was abrupt.

  2. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobromir Panayotov; Andrew Grief; Brad J. Merrill; Julian T. Murgatroyd; Paul Humrickhouse; Yves Poitevin; Simon Owen; Markus Iseli

    2015-06-01

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) develops designs and implements the European Test Blanket Systems (TBS) in ITER - Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of TBS in ITER and accident analyses are one of its critical segments. A systematic approach to the accident analyses had been acquired under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements and AMEC and INL efforts resulted in the development of a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analyses. It addresses the specificity of the breeding blankets design, materials and phenomena and at the same time is consistent with the one already applied to ITER accident analyses. Methodology consists of several phases. At first the reference scenarios are selected on the base of FMEA studies. In the second place elaboration of the accident analyses specifications we use phenomena identification and ranking tables to identify the requirements to be met by the code(s) and TBS models. Thus the limitations of the codes are identified and possible solutions to be built into the models are proposed. These include among others the loose coupling of different codes or code versions in order to simulate multi-fluid flows and phenomena. The code selection and issue of the accident analyses specifications conclude this second step. Furthermore the breeding blanket and ancillary systems models are built on. In this work challenges met and solutions used in the development of both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes models of HCLL and HCPB TBSs will be shared. To continue the developed models are qualified by comparison with finite elements analyses, by code to code comparison and sensitivity studies. Finally, the qualified models are used for the execution of the accident analyses of specific scenario. When possible the methodology phases will be illustrated in the paper by limited number of tables and

  3. Influence of Bed Ash and Fly Ash Replacement in Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Summoogum-Utchanah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the influence of fly ash and bottom ash as partial cement substitutes in mortars by studying the particle size distribution, consistency, flow, fresh density, air content, compressive strength and flexural strength characteristics. The results revealed that fly ash and cement had relatively the same particle size distribution unlike bottom ash. In the fresh state, as the amount of pozzolans increased in the mixtures, the mortars showed an enhancement in workability, were susceptible to water loss by bleeding, and exhibited a decline in fresh density. The early strength gains of the fly ash samples were low but reached higher than the control after 28 days of curing. The flexural strength increased as the fly ash content rose to reach a maximum at 20 % replacement. However, the 2-day compressive strength of bottom ash samples was higher than the control but decreased after 28 days of curing while the flexural strength declined with addition of bottom ash except at 5 % substitution.

  4. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  5. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro

    2014-09-01

    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes.

  6. HIS 103 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 1 (Transition to Agriculture) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 2 (Early Complex Societies) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Assignment (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Assignment Greco Roman Influence Paper (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 1 Chinese Social and Political Order Systems (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 2 Caste System (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 3 Assignment Black Death Dra...

  7. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  8. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  9. Design and safety analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Guangming; Lv, Zhongliang; Jin, Cheng; Chen, Hongli [University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-05-15

    This paper reports the design and safety analysis results of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket of the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Materials selection and basic structure of the blanket have been presented. Performance analysis including neutronics analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis has shown good results. And the safety analysis of the blanket under Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions has been described. Results showed the current design can deal well with the selected accident scenarios.

  10. Prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy in a male orphanage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, C; Pojjaroen-anant, C; Wisetsing, P; Lalitphiphat, A; Chanthavanich, P; Kabkaew, K

    2000-03-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted in a male orphanage to find out the prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy using mebendazole. We found that the prevalence of enterobiasis was 28.9%. The incidence density of enterobiasis after blanket chemotherapy was 379.82 per 1,000 person-years which was quite high. We suggest that blanket chemotherapy should be repeated at every 6 months interval to control enterobiasis in orphanages.

  11. 76 FR 44903 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...-000] Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 30, 2011 Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC (KMIGT), Post...

  12. Conceptual design and analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Min; Lv, Zhongliang; Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Qianwen; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Jie; Ye, Minyou

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A helium cooled solid blanket was proposed as a candidate blanket concept for CFETR. • Material selection, basic structure and gas flow scheme of the blanket were introduced. • A series of performance analyses for the blanket were summarized. - Abstract: To bridge the gap between ITER and DEMO and to realize the fusion energy in China, a fusion device Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was proposed and is being designed mainly to demonstrate 50–200 MW fusion power, 30–50% duty time factor, tritium self-sustained. Because of the high demand of tritium production and the realistic engineering consideration, the design of tritium breeding blanket for CFETR is a challenging work and getting special attention. As a blanket candidate, a helium cooled solid breeder blanket has been designed with the emphasis on conservative design and realistic blanket technology. This paper introduces the basic blanket scheme, including the material selection, structural design, cooling scheme and purge gas flow path. In addition, some results of neutronics, thermal-hydraulic and stress analysis are presented.

  13. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  14. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER outboard blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Tim, E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, Andrew; Sawan, Mohamed; Marriott, Edward; Wilson, Paul [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, Michael; Bullock, James [Formerly, Fusion Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis was performed on detailed CAD models placed in a 40 degree model of ITER. • The regions examined include BM09, the upper ELM coil region (BM11–13), the neutral beam (NB) region (BM13–16), and BM18. • The results show that VV nuclear heating exceeds limits in the NB and upper ELM coil regions. • The results also show that the level of He production in parts of BM18 exceeds limits. • These calculations are being used to modify the design of the ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: In the ITER design, the blanket modules (BM) provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40 degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM09, BM16 near the heating neutral beam injection (HNB) region, BM11–13 near the upper ELM coil region, and BM18. For the BM16 HNB region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by up to 80%. For the BM11–13 region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 45%. For BM18, the results show that He production does not meet the limit necessary for re-welding. The results presented in this work are being used by the ITER Organization Blanket and Tokamak Integration groups to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  15. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  16. Uranium self-shielding in fast reactor blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiroglu, O.K.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1976-03-01

    The effects of heterogeneity on resonance self-shielding are examined with particular emphasis on the blanket region of the fast breeder reactor and on its dominant reaction--capture in /sup 238/U. The results, however, apply equally well to scattering resonances, to other isotopes (fertile, fissile and structural species) and to other environments, so long as the underlying assumptions of narrow resonance theory apply. The heterogeneous resonance integral is first cast into a modified homogeneous form involving the ratio of coolant-to-fuel fluxes. A generalized correlation (useful in its own right in many other applications) is developed for this ratio, using both integral transport and collision probability theory to infer the form of correlation, and then relying upon Monte Carlo calculations to establish absolute values of the correlation coefficients. It is shown that a simple linear prescription can be developed for the flux ratio as a function of only fuel optical thickness and the fraction of the slowing-down source generated by the coolant. This in turn permitted derivation of a new equivalence theorem relating the heterogeneous self-shielding factor to the homogeneous self-shielding factor at a modified value of the background scattering cross section per absorber nucleus. A simple version of this relation is developed and used to show that heterogeneity has a negligible effect on the calculated blanket breeding ratio in fast reactors.

  17. Elevator mode convection in liquid metal blankets for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikanov, Oleg; Liu, Li

    2015-11-01

    The work is motivated by the design of liquid-metal blankets for nuclear fusion reactors. Mixed convection in a downward flow in a vertical duct with strong contant-rate heating of one wall (the Grashof number up to 1012) and strong transverse magnetic field (the Hartmann number up to 104) is considered. It is found that in an infinitely long duct the flow is dominated by exponentially growing elevator modes having the form of a combination of ascending and descending jets. An analytical solution approximating the growth rate of the modes is derived. Analogous flows in finite-length pipes and ducts are analyzed using the high-resolution numerical simulations. The results of the recent experiments are reproduced and explained. It is found that the flow evolves in cycles consisting of periods of exponential growth and breakdowns of the jets. The resulting high-amplitude fluctuations of temperature is a feature potentially dangerous for operation of a reactor blanket. Financial support was provided by the US NSF (Grant CBET 1232851).

  18. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control.

  19. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied... (Application), filed on August 8, 2011, by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  20. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of 250 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year...

  1. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported... receipt of an application (Application), filed on April 19, 2013, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously...

  2. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... application (Application), filed on October 26, 2012, by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported...

  3. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... equivalent of 390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG...

  4. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  5. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in...

  6. Effect of reactor size on the breeding economics of LMFBR blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagishi, A.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1975-02-01

    The effect of reactor size on the neutronic and economic performance of LMFBR blankets driven by radially-power-flattened cores has been investigated using both simple models and state-of-the-art computer methods. Reactor power ratings in the range 250 to 3000 MW(e) were considered. Correlations for economic breakeven and optimum irradiation times and blanket thicknesses have been developed for batch-irradiated blankets. It is shown that a given distance from the core-blanket interface the fissile buildup rate per unit volume remains very nearly constant in the radial blanket as (radially-power-flattened, constant-height) core size increases. As a consequence, annual revenue per blanket assembly, and breakeven and optimum irradiation times and optimum blanket dimensions, are the same for all reactor sizes. It is also shown that the peripheral core fissile enrichment, hence neutron leakage spectra, of the (radially-power-flattened, constant-height) cores remains essentially constant as core size increases. Coupled with the preceding observations, this insures that radial blanket breeding performance in demonstration-size LMFBR units will be a good measure of that in much larger commercial LMFBR's.

  7. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... and order (Order No. 2923) that granted Eni USA Gas Marketing authority to export a cumulative total... Application, Eni USA Gas Marketing requests blanket authorization to export LNG from the Cameron Terminal...

  8. AshMeadowsNaucorid_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Naucorid (Ambrysus amargosus) occur. "Nevada, Nye County. Point of Rocks Springs and...

  9. AshMeadowsNaucorid_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Naucorid (Ambrysus amargosus) occur. "Nevada, Nye County. Point of Rocks Springs and...

  10. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  11. Development of a virtual reality simulator for the ITER blanket remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Nobukazu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: takeda.nobukazu@jaea.go.jp; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tesini, Alessandro [ITER International Fusion Energy Organization, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2008-12-15

    The authors developed a simulator for the remote maintenance system of the ITER blanket using a general 3D robotic simulation software, ENVISION. The simulator is connected to the control system of the manipulator, which was developed as part of the blanket maintenance system during the Engineering Design Activity (EDA), and can reconstruct the positions of the manipulator and blanket module using position data transmitted from motors through a LAN. In addition, it can provide virtual visual information (e.g., about the interface structures behind the blanket module) by making the module transparent on the screen. It can also be used for confirming a maintenance sequence before the actual operation. The simulator will be modified further, with addition of other necessary functions, and will finally serve as a prototype of the actual simulator for the blanket remote handling system, which will be procured as part of an in-kind contribution.

  12. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  13. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  14. ITER helium ash accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  15. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kylling; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; T. Nousiainen

    2013-01-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furtherm...

  16. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  17. Movement of tritiated water injected into blanket peat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Clymo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1966, tritiated water was injected at five sites at depths between 25 and 100 cm into blanket bog at Moor House National Nature Reserve. The distribution of tritium activity on a logarithmically spaced grid around these sites was sampled in 1990, 24 years after placement. The proportions of tritium accounted for ranged from 80 % for the injection at 100 cm deep, to 20 % for the injection at 25 cm deep. Both 80 and 20 should be considered as ± 10 %. Results imply that diffusion close to the injection may have played a part in movement of tritium; evapotranspiration is not inconsistent with the losses inversely proportional to depth of placement; but the main process of movement is probably bulk (mass flow of water through the peat.

  18. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-01

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  19. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosia, G., E-mail: gbosia@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Turin (Italy); Ragona, R. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-LPP-ERM/KMS, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  20. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puyol, D.; Monsalvo, V.M.; Mohedano, A.F. [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J.L. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, J.J., E-mail: juanjo.rodriguez@uam.es [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    Anaerobic treatment of pre-settled cosmetic wastewater in batch and continuous experiments has been investigated. Biodegradability tests showed high COD and solid removal efficiencies (about 70%), being the hydrolysis of solids the limiting step of the process. Continuous treatment was carried out in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. High COD and TSS removal efficiencies (up to 95% and 85%, respectively) were achieved over a wide range of organic load rate (from 1.8 to 9.2 g TCOD L{sup -1} day{sup -1}). Methanogenesis inhibition was observed in batch assays, which can be predicted by means of a Haldane-based inhibition model. Both COD and solid removal were modelled by Monod and pseudo-first order models, respectively.

  1. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frantoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  2. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  3. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Fibre Reinforced Silica Aerogel Blankets for Thermal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS as the source of silica, fibre reinforced silica aerogels were synthesized via fast ambient pressure drying using methanol (MeOH, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS, ammonium fluoride (NH4F, and hexane. The molar ratio of TEOS/MeOH/(COOH2/NH4F was kept constant at 1 : 38 : 3.73 × 10−5 : 0.023 and the gel was allowed to form inside the highly porous meta-aramid fibrous batting. The wet gel surface was chemically modified (silylation process using various concentrations of TMCS in hexane in the range of 1 to 20% by volume. The fibre reinforced silica aerogel blanket was obtained subsequently through atmospheric pressure drying. The aerogel blanket samples were characterized by density, thermal conductivity, hydrophobicity (contact angle, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The radiant heat resistance of the aerogel blankets was examined and compared with nonaerogel blankets. It has been observed that, compared to the ordinary nonaerogel blankets, the aerogel blankets showed a 58% increase in the estimated burn injury time and thus ensure a much better protection from heat and fire hazards. The effect of varying the concentration of TMCS on the estimated protection time has been examined. The improved thermal stability and the superior thermal insulation of the flexible aerogel blankets lead to applications being used for occupations that involve exposure to hazards of thermal radiation.

  5. Neutronic analyses of design issues affecting the tritium breeding performance in different DEMO blanket concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereslavtsev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.pereslavtsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion – Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Realistic 3D MCNP model based on the CAD engineering model of DEMO. • Automated procedure for the generation and arrangement of the blanket modules for different DEMO concepts: HCPB, HCLL, WCLL, DCLL. • Several parameters affecting tritium breeding ratio (TBR) were investigated. • A set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts. - Abstract: Neutronic analyses were performed to assess systematically the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) variations in the DEMO for the different blanket concepts HCPB, HCLL, WCLL and DCLL DEMOs due to modifications of the blanket configurations. A dedicated automated procedure was developed to fill the breeding modules in the common generic model in correspondence to the different concepts. The TBR calculations were carried out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The following parameters affecting the global TBR were investigated: TBR poloidal distribution, radial breeder zone depth, {sup 6}Li enrichment, steel content in the breeder modules, poloidal segmentation of the breeder blanket volume, size of gaps between blankets, thickness of the first wall and of the tungsten armour. Based on the results a set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts with the goal to achieve the required tritium breeding performance in DEMO.

  6. Neutronic analyses of the preliminary design of a DCLL blanket for the EUROfusion DEMO power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Iole, E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es; Fernández, Iván; Rapisarda, David; Ibarra, Angel

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We perform neutronic calculations for the preliminary DCLL Blanket design. • We study the tritium breeding capability of the reactor. • We determine the nuclear heating in the main components. • We verify if the shielding of the TF coil is maintained. - Abstract: In the frame of the newly established EUROfusion WPBB Project for the period 2014–2018, four breeding blanket options are being investigated to be used in the fusion power demonstration plant DEMO. CIEMAT is leading the development of the conceptual design of the Dual Coolant Lithium Lead, DCLL, breeding blanket. The primary role of the blanket is of energy extraction, tritium production, and radiation shielding. With this aim the DCLL uses LiPb as primary coolant, tritium breeder and neutron multiplier and Eurofer as structural material. Focusing on the achievement of the fundamental neutronic responses a preliminary blanket model has been designed. Thus detailed 3D neutronic models of the whole blanket modules have been generated, arranged in a specific DCLL segmentation and integrated in the generic DEMO model. The initial design has been studied to demonstrate its viability. Thus, the neutronic behaviour of the blanket and of the shield systems in terms of tritium breeding capabilities, power generation and shielding efficiency has been assessed in this paper. The results demonstrate that the primary nuclear performances are already satisfactory at this preliminary stage of the design, having obtained the tritium self-sufficiency and an adequate shielding.

  7. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: the concept of the cassette blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R. W.

    1977-10-01

    The cassette blanket introduces four major improvements in fusion reactor blanket design. These are: (1) the cassette itself which by design furnishes the key unit for simplification of blanket replacement and maintenance and also isolates the lithium moderator from the plasma by enveloping it in the coolant; (2) the concept of blanket zoning, which uses to advantage the fact that radiation damage to structure decreases exponentially with distance. With the use of cassettes in series, only the front fraction of the blanket, the first cassette, need be changed due to damage over the life of the plant; (3) the rectangular blanket concept, which recognizes that blankets must envelop the plasma but need not conform to plasma shape. With this rectangular geometry, cassettes may be installed or removed by simple linear motion between magnet coils; (4) internal tritium recovery, which uses a favorable temperature gradient and ''MHD-frozen'' lithium to diffuse tritium out of the cassette. Supporting calculations and illustrative cases are provided for these four areas using two coolants: helium and HITEC, a eutectic mixture of inorganic salts (potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, and sodium nitrite).

  8. Development of the breeding blanket and shield model for the fusion power reactors system SYCOMORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li-Puma, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.lipuma@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jaboulay, Jean-Charles, E-mail: Jean-Charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martin, Brunella, E-mail: brunella.martin@gmail.com [Incka, 19-21 Rue du 8 mai 1945, F-94110 Arcueil (France)

    2014-10-15

    SYCOMORE, a fusion reactor system code based on a modular approach is under development at CEA. Within this framework, this paper describes the relevant sub-modules which have been implemented to model the main outputs of the breeding blanket and shield block of the system code: tritium breeding ratio, peak energy deposition in toroidal field coils, reactor layout and power deposition, blanket pressure drops and materials inventory. Blanket and shield requirements are calculated by several sub-modules: the blanket assembly and layout sub-module, the neutronic sub-module, the blanket design sub-module (thermal hydraulic and thermo-mechanic pre-design tool). A power flow module has also been developed which is directly linked to the blanket thermo-dynamic performances, which is not described in this paper. For the blanket assembly and layout and the blanket module design sub-modules, explicit analytic models have been developed and implemented; for the neutronic sub-module neural networks that replicate the results of appropriate simplified 1D and 2D neutronic simulations have been built. Presently, relevant model for the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead is available. Sub-modules have been built in a way that they can run separately or coupled into the breeding blanket and shield module in order to be integrated in SYCOMORE. In the paper, the objective and main input/output parameters of each sub-module are reported and relevant models discussed. The application to previous studied reactor models (PPCS model AB, DEMO-HCLL 2006–2007 studies) is also presented.

  9. Analysis and optimization of minor actinides transmutation blankets with regards to neutron and gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooyman Timothée

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous loading of minor actinides in radial blankets is a potential solution to implement minor actinides transmutation in fast reactors. However, to compensate for the lower flux level experienced by the blankets, the fraction of minor actinides to be loaded in the blankets must be increased to maintain acceptable performances. This severely increases the decay heat and neutron source of the blanket assemblies, both before and after irradiation, by more than an order of magnitude in the case of neutron source for instance. We propose here to implement an optimization methodology of the blankets design with regards to various parameters such as the local spectrum or the mass to be loaded, with the objective of minimizing the final neutron source of the spent assembly while maximizing the transmutation performances of the blankets. In a first stage, an analysis of the various contributors to long- and short-term neutron and gamma source is carried out whereas in a second stage, relevant estimators are designed for use in the effective optimization process, which is done in the last step. A comparison with core calculations is finally done for completeness and validation purposes. It is found that the use of a moderated spectrum in the blankets can be beneficial in terms of final neutron and gamma source without impacting minor actinides transmutation performances compared to more energetic spectrum that could be achieved using metallic fuel for instance. It is also confirmed that, if possible, the use of hydrides as moderating material in the blankets is a promising option to limit the total minor actinides inventory in the fuel cycle. If not, it appears that focus should be put upon an increased residence time for the blankets rather than an increase in the acceptable neutron source for handling and reprocessing.

  10. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  11. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Liquid Metal MHD Pressure Drop in the Blanket for the FDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红艳; 吴宜灿; 何晓雄

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary analysis and calculation of liquid metal Li17Pb83 magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the blanket for the FDS have been presented to evaluate the significance of MHD effects on the thermal-hydraulic design of the blanket. To decrease the liquid metal MHD pressure drop, Al2O3 is applied as an electronically insulated coating onto the inner surface of the ducts. The requirement for the insulated coating to reduce the additional leakage pressure drop caused by coating imperfections has been analyzed. Finally, the total liquid metal MHD pressure drop and magnetic pump power in the FDS blanket have been given.

  13. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  14. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Griscom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery nearly two decades ago of a 90 km-diameter impact crater below the lower Chesapeake Bay has gone unnoted by the general public because to date all published literature on the subject has described it as "buried". To the contrary, evidence is presented here that the so-called "upland deposits" that blanket ∼5000 km2 of the U.S. Middle-Atlantic Coastal Plain (M-ACP display morphologic, lithologic, and stratigraphic features consistent with their being ejecta from the 35.4 Ma Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure (CBIS and absolutely inconsistent with the prevailing belief that they are of fluvial origin. Specifically supporting impact origin are the facts that (i a 95 %-pure iron ore endemic to the upland deposits of southern Maryland, eastern Virginia, and the District of Columbia has previously been proven to be impactoclastic in origin, (ii this iron ore welds together a small percentage of well-rounded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the upland deposits into brittle sheets interpretable as "spall plates" created in the interference-zone of the CBIS impact, (iii the predominantly non-welded upland gravels have long ago been shown to be size sorted with an extreme crater-centric gradient far too large to have been the work of rivers, but well explained as atmospheric size-sorted interference-zone ejecta, (iv new evidence is provided here that ~60 % of the non-welded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the (lower lying gravel member of the upland deposits display planar fractures attributable to interference-zone tensile waves, (v the (overlying loam member of the upland deposits is attributable to base-surge-type deposition, (vi several exotic clasts found in a debris flow topographically below the upland deposits can only be explained as jetting-phase crater ejecta, and (vii an allogenic granite boulder found among the upland deposits is deduced to have been launched into space and sculpted by hypervelocity air friction

  15. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  16. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  18. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  19. Development of ITER shielding blanket prototype mockup by HIP bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Toshihisa; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Office of ITER Project Promotion, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A prototype ({approx}900{sup H} x 1700{sup W} x 350{sup T} mm) of the ITER shielding blanket module has been fabricated following the previous successful fabrication of a small-scale ({approx}500{sup H} x 400{sup W} x 150{sup T} mm) and mid-scale ({approx}800{sup H} x 500{sup W} x 350{sup T} mm) mock-ups. This prototype incorporates most of key design features essential to the fabrication of the ITER shielding blanket module such as 1) the first wall heat sink made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion strengthened Cu (DSCu) with built-in SS316L coolant tubes bonded to a massive SS316LN shield block, 2) toroidally curved first wall with a radius of 5106 mm while straight in poloidal direction, 3) coolant channels oriented in poloidal direction in the first wall and in toroidal direction in the shield block, 4) the first wall coolant channel routing to avoid the interference with the front access holes, 5) coolant channels drilled through the forged SS316LN-IG shield block, and 6) four front access holes of 30 mm in diameter penetrated through the first wall and the shield block. For the joining method, especially for the first wall/side wall parts and the shield block, the solid HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) process was applied. It is difficult to apply conventional joining methods such as field welding, brazing, explosion bonding and mechanical one-axial diffusion bonding to a wide area bonding because sufficient mechanical strengths can not be obtained and excessive deformations occurs. In order to solve these fabrication issues, HIP bonding was applied. The first wall stainless steel (SS) coolant tubes of 10 mm in inner diameter and l mm in thickness were sandwiched by semi-circular grooved DSCu plates at the first wall and the front region of the side wall, and by semi-circular grooved SS plates at the back region of the side wall. After assembling of these first wall/side wall parts with the shield block, they were simultaneously bonded by single step HIP in order to

  20. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  1. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously determi

  2. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: Absorption Versus Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Doutres, Olivier; 10.1121/1.3458845

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket and (iii) sound absorption due to multiple reflections inside the cavity. The method is applied to four different blankets frequently used in automotive and aeronautic applications: a non-symmetric multilayer made of a screen in sandwich between two porous layers and three symmetric porous layers having different pore geometries. It is shown that the absorption behavior of the blanket controls the acoustic behavior of the treatment at low and medium frequencies and its transmission loss at high frequencies. Acoustic treatment having poor sound ...

  3. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  4. Normal Operation (NO) of APT Blanket System and its Components Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the APT.

  5. Facilities, testing program and modeling needs for studying liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in fusion blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bühler, L., E-mail: leo.buehler@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mistrangelo, C.; Konys, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bhattacharyay, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (China); Obukhov, D. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA) (Russian Federation); Smolentsev, S. [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) (United States); Utili, M. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, Camugnano 40032 (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Since many years, liquid metal flows for applications in fusion blankets have been investigated worldwide. A review is given about modeling requirements and existing experimental facilities for investigations of liquid metal related issues in blankets with the focus on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Most of the performed theoretical and experimental works were dedicated to fundamental aspects of MHD flows under very strong magnetic fields as they may occur in generic elements of fusion blankets like pipes, ducts, bends, expansions and contractions. Those experiments are required to progressively validate numerical tools with the purpose of obtaining codes capable to predict MHD flows at fusion relevant parameters in complex blanket geometries, taking into account electrical and thermal coupling between fluid and structural materials. Scaled mock-up experiments support the theoretical activities and help deriving engineering correlations for cases which cannot be calculated with required accuracy up to now.

  6. Properties of Ejecta Blanket Deposits Surrounding Morasko Meteorite Impact Craters (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szokaluk, M.; Muszyński, A.; Jagodziński, R.; Szczuciński, W.

    2016-08-01

    Morasko impact craters are a record of the fall of a meteorite into the soft sediments. The presented results illustrate the geological structure of the area around the crater as well as providing evidence of the occurrence of ejecta blanket.

  7. Resolution of proliferation issues for a SFR blanket with a specific application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauff, N.E. [31 rue baudelaire, voisins le bretonneux, 78960 (France); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Forget, B.; Driscoll, M.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The Sodium Fast Reactor is seen as the most realistic Gen-IV reactor to be built in the near future. France and the US are still developing their designs; these will require improved safety, competitive economics, and also proliferation resistance. To meet this last requirement, both French and American designers show some concerns with the use of breeding blankets. France and the USA won't need breeding blankets to produce plutonium because they already have large amounts of plutonium bred from their LWR fleet to start a new SFR fleet, thus breeding blankets are mainly of interest for minor actinide burning. On the contrary, India and China express great interest in blankets for their SFR designs, to reach a positive breeding gain. For example, the Indian PFBR, a 500 MWe oxide-fueled SFR has a breeding ratio of 1.05. Blankets are used in a Fast Reactor to increase the breeding ratio of the core, by breeding a significant amount of plutonium. The Plutonium bred within these blankets, if these are loaded with Uranium only, is generally of a very high quality, which makes it easily used in a nuclear explosive device. Our research has shown that the plutonium in breeding blankets can be made less attractive to make a nuclear explosive device than LWR-bred plutonium with a burnup of 50 MWd/Kg. Minor actinide doping and moderator addition were the two options studied, as they increase Pu{sup 238} and Pu{sup 240} production. In the work reported here, the methodology developed for securing a breeding blanket was successfully applied to the Indian PFBR. The full paper will describe a design of the PFBR breeding proliferation resistant plutonium within its blankets. The blankets were rendered secure by adding a zirconium hydride moderator and a small volume of MAs. It was demonstrated that reducing the attractiveness of the blanket plutonium would require no external MA dependency by choosing an adequate fuel cycle. The characteristics and performance of this design

  8. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gallego-Sala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later

  9. Updated conceptual design of helium cooling ceramic blanket for HCCB-DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Suhao [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Cao, Qixiang; Wu, Xinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Feng, Kaiming, E-mail: fengkm@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An updated design of Helium Cooled Ceramic breeder Blanket (HCCB) for HCCB-DEMO is proposed in this paper. • The Breeder Unit is transformed to TBM-like sub-modules, with double “banana” shape tritium breeder. Each sub-module is inserted in space formed by Stiffen Grids (SGs). • The performance analysis is performed based on the R&D development of material, fabrication technology and safety assessment in CN ITER TBM program. • Hot spots will be located at the FW bend side. - Abstract: The basic definition of the HCCB-DEMO plant and preliminary blanket designed by Southwestern Institution of Physics was proposed in 2009. The DEMO fusion power is 2550 MW and electric power is 800 MW. Based on development of R&D in breeding blanket, a conceptual design of helium cooled blanket with ceramic breeder in HCCB-DEMO was presented. The main design features of the HCCB-DEMO blanket were: (1) CLF-1 structure materials, Be multiplier and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} breeder; (2) neutronic wall load is 2.3 MW/m{sup 2} and surface heat flux is 0.43 MW/m{sup 2} (2) TBR ≈ 1.15; (3) geometry of breeding units is ITER TBM-like segmentation; (4)Pressure of helium is 8 MPa and inlet/outlet temperature is 300/500 °C. On the basis of these design, some important analytical results are presented in aspects of (i) neutronic behavior of the blanket; (ii) design of 3D structure and thermal-hydraulic lay-out for breeding blanket module; (iii) structural-mechanical behavior of the blanket under pressurization. All of these assessments proved current stucture fulfill the design requirements.

  10. The State of the Art Report on the Development and Manufacturing Technology of Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Choi, B. K.; Baek, J. H.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kim, K. H

    2006-07-15

    The main objective of the present R and D on breeder blanket is the development of test blanket modules (TBMs) to be installed and tested in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the program of the blanket development, a blanket module test in the ITER is scheduled from the beginning of the ITER operation, and the performance test of TBM in ITER is the most important milestone for the development of the DEMO blanket. The fabrication of TBMs has been required to test the basic performance of the DEMO blanket, i.e., tritium production/recovery, high-grade heat generation and radiation shielding. Therefore, the integration of the TBM systems into ITER has been investigated with the aim to check the safety, reliability and compatibility under nuclear fusion state. For this reason, in the Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) as an activity of the International Energy Association (IEA), a variety of ITER TBMs have been proposed and investigated by each party: helium-cooled ceramic (WSG-1), helium-cooled LiPb (WSG-2), water-cooled ceramic (WSG-3), self-cooled lithium (WSG-4) and self-cooled molten salt (WSG-5) blanket systems. Because we are still deficient in investigation of TBM development, the need of development became pressing. In this report, for the development of TBM sub-module and mock-up, it is necessary to analyze and examine the state of the art on the development of manufacturing technology of TBM in other countries. And we will be applied as basic data to establish a manufacturing technology.

  11. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lukwa; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; Mutambu, S L; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

    2013-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up t...

  12. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  13. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  14. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  15. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  16. 1999 international ash utilization symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    112 papers were presented covering various aspects of the utilization of coal and other combustion products. Topics included fundamental chemistry and mineralogy, new products, health and environmental aspects, economic development issues, agricultural and mine reclamation applications, concrete and cement, and fly ash beneficiation technologies. Selected papers will be published in the journal 'Fuel'.

  17. Liquid immersion blanket design for use in a compact modular fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Hartwig, Zachary; Olynyk, Geoffrey; Sierchio, Jennifer; Whyte, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    Traditional tritium breeding blankets in fusion reactor designs include a large amount of structural material. This results in complex engineering requirements, complicated sector maintenance, and marginal tritium breeding ratios (TBR). We present a conceptual design of a fully liquid blanket. To maximize tritium breeding volume, the vacuum vessel is completely immersed in a continuously recycled FLiBe blanket, with the exception of small support posts. FLiBe has a wide liquid temperature window (459 C to 1430 C), low electrical conductivity to minimize MHD effects, similar thermal/fluid characteristics to water, and is chemically inert. While tritium breeding with FLiBe in traditional blankets is poor, we use MCNP neutronics analysis to show that the immersion blanket design coupled with a beryllium neutron multiplier results in TBR > 1. FLiBe is shown to be a sufficient radiation shield for the toroidal field magnets and can be used as a coolant for the vacuum vessel and divertor, allowing for a simplified single-phase, low-pressure, single-fluid cooling scheme. When coupled with a high-field compact reactor design, the immersion blanket eliminates the need for complex sector maintenance, allows the vacuum vessel to be a replaceable component, and reduces financial cost.

  18. Activation Characteristics of Fuel Breeding Blanket Module in Fusion Driven Subcritical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qun-Ying; LI Jian-Gang; CHEN Yi-Xue

    2004-01-01

    @@ Shortage of energy resources and production of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors are among the main problems which will be faced in the world in the near future. The conceptual design of a fusion driven subcritical system (FDS) is underway in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are alternative designs for multi-functional blanket modules of the FDS, such as fuel breeding blanket module (FBB)to produce fuels for fission reactors, tritium breeding blanket module to produce the fuel, i.e. tritium, for fusion reactor and waste transmutation blanket module to try to permanently dispose of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors, etc. Activation of the fuel breeding blanket of the fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-FBB) by D-T fusion neutrons from the plasma and fission neutrons from the hybrid blanket are calculated and analysed under the neutron wall loading 0.5 MW/m2 and neutron fluence 15 MW. yr/m2. The neutron spectrum is calculated with the worldwide-used transport code MCNP/4C and activation calculations are carried out with the well known European inventory code FISPACT/99 with the latest released IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.0 and the ENDF/B-V uranium evaluated data. Induced radioactivities, dose rates and afterheats, etc, for different components of the FDS-FBB are compared and analysed.

  19. Application of the heterogeneous (HG) blankets for controlling the base structure vibration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ashwini; Fuller, C. R.; Carneal, James

    2005-09-01

    This work presents an extensive analysis of the properties of the heterogeneous blankets (HGs) and their effectiveness in controlling the vibration of the base structures. The HG blankets act as a distributed vibration absorbers consisting of mass inhomogeneities inside a layer of porous media (acoustic foam). To asses the effectiveness of these HG blankets in controlling the vibration of the base structure (plate), detailed finite element (FE) models of the foam, the HG blanket, and the plate have been developed. The foam has been dicretized using the eight node hexahedral elements. The HG blanket model consists of the foam model with point masses attached to the nodes of the elements. The structural (plate) domain is discretized using four node rectangular plate elements. Each of the FE models has been individually validated by comparing the numerical results with their respective analytical and experimental results. The structural and the HG blanket FE models were then combined into a larger FE model comprised of a base plate with the HG treatment on its surface. The results from this numerical model have shown that there is a significant reduction in the vibration levels of the base plate due to the HG treatment on it.

  20. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  1. Use of Incineration MSW Ash: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. K. Lam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI ashes, with a main focus on the chemical properties of the ashes. Furthermore, the possible treatment methods for the utilization of ash, namely, separation processes, solidification/stabilization and thermal processes, are also discussed. Seven types of MSWI ash utilization are reviewed, namely, cement and concrete production, road pavement, glasses and ceramics, agriculture, stabilizing agent, adsorbents and zeolite production. The practical use of MSWI ash shows a great contribution to waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  2. Materials development for ITER shielding and test blanket in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.M., E-mail: Chenjm@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, J.H.; Liu, X.; Wang, P.H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Z.H.; Li, Z.N. [Ningxia Orient Non-ferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd., P.O. Box 105, Shizuishan (China); Wang, X.S.; Zhang, P.C. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhang, N.M.; Fu, H.Y.; Liu, D.H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-10-01

    China is a member of the ITER program and is developing her own materials for its shielding and test blanket modules. The materials include vacuum-hot-pressing (VHP) Be, CuCrZr alloy, 316L(N) and China low activation ferritic/martensitic (CLF-1) steels. Joining technologies including Be/Cu hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and electron beam (EB) weldability of 316L(N) were investigated. Chinese VHP-Be showed good properties, with BeO content and ductility that satisfy the ITER requirements. Be/Cu mock-ups were fabricated for Be qualification tests at simulated ITER vertical displacement event (VDE) and heat flux cycling conditions. Fine microstructure and good mechanical strength of the CuCrZr alloy were achieved by a pre-forging treatment, while the weldability of 316L(N) by EB was demonstrated for welding depths varying from 5 to 80 mm. Fine microstructure, high strength, and good ductility were achieved in CLF-1 steel by an optimized normalizing, tempering and aging procedure.

  3. Vacuum Permeator Analysis for Extraction of Tritium from DCLL Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul Weston [Idaho National Laboratory; Merrill, Brad Johnson [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-11-01

    It is envisioned that tritium will be extracted from DCLL blankets using a vacuum permeator. We derive here an analytical solution for the extraction efficiency of a permeator tube, which is a function of only two dimensionless numbers: one that indicates whether radial transport is limited in the PbLi or in the solid membrane, and another that is the ratio of axial and radial transport times in the PbLi. The permeator efficiency is maximized by decreasing the velocity and tube diameter, and increasing the tube length. This is true regardless of the mass transport correlation used; we review several here and find that they differ little, and the choice of correlation is not a source of significant uncertainty here. The PbLi solubility, on the other hand, is a large source of uncertainty, and we identify upper and lower bounds from the literature data. Under the most optimistic assumptions, we find that a ferritic steel permeator operating at 550 °C will need to be at least an order of magnitude larger in volume than previous conceptual designs using niobium and operating at higher temperatures.

  4. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, T.D., E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Sawan, M.E.; Marriott, E.P.; Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, M.; Bullock, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In ITER, the blanket modules (BM) are arranged around the plasma to provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. As a part of the BM design process, nuclear analysis is required to determine the level of nuclear heating, helium production, and radiation damage in the BM. Additionally, nuclear heating in the VV is also important for assessing the BM design. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40-degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM01, the neutral beam injection (NB) region, and the upper port region. For BM01, the results show that He production meets the limit necessary for re-welding, and the VV heating behind BM01 is acceptable. For the NBI region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by a factor of two. For the upper port region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 20%. The results presented in this work are being used to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  5. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotov, Dobromir, E-mail: dobromir.panayotov@f4e.europa.eu; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  6. The development of ferritic steels for DEMO blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Hishinuma, A.; Shiba, K. [Tokai Establishment, JAERI, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kohno, Y. [Department of Materials Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Sagara, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The development of low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels is a key to the achievement of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally attractive and economically competitive energy source. The Japanese and the European Fusion Materials programs have put low-activation ferritic and martensitic steels R and D at the highest priority for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) and the beyond. An international collaborative test program on low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion is in progress as an activity of the International Energy Agency (IEA) fusion materials working group to verify the feasibility of using ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion by an extensive test program covering the most relevant technical issues for the qualification of a material for a nuclear application. The development of a comprehensive data base on the representative industrially processed reduced-activation steels of type 8-9Cr-2WVTa is underway for providing designers a preliminary set of material data for the mechanical design of components, e.g. for DEMO relevant blanket modules. The current design status of FFHR and SSTR utilizing low-activation ferritic steels is reviewed and future prospects are defined. (orig.) 12 refs.

  7. Nuclear analysis of ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, Rosaria, E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Kim, Byoung Yoon; Barabash, Vladimir; Giancarli, Luciano; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael; Merola, Mario [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Petrizzi, Luigino [European Commission, DG Research & Innovation G5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Polunovsky, Eduard; Van Der Laan, Jaap G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 3D nuclear analysis of the ITER TBM Port Plug (PP). • Calculations of neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, damage and He-production in TBM PP components. • Shutdown dose rate assessment with Advanced D1S method considering different configurations. • Potential design improvements to reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace. - Abstract: Nuclear analyses have been performed for the ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug (TBM PP) using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo Code. A detailed 3D model of the TBM Port Plug with dummy TBM has been integrated into the ITER MCNP model (B-lite v.3). Neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, helium production and neutron damage have been calculated in all the TBM PP components. Global shutdown dose rate calculations have also been performed with Advanced D1S method for different configurations of the TBM PP system. This paper presents the results of these analyses and discusses potential design improvements aiming to further reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace.

  8. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  9. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  10. Treatment of leachate from MSWI bottom ash landfilling with anaerobic sulphate-reducing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena J; Väisänen, Ari O; Rintala, Jukka A

    2007-02-01

    Removal of sulphate and toxic elements from the leachate of a field landfill lysimeter (112m(3)), containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, was studied. The leachate was treated in two parallel laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors without and with ethanol as additional carbon source. With ethanol more than 65% of sulphate was removed, while without ethanol removal was negligible. The treatment removed Ba, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn of the studied 35 trace and other elements. The sequential extraction of the reactor sludge at the end of runs confirmed that with a few exceptions (Ba, Ca, and Cu) the main mechanism by which the elements were removed was precipitation as sulphides.

  11. Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees.

  12. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  13. Development of thermal-hydraulic analysis methodology for multiple modules of water-cooled breeder blanket in fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A methodology to simulate the K-DEMO blanket system was proposed. • The results were compared with the CFD, to verify the prediction capability of MARS. • 46 Blankets in a single sector in K-DEMO were simulated using MARS-KS. • Supervisor program was devised to handle each blanket module individually. • The calculation results showed the flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures. - Abstract: According to the conceptual design of the fusion DEMO reactor proposed by the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea, the water-cooled breeding blanket system incorporates a total of 736 blanket modules. The heat flux and neutron wall loading to each blanket module vary along their poloidal direction, and hence, thermal analysis for at least one blanket sector is required to confirm that the temperature limitations of the materials are satisfied in all the blanket modules. The present paper proposes a methodology of thermal analysis for multiple modules of the blanket system using a nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis code, MARS-KS. In order to overcome the limitations of the code, caused by the restriction on the number of computational nodes, a supervisor program was devised, which handles each blanket module separately at first, and then corrects the flow rate, considering pressure drops that occur in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 46 blankets in a single sector were simulated; the calculation results of the parameters, such as mass flow, pressure drops, and temperature distribution in the multiple blanket modules showed that the multi-module analysis method can be used for efficient thermal-hydraulic analysis of the fusion DEMO reactor.

  14. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosswait, K.M.

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  15. Key achievements in elementary R&D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R&D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li2TiO3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 °C followed by normalizing it at 930 °C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R&D on the breeder material, Li2TiO3, the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li2TiO3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li2TiO3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation.

  16. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  17. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  18. The Ashes of Marci Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kopeć

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Marci Shore’s social and historical thought, as presented in her books: Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw Generation’s Life and Death in Marxism, 1918-1968 (2006, The Taste of Ashes (2013, and her essays recently published in Polish translation. The author follows the American historian, presenting her concept of modernity, but focuses on the main theme of her research: the contribution of Jewish writers, poets, artists, and intellectuals to the creation of Marxism. The author acknowledges the great value of Marci Shore’s writings, but argues that her panorama of the 20th century would be fuller if her discussion included a reflection on the religious attitude of many Jewish thinkers to Marxism and the USSR. This topic was discussed by Nikolai Berdyaev and Polish thinkers who published in pre-war social journals.

  19. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  20. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  1. False deformation temperatures for ash fusibility associated with the conditions for ash preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Sanders, R.H.; Creelman, R.A.; Bryant, G.W. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A study was made to investigate the fusibility behaviour of coal ashes of high ash fusion temperatures. Coals and ashes formed in the boiler were sampled in several Australian power stations, with laboratory ashes being prepared from the coals. The laboratory ashes gave lower values for the deformation temperature (DT) than the combustion ashes when the ash had low levels of basic oxide components. Thermo-mechanical analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to establish the mechanisms responsible for the difference. Laboratory ash is finer than combustion ash and it includes unreacted minerals (such as quartz, kaolinite and illite) and anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}). Fusion events which appear to be characteristic of reacting illite, at temperatures from 900 to 1200{degree}C, were observed for the laboratory ashes, these being associated with the formation of melt phase and substantial shrinkage. The combustion ashes did not contain this mineral and their fusion events were observed at temperatures exceeding 1300{degree}C. The low DTs of coal ashes with low levels of basic oxides are therefore a characteristic of laboratory ash rather than that found in practical combustion systems. These low temperatures are not expected to be associated with slagging in pulverised coal fired systems. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kylling; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; T. Nousiainen

    2014-01-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent sp...

  3. Status on DEMO Helium Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket thermo-mechanical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, G.; Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kiss, B. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Morin, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. The DEMO HCLL breeding blanket design capitalizes on the experience acquired on the HCLL Test Blanket Module designed for ITER. Design improvements are being implemented to adapt the design to DEMO specifications and performance objectives. • Thermal and mechanical analyses have been carried out in order to justify the design of the HCLL breeding blanket showing promising results for tie rods modules’ attachments system and relatively good behavior of the box in case of LOCA when comparing to RCC-MRx criteria. • CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit have enabled the consolidation of the results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. - Abstract: The EUROfusion Consortium develops a design of a fusion power demonstrator (DEMO) in the framework of the European “Horizon 2020” innovation and research program. One of the key components in the fusion reactor is the breeding blanket surrounding the plasma, ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, heat removal for conversion into electricity, and neutron shielding. The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket is one of the concepts which is investigated for DEMO. It is made of a Eurofer structure and uses the eutectic liquid lithium–lead as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and helium gas as coolant. Within the EUROfusion organization, CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. This paper presents the status of the thermal and mechanical analyses carried out on the HCLL breeding blanket in order to justify the design. CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit including stiffening plates and cooling plates have been performed with ANSYS in order to consolidate results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. Moreover in order to expand the justification of the HCLL Breeding blanket design, the most loaded area of

  4. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2014-04-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry were calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres were found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates was found to underestimate mass loading compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles. The underestimate increases with the mass loading. For an ash cloud recorded during the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption, the mass-equivalent spheres underestimate the total mass of the ash cloud by approximately 30% compared to the morphologically complex inhomogeneous particles.

  5. Improved structure and long-life blanket concepts for heliotron reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, A.; Imagawa, S.; Mitarai, O.; Dolan, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kubota, Y.; Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Mizuguchi, N.; Muroga, T.; Noda, N.; Kaneko, O.; Yamada, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Uda, T.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.

    2005-04-01

    New design approaches are proposed for the LHD-type heliotron D-T demo-reactor FFHR2 to solve the key engineering issues of blanket space limitation and replacement difficulty. A major radius of over 14 m is selected to permit a blanket-shield thickness of about 1 m and to reduce the neutron wall loading and toroidal field, while achieving an acceptable cost of electricity. Two sets of optimization are successfully carried out. One is to reduce the magnetic hoop force on the helical coil support structures by adjustment of the helical winding coil pitch parameter and the poloidal coils design, which facilitates expansion of the maintenance ports. The other is a long-life blanket concept using carbon armour tiles that soften the neutron energy spectrum incident on the self-cooled flibe-reduced activation ferritic steel blanket. In this adaptation of the spectral-shifter and tritium breeder blanket (STB) concept a local tritium breeding ratio over 1.2 is feasible by optimized arrangement of the neutron multiplier Be in the carbon tiles, and the radiation shielding of the superconducting magnet coils is also significantly improved. Using constant cross sections of a helically winding shape, the 'screw coaster' concept is proposed to replace in-vessel components such as the STB armour tiles. The key R&D issues for developing the STB concept, such as radiation effects on carbon and enhanced heat transfer of Flibe, are elucidated.

  6. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  7. Tritium management and safety issues in ITER and DEMO breeding blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, B., E-mail: beate.bornschein@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen (Germany); Day, C.; Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pinna, T. [ENEA UTFUS-TEC, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Different aspects of tritium management in breeder blankets were reviewed. • Safe and reliable tritium management faces unique technological challenges. • Tritium recovery efficiency in tritium extraction system (TES) is a vital issue. • Tritium tracking accuracy needs to be demonstrated for the whole fuel cycle. • Improved or new processes for TES and CPS are needed in case of DEMO. -- Abstract: Safe, reliable and efficient tritium management in the breeder blanket faces unique technological challenges. Beside the tritium recovery efficiency in the tritium extraction and coolant purification systems, the tritium tracking accuracy between the inner and outer fuel cycle shall also be demonstrated. Furthermore, it is self-evident that safe handling and confinement of tritium need to be stringently assured to evolve fusion as a reliable technique. The present paper gives an overview of tritium management in breeder blankets. After a short introduction into the tritium fuel cycle and blanket basics, open tritium issues are discussed, thereby focusing on tritium extraction from blanket, coolant detritiation and tritium analytics and accountancy, necessary for accurate and reliable processing as well as for book-keeping.

  8. Development of the Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: enoeda.mikio@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yoshikawa, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and evaluation toward DEMO blanket, the module fabrication technology development by a candidate structural material, reduced activation martensitic/ferritic steel, F82H, is one of the most critical items from the viewpoint of realization of TBM testing in ITER. In Japan, fabrication of a real scale first wall, side walls, a breeder pebble bed box and assembling of the first wall and side walls have succeeded. Recently, the real scale partial mockup of the back wall was fabricated. The fabrication procedure of the back wall, whose thickness is up to 90 mm, was confirmed toward the fabrication of the real scale back wall by F82H. Important key technologies are almost clarified for the fabrication of the real scale TBM module mockup. From the view point of testing and evaluation, development of the technology of the blanket tritium recovery, development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles and the development of the blanket neutronics measurement technology are also performed. Also, tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been started as the verification test of tritium production performance. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB TBM in Japan.

  9. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  10. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  11. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  12. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  15. Characterization and valorization of biomass ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nikhilesh S; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Mehetre, Sayaji; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-10-01

    In India, farming is the primary source of income for many families. Following each harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. These are generally discarded as "agrowaste," but recent reports have indicated several beneficial uses for these biomasses and their ashes. However, before the utilization of biomass ashes (BMAs), their chemical and physical properties need to be investigated (characterized) so as to utilize their potential benefit to the fullest. In this paper, eight different biomass ashes (soybean plant ash, mustard plant ash, maize ash, groundnut plant ash, cotton plant ash, wheat plant ash, pigeon peas ash, and groundnut shell ash) were characterized, and their chemical properties are discussed. Surface chemical composition analysis, proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis were performed on all BMA samples, and properties such as porosity, particle density, bulk density, point of zero charge, BET surface area, water-absorption capacity, and bulk parameters such as surface pH and surface charges were determined. BMAs were characterized by SEM and FTIR. The surface areas of biomass ashes vary from 1.9 to 46 m(2)/g, and point of zero charge for all BMAs exceed 9.8, which confirmed the alkaline nature of these samples. Based on the chemical composition, BMAs are categorized into four types (S, C, K, and CK), and their utilization is proposed based on the type. BMAs find applications in agriculture and construction industries; glass, rubber, and zeolite manufacturing; and in adsorption (as a source of silica/zeolites). The paper also discusses the research challenges and opportunities in utilization of BMAs.

  16. Combustion of stoker ash in a CFBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, L.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2002-07-01

    The ash generated from petroleum coke fired stokers at Georgia Pacific in Wisconsin has an elevated carbon content and a higher fuel value. This paper presents results of a study in which the stoker ash was test fired at the CANMET Energy Technology Centre in a bench scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The objective was to determine if firing the stoker ash in its 'as received' state (with a 40 per cent moisture content) is a viable fuel option for Georgia Pacific's FBC boiler to save fuel costs, or if it should be co-fired with petroleum coke. Mixtures of the stoker ash and petroleum coke were also test fired. Results indicate that the stoker ash alone cannot sustain combustion. However, good ignition and even bed temperature is possible with premixed coke and 10 per cent less moisture content. Emissions of sulphur dioxides, nitrogen oxides carbon monoxide were the same as for firing petroleum coke alone. In addition, the co-firing of stoker ash and petroleum coke did not negatively affect the tendency to foul, compared to firing coke alone. The amount of ash generated from the FBC boiler was high due to the high ash content. An economic evaluation showed that firing a 20/80 coke/stoker ash mixture can save approximately 22 per cent of the limestone usage compared to coke firing alone, if the Ca/S molar ratio remain the same. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Volcanic ash at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; von Aulock, Felix; Rhodes, Emma; Kennedy, Ben; Wadsworth, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Dome-building volcanoes often suffer episodic explosions. Examination of eruptive activity at Santiaguito dome complex (Guatemala) reveals that gas-and-ash explosions are concordant with rapid inflation/ deflation cycles of the active dome. During these explosions strain is accommodated along marginal faults, where tensional fracture mechanisms and friction dominate, complicating the model of ash generation by bubble rupture in magma. Here, we describe textural features, morphology and petrology of ash collected before, during and after a dome collapse event at Santiaguito dome complex on the 28th November 2012. We use QEM-scan (on more than 35000 grains), laser diffraction granulometry and optical and scanning microscopy to characterise the samples. The ash samples show a bimodal size distribution and a range of textures, crystal content and morphologies. The ash particles are angular to sub-angular and are relatively dense, so do not appear to comprise of pore walls. Instead the ash is generally blocky (>70%), similar to the products of shear magma failure. The ash samples show minor variation before, during and after dome collapse, specifically having a smaller grain size and a higher fraction of phenocrysts fragments before collapse. Textural analysis shows vestiges of chemically heterogeneous glass (melt) filaments originating from the crystals and crosscut by fragmentation during volcanic ash formation. High-velocity friction can induce melting of dome lavas, producing similar disequilibrium melting textures. This work shows the importance of deformation mechanisms in ash generation at lava domes and during Vulcanian activity.

  18. Solidification on fly ash, Yugoslav experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D. [Mining Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Popov, S.; Salatic, D. [Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    A study was performed on ashes produced in the combustion process of coal from the Kosovo coal basin, in order to determine the potential and conditions of ash self-solidification. Investigations showed that the ash properties allows for the transformation into a solid mass through a controlled mixing with water. The optimal concentration of ash is 50 percent and the hydro-mixture is behaving as a Bingham plastic fluid. Solidification is obtained in a relatively short period (within 3 to 5 days) without additives. The resulting solidified mass is very consistent and stable

  19. Development of Joining Technologies for the ITER Blanket First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Suk Kwon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The design of the ITER blanket first wall includes the Beryllium amour tiles joined to CuCrZr heat sink with stainless steel cooling tubes. For the ITER application, the Be/CuCrZr/SS joint was proposed as a first wall material. The joining of Be/CuCrZr as well as CuCrZr/SS was generally carried out by using a hot isostatic pressing (CuC) in many countries. The joining strength for Be/CuCrZr is relatively lower than that for CuCrZr/SS, since we usually forms surface oxides (BeO) and brittle a metallics with Cu. Therefore, the joining technology for the Be/CuCrZr joint has been investigated. Be is apt to adsorb oxygen in an air atmosphere, so we should be etched to eliminate the surface pre-oxide using a chemical solution and Ar ions in a vacuum chamber. Then we is coated with a first was to prevent further oxidation. The kinds of a first we are chosen to be able to enhance the joining strength as inhibiting excessive be diffusion. The performance of the Be/CuCrZr/SS joint used for the ITER first wall is primarily dependent on the joining strength of the Be/CuCrZr interface. The Cr/Cu and Ti/Cr/Cu interlayers enabled the successful joining of be tile to CuCrZr plate. Moreover, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) increased joining strength of the Be/CuCrZr joint mock-ups. IBAD induced the increased packing of depositing atoms, which resulted in denser and more adhesive interlayers. The interlayers formed by IBAD process revealed about 40% improved resistance to the scratch test. It is suggested that the improved adhesion of coating interlayers enabled tight joining of Be and CuCrZr blocks. As compared to without IBAD coating, the shear strength as well as the 4-point bend strength were increased more than 20% depending on interlayer types and coating conditions

  20. Comparison of leachable trace element levels in coal gasifier ash with levels in power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaugh, K.J.; Milosavljevic, M.; Janes, T.K.

    1984-04-01

    The levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal were compared. The study was conducted over a one year period at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant using lignite from the Dobro Solo mine. Results obtained indicate that levels of Sb, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni and Zn in gasifier ash leachate were similar to those in fly ash leachate. Barium levels in gasifier ash leachate averaged 2.7 times that in fly ash and selenium levels averaged 0.33 times. The average ratio for the total set was 0.99. The set average, relative to bottom ash, was 2.1 with the nickel ratio differing significantly from the average. Metal oxides, CaO, MgO, Na/SUB/2O, K/SUB/2O and MgO; in the Kosovo gasifier ash were found at levels similar to those in Kosovo fly ash, and except for K/SUB/2O, were approximately twice those in bottom ash. Concentration levels of all components showed relatively small variations averaging 50% of their mean annual concentration over the test period. (14 refs.)

  1. Numerical design of the Seed-Blanket Unit for the thorium nuclear fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present the Monte Carlo modelling by the means of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burn-up Code of the 17x17 Pressurized Water Reactor fuel assembly designed according to the Radkowsky Thorium Fuel concept. The design incorporates the UO2 seed fuel located in the centre and (Th,UO2 blanket fuel located in the peripheries of fuel assembly. The high power seed region supplies neutrons for the low power blanket region and thus induces breeding of fissile 233U from fertile 232Th. The both regions are physically separated and thus this approach is also known as either the heterogonous approach or the Seed-Blanket Unit. In the numerical analysis we consider the time evolutions of infinite neutron multiplication factor, axial/radial power density profile, 233U, 235U and 232Th.

  2. Tritium recovery in Pb17Li-water cooled blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering & Information Inst., Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The question of tritium recovery in Pb17Li, water cooled blankets is under investigation since several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analyzed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging in a suited process apparatus. The design features of the process systems are related to: (1) the very low tritium solubility in Pb17Li which implies high permeation rates through the containment structures; (2) the need of keeping as low as possible the tritium concentration in the cooling water both for safety and economical reasons. A computerized model of the tritium behavior in the blanket units and in the extraction system has been developed.

  3. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  4. Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-05-17

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

  5. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A.; Utili, M. [ENEA, Camugnano (Italy); Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  6. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash. ... In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by ... This will encourage the use of fly ash economically as a construction material.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Analysis of the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A.; Vallone, E. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nominal steady state hydraulic behaviour of ITER blanket standard sector cooling system has been investigated. • Numerical simulations have been run adopting a qualified thermal-hydraulic system code. • Hydraulic characteristic functions and coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops have been assessed. • Most of the considered circuits are able to effectively cool blanket modules, meeting ITER requirements. - Abstract: The blanket system is the ITER reactor component devoted to providing a physical boundary for plasma transients and contributing to thermal and nuclear shielding of vacuum vessel, magnets and external components. It is expected to be subjected to significant heat loads under nominal conditions and its cooling system has to ensure an adequate cooling, preventing any risk of critical heat flux occurrence while complying with pressure drop limits. At the University of Palermo a study has been performed, in cooperation with the ITER Organization, to investigate the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket standard sector cooling system. A theoretical–computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed, adopting the RELAP5 system code. Finite volume models of the most critical blanket cooling circuits have been set-up, realistically simulating the coolant flow domain. The steady state hydraulic behaviour of each cooling circuit has been investigated, determining its hydraulic characteristic function and assessing the spatial distribution of coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops under reference nominal conditions. Results obtained have indicated that the investigated cooling circuits are able to provide an effective cooling to blanket modules, generally meeting ITER requirements in term of pressure drop and velocity distribution, except for a couple of circuits that are being revised.

  9. Design of the helium cooled lithium lead breeding blanket in CEA: from TBM to DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, G.; Aubert, J.; Forest, L.; Jaboulay, J.-C.; Li Puma, A.; Boccaccini, L. V.

    2017-04-01

    The helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) blanket concept was originally developed in CEA at the beginning of 2000: it is one of the two European blanket concepts to be tested in ITER in the form of a test blanket module (TBM) and one of the four blanket concepts currently being considered for the DEMOnstration reactor that will follow ITER. The TBM is a highly optimized component for the ITER environment that will provide crucial information for the development of the DEMO blanket, but its design needs to be adapted to the DEMO reactor. With respect to the TBM design, reduction of the steel content in the breeding zone (BZ) is sought in order to maximize tritium breeding reactions. Different options are being studied, with the potential of reaching tritium breeding ratio (TBR) values up to 1.21. At the same time, the design of the back supporting structure (BSS), which is a DEMO specific component that has to support the blanket modules inside the vacuum vessel (VV), is ongoing with the aim of maximizing the shielding power and minimizing pumping power. This implies a re-engineering of the modules’ attachment system. Design changes however, will have an impact on the manufacturing and assembly sequences that are being developed for the HCLL-TBM. Due to the differences in joint configurations, thicknesses to be welded, heat dissipation and the various technical constraints related to the accessibility of the welding tools and implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE), the manufacturing procedure should be adapted and optimized for DEMO design. Laser welding instead of TIG could be an option to reduce distortions. The time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique is being investigated for NDE. Finally, essential information expected from the HCLL-TBM program that will be needed to finalize the DEMO design is discussed.

  10. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  11. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: The potential for early stage recovery of North American ash trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of North America, ash (Fraxinus) stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees, saplings, basal sprouts, and seedlings. Without a soil seed bank for Fraxinus spp., tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these...

  12. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guanheng

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the 200 Displacements per Atom (DPA) radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to have an elongated seed (or “driver”) to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak into the su...

  13. Neutronics optimization study for D-D fusion reactor blanket/shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, T.; Kanda, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1985-12-01

    Position-dependent optimization calculations have been carried out on a D-D fusion reactor blanket/shield to maximize the energy gain in the blanket and to minimize the atomic displacement rate of the copper stabilizer in the superconducting magnet. The results obtained by using the optimization code SWAN indicate the advantage of D/sub 2/O coolant over H/sub 2/O coolant with respect to increasing the energy gain, and the difference in the optimal shield distributions between D-T and D-D neutron sources. The possibility of improving both the energy gain and radiation shielding characteristics is also discussed.

  14. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  15. State of volcanic ash dispersion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Jonas; Palsson, Thorgeir; Weber, Konradin

    2017-04-01

    The Eyjafjallajokull 2010 and Grimsvotn 2011 eruptions created great problems for commercial aviation in Western Europe and in the North Atlantic region. Comparison of satellite images of the visible and predicted ash clouds showed the VAAC prediction to be much larger than the actual ash clouds. No official explanation of this discrepancy exists apart from the definition of the ash cloud boundary. Papers on simulation of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud in peer reviewed journals, typically attempted to simulate the VAAC predictions rather than focusing on the satellite pictures. Sporadic measurements made in-situ showed much lower ash concentrations over Europe than the predicted values. Two of the weak points in ash cloud prediction have been studied in airborne measurements of volcanic ash by the Universities in Kyoto Japan, Iceland and Düsseldorf Germany of eruptions in Sakurajima, Japan. It turns out that gravitational deformation of the plume and a streak fallout process make estimated ash content of clouds larger than the actual, both features are not included in the simulation model. Tropospheric plumes tend to ride in stable inversions this causes gravitational flattening (pancaking) of the volcanic plume, while diffusion in the mixing layer is insignificant. New rules from ICAO, effective from November 2014, reiterate that jetliners should avoid visible ash, this makes information on visible ash important. A procedure developed by JMÁs Tokyo VAAC uses satellite images of visible ash to correct the prediction. This and the fact that meteorological data necessary to model gravitational dispersion and streak fallout do not exist in the international database available to the VAAĆs. This shows that close monitoring by airborne measurements and satellite and other photographic surveillance is necessary.

  16. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  17. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from...... potentiality to be valorized. The main conclusion of this paper regards fly ash’s profound dissimilarity, where each ash should be studied separately....

  18. 75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The application was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as... U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of..., 2010, by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural...

  19. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... application filed on March 4, 2010, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting an amendment to its blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) granted by DOE/FE on May 28,...

  20. APT Blanket Detailed Bin Model Based on Initial Plate-Type Design -3D FLOWTRAN-TF Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report provides background information for a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the APT. This report gives a brief description of the FLOWTRAN-TF code which was used for detailed blanket bin modeling.

  1. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  2. Development of Thermal-hydraulic Analysis Methodology for Multi-module Breeding Blankets in K-DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, the purpose of the analyses is to extend the capability of MARS-KS to the entire blanket system which includes a few hundreds of single blanket modules. Afterwards, the plan for the whole blanket system analysis using MARS-KS is introduced and the result of the multiple blanket module analysis is summarized. A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for a nuclear reactor safety, MARS-KS, was applied for the conceptual design of the K-DEMO breeding blanket thermal analysis. Then, a methodology to simulate multiple blanket modules was proposed, which uses a supervisor program to handle each blanket module individually at first and then distribute the flow rate considering pressure drops arises in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 10 outboard blankets in a toroidal field sector were simulated, which are connected with each other through the inlet and outlet common headers. The calculation results of flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures showed the validity of the calculation and thanks to the parallelization using MPI, almost linear speed-up could be obtained.

  3. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  5. Distribution of bog and heath in a Newfoundland blanket bog complex: topographic limits on the hydrological processes governing blanket bog development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Graniero

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This research quantified the role of topography and hydrological processes within and, hence, the development of, blanket bogs. Topographic characteristics were derived from digital elevation models (DEMs developed for the surface and underlying substrate at three blanket bog sites on the southeastern lobe of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland. A multinomial logit (MNL model of the probability of bog occurrence was constructed in terms of relevant topographic characteristics. The resulting model was then used to investigate the probabilistic boundary conditions of bog occurrence within the landscape. Under average curvatures for the sites studied, substrate slopes up to 0.065 favoured blanket bog development. However, steeper slopes could, theoretically, be occupied by blanked bog where water is concentrated by convergent curvatures or large contributing areas. Near community boundaries, bog and heath communities both occupied similar topographic conditions. Since these boundary locations are capable of supporting the hydrological conditions necessary for bog development, the heath is likely to be encroached upon by bog.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF TREATED AND UNTREATED RICH HUSH ASH & FLY ASH FOR METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Pal Singh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice Husk ash and fly ash are agricultural and coal wastes respectively. These are produced in abundance globally and poses risk to health as well as environment. Thus their effective, conducive and eco-friendly utilization has always been a challenge for scientific community. The fly ash has been used as reinforcement for improved mechanical properties of composites (1,3-5,9. Rice husk ash can also be used for similar applications as its composition is almost similar to that of fly ash. This paper mainly deals with identification ofcharacteristics of both the fly ash and rice husk ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. SEM, XRD,XRF and FTIR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of treated and untreated ashes. The results were compared and it was observed that both ashes possesses nearly same chemical phases and otherfunctional groups thus proposing the use of rice husk ash as reinforcement like fly ash in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs specifically for wear resistance applications.

  7. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: External HR Break Near Inlet Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The APT blanket system has about 57 MW of thermal energy deposited within the blanket region under normal operating conditions from the release of neutrons and the interaction of the High energy particles with the blanket materials. This corresponds to about 48 percent of total thermal energy deposited in the APT target/blanket system. The deposited thermal energy under normal operation conditions is an important input parameter used in the thermal-hydraulic design and accident analysis.

  8. Effects of colemanite waste, coal bottom ash, and fly ash on the properties of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, I.; Olgun, A.; Erdogan, Y.; Sevinc, V. [Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    The physical and chemical properties of colemanite ore waste from concentrator, coal bottom ash, fly ash, cement+ash mixtures, cement+colemanite ore waste, and their effects on the mechanical properties of concrete were investigated. These materials with different proportion were substituted with Portland cement. Physical properties such as setting time, volume expansion, and compressive strength were determined and compared to reference mixture and Turkish standards (TS). The results showed that cement replacement materials had clear effects on the mechanical properties. The use of fly ash and bottom ash even at the concentration of 25% showed either comparable or better result compared to reference mixture. Although replacement of Portland cement by 9 wt.% of colemanite ore waste causes reduction in the compressive strength, the values obtained are within the limit of TS. As a result, colemanite ore waste, fly ash, and bottom ash may be used as cementitious materials.

  9. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  10. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  11. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  12. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  14. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  15. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  16. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice...

  17. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  18. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  19. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  20. Laboratory Studies of Ice Nucleation on Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, M. A.; Schill, G. P.; Genareau, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Ice nucleation on volcanic ash controls both ash aggregation and cloud glaciation, which affect human respiratory health, atmospheric transport, and global climate. We have performed laboratory studies of the depositional and immersion freezing efficiency of three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman Microscopy coupled to an environmental cell. Ash from the Fuego (Basaltic Ash, Guatemala), Soufriere Hills (Andesetic Ash, Montserrat), and Taupo (Rhyolitic Ash, New Zealand) volcanoes were chosen to represent different geographical locations and silica content. All ash samples were quantitatively analyzed for both percent crystallinity and mineralogy using X-ray diffraction. We find that all three samples of volcanic ash are excellent depositional ice nuclei, nucleating ice at ice saturation ratios of 1.05 ± 0.1. For immersion freezing, however, only the Taupo ash exhibited efficient heterogeneous ice nucleation activity. Similar to recent studies on mineral dust, we suggest that the mineralogy of volcanic ash may dictate its ice nucleation activity in the immersion mode.

  1. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  2. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  3. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial Brookwood Center, 569... to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial Brookwood Center,...

  4. Stochastic modeling to determine the economic effects of blanket, selective, and no dry cow therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In many countries, blanket dry cow therapy (DCT) is the standard way to dry off cows. Because of concerns about antibiotic resistance, selective DCT is proposed as an alternative. The economic consequences of different types of DCT were studied previously, but variation between input traits and diff

  5. Fusion Reactor and Fusion Reactor Materials:Concept Design of the ITER Test Blanket Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGJinhua; LIZaixing; ZHUYukun; HUGang

    2003-01-01

    Performances required: prospect to be adopted in DEMO. Shielding for V.V. and TFC in ITER. Design principles: the peak temperature and stress should not exceed technical limits. The structure of test blanket modules (TBM) should be simple for easy fabrication, and TBM should be robust for reliability.

  6. 76 FR 23808 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Authorization Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG) filed a prior notice... Station located in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, under CIG's blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP83-21- 000.\\1\\ Specifically, CIG proposes to remove all above and below-ground facilities and the...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 327 - DeCA Blanket Routine Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 76-07. (h) Routine Use—Disclosure to the Office of Personnel Management. A record from a system of... Personnel Management (OPM) concerning information on pay and leave, benefits, retirement deduction, and any... Blanket Routine Uses (a) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of records maintained by a DoD...

  8. Options and methods for instrumentation of Test Blanket Systems for experiment control and scientific mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick, E-mail: pcalderoni@gmail.com; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan; Panayotov, Dobromir; Vallory, Joelle; Leichtle, Dieter; Poitevin, Yves

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • This work defined options and methods to instrument ITER TBSs based on functional categories: safety, interlock and control and scientific exploitation based on the ITER research program. • Presented the general architecture of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket System Instrumentation and Control. • Defined safety and interlock sensors count and technology selection based on preliminary safety analysis. • Discussed the development status of scientific instrumentation, with focus on integration with design and fulfillment of TBM research program. - Abstract: Europe is currently developing two reference breeder blankets concepts for DEMO reactor specifications that will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs): the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) concept which uses the eutectic Pb-16Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier; the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) concept which features lithiated ceramic pebbles as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Each TBM is associated with several sub-systems required for their operation; together they form the Test Blanket System (TBS). This paper presents the state of HCLL and HCPB TBS instrumentation design. The discussion is based on the systems functional analysis, from which three main categories of instrumentation are defined: those relevant to safety functions; those relevant to interlock functions; those designed for the control and scientific exploitation of the devices based on the TBM program objectives.

  9. Salted lamb meat blanket of Petrolina-Pernambuco, Brazil: process and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nely de Almeida Pedrosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salted lamb meat blanket, originated from boning, salting, and drying of whole lamb carcass, was studied aiming at obtaining information that support the search for guarantees of origin for this typical regional product from the city of Petrolina-Pernambuco-Brazil. Data from three processing units were obtained, where it was observed the use of a traditional local technology that uses salting, an ancient preservation method; however, with a peculiar boning technique, resulting in a meat product with great potential for exploitation in the form of meat blanket. Based on the values of pH (6.22 ± 0.22, water activity (0.97 ± 0.02, and moisture (69.86 ± 2.26 lamb meat blanket is considered a perishable product, and consequently it requires the use of other preservation methods combined with salt, which along with the results of the microbiological analyses (absence of Salmonella sp, score <10 MPN/g of halophilic bacteria, total coliforms between 6.7 × 10³ and 5.2 × 10(6 FUC/g, and Staphylococcus from 8.1 × 10³ CFU/g at uncountable reinforce the need of hygienic practices to ensure product safety. These results, together with the product notoriety and the organization of the sector are important factors in achieving Geographical Indication of the Salted lamb Meat blanket of Petrolina.

  10. 75 FR 17708 - Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 30, 2010. Take notice that on March 25, 2010, Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC (KMLP... directed to Norman Watson, Director, Business Development, Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC, 500...

  11. 75 FR 35019 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 11, 2010. Take notice that on June 3, 2009, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas..., Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC, P.O. Box 281304, Lakewood, Colorado 80228-8304, or...

  12. 75 FR 53966 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization August 27, 2010. Take notice that on August 25, 2010, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC (Kinder Morgan), 370 Van Gordon Street, Lakewood, Colorado 80228-8304...

  13. 75 FR 45111 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization July 26, 2010. Take notice that on July 20, 2010, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas..., Vice President, Regulatory, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC, 370 Van Gordon...

  14. 78 FR 44558 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 3, 2013, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 1100 Louisiana... in the federal waters offshore Louisiana. Specifically, Stingray proposes to abandon, by sale, its...

  15. 75 FR 8327 - Golden Pass Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Pass Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 17, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2009, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC (GPPL), filed in...

  16. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  17. 77 FR 48150 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Grover Compressor Station. Carolina Gas states that it would convert the three standby compressor units... Energy Regulatory Commission Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 25, Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation (Carolina Gas), 601 Old Taylor...

  18. 78 FR 51182 - Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 31, 2013, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), P. O. Box 4967....205(b) and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Sea...

  19. Depth of Blanket. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasmith, E. E.

    The determination of the thickness of a sludge blanket in primary and secondary clarifiers and in gravity thickness is important in making operational control decisions. Knowing the thickness and concentration will allow the operator to determine sludge volume and detention time. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant…

  20. 77 FR 53874 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY The Dow... application (Application), filed on July 13, 2012, by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket... on a short-term or spot market basis for a two-year period commencing on October 5, 2012.\\1\\...

  1. 75 FR 33803 - Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Sabine Pipe Line LLC (Sabine), 4800 Fournace Place, Bellaire...-free, (866) 208-3676 or TTY, (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Sabine proposes to abandon, in place,...

  2. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563... and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon...

  3. 75 FR 3232 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 8, 2010. Take notice that on December 30, 2009, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111... sections 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization...

  4. 75 FR 13535 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 12, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South... External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, at...

  5. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: absorption versus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket and (iii) sound absorption due to multiple reflections inside the cavity. The method is applied to four different blankets frequently used in automotive and aeronautic applications: a non-symmetric multilayer made of a screen in sandwich between two porous layers and three symmetric porous layers having different pore geometries. It is shown that the absorption behavior of the blanket controls the acoustic behavior of the treatment at low and medium frequencies and its transmission loss at high frequencies. Acoustic treatment having poor sound absorption behavior can affect the performance of the double panel structure.

  6. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  7. Status of the EU domestic agency electromagnetic analyses of ITER vacuum vessel and blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, P., E-mail: pietro.testoni@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Plá n. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Albanese, R. [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DIEL, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli 80125 (Italy); Lucca, F.; Roccella, M. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S. Piazza Prinetti, 26/B, Merate, Lecco (Italy); Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Plá n. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Rubinacci, G. [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DIEL, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli 80125 (Italy); Ventre, S.; Villone, F. [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DAEIMI, Università di Cassino, Cassino 03043 (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: Eddy and halo currents and corresponding Lorentz forces on the ITER vacuum vessel and blanket modules have been computed. VDEs and MDs belonging to cat III, II and I, and a magnet fast discharge have been simulated. The maximum vertical force in the VV (about 120 MN downwards) is experienced in VDE-DW-SLOW cat III. For the FW panel of blanket 18 the most demanding load case is the VDE downward cat III producing a radial torque of about 110 kNm. For the FW of blanket module 10 the most demanding load case is the VDE upward exp cat III producing a poloidal torque of about 130 kNm. -- Abstract: This paper presents the results of the electromagnetic analyses of the ITER vacuum vessel and blanket modules. A wide collection of electromagnetic transients has been simulated: VDEs and MDs belonging to cat III, II and I, and a magnet fast discharge. Eddy and halo currents and corresponding Lorentz forces have been computed using 3D solid FE models implemented in ANSYS and CARIDDI. The plasma equilibrium configurations (displacement and quench of the plasma current, toroidal flux variation due to the β drop and halo currents wetting the first wall) used as an input for the EM analyses have been supplied by the 2D axisymmetric code DINA. The paper describes in detail the methodology used for the analyses and the main results obtained.

  8. 18 CFR 284.284 - Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... granted a blanket certificate of public convenience and necessity pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas... the sales customer to arrange for any pipeline-provided service necessary to deliver gas to the customer. (e) Small customer cost-based rate. A pipeline that provided bundled sales service to a...

  9. Non-LTE Line Blanketing in Stars With Extended Outflowing Atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, D. J.; Miller, D. L.

    1995-05-01

    With continuing advances in radiative transfer techniques, increases in computing power, and the availability of at least some of the necessary atomic data, it is now possible to consider the computation of detailed non-LTE model atmospheres in which the full effects of non-LTE line blanketing are taken into account. We discuss our own implementation of non-LTE line blanketing in a spherical non-LTE code developed for the investigation of objects with extended outflows. A partial linearization technique is used to simultaneously solve the radiative transfer equation in conjunction with the equations of statistical equilibrium. Convergence properties are similar to that obtained with an ``Optimal'' Approximate-Lambda Operator. CNO line blanketing has been incorporated without major difficulty, while Fe blanketing is currently being installed. Comparisons of model spectra with recent HST observations of an LMC WC star will be presented. When completed we anticipate the code will be applicable to the study of a wide range of phenomena exhibiting outflows including Luminous-Blue variables, Supernovae, Wold-Rayet stars and Novae. Partial support for this work was provided by NASA through grant Nos GO-5460.01-93A and GO-4550.01-92A from the Space Science Institute which is operated under the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support from NASA award NAGW-3828 is also gratefully acknowledged.

  10. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; P. de Vries,; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C.M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized m

  11. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  12. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  13. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  14. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  15. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56,...

  16. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box...

  17. 75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 16, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...

  18. 77 FR 25711 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... to export * * *'' \\9\\ \\6\\ Cheniere Marketing, LLC, DOE/FE Order No 2795 at 11. \\7\\ See Dominion Cove... application (Application), filed on March 30, 2012, by Cheniere Marketing, LLC (CMI), requesting...

  19. Selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia over oil shale ash and fly ash catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changtao Yue; Shuyuan Li [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab of Heavy Oil Processing

    2003-07-01

    Acid rain and urban air pollution, produced mainly by pollutants such as SOX and NOX and other volatile organic compounds, has become the most serious environmental problem. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} in the presence of oxygen is a wellproven method to limit the NOX emissions. The work in this field has been the subject of much research in recent years. In this paper, NO reduction with NH{sub 3} over oil shale ash or fly ash catalysts was studied. Fe, Cu, V or Ni as active elements was loaded by adding aqueous solutions of the metal nitrate over the oil shale ash or fly ash support. The activities of the catalysts for NO removal were measured in a fixed-bed reactor. According to the results, oil shale ash or fly ash, after pre-treatment, can be reasonably used as the SCR catalyst support to remove NO from flue gas. Cu gave the highest catalytic activity and NO conversion for fly ash while V for oil shale ash. As the support, fly ash is more feasible than oil shale ash. Because of their low cost and high efficiency, the catalysts should be used in the SCR process. Further research on this subject is necessary in the future to understand more details of the SCR system and issue of pollution control. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. FEPI-MB: identifying SNPs-disease association using a Markov Blanket-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions among genetic factors related to diseases are called epistasis. With the availability of genotyped data from genome-wide association studies, it is now possible to computationally unravel epistasis related to the susceptibility to common complex human diseases such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. However, the difficulties of detecting epistatic interaction arose from the large number of genetic factors and the enormous size of possible combinations of genetic factors. Most computational methods to detect epistatic interactions are predictor-based methods and can not find true causal factor elements. Moreover, they are both time-consuming and sample-consuming. Results We propose a new and fast Markov Blanket-based method, FEPI-MB (Fast EPistatic Interactions detection using Markov Blanket, for epistatic interactions detection. The Markov Blanket is a minimal set of variables that can completely shield the target variable from all other variables. Learning of Markov blankets can be used to detect epistatic interactions by a heuristic search for a minimal set of SNPs, which may cause the disease. Experimental results on both simulated data sets and a real data set demonstrate that FEPI-MB significantly outperforms other existing methods and is capable of finding SNPs that have a strong association with common diseases. Conclusions FEPI-MB algorithm outperforms other computational methods for detection of epistatic interactions in terms of both the power and sample-efficiency. Moreover, compared to other Markov Blanket learning methods, FEPI-MB is more time-efficient and achieves a better performance.

  1. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of K-DEMO Single Blanket Module for Preliminary Accident Analysis using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To develop the Korean fusion commercial reactor, preliminary design concept for K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) has been announced by NFRI (National Fusion Research Institute). This pre-conceptual study of K-DEMO has been introduced to identify technical details of a fusion power plant for the future commercialization of fusion reactor in Korea. Before this consideration, to build the K-DEMO, accident analysis is essential. Since the Fukushima accident, which is severe accident from unexpected disaster, safety analysis of nuclear power plant has become important. The safety analysis of both fission and fusion reactors is deemed crucial in demonstrating the low radiological effect of these reactors on the environment, during severe accidents. A risk analysis of K-DEMO should be performed, as a prerequisite for the construction of a fusion reactor. In this research, thermal-hydraulic analysis of single blanket module of K-DEMO is conducted for preliminary accident analysis for K-DEMO. Further study about effect of flow distributer is conducted. The normal K-DEMO operation condition is applied to the boundary condition and simulated to verify the material temperature limit using MELCOR. MELCOR is fully integrated, relatively fast-running code developed by Sandia National Laboratories. MELCOR had been used for Light Water Reactors and fusion reactor version of MELCOR was developed for ITER accident analysis. This study shows the result of thermal-hydraulic simulation of single blanket module with MELCOR which is severe accident code for nuclear fusion safety analysis. The difference of mass flow rate for each coolant channel with or without flow distributer is presented. With flow distributer, advantage of broadening temperature gradient in the K-DEMO blanket module and increase mass flow toward first wall is obtained. This can enhance the safety of K-DEMO blanket module. Most 13 .deg. C temperature difference in blanket module is obtained.

  2. EU contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetto, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Lorenzetto@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Banetta, Stefano; Bellin, Boris [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boireau, Bruno [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Bucci, Philippe [Atmostat, rue René Hamon 31, 94815 Villejuif Cedex (France); Cicero, Tindaro [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Conchon, Denis [Atmostat, rue René Hamon 31, 94815 Villejuif Cedex (France); Dellopoulos, Georges [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Hardaker, Stephen [Amec Foster Wheeler plc, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Paul [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Nogué, Patrice [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Pérez, Marcos [Leading Enterprises SL, Pasaje de La Agüera, 39409 San Felices de Buelna (Spain); Gutierrez, Leticia Ruiz [Iberdrola Ingeniería y Construcción S.A.U., Avenida Manoteras 20, 28050 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, Fernando [Leading Enterprises SL, Pasaje de La Agüera, 39409 San Felices de Buelna (Spain); Sherlock, Paul [Amec Foster Wheeler plc, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Zacchia, Francesco [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of the blanket first wall design concept to be procured by Europe. • Presentation of the main outcome of the R&D programme with the resulting FW fabrication route. • Presentation of the ITER first wall pre-qualification programme with the results achieved so far. • Presentation of the on-going irradiation experiments. • Presentation of the EU procurement strategy. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Union’s Domestic Agency for ITER, is responsible for the procurement of about 50% of the ITER blanket first wall (FW), called normal heat flux FW. A procurement strategy has been implemented by the In-Vessel Project Team at F4E aimed at mitigating technical and commercial risks for the procurement of ITER blanket FW panels, promoting as far as possible competition among industrial partners. This procurement strategy has been supported by an extensive Research and Development (R&D) programme, implemented over more than 15 years in Europe, to develop various fabrication technologies. It includes in particular the manufacture and testing of small-scale, medium-scale mock-ups and full-scale prototypes of blanket FW panels. In this R&D programme, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of a reliable materials joining technique. Hot Isostatic Pressing was selected for the manufacture of the FW panels made from beryllium, copper–chromium–zirconium alloy and 316L(N)-IG austenitic stainless steel. This paper presents the main outcome of the on-going R&D programme, the latest results of the FW qualification programme together with the procurement strategy implemented by F4E for the supply of the European contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket FW.

  3. Equalization characteristics of an upflow sludge blanket-aerated biofilter (USB-AF) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, H B; Park, S M; Park, J K; Lee, S H

    2005-01-01

    Equalization characteristics of the upflow sludge blanket-aerated bio-filter (USB-AF) were investigated with the fluctuated raw domestic sewage. Recycle of nitrified effluent from AF to USB triggered the equalization characteristics of the sludge blanket on both soluble and particulate organic matter. Increment of EPS in sludge blanket by nitrate recycle was detected and removal of turbidity and particulates increased at higher recycle ratios by bio-flocculation. Increased TCOD removal in the USB was due to both denitrification of recycled nitrate and entrapment of the particulate organic matter in sludge blanket. Capture of both soluble and particulate organic matter increased sludge blanket layer in the USB, which improved the reactor performances and reduced the organic load on the subsequent AF. Overall TCOD and SS removal efficiencies were about 98% and 96%, respectively in the USB-AF system. Turbidity in the USB effluent was about 44, 20 and 5.5 NTU, at recycle ratios of 0, 100 and 200%, respectively. Particle counts in the range 2-4 microm in the USB effluent were higher than those in influent without nitrate recycle, while particle counts in the range of 0.5-15 microm in the USB effluent decreased 70% at recycle ratio of 200%. The major constituent of EPS extracted from anaerobic sludge was protein and total EPS increased from 109.1 to 165.7 mg/g-VSS with nitrate recycle of 100%. Removal efficiency and concentration of T-N in the UBS-AF effluent was over 70% and below 16 mg/L, respectively.

  4. Pozzolanic Reaction Kinetics of Coal Ashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hongwei; WANG Zhijuan; QIAN Jueshi; SONG Yuanming; WANG Zhi

    2009-01-01

    The pozzolanic reactivity was determined by the hydration kinetics of pozzolanic reaction based on the fact that the hydration products of active SiO_2 and Al_2O_3 with lime were soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.The results show that the pozzolanic reaction of active SiO_2 and Al2O3 of coal ashes follows apparent first-order kinetics.The reaction rate constant of FBC ashes is greater than that of PC ashes,while the activation energy of the former is lower than that of the latter.It is confirmed that the pozzolanic activity of fluidized bed combustion(FBC)ashes is significantly higher than that of PC ashes,and the reaction barrier of the former is lower than that of the latter,because the microstructures of FBC ashes,such as mineralogical composition,morphology and polymerization degree of [SiO_4]and[AlO_6]are more favorable to the pozzolanic activity development than those of PC ashes.

  5. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with upper body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Steinmetz, N; Lorenz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2002-09-01

    Forced-air warming with upper body blankets has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with upper body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of eight complete upper body warming systems and to gain more insight into the principles of forced-air warming. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows: Qdot;=h. DeltaT. A, where Qdot;= heat flux [W], h=heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT=temperature gradient between the blanket and surface [ degrees C], and A=covered area [m2]. We tested eight different forced-air warming systems: (1) Bair Hugger and upper body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc. Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and upper body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) Thermacare (Gaymar Industries) with reusable Optisan upper body blanket (Willy Rüsch AG, Kernen, Germany); (4) WarmAir and upper body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (5) Warm-Gard and single use upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (6) Warm-Gard and reusable upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); (7) WarmTouch and CareDrape upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO); and (8) WarmTouch and reusable MultiCover trade mark upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc.) on a previously validated copper manikin of the human body. Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 11 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 11 thermocouples. The temperature gradient between the blanket and surface (DeltaT) was varied between -8 and +8 degrees C, and h was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, as similar mean skin surface temperatures have been found in volunteers. The covered area was estimated to be 0

  6. Marine mesocosm bacterial colonisation of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Verena; Cimarelli, Corrado; Ayris, Paul; Kueppers, Ulrich; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald; Woerheide, Gert

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, wind-delivered volcanic ash may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation remain unknown. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. The effect of substrate properties on bacterial colonisation was tested by exposing five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash (Sakurajima, Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size, in controlled marine coral reef aquaria under low light conditions for six months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis of Similarity supported significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community with the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community composition during colonisation of volcanic ash in a coral reef-like environment is controlled by the

  7. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  8. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-07-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  9. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  10. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  11. Preliminary Design of a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR Based on the BIT Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuebin; Liu, Songlin; Li, Jia; Pu, Yong; Chen, Xiangcun

    2014-04-01

    CFETR is the “ITER-like” China fusion engineering test reactor. The design of the breeding blanket is one of the key issues in achieving the required tritium breeding radio for the self-sufficiency of tritium as a fuel. As one option, a BIT (breeder insider tube) type helium cooled ceramic breeder blanket (HCCB) was designed. This paper presents the design of the BIT—HCCB blanket configuration inside a reactor and its structure, along with neutronics, thermo-hydraulics and thermal stress analyses. Such preliminary performance analyses indicate that the design satisfies the requirements and the material allowable limits.

  12. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Rice Husk Ash Derived Zeolite Blended with Water Hyacinth Ash for Enhanced Adsorption of Cadmium Ions

    OpenAIRE

    G. W. Mbugua; H. M. Mbuvi; J. W. Muthengia

    2014-01-01

    In order to helpcurtail or imposesustained control to the offensive water hyacinth plant,it is essential to explore ways of generatingwater remediation materials from it. In the current study, the capacity and efficacy of water hyacinth ash (WHA),its insoluble residue (WHAR) and rice husk ash (RHA)to remove cadmium ionsand methylene blue from contaminated water was investigated. Mixtures of the two ashes were used to formulatezeolitic materialsby hydrothermal reactions. Material A, ZMA was pr...

  14. Outlook for ash in your forest: results of emerald ash borer research and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction near Detroit, Michigan, in the mid-1990s, emerald ash borer (EAB) has rapidly spread through much of the U.S. and adjacent Canada, leaving millions of dead ash trees in Midwestern states (4,11). Unfortunately, EAB attacks trees as small as an inch in stem diameter and it attacks all five ash species native to the region - white, green...

  15. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...

  16. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  17. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  18. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  19. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  20. AshMeadowsSpeckledDace_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  1. AshMeadowsAmargosaPupfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  2. Cementing Properties of Oil Shale Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oil crisis has prompted renewed interest in direct burning of oil shale as an alternative energy source.A major problem in this process is the large portion of ash produced.The cementing properties of this ash were investigated to determine its applicability as a building material.By means of XRD, IR, NMR and ICP, we have studied the effects of burning temperature on the reactivity of ash.Maximum reactivity was obtained with ash samples produced at 700 °C to 900 °C.In this range, the strength of oil-shale-based material, with properties similar to cement, which is composed of oil shale and several other kinds of solid wastes, can achieve the standard of 42.5# cement.Our study has provided an experimental foundation and theoretical base for a massive utilization of oil shale.

  3. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  4. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  5. AshMeadowsSpeckledDace_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  6. AshMeadowsAmargosaPupfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  7. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  8. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A S; Dhagat, N N

    2001-04-01

    . Concentrated waste (usually sewage sludge) can be added continuously or periodically (semi-batch operation), where it is mixed with the contents of the reactor. Theoretically, the conventional digester is operated as a once-through, completely mixed, reactor. In this particular mode of operation the hydraulic retention time (HRT) is equal to the solids retention time (SRT). Basically, the required process efficiency is related to the sludge retention time (SRT), and hence longer SRT provided, results in satisfactory population (by reproduction) for further waste stabilization. By reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the conventional mode reactor, the quantity of biological solids within the reactor is also decreased as the solids escape with the effluent. The limiting HRT is reached when the bacteria are removed from the reactor faster than they can grow. Methanogenic bacteria are slow growers and are considered the rate-limiting component in the anaerobic digestion process. The first anaerobic process developed, which separated the SRT from the HRT was the anaerobic contact process. In 1963, Young and McCarty (1968) began work, which eventually led to the development of the anaerobic upflow filter (AF) process. The anaerobic filter represented a significant advance in anaerobic waste treatment, since the filter can trap and maintain a high concentration of biological solids. By trapping these solids, long SRT's could be obtained at large waste flows, necessary to anaerobically treat low strength wastes at nominal temperatures economically. Another anaerobic process which relies on the development of biomass on the surfaces of a media is an expanded bed upflow reactor. The primary concept of the process consists of passing wastewater up through a bed of inert sand sized particles at sufficient velocities to fluidize and partially expand the sand bed. One of the more interesting new processes is the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process (UASB), which was developed

  9. Stabilization/solidification of TSCA incinerator ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Trotter, D.R.; Francis, C.L.; Morgan, I.L.

    1994-06-01

    Stabilization/solidification is a well-known waste treatment technique that utilizes different additives and processes. The Phoenix Ash Technology of the Technical Innovation Development Engineering Company is such a technique that uses Cass C fly ash and mechanical pressure to make brick waste forms out of solid wastes, such as the bottom ash from the Toxic Substances Control Act incinerator at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. One advantage of this technique is that no volume increase over the bulk volume of the bottom ash occurs. This technique should have the same high pH stabilization for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals as similar techniques. Also, consolidation of the bottom ash minimizes the potential problems of material dispersion and container corrosion. The bottom ash was spiked with {sup 99}{Tc} to test the effectiveness of the bricks as a physical barrier. The {sup 99}{Tc} leachability index measured for these bricks was 6.8, typical for the pertechnetate anion in cementitious waste forms, indicating that these bricks have accessible porosity as high as that of other cementitious waste forms, despite the mechanical compression, higher waste form density, and water resistant polymer coating.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  11. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  12. Purchasing. They Got Out From Under Blanket Orders With a Stores-Based Buy-Out System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Ralph E.

    1974-01-01

    By having a university 'stores' set up with a blanket order with about 115 local vendors, a university has eliminated petty cash disbursements for small purchases and proliferating purchase orders. (Author/PG)

  13. A study on the enhancement of the reliability in gravure offset roll printing with blanket swelling control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eul Kim, Ga; Woo, Kyoohee; Kang, Dongwoo; Jang, Yunseok; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Moon G.; Lee, Taik-Min; Kwon, Sin

    2016-10-01

    In roll-offset printing (patterning) technology with a PDMS blanket as a transfer medium, one of the major reliability issues is the occurrence of swelling, which involves absorption of the ink solvent in the printing blanket with repeated printing. This study developed a method to resolve blanket swelling in gravure offset roll printing and performed experiments for performance verification. The physical phenomena of mass and heat transfer were applied to fabricate a device based on convection drying. The proposed device managed to effectively control blanket swelling through drying by blowing air and additional temperature control. The experiments verified that printing quality (in particular the variation of the width of printed patterns) was maintained over 500 continuous printing.

  14. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with lower body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Lorenz, N; Steinmetz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2003-01-01

    Forced-air warming has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with lower body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of six complete lower body warming systems. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows:[1]Qdot;=h.DeltaT.A where Qdot; = heat transfer [W], h = heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT = temperature gradient between blanket and surface [ degrees C], A = covered area [m2]. We tested the following forced-air warmers in a previously validated copper manikin of the human body: (1) Bair Hugger and lower body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc., Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and lower body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) WarmAir and lower body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (4) Warm-Gard(R) and lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (5) Warm-Gard and reusable lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); and (6) WarmTouch and lower body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO). Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 16 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 16 thermocouples. DeltaT was varied between -10 and +10 degrees C and h was determined by a linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, because similar mean skin temperatures have been found in volunteers. The area covered by the blankets was estimated to be 0.54 m2. Heat transfer from the blanket to the manikin was different for surface temperatures between 36 degrees C and 38 degrees C. At a surface temperature of 36 degrees C the heat transfer was higher (between 13.4 W to 18.3 W) than at surface temperatures of 38 degrees C (8-11.5 W). The highest heat transfer was delivered by the Thermacare system (8.3-18.3 W), the

  15. An electro-hydraulic servo control system research for CFETR blanket RH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Changqi [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China); Tang, Hongjun, E-mail: taurustang@126.com [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China); Qi, Songsong [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China); Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng; Peng, Xuebing; Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We discussed the conceptual design of CFETR blanket RH maintenance system. • The mathematical model of electro-hydraulic servo system was calculated. • A fuzzy adaptive PD controller was designed based on control theory and experience. • The co-simulation models of the system were established with AMESim/Simulink. • The fuzzy adaptive PD algorithm was designed as the core strategy of the system. - Abstract: Based on the technical design requirements of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) blanket remote handling (RH) maintenance, this paper focus on the control method of achieving high synchronization accuracy of electro-hydraulic servo system. Based on fuzzy control theory and practical experience, a fuzzy adaptive proportional-derivative (PD) controller was designed. Then a more precise co-simulation model was established with AMESim/Simulink. Through the analysis of simulation results, a fuzzy adaptive PD control algorithm was designed as the core strategy of electro-hydraulic servo control system.

  16. Preconceptual engineering design for the APT {sup 3}He target/blanket concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensink, D.L. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Naval Nuclear Fuel Division, P.O. Box 785, Mt. Athos Rd., Lynchburg, Virginia 24505-0785 (United States); Rose, S.C. Jr. [Reactor Design and Analysis, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    1995-01-20

    A preconceptual engineering design has been developed for the {sup 3}He Target/Blanket (T/B) System for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. This concept uses an array of pressure tubes containing tungsten rods for the neutron spallation source and {sup 3}He gas contained in a metal tank and blanket tubes as the tritium production material. The engineering design is based on a physics model optimized for efficient tritium production. Principle engineering consideration were: provisions for cooling all materials including the {sup 3}He gas; containment of the gas and radionuclides; remote handling; material compatibility; minimization of {sup 3}He, D{sub 2}O, and activated waste; modularity; and manufacturability. The design provides a basis for estimating the cost to implement the system.

  17. Overview on ITER and DEMO blanket fabrication activities of the KIT INR and related frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, Heiko, E-mail: heiko.neuberger@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rey, Joerg; Weth, Axel von der; Hernandez, Francisco [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Martin, Tatiana [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zmitko, Milan [Fusion for energy, ITER Department, Test Blanket Modules and Materials Development Project Team, Barcelona (Spain); Felde, Alexander [Institut für Umformtechnik (IFU), Universität Stuttgart (Germany); Niewöhner, Reinhard [Forschungsgesellschaft Umformtechnik (FGU), Stuttgart (Germany); Krüger, Friedhelm [Krüger Erodiertechnik, Biedenkopf (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent achievements in fabricaition within different frameworks. • First Wall mockup with erosion technology. • Manufacturing of a HCPB TBM Cooling Plate Mockup (F4E) - Abstract: Fabrication experiments have been carried out in the KIT with the goal to qualify manufacturing technologies for the realization of fusion reactor components. The main focus of the activities managed by the fabrication team in the Institute of Neutron Physics and reactor technologies (INR) has been on the Test Blanket Module for ITER. Sets of fabrication and welding procedure specifications have been demonstrated and qualified in relevant scale for TBM structural and functional components. This paper presents interactions in between the different frameworks on domestic and European level to underline backgrounds of developments. It also summarizes results of development and their relevancy for DEMO and gives an outlook on the future development strategy for the DEMO blanket fabrication.

  18. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield and blanket work package report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes nuclear-related work in support of the US effort for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Study. The purpose of this work was to prepare for the first international ITER workshop devoted to defining a basic ITER concept that will serve as a basis for an indepth conceptual design activity over the next 2-1/2 years. Primary tasks carried out during the past year included: design improvements of the inboard shield developed for the TIBER concept, scoping studies of a variety of tritium breeding blanket options, development of necessary design guidelines and evaluation criteria for the blanket options, further safety considerations related to nuclear components and issues regarding structural materials for an ITER device. 44 refs., 31 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF). Annual report, January 31, 1976--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, K.O. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The work performed in the reporting period was primarily concerned with the construction of the Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF), acquisition of experimental equipment, outlining the experimental program, preanalysis of the initial loading configuration and investigation of the safety of the initial loading and advanced loadings. The detailed physical description of the FBBF, operational procedures and controls, radiation shielding and experimental equipment are presented. The ability of the FBBF to simulate the blanket spectrum of a large fast breeder reactor is illustrated by comparison of spectra. The source axial distribution, reaction rate comparisons, breeding of plutonium and gamma-ray energy deposition rates are also discussed. Some of the safety aspects of the initial loading and advanced loadings are described. Experimental capabilities of the facility are outlined.

  20. Reduced activation martensitic steels as a structural material for ITER test blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K. E-mail: shiba@realab01.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Enoeda, M.; Jitsukawa, S

    2004-08-01

    A Japanese ITER test blanket module (TBM) is planed to use reduced-activation martensitic steel F82H. Feasibility of F82H for ITER test blanket module is discussed in this paper. Several kinds of property data, including physical properties, magnetic properties, mechanical properties and neutron-irradiation data on F82H have been obtained, and these data are complied into a database to be used for the designing of the ITER TBM. Currently obtained data suggests F82H will not have serious problems for ITER TBM. Optimization of F82H improves the induced activity, toughness and HIP resistance. Furthermore, modified F82H is resistant to temperature instability during material production.

  1. Use of Ball Blanket in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sleeping problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Based on actigraphic surveillance, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom rating and sleep diary, this study will evaluate the effect of Ball Blanket on sleep for a sample of 8-13-year-old children with ADHD. Design: Case-control study. Setting: A child and adolescent...... psychiatric department of a teaching hospital. Participants: 21 children aged 8-13 years with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 healthy control subjects. Intervention: Sleep was monitored by parent-completed sleep diaries and 28 nights of actigraphy. For 14 of those days, the child slept with a Ball Blanket. Main...... outcome measures: The sleep latency, number of awakenings and total length of sleep was measured, as was the possible influence on parent- and teacher-rated ADHD symptom load. Results: The results of this study will show that the time it takes for a child to fall asleep is shortened when using a Ball...

  2. Safety analysis of the US dual coolant liquid lead lithium ITER test blanket module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Brad; Reyes, Susana; Sawan, Mohamed; Wong, Clement

    2007-07-01

    The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER test blanket module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER international team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as vaccum vessel (VV) pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBM decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.

  3. Preliminary lifetime predictions for 304 stainless steel as the LANL ABC blanket material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.J.; Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1997-11-01

    The prediction of materials lifetime in the preconceptual Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Accelerator-Based Conversion of Plutonium (ABC) is of utmost interest. Because Hastelloy N showed good corrosion resistance to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Molten Salt Reactor Experiment fuel salt that is similar to the LANL ABC fuel salt, Hastelloy N was originally proposed for the LANL ABC blanket material. In this paper, the possibility of using 304 stainless steel as a replacement for the Hastelloy N is investigated in terms of corrosion issues and fluence-limit considerations. An attempt is made, based on the previous Fast Flux Test Facility design data, to predict the preliminary lifetime estimate of the 304 stainless steel used in the blanket region of the LANL ABC.

  4. A water cooled, lithium lead breeding blanket for a DEMO fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rieger, M.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Tominetti, S.; Wu, J.; Zucchetti, M. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Labbe, P.; Baraer, L.; Gervaise, G.; Giancarli, L.; Roze, M.; Severi, Y.; Quintric-Bossy, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-04-01

    The main features of a tritium breeding blanket for a Demonstration Power Reactor involving the eutectic Pb-17Li as liquid breeder and water as coolant are presented. The configuration of the blanket segments and breeder modules as well as their arrangement inside the reactor vacuum vessel are outlined. The main design aspects and the corresponding design limits are reviewed, namely those related to thermomechanics, neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, tritium permeation and recovery. First results of safety analysis, in particular those connected with the rupture of a coolant tube in the breeder module are presented and discussed. As a conclusion, the feasibility of the concept look attractive. A problem which requires further investigation is that of the tritium self-sufficiency. It is shown that a net tritium production near to one can be obtained if berylium tiles are placed in front of the plasma, provided that they are cooled by heavy water. (orig.).

  5. Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar

    2011-10-15

    The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined.

  6. Two-dimensional TBR calculations for conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. W.; Battat, M. E.; Dudziak, D. J.

    A detailed two-dimensional nucleonic analysis was performed for a conceptual first wall, blanket, and shield design for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor. The design includes significant two-dimensional aspects presented by the limiter, vacuum ducts, and coolant manifolds; these aspects seriously degrade the tritium-breeding reaction (TBR) predicted by one-dimensional calculations. A range of design change to increase the TBR were investigated within the two-dimensional analysis. The results of this investigation indicated that an adequate TBR could be achieved with a thinning copper first wall, a (6)Li enrichment near 90%, the proper selection of reflector, and a small addition to the blanket thickness, determined by the one-dimensional analysis.

  7. Applicability of tungsten/EUROFER blanket module for the DEMO first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igitkhanov, Yu., E-mail: juri.igitkhanov@lhm.fzk.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bazylev, B.; Landman, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boccaccini, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INR, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper we analyse a sandwich-type blanket configuration of W/EUROFER for DEMO first wall under steady-state normal operation and off-normal conditions, such as vertical displacements and runaway electrons. The heat deposition and consequent erosion of the tungsten armour is modelled under condition of helium cooling of the first wall blanket module and by taking into account the conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the runaway electron current into heat through the ohmic dissipation of the return current induced in the metallic armour structure. It is shown that under steady-state DEMO operation the first wall sandwich type module will tolerate heat loads up to ∼14 MW/m{sup 2}. It will also sustain the off-normal events, apart from the hot vertical displacement events, which will melt the tungsten armour surface.

  8. Applicability of tungsten/EUROFER blanket module for the DEMO first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igitkhanov, Yu.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Boccaccini, L.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we analyse a sandwich-type blanket configuration of W/EUROFER for DEMO first wall under steady-state normal operation and off-normal conditions, such as vertical displacements and runaway electrons. The heat deposition and consequent erosion of the tungsten armour is modelled under condition of helium cooling of the first wall blanket module and by taking into account the conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the runaway electron current into heat through the ohmic dissipation of the return current induced in the metallic armour structure. It is shown that under steady-state DEMO operation the first wall sandwich type module will tolerate heat loads up to ˜14 MW/m2. It will also sustain the off-normal events, apart from the hot vertical displacement events, which will melt the tungsten armour surface.

  9. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  10. Microstructure and hardness of HIP-bonded regions in F82H blanket structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K.; Wakai, E.; Ando, M.; Sawai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Iwabuchi, A.

    2002-12-01

    Metallurgical examinations and hardness measurements were performed at hot isostatic pressing (HIP)-bonded regions in blanket structures made from F82H alloy in order to investigate the HIP-bondability and the influence on the microstructure due to the HIP and heat treatments which would correspond to the fabrication of an actual blanket. The metallurgical examination showed that the HIP-bonded interfaces were sufficiently diffusion-bonded without significant defects, i.e. voids and/or exfoliations, although grain coarsening was observed at a part of the HIP interfaces. Hardness was nearly equal in the coarsening region and a region without coarsening, but about a 10 Hv increase was found in a boundary in between the regions with and without coarsening. Microcrystallized grains were observed in a region about ˜6 μm from HIP interfaces, and the hardness increased by about 0.2 GPa in the region.

  11. Technical issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fabrication of ITER test blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp; Hirose, T.; Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kasada, R. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wakai, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Serizawa, H.; Kawahito, Y. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kohno, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Katayama, S. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, H.; Nishimoto, K. [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Klueh, R.L.; Sokolov, M.A.; Stoller, R.E.; Zinkle, S.J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6132 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems. The RAFM F82H was developed in Japan with emphasis on high-temperature properties and weldability. Extensive irradiation studies have conducted on F82H, and it has the most extensive available database of irradiated and unirradiated properties of all RAFMs. The objective of this paper is to review the R and D status of F82H and to identify the key technical issues for the fabrication of an ITER test blanket module (TBM) suggested from the recent research achievements in Japan. This work clarified that the primary issues with F82H involve welding techniques and the mechanical properties of weld joints. This is the result of the distinctive nature of the joint caused by the phase transformation that occurs in the weld joint during cooling, and its impact on the design of a TBM will be discussed.

  12. Blanket guarantee, deposit insurance, and risk-shifting incentive: evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kariastanto, Bayu

    2011-01-01

    Indonesia established a deposit insurance system to maintain stability in its banking sector after the abolishment of blanket guarantees in 2005. Since the insurance premiums are fixed and flat, deposit insurance may create an incentive for banks to take more risks and transfer the risks to the deposit insurer. Using an option pricing based model of deposit insurance, we compute the fair deposit insurance premiums for all banks listed on the Indonesian stock exchange. We find evidence that ba...

  13. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  14. Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the first wall of CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Deng, Weiping; Ge, Zhihao; Li, Yuanjie

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Detailed numerical analysis of heat transfer in a water-cooling first wall was carried out based on the conceptual design of CFETR WCSB blanket. • Investigation of the influences of buoyancy effect and surface roughness on heat transfer in the water-cooling first wall was presented. • Analysis of the effect of the front wall thickness on temperature was carried out for the water-cooling first wall design. • Simulation results of two 1D CFD methods were evaluated by the 3D CFD data. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), the first fusion reactor experiment project planned in China, is now being investigated in detail. Recently, a conceptual structural design of the Water-Cooled-Solid-Breeder (WCSB) blanket was proposed as one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR. In this research, based on the present design of the CFETR WCSB blanket, the heat transfer performance in the first wall (FW) under the pressurized water cooling condition was analyzed. The 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the maximal temperature of the FW will not exceed the limited temperature under normal or even higher heat flux condition. In addition, the effect of buoyancy on heat transfer is negligible under both conditions. The influence of roughness becomes increasingly important when the roughness height lies in the fully turbulent regime. The maximal temperature increases approximately linearly as the thickness of the front wall increases. It is also found that the heat flux and the local heat transfer coefficient are extremely non-uniform in the circumferential direction. Two 1D CFD methods are also evaluated by 3D CFD data, with the conclusion that both 1D results have some differences with the 3D data. The improved 1D method is more accurate than the former one. However, we ascertain that 1D methods should be used with caution for the water-cooling FW design.

  15. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  16. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  17. Neutronics Optimization of Tritium Breeding Blan-ket for the FDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿; 黄群英

    2002-01-01

    Neutronics optimization calculations have been performed for thc tritium breeding blankets with solid ceramic breeder Li2O and liquid eutectie breeder Li17Pb83, respectively,based on a 2-D geometrical configuration using the Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4B. The effects of beryllium, 6Li enrichment and various structural materials on Tritium Breeding Ratio have been systematically analyzed.

  18. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kenji [ed.

    1998-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of `the Sixth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions` which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders under Annex II of IEA Implementing Agreement on a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials, and Japan-US Workshop 97FT4-01. This workshop was held in Mito city, Japan on October 22-24, 1997. About forty experts from EU, Japan, USA, and Chile attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included the following: (1) fabrication and characterization of ceramic breeders, (2) properties data for ceramic breeders, (3) tritium release characteristics, (4) modeling of tritium behavior, (5) irradiation effects on performance behavior, (6) blanket design and R and D requirements, (7) hydrogen behavior in materials, and (8) blanket system technology and structural materials. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for fabrication technology of ceramic breeder pebbles in EU and Japan, data of various properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, tritium release behavior of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} including tritium diffusion, modeling of tritium release from Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in ITER condition, helium release behavior from Li{sub 2}O, results of tritium release irradiation tests of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles in EXOTIC-7, R and D issues for ceramic breeders for ITER and DEMO blankets, etc. The 23 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Sulphation characteristics of paper sludge ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S.A. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.D. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2007-04-15

    Landfills are no longer a viable solution for the disposal of sludge produced from waste water treatment plants because of the decrease in available space, rising fees and growing environmental concerns. However, thermal utilization of this waste may be an economic and sustainable disposal solution. Co-combustion of low heating value sludge with fossil fuels has a positive effect for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions due to the low sulphur content of biomass fuels and increased sulphur retention in the ash. The sulphur retention is attributed to the formation of sulphates, such as CaSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The amount of fuel-ash-related sulphur sorption increases during co-combustion. Therefore, sorbents for sulphur reduction may not be required if proper control of the biomass feed is maintained. This paper presented a study in which the sulphation characteristics of calcium-rich paper sludge ash were determined for the use of co-combustion of biomass and coal. The calcium in the paper sludge ash came from the limestone filler used in the manufacturing process to increase the density and whiteness of the paper at 2 paper mills in Korea. A thermobalance reactor along with XRD and SEM-EDX were used for the analysis of sulphated ash to determine the effects of sulphation temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} concentration on sulphation conversion. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of sulphation reaction of sludge ash were determined based on the uniform-reaction model. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that most of the sulphation compounds were CaSO{sub 4}. The sulphation occurred uniformly throughout the ash and the CaSO{sub 4} did not block the outer pore of the sludge ash. The uniform distributions of CaO and other inert minerals in the ash resulted in uniform sulphation with good penetration of SO{sub 2} into pores of the sludge ash without pore blocking during sulphation of CaO. 13 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  20. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  1. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... importantly, by reaction with Al and Si in the fly ash. About 70-80% K in the fly ash appears as alumina silicates while the remainder K is mainly present as sulphate. Lignite/straw co-firing produces fly ash with relatively high Cl content. This is probably because of the high content of calcium...

  2. Effect of ash components on the ignition and burnout of high ash coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, B.; Yan, R.; Zheng, C.G. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    1998-11-01

    The effect of the ash components on the ignition and burnout of four Chinese high ash coals were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. To investigate the influence of the ash components, comparative experiments were carried out with original, deashed and impregnated coals. Eleven types of ash components, such as SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, MgO, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O and FeSO{sub 4},(NH{sub 4}){center_dot}6H{sub 2}O were used in the present study. It was found that most of the ash components have negative effects. The strong influence of some ash components suggests that the combustion characteristics of high ash coal may be determined by the ash composition. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Modeling calcium dissolution from oil shale ash: Part 2.. Continuous washing of the ash layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O.; Kallas, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Hautaniemi, M.; Kuosa, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Kuusik, R. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2010-05-15

    In the present work a possible approach to the utilization of oil shale ash containing free lime in precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production is elucidated. This paper investigates the Ca (calcium) dissolution process during continuous washing of pulverized firing (PF) and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) oil shale ash layers in a packed-bed leaching column. The main characteristics of the Ca dissolution process from ash are established. The effect of water flow rate is investigated by conducting leaching experiments of oil shale ashes formed in boilers operating with different combustion technologies. The values of the overall and liquid phase mass transfer coefficients are evaluated based on experiments using the developed ash layer washing model. The model is a set of partial differential equations that describe the changes in Ca content in the stagnant layer of ash and in the water flowing through the ash layer. An example in which the model is applied to environmental assessment and estimation of Ca leaching from industrial oil shale ash fields is provided. (author)

  4. Influence of Fly Ash, Bottom Ash, and Light Expanded Clay Aggregate on Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invention of new methods in strengthening concrete is under work for decades. Developing countries like India use the extensive reinforced construction works materials such as fly ash and bottom ash and other ingredients in RCC construction. In the construction industry, major attention has been devoted to the use of fly ash and bottom ash as cement and fine aggregate replacements. In addition, light expanded clay aggregate has been introduced instead of coarse aggregate to make concrete have light weight. This paper presents the results of a real-time work carried out to form light weight concrete made with fly ash, bottom ash, and light expanded clay aggregate as mineral admixtures. Experimental investigation on concrete mix M20 is done by replacement of cement with fly ash, fine aggregate with bottom ash, and coarse aggregate with light expanded clay aggregate at the rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% in each mix and their compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete were discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days and flexural strength has been discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days depending on the optimum dosage of replacement in compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete.

  5. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  6. Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chalee, Wichian; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2009-02-01

    This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 degrees C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa.

  7. Effect of thick blanket modules on neoclassical tearing mode locking in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Haye, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2017-01-01

    The rotation of m/n  =  2/1 tearing modes can be slowed and stopped (i.e. locked) by eddy currents induced in resistive walls in conjunction with residual error fields that provide a final ‘notch’ point. This is a particular issue in ITER with large inertia and low applied torque (m and n are poloidal and toroidal mode numbers respectively). Previous estimates of tolerable 2/1 island widths in ITER found that the ITER electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) system could catch and subdue such islands before they persisted long enough and grew large enough to lock. These estimates were based on a forecast of initial island rotation using the n  =  1 resistive penetration time of the inner vacuum vessel wall and benchmarked to DIII-D high-rotation plasmas, However, rotating tearing modes in ITER will also induce eddy currents in the blanket as the effective first wall that can shield the inner vessel. The closer fitting blanket wall has a much shorter time constant and should allow several times smaller islands to lock several times faster in ITER than previously considered; this challenges the ECCD stabilization. Recent DIII-D ITER baseline scenario (IBS) plasmas with low rotation through small applied torque allow better modeling and scaling to ITER with the blanket as the first resistive wall.

  8. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  9. Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF: An Innovative Technology in Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Saeedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new biological domestic wastewater treatment process, which has been presented these days in activated sludge modification, is Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF. This process is aerobic and acts by using a sludge blanket in the separator of sedimentation tank. All biological flocs and suspended solids, which are presented in the aeration basin, pas through this blanket. The performance of a single stage USBF process for treatment of domestic wastewater was studied in laboratory scale.Methods: The pilot of USBF has been made from fiberglass and the main electromechanical equipments consisted of an air com­pressor, a mixing device and two pumps for sludge return and wastewater injection. The wastewater samples used for the experiments were prepared synthetically to have qualitative characteristics similar to a typical domestic wastewater (COD= 277 mg/l, BOD5= 250 mg/l and TSS= 1 mg/l.Results: On the average, the treatment system was capable to remove 82.2% of the BOD5 and 85.7% of COD in 6 h hydraulic re­tention time (HRT. At 2 h HRT BOD and COD removal efficiencies dramatically reduced to 50% and 46.5%, respectively.Conclusion: Even by increasing the concentrations of pollutants to as high as 50%, the removal rates of all pollutants were re­mained similar to the HRT of 6 h.

  10. Pre-conceptual design study on K-DEMO ceramic breeder blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Sung, E-mail: jspark@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sungjin; Im, Kihak; Kim, Keeman [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Thomas; Neilson, George [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A pre-conceptual design study has been carried out for the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) tokamak featured by high magnetic field (B{sub T0} = 7.4 T), R = 6.8 m, a = 2.1 m, and a steady-state operation. The design concepts of the K-DEMO blanket system considering the cooling in-vessel components with pressurized water and a solid pebble breeder are described herein. The structure of the K-DEMO blanket is toroidally subdivided into 16 inboard and 32 outboard sectors, in order to allow the vertical maintenance. Each blanket module is composed of plasma-facing first wall, layers of breeding parts, shielding and manifolds. A ceramic breeder using Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with Be{sub 12}Ti as neuron multiplier is employed for study. MCNP neutronic simulations and thermo-hydraulic analyses are interactively performed in order to satisfy two key aspects: achieving a global Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) >1.05 and operating within the maximum allowable temperature ranges of materials.

  11. Multirecycling of Plutonium from LMFBR Blanket in Standard PWRs Loaded with MOX Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    It is now well-known that, from a physics standpoint, Pu, or even TRU (i.e. Pu+M.A.), originating from LEU fuel irradiated in PWRs can be multirecycled also in PWRs using MOX fuel. However, the degradation of the isotopic composition during irradiation necessitates using enriched U in conjunction with the MOX fuel either homogeneously or heterogeneously to maintain the Pu (or TRU) content at a level allowing safe operation of the reactor, i.e. below about 10%. The study is related to another possible utilization of the excess Pu produced in the blanket of a LMFBR, namely in a PWR(MOX). In this case the more Pu is bred in the LMFBR, the more PWR(MOX) it can sustain. The important difference between the Pu coming from the blanket of a LMFBR and that coming from a PWR(LEU) is its isotopic composition. The first one contains about 95% of fissile isotopes whereas the second one contains only about 65% of fissile isotopes. As it will be shown later, this difference allows the PWR fed by Pu from the LMFBR blanket to operate with natural U instead of enriched U when it is fed by Pu from PWR(LEU)

  12. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Preflow stresses in Martian rampart ejecta blankets - A means of estimating the water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronow, A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of extents of rampart ejecta deposits as a function of the size of the parent craters support models which, for craters larger than about 6 km diameter, constrain ejecta blankets to all have a similar maximum thickness regardless of the crater size. These volatile-rich ejecta blankets may have failed under their own weights, then flowed radially outward. Assuming this to be so, some of the physicomechanical properties of the ejecta deposits at the time of their emplacement can then be determined. Finite-element studies of the stress magnitudes, distributions, and directions in hypothetical Martian rampart ejecta blankets reveal that the material most likely failed when the shear stresses were less than 500 kPa and the angle of internal friction was between 26 and 36 deg. These figures imply that the ejecta has a water content between 16 and 72%. Whether the upper limit or the lower limit is more appropriate depends on the mode of failure which one presumes: namely, viscous flow of plastic deformation.

  14. Neutronics Comparison Analysis of the Water Cooled Ceramics Breeding Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fangfang; Pu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like fusion engineering test reactor that is intended to fill the scientific and technical gaps between ITER and DEMO. One of the main missions of CFETR is to achieve a tritium breeding ratio that is no less than 1.2 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. A concept design for a water cooled ceramics breeding blanket (WCCB) is presented based on a scheme with the breeder and the multiplier located in separate panels for CFETR. Based on this concept, a one-dimensional (1D) radial built breeding blanket was first designed, and then several three-dimensional models were developed with various neutron source definitions and breeding blanket module arrangements based on the 1D radial build. A set of nuclear analyses have been carried out to compare the differences in neutronics characteristics given by different calculation models, addressing neutron wall loading (NWL), tritium breeding ratio (TBR), fast neutron flux on inboard side and nuclear heating deposition on main in-vessel components. The impact of differences in modeling on the nuclear performance has been analyzed and summarized regarding the WCCB concept design. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  15. Comparison over the nuclear analysis of the HCLL blanket for the European DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaboulay, Jean-Charles, E-mail: jean-charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, Giacomo; Aubert, Julien [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Villari, Rosaria [ENEA, UTFUS-TECN, Via E. Fermi 4, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A complete nuclear analysis of the DEMO HCLL has been carried out at CEA with the TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code. • The DEMO tokamak model was generated by the CAD import tool McCad. • The HCLL blankets were implemented using a previous MCNP model developed at ENEA. • A good agreement is observed between the results obtained at CEA with TRIPOLI-4 and JEFF-3.1.1 and whose obtained at ENEA with MCNP and FENDL-2.1. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparison over the nuclear analysis of the European DEMO with HCLL blanket carried out with the TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code and the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library and with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the FENDL-2.1 nuclear data library. The MCNP5 analysis was conducted firstly by ENEA with a detailed 3D model describing all the HCLL blanket internal structures. This MCNP5 model was converted into TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} representation for performing the nuclear analysis at CEA with the objective to demonstrate consistency between both analyses. A very good agreement was obtained for all of the relevant nuclear responses (neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, nuclear heating, neutron flux distribution, etc.), validating CEA’s nuclear analysis approach, based on TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, for the European DEMO.

  16. AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and rad...

  17. Engineering challenges and development of the ITER Blanket System and Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, Mario, E-mail: mario.merola@iter.org; Escourbiac, Frederic; Raffray, Alphonse Rene; Chappuis, Philippe; Hirai, Takeshi; Gicquel, Stefan

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Blanket System and the Divertor are the main components which directly face the plasma. Being the first physical barrier to the plasma, they have very demanding design requirements, which include accommodating: (1) surface heat flux and neutronic volumetric heating, (2) electromagnetic loads, (3) nuclear shielding function, (4) capability of being assembled and remote-handled, (5) interfaces with other in-vessel components, and (6) high heat flux technologies and complex welded structures in the design. The main functions of the Blanket System have been substantially expanded and it has now also to provide limiting surfaces that define the plasma boundary during startup and shutdown. As regards the Divertor, the ITER Council decided in November 2013 to start the ITER operation with a full-tungsten armour in order to minimize costs and already gain operational experience with tungsten during the non-active phase of the machine. This paper gives an overview of the design and technology qualification of the Blanket System and the Divertor.

  18. Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile, and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

    2000-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (I-D) finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to account for coatings fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a certain trajectory. Ten TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile stems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

  19. First wall fabrication of 1/3 scale china dual functional lithium lead blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bo, E-mail: bo.huang@fds.org.cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zhai, Yutao [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zhang, Junyu [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Li, Chunjing; Wu, Qingsheng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Qunying [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • RAFM rectangular tubes were fabricated by cold drawing, and the dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of rectangular tubes were tested. • Rectangular tubes were bent by rotary bending, and milled plates were curved by molding. Its accuracy meets the requirement for TBM assembly. • FW were pre-sealed by electron beam welding, and assembled by hot isostatic pressing–diffusion bonding. • The as-HIPed FW mock-up was tested by optical observation and X-ray detection, it revealed obviously that the tubes and plates were bonded well. - Abstract: The dual functional lithium lead blanket is chosen as one of the candidate blankets for China fusion reactor, for its advantages of tritium breeding and good heat exchange performance. As one of the most important components of the blanket, the first wall (FW) is assembled with China low activation martensitic (CLAM) rectangular tubes and plates by hot isostatic pressing (HIP)–diffusion bonding (DB). In this work, the rectangular tube fabrication and FW assembly were carried out in order to verify the feasibility of the FW fabrication scheme. The mechanical property and dimensional accuracy of CLAM rectangular tubes were tested, the microstructure observation and non-destructive detection revealed the sound of the FW mock-up, and the reliability of the FW mock-ups is under evaluation.

  20. Insight of the fusion behavior of volcanic ash: Implications for Volcanic ash Hazards to Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Küppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Lavallée, Yan; Sohyun, Park; Gattermann, Ulf; Müller, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of volcanic ash with jet turbines during via ingestion of ash into engines operating at supra-volcanic temperatures is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for jet aircraft. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The fusibility of volcanic ash is believed to impact strongly its deposition in the hotter parts of jet engines. Despite this, explicit investigation of ash sintering using standardized techniques is in its infancy. Volcanic ash may vary widely in its physical state and chemical composition between and even within explosive volcanic eruptions. Thus a comparative study of the fusibility of ash which involves a standard recognized techniques would be highly desirable. In this work, nine samples of fine ash, deposited from co-pyroclastic offrom nine different volcanoes which cover a broad range of chemical composition, were investigated. Eight of them were collected from 2001-2009 eruptions. Because of the currently elevated level of eruptive activity and its potential hazards to aircraft safety and the remaining one sample was collected from a 12,121 ± 114 yr B.P. eruption. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by defining four characteristic temperatures (shrinkage temperature, deformation temperature, hemispherical temperature, and flow temperature) by means of heating microscope instrument and different thermal analysis methods. Here, we find that there are similar sticking ability and flow behavior of

  1. Geoethics implications in volcanic hazards in Argentina: 24 years of uninterrupted ash-fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Elizabeth I.; Violante, Roberto A.; Uber, Silvia M.; Vázquez Herrera, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The impact of falling ash reaches all human activities, has effects on human and animal health and is subject to climate and ecosystem of the affected regions. From 1991 until 2015 (24 years), more than 5 eruptions with VEI ≥ 4 in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes occurred; pyroclastic, dust and volcanic ash were deposited (mostly) in Argentina. A recurring situation during eruptions of Hudson (1991), Chaiten (2008), Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (2011) and Calbuco (2015) volcanoes was the accumulation, storage and dump of volcanic ash in depressed areas, beaches, lakes, ditches, storm drains, areas of landfills and transfer stations. The issues that this practice has taken are varied: pollution of aquifers, changes in geomorphology and water courses, usually in "inconspicuous" zones, often in places where there are precarious population or high poverty settlements. The consequences are not immediate but the effects in the mid and long term bring serious drawbacks. On the contrary, a good example of intelligent management of the volcanic impact occurred many years before, during the eruption of Descabezado Grande (Quizapu) volcano in 1932. In that case, and as an example, the city of Trenque Lauquen, located nearly 770 km east of the volcano, decided a communitarian task of collection and burial of the ashfall in small areas, this was a very successful performance. The Quizapu ash plumes transported by the Westerlies (winds) covered with a blanket of volcanic ash the city, ashfall also reached the capital cities of Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Uruguay (Montevideo). Also, the bagging process of volcanic ash with reinforced plastics was an example of Good Practice in the management of the emergency. This allowed the entire affected community to take advantage of this "mineral resource" and contributes to achieving collective and participatory work leading to commercialization and sustainability of these products availed as fertilizers, granular base for ceramics and

  2. Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Eggshell Ash and Rice Husk Ash As Partial Replacement Of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afizah Asman Nurul Shahadahtul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the optimum percentage of eggshell ash and rice husk ash (RHA as partial cement replacement. The samples were tested for its mechanical properties by using concrete grade G30 with cube mould (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm and prisms (100 mm × 100 mm × 500 mm. The samples were mixed with eggshell ash and RHA admixture with different proportions (2%:8%, 4%:6%, 6%:4%. Several types of test were conducted towards the samples, which are the slump test, compressive and flexural test. Based on previous researches, the strength of concrete reduced as replaced with eggshells. Most of the researches show the similar trend when partial cement is replaced using eggshell ash. Thus, to increase the strength, an admixture which has pozzolanic reactivity called rice husk ash (RHA is introduced into mix design which has been proved can help to improve the strength of concrete.

  3. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.P. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilisation

    1998-07-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degree}C. The temperature corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical composition (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenisation, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms. Alternate ash fusion temperatures based on different levels of shrinkage have also been suggested to characterise the ash deposition tendency of the coals. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  4. International Database of Volcanic Ash Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K.; Cameron, C.; Wilson, T. M.; Jenkins, S.; Brown, S.; Leonard, G.; Deligne, N.; Stewart, C.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic ash creates extensive impacts to people and property, yet we lack a global ash impacts catalog to organize, distribute, and archive this important information. Critical impact information is often stored in ephemeral news articles or other isolated resources, which cannot be queried or located easily. A global ash impacts database would improve 1) warning messages, 2) public and lifeline emergency preparation, and 3) eruption response and recovery. Ashfall can have varying consequences, such as disabling critical lifeline infrastructure (e.g. electrical generation and transmission, water supplies, telecommunications, aircraft and airports) or merely creating limited and expensive inconvenience to local communities. Impacts to the aviation sector can be a far-reaching global issue. The international volcanic ash impacts community formed a committee to develop a database to catalog the impacts of volcanic ash. We identify three user populations for this database: 1) research teams, who would use the database to assist in systematic collection, recording, and storage of ash impact data, and to prioritize impact assessment trips and lab experiments 2) volcanic risk assessment scientists who rely on impact data for assessments (especially vulnerability/fragility assessments); a complete dataset would have utility for global, regional, national and local scale risk assessments, and 3) citizen science volcanic hazard reporting. Publication of an international ash impacts database will encourage standardization and development of best practices for collecting and reporting impact information. Data entered will be highly categorized, searchable, and open source. Systematic cataloging of impact data will allow users to query the data and extract valuable information to aid in the development of improved emergency preparedness, response and recovery measures.

  5. Chemical characterization of ash from gasification of alfalfa stems: Implications for ash management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Russelle, M.P.; Nater, E.A.

    2000-06-01

    Electricity generation from biomass is an attractive option from an environmental perspective. Pilot studies have indicated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems are suitable feedstock for energy generation via gasification. Detailed information on chemical characteristics of the ash generated from gasification of alfalfa stem is required to develop environmentally and economically sound ash management strategies. Alfalfa fly and bottom ashes were characterized with respect to chemical properties that are important in developing ash management practices with emphasis on beneficial utilization as a soil amendment. Mean concentrations of total C, K, Ca, and Cl were 424, 120, 85, and 26 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively, in fly ash. In bottom ash, the mean concentrations of C, K, and Ca, were 63, 61, and 193 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Concentrations of total Pb, As, Cd, Co, and Se were below detection limits in both ash types. Naphthalene ranged from 6.2 to 74 mg kg{sup {minus}1}, but concentrations of many other polyaromatic hydrocarbons were low or below mg kg{sup {minus}1} detection limits. Available K and P in fly ash were 90 to 120 and 8 to 10 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Mean CaCO{sub 3} equivalent value of fly ash was 400 g kg{sup {minus}1}, its electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were 127 dS m{sup {minus}1} and 11.5, respectively. These results suggest that when managed properly, gasified alfalfa ash could potentially be utilized as a beneficial soil amendment with few potential environmental concerns.

  6. Ash melting behavior by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han-xu; QIU Xiao-sheng; TANG Yong-xin

    2008-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) method involving a Fe2O3 flux was used to learn how China's coal ash melts. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, as well as the effects of Fe2O3 flux on the ash fusion temperature were studied. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, mineralogical phases and functional groups was analyzed with the FTIR method. The results show that the ash fusion temperature is related to the location and transmittance of certain absorption peaks, which is of great significance for the study of ash behavior.

  7. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion...... fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  8. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative status compared in workers at a bottom ash recovery plant and fly ash treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, I-Ju; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Fly ash and ambient emissions of municipal solid waste incinerators contain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other organic compounds, metals, and gases. Hazardous substances such as PCDD/Fs, mercury vapors and other silicates, and the components of bottom ash and fly ash elevate the oxidative damage. We compared oxidative damage in workers exposed to hazardous substances at a bottom ash recovery plant and 3 fly ash treatment plants in Taiwan by measuring their levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Significantly higher MDA levels were found in fly ash treatment plant workers (3.20 microM) than in bottom ash plant workers (0.58 microM). There was a significant association between MDA levels in workers and their working environment, especially in the fly ash treatment plants. Levels of 8-OH-dG varied more widely in bottom ash workers than in fly ash workers. The association between occupational exposure and 8-OH-dG levels may be affected by the life style of the workers. Because more dioxins and metals may leach from fly ash than from bottom ash, fly ash treatment plant workers should, as much as possible, avoid exposing themselves to fly ash.

  9. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  10. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  11. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  12. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-04

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

  13. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  14. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  15. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  16. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  17. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Peter Y. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Bennett, James [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2015-09-27

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. Here, we measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. We made all measurements in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. Finally, an understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  18. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    in agricultural and forest soils focusing on soil microbial communities’ composition and function, particularly mycorrhizal fungi. Two study sites were used for this study, one in an agricultural field where different biomass ashes were evaluated as replacements for P fertilizers in barley, and a second one...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... effects on barley or associated AM fungi. Furthermore, wood ash can also be re-distributed to the forest without representing any risks for ECM fungal communities, N leaching, Cd bioaccumulation in sporocarps or the general activity of the soil microbial community....

  19. Laboratory study of volcanic ash electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alois, Stefano; Merrison, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Electrostatic forces play an important role in the dynamics of volcanic plumes, for example in ash dispersion and aggregation phenomena. Field measurements of ash electrification are often technically challenging due to poor access and there lacks an accepted physical theory to describe the electrical charge exchange which occurs during particle contact. The goal of the study is to investigate single particle electrification under controlled conditions using advanced laboratory facilities. A novel technique is presented, based on the use of a laser based velocimeter. Here an electric field is applied and the field-induced drift velocity of (micron-sized) ash grains is measured as well as the particles fall velocity. This allows the simultaneous determination of a suspended grains size and electrical charge. The experiments are performed in a unique environmental wind tunnel facility under controlled low-pressure conditions. Preliminary results of particle electrification will be presented.

  20. Progress of R&D on water cooled ceramic breeder for ITER test blanket system and DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: kawamura.yoshinori@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Konno, Chikara; Edao, Yuki; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Nishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Yamanishi, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-hydraulic calculation in the TBM at the water ingress event has been done. • Shielding calculations for the ITER equatorial port #18 were conducted by using C-lite model. • Prototypic pebbles of Be{sub 17}Ti{sub 2} and Be{sub 12}V had a good oxidation property similar to Be{sub 12}Ti pebble. • Li rich Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were successfully fabricated using the emulsion method by controlling sintering atmosphere. • New tritium production/recovery experiments at FNS have been started by using ionization chamber as on-line gas monitor. - Abstract: The development of a water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) test blanket module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and development of DEMO blanket, R&D has been performed on the module fabrication technology, breeder and multiplier pebble fabrication technology, tritium production rate evaluation, as well as structural and safety design activities. The fabrication of full-scale first wall, side walls, breeder pebble bed box and back wall was completed, and assembly of TBM with box structure was successfully achieved. Development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for higher chemical stability was continued for future DEMO blanket application. From the view point of TBM test result evaluation and DEMO blanket performance design, the development of the blanket tritium transport simulation technology, investigation of the TBM neutron measurement technology and the evaluation of the tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the fusion neutron source (FNS) facility has been performed. This paper provides an overview of the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB Blanket in Japan.

  1. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) and 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 degrees C for 48h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  2. Fusion characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to aviation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Damby, David E.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-04-01

    The fusion dynamics of volcanic ash strongly impacts deposition in hot parts of jet engines. In this study, we investigate the sintering behavior of volcanic ash using natural ash of intermediate composition, erupted in 2012 at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala. A material science procedure was followed in which we monitored the geometrical evolution of cylindrical-shaped volcanic ash compact upon heating from 50 to 1400°C in a heating microscope. Combined morphological, mineralogical, and rheological analyses helped define the evolution of volcanic ash during fusion and sintering and constrain their sticking potential as well as their ability to flow at characteristic temperatures. For the ash investigated, 1240°C marks the onset of adhesion and flowability. The much higher fusibility of ash compared to that of typical test sands demonstrates for the need of a more extensive fusion characterization of volcanic ash in order to mitigate the risk posed on jet engine operation.

  3. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  4. Growth of Larval Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Fitness of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) and Green Ash (F. pennsylvanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donnie L; Duan, Jian J; Yaninek, J S; Ginzel, Matthew D; Sadof, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive primary pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Blue ash (F. quadrangulata) is less susceptible to emerald ash borer infestations in the forest than other species of North American ash. Whereas other studies have examined adult host preferences, we compared the capacity of emerald ash borer larvae reared from emerald ash borer eggs in the field and in the laboratory to survive and grow in blue ash and the more susceptible green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Emerald ash borer larval survivorship was the same on both ash species. Mortality due to wound periderm formation was only observed in living field grown trees, but was low (<4%) in both green and blue ash. No difference in larval mortality in the absence of natural enemies suggests that both green and blue ash can support the development of emerald ash borer. Larvae reared from eggs on blue ash were smaller than on green ash growing in the field and also in bolts that were infested under laboratory conditions. In a laboratory study, parasitism rates of confined Tetrastichus planipennisi were similar on emerald ash borer larvae reared in blue and green ash bolts, as were fitness measures of the parasitoid including brood size, sex ratio, and adult female size. Thus, we postulate that emerald ash borer larvae infesting blue ash could support populations of T. planipennisi and serve as a potential reservoir for this introduced natural enemy after most of the other native ash trees have been killed.

  5. Cleaner phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes for application in building materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Reijnders [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    Application of phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes in building materials has been limited by the presence of minor components that are hazardous, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated dioxins and heavy metals, or have a negative impact on product quality or production economics, such as phosphate, fluoride, carbon and chloride. Source reduction, destruction of persistent organics and separation techniques may reduce the concentrations of such components. With a few exceptions, separation techniques currently lead to significantly higher (private) costs. Higher waste disposal costs, tighter regulations and higher prices for competing virgin minerals could make the use of the purified phosphogypsum and ashes in building materials more attractive.

  6. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  7. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S. [Univ. of Newcastle (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with the shrinkage and electrical resistance measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to rapid rates of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples where therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity are then quantified and related to the shrinkage events and standard ash fusion temperatures.

  8. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenization, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms.

  9. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  10. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  11. Associative properties of {sup 137}Cs in biofuel ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1999-07-01

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash.

  12. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    the probe temperature did influence the composition of deposits for coals with medium ash deposition propensities. These results may indicate that coals with medium to high ash deposition propensities in existing boilers may cause increasing ash deposit formation in future boilers with higher steam...

  13. Ashes from fluidized bed combustion of residual forest biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, Nuno C.; Rodrigues, Sónia M.; Carvalho, Lina; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Romkens, Paul; Tarelho, Luís A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Although bottom ash (BA) [or mixtures of bottom and fly ash (FA)] from clean biomass fuels is currently used as liming agent, additive for compost, and fertilizer on agricultural and forest soils in certain European countries, in several other countries most of the ashes are currently disposed in la

  14. Oil ash corrosion; A review of utility boiler experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)); Seeley, R.R. (Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    In this paper a review of experience with oil ash corrosion is presented along with current design practices used to avoid excessive tube wastage. Factors influencing oil ash corrosion include fuel chemistry, boiler operation, and boiler design. These factors are interdependent and determine the corrosion behavior in utility boilers. Oil ash corrosion occurs when vanadium-containing ash deposits on boiler tube surfaces become molten. These molten ash deposits dissolve protective oxides and scales causing accelerated tube wastage. Vanadium is the major fuel constituent responsible for oil ash corrosion. Vanadium reacts with sodium, sulfur, and chlorine during combustion to produce lower melting temperature ash compositions, which accelerate tube wastage. Limiting tube metal temperatures will prevent ash deposits from becoming molten, thereby avoiding the onset of oil ash corrosion. Tube metal temperatures are limited by the use of a parallel stream flow and by limiting steam outlet temperatures. Operating a boiler with low excess air has helped avoid oil ash corrosion by altering the corrosive combustion products. Air mixing and distribution are essential to the success of this palliative action. High chromium alloys and coatings form more stable protective scaled on tubing surfaces, which result in lower oil ash corrosion rates. However, there is not material totally resistant to oil ash corrosion.

  15. The Rheology of Vegetative Ash-laden Debris Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Gabet, E.

    2006-12-01

    There is mounting observational evidence that vegetative ash created in a forest fire may play a major role in reducing infiltration and leads to the generation of debris flows on these burned hillslopes. A viscometer was used to measure the viscosity of ash slurries of varying concentrations, as well as slurries containing both fine- grained clastic sediment (sand and silt sized) and vegetative ash at varying concentrations. Initial results from these experiments indicate that increasing the concentration of ash increases effective viscosity of the slurry. Increasing the ash concentration by 5% increases the effective viscosity of the slurry by 10-50% over a range of shear rates. Also, ash-only slurries appear to shear thin with increasing shear rate at all concentrations. For example, with a 60% ash concentration, increasing the shear rate from 5/s to 40/s reduces the effective viscosity by 90%. For the mixed ash and fine-grained sediment slurries, increasing the percentage of ash relative to the percentage of clastic sediment dramatically increases the viscosity of the slurry even though the ash and finest-grained sediment are approximately the same size. A 50% concentration slurry containing only silt-sized clastic particles has a 40-70% lower effective viscosity than a slurry of the same concentration containing only ash particles. Therefore, the ash particles behave differently than clastic sediment particles.

  16. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  17. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  18. Observation of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Rozwadowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Markowicz, K.; Malinowski, S.; Kardas, A.; Posyniak, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2010-05-01

    The plume of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash has been identified over Poland using three instruments (two lidars and a ceilometer) stationed in two locations: Sopot in northern Poland and Warsaw in central-eastern Poland. The observations made it possible to establish the base of the ash layer. However ash concentration could not be determined.

  19. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    Bottom ash, the solid residue from electric power ... consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). In addition, it helps ... economic sense; they are often less costly than the materials they replace. (American Coal Ash ... and Kim and Lee (2011), observed a decrease in density due to the low specific gravity of the ash.

  20. Emerald ash borer biological control release and recovery guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli S. Gould; Leah S. Bauer; Jian. Duan

    2015-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle from Asia that feeds on ash trees, was discovered as the cause of extensive ash mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Canada in 2002. It is thought that this destructive pest was introduced in the early 1990's in infested solid wood packing material originating in Asia. Shortly after EAB was discovered in North...

  1. Product policies. characterization results ash by burning layer fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Neamtu, Ion; Achim, Marian Lucian

    2009-01-01

    By economical and at the same time ecological reasons, industrial refuses (ashes) are being transported in waste dumps like offal’s .To reduce the storage surfaces these offal’s are incinerated and results a new refuse - the ash.(Ex. paper factories, thermo power stations).It's very important to find solutions to turn to good account the ash.

  2. Evaluation of Pollutant Leaching Potential of Coal Ashes for Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, H.; Yoon, H.; Chung, D.

    2011-12-01

    By 2009, coal ashes produced from coal-based power plants in Korea have been reused as cement supplement materials; however, the rest is mostly disposed in landfills inside the plant properties. Continuous production of coal ashes and limited landfill sites require more recycles of coal ashes as base materials, specifically in constructions of roads and of huge industrial complex. Previous researches showed that coal ashes could contain various metals such as arsenic(As), chromium(Cr), lead(Pb), nickel(Ni), selenium(Se), etc. In this study, we collected four types of bottom ashes and two of fly ashes from four coal-based power plants. These ash samples were tested with distilled water through the column leaching process in oxidized conditions. The column test results were compared with those of total digestion, sequential extraction processes and TCLP. Concentrations of metals in outflows from columns are generally greater in fly ashes than in bottom ashes, specifically for As, Se, B, Sr and SO4. Only one fly ash (J2-F) shows high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in leachate. Sequential extraction results indicate that these metals are in readily soluble forms, such as adsorbed, carbonated, and reducible forms. Results of TCLP analysis indicate no potential contaminants leached from the ashes. In conclusion, recycling of coal combustion ashes could be encouraged with proper tests such as sequential and leaching experiments.

  3. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  4. Tritium transport modeling for breeding blanket: State of the art and strategy for future development in the EU fusion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito, Italo, E-mail: italo.ricapito@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, Luis [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The design of the Test Blanket Modules for ITER and the breeding blanket for DEMO requires robust and accurate modeling tools. Transport phenomena through the blanket tritium cycle are complex and involve a large number of physical properties and parameters, many of which have not been determined yet with a level of accuracy adequate for design optimization. Similarly, the use of simplified models with experimentally determined lumped coefficients allows satisfactory predictions only in very limited range of operative conditions, strongly reducing their potential to be relevant to the DEMO design. Within the European Union fusion program a road map to develop such modeling tools has been defined with the purpose of supporting the design of the ITER Tritium Blanket System and to exploit the TBM experimental testing for extrapolation to DEMO. The roadmap includes the development of the simulation tools as well as the supporting validation and verification experiments that must be carried out in parallel. This paper gives an overview of the state of the art of tritium modeling tools for blanket design, proposes a structure of the tritium modeling tools in order to facilitate their development and identifies a realistic work plan to achieve their final delivery.

  5. Progress in the integration of Test Blanket Systems in ITER equatorial port cells and in the interfaces definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal, R., E-mail: romain.pascal@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Beloglazov, S.; Bonagiri, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Commin, L. [CEA, IRFM, Cadarache (France); Cortes, P.; Giancarli, L.M.; Gliss, C.; Iseli, M.; Lanza, R.; Levesy, B.; Martins, J.-P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Neviere, J.-C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Comex-Nucleaire, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, L.; Plutino, D.; Shu, W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Swami, H.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design integration of two test blanket systems in ITER port cell is addressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of interfaces of TBSs with building and other ITER systems is done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designs of pipe forest, bioshield plug and ancillary equipment unit are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maintenance of the two test blanket systems in ITER port cell is considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The management of the heat and tritium releases in the TBM port cell is described. - Abstract: In the framework of the TBM Program, three ITER vacuum vessel equatorial ports (no. 16, no. 18 and no. 02) have been allocated for the testing of up to six mock-ups of six different DEMO tritium breeding blankets. Each one is called a Test Blanket System (TBS). A TBS consists mainly of the Test Blanket Module (TBM), the in-vessel component facing the plasma, and several ancillary systems, in particular the cooling system and the tritium extraction system. Each port accommodates two TBMs and therefore the two TBSs have to share the corresponding port cell. This paper deals with the design integration aspects of the two TBSs in each port cell performed at ITER Organization (IO) with the corresponding definition of interfaces with other ITER systems. The performed activities have raised several issues that are discussed in the paper and for which design solutions are proposed.

  6. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  8. Radar scattering mechanisms within the meteor crater ejecta blanket: Geologic implications and relevance to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Campbell, B. A.; Zisk, S. H.; Schaber, Gerald G.; Evans, C.

    1989-01-01

    Simple impact craters are known to occur on all of the terrestrial planets and the morphologic expression of their ejecta blankets is a reliable indicator of their relative ages on the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and most recently for Venus. It will be crucial for the interpretation of the geology of Venus to develop a reliable means of distinguishing smaller impact landforms from volcanic collapse and explosion craters, and further to use the observed SAR characteristics of crater ejecta blankets (CEB) as a means of relative age estimation. With these concepts in mind, a study was initiated of the quantitative SAR textural characteristics of the ejecta blanket preserved at Meteor Crater, Arizona, the well studied 1.2 km diameter simple crater that formed approx. 49,000 years ago from the impact of an octahedrite bolide. While Meteor Crater was formed as the result of an impact into wind and water lain sediments and has undergone recognizable water and wind related erosion, it nonetheless represents the only well studied simple impact crater on Earth with a reasonably preserved CEB. Whether the scattering behavior of the CEB can provide an independent perspective on its preservation state and style of erosion is explored. Finally, airborne laser altimeter profiles of the microtopography of the Meteor Crater CEB were used to further quantify the subradar pizel scale topographic slopes and RMS height variations for comparisons with the scattering mechanisms computed from SAR polarimetry. A preliminary assessment was summarized of the L-band radar scattering mechanisms within the Meteor Crater CEB as derived from a NASA/JPL DC-8 SAR Polarimetry dataset acquired in 1988, and the dominant scattering behavior was compared with microtopographic data (laser altimeter profiles and 1:10,000 scale topographic maps).

  9. Root secretion stimulating ash growth in larch-ash mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊民; 刘广平; 王晓水; 吴保国

    2000-01-01

    Allelopathic effect of larch (Larix gmelini ) on the ash growth (Fraximus mandshurica) was studied in artificial cultivation tests. The results revealed that the larch root secretion obviously stimulated the ash growth. In order to determine the main stimulation allelochemicals, the chemical composition was analyzed. By contrasting the contents of carbohydrate and aminoacid in root secretion of larch and ash, it was concluded that the carbohydrate and aminoacid were not important stimulation allelochemicals. The organic acid and other components in root secretion of larch and ash were analyzed by GC and GC-MS analysis. The sand culture tests were carried out with selected model compounds. The results showed that benzeneacetic acid, benzenepropionic acid and phenolic acids in root secretion of larch were the main stimulation allelochemicals.

  10. Mössbauer characterization of feed coal, ash and fly ash from a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A., E-mail: s.agustin.martinez@uptc.edu.co; Moreno Gutiérrez, M. [Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC, Grupo de Física Nuclear Aplicada y Simulación (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this work was apply {sup 57}Fe Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy at room temperature in order to study the occurrence of iron-containing mineral phases in: 1) feed coal; 2) coal ash, obtained in different stages of the ASTM D3174 standard method; and 3) fly ash, produced when coal is burned in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant localized in Boyacá, Colombia. According to obtained results, we can conclude the occurrence of pyrite and jarosite in the feed coal; Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} crystalline paramagnetic phases, superparamagnetic hematite and hematite in coal ash; Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} noncrystalline and crystalline phases, magnetite and hematite in fly ash. Precisely, for a basic understanding, this work discusses some the possible transformations that take place during coal combustion.

  11. Molecule-surface interaction processes of relevance to gas blanket type fusion device divertor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, K.J. [Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Tawara, H.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms which may lead to the departure of molecular species from surfaces exposed to low energy (0.1-100 eV) particle or photon and electron irradiation are reviewed. Where possible, the charge and electronic state, angular, translational and internal energy distributions of the departing molecules are described and the physical origin of the nature of those distributions identified. The consequences, for the departing molecules, of certain material choices become apparent from such an analysis. Such information may help guide the choice of appropriate materials for plasma facing components of gas-blanket type divertors such as that recently proposed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). (author). 71 refs.

  12. A helium-cooled blanket design of the low aspect ratio reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cerbone, R.; Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    An aggressive low aspect ratio scoping fusion reactor design indicated that a 2 GW(e) reactor can have a major radius as small as 2.9 m resulting in a device with competitive cost of electricity at 49 mill/kWh. One of the technology requirements of this design is a high performance high power density first wall and blanket system. A 15 MPa helium-cooled, V-alloy and stagnant LiPb breeder first wall and blanket design was utilized. Due to the low solubility of tritium in LiPb, there is the concern of tritium migration and the formation of V-hydride. To address these issues, a lithium breeder system with high solubility of tritium has been evaluated. Due to the reduction of blanket energy multiplication to 1.2, to maintain a plant Q of > 4, the major radius of the reactor has to be increased to 3.05 m. The inlet helium coolant temperature is raised to 436 C in order to meet the minimum V-alloy temperature limit everywhere in the first wall and blanket system. To enhance the first wall heat transfer, a swirl tape coolant channel design is used. The corresponding increase in friction factor is also taken into consideration. To reduce the coolant system pressure drop, the helium pressure is increased from 15 to 18 MPa. Thermal structural analysis is performed for a simple tube design. With an inside tube diameter of 1 cm and a wall thickness of 1.5 mm, the lithium breeder can remove an average heat flux and neutron wall loading of 2 and 8 MW/m(2), respectively. This reference design can meet all the temperature and material structural design limits, as well as the coolant velocity limits. Maintaining an outlet coolant temperature of 650 C, one can expect a gross closed cycle gas turbine thermal efficiency of 45%. This study further supports the use of helium coolant for high power density reactor design. When used with the low aspect ratio reactor concept a competitive fusion reactor can be projected at 51.9 mill/kWh.

  13. Establishment of design and fabrication technology and domestic qualification for ITER blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. D. (and others)

    2006-02-15

    To obtain and analyze the detailed design and manufacturing technology of the blanket system for each components, the related data are collected through the various sources. And also, design processes and results of the FWs, shield blocks, and TBMs are investigated. From these analysis of the blanket R and D status of each party, we develop the KO R and D plan and it is used in the selection of manufacturing method and the materials. For the ITA16-10 subtask1, we had the official agreement with ITER IT in December 2004 for the qualification of the FW panel fabrication methods and to establish the NDT methods for the FW panel. From the technical reports we published, we compare the manufacturing methods and the proposed material for each component according to the parties. Be is proposed as a plasma facing material and most parties have interest in S-65C. Cu alloy is proposed as a heat sink material and DSCu or CuCrZr are investigated now. For the structural material, stainless steel such as SS316L(N) is investigated internationally. HIP and brazing are proposed as the manufacturing methods. In order to establish the blanket system technology, design contents of shield block by ITER IT and other parties were investigated through participating the international workshop and meeting, dispatching the researcher to the ITER IT or other parties to collect the drafting and 3D modeling files. The modification items of blanket design were investigated and a researcher was dispatched in the ITER IT and participated in the analysis on cooling problem in shield block such as front header and drilled manifold. To investigate the development status of TBM, we participated the 14th TBWG meeting and proposed the KO HCSB and HCML as candidates. And also, we obtain the R and D results of other parties and make document about the R and D status of other parties for the TBM. Finally, we establish the KO TBM R and D plan and proposed it to ITER IT and other parties. In which, the

  14. Experimental facility for studying MHD effects in liquid metal cooled blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. B.; Picologlou, B. F.; Dauzvardis, P. V.

    The capabilities of a facility, brought into service to collect data on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, pertinent to liquid metal cooled fusion reactor blankets, are presented. The facility, design to extend significantly the existing data base on liquid metal MHD, employs eutectic NaK as the working fluid in a room temperature closed loop. The instrumentation system is capable of collecting detailed data on pressure, voltage, and velocity distributions at any axial position within the base of a 2 Tesla conventional magnet. The axial magnetic field distribution can be uniform or varying with either rapid or slow spatial variations.

  15. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF). Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1976--August 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, K.O. (ed.)

    1976-08-01

    The work performed was primarily concerned with the preparation of the experiments to be performed on the Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF) and the corresponding analysis. The work on the experimental program has been started. Since experiments are subject to safety constraints, a safety investigation program (for a hypothetically flooded facility) is reported. The neutronics part of the preanalysis is also reported. The testing of the first configuration has largely been prepared. The identification of the experiment need has been worked on extensively, largely through unsponsored research which had been started before the contract became effective. The work done in this area by other groups is being reviewed.

  16. Extracellular Polymers in Granular Sludge from Different Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    Thermal extraction was used to quantify extracellular polymers (ECP) in granules from anaerobic upflow reactors. The optimal time for extraction was determined as the time needed before the intracellular material gives a significant contribution to the extracted extracellular material due to cell...... of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor from a sugar-containing waste-water to a synthetic waste-water containing acetate, propionate and butyrate resulted in a decrease in both the protein and polysaccharide content and an increase in the lipid content of the extracellular material. Furthermore...

  17. Source water contributions and hydrologic responses to simulated emerald ash borer infestations in depressional black ash wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Van Grinsven; Joseph P. Shannon; Joshua C. Davis; Nicholas W. Bolton; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Randall K. Kolka; Thomas Grant Pypker

    2017-01-01

    Forested wetlands dominated by black ash (Fraxinus nigra) are currently threatened by the rapid expansion of the exotic emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America, and very little is known about the hydrology and ecology of black ash wetlands. The ecohydrological response of...

  18. Application of polymeric flocculant for enhancing settling of the pond ash particles and water drainage from hydraulically stowed pond ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mishra Devi Prasad; Das Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Delayed settling of the ash particles and poor drainage of water from the pond ash are the major problems faced during the hydraulic stowing of pond ash.In this study the effect of polymeric flocculant on settling of the ash particles and drainage of water during pond ash stowing are investigated.In addition,the parameters,viz.drainage and absorption of water during pond ash stowing are quantified by stowing a mine goaf model with pond ash slurries of five different concentrations added with and without flocculant.The study revealed that addition of only 5 × 10-6 of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Na-CMC)flocculant with the pond ash slurries during stowing offers best result in terms of quicker settling of the ash particles and enhanced water drainage from the hydraulically stowed pond ash.Besides,it resulted in drainage of more than 85% of the total water used in the initial 45 min of stowing.The improvement in drainage is caused due to coagulation and flocculation of the pond ash particles because of charge neutralization and particle-particle bridging.This study may provide a basis for estimating the drainage and absorption of water during the real pond ash stowing operation in underground mines.

  19. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  20. Lixiviation of fly ash. Uitloging van vliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The lixiviation of a number of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, As, Sb and Hg) from different fly ash products (fired and cement bounded products) is investigated. A theoretical description of diffusion from a fly ash product is given as well as a standard test to determine the lixiviation rate. Lixiviation can be interpreted as a diffusion process. Diffusion of an element X from a fly ash product can be described with the following parameters: the effective diffusion coefficient, the fraction that is available for lixiviation and the tortuosity of the product. The physical meaning of the determined tortuosity is not clear. The behavior of tracers in the product is compared with the behavior of the corresponding element. Often this behavior deviates, sometimes even considerably. From a comparison of fly ash products it appears that cement bounded products are better able to combine with arsenicum and antimony than fired products. None of the investigated products caused concentrations of micro-elements way above the stated norm. Improvement as for lixiviation behavior of the products seems to be possible, in particular for bricks. 8 refs., 17 tabs., 26 figs.

  1. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching con

  2. Climate change and the ash dieback crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberville, Eric; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Kirby, Richard R.; Piquot, Yves; Luczak, Christophe; Beaugrand, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the direct influence of climate change on species distribution and phenology, indirect effects may also arise from perturbations in species interactions. Infectious diseases are strong biotic forces that can precipitate population declines and lead to biodiversity loss. It has been shown in forest ecosystems worldwide that at least 10% of trees are vulnerable to extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated. In Europe, the emerging ash dieback disease caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, commonly called Chalara fraxinea, is causing a severe mortality of common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior); this is raising concerns for the persistence of this widespread tree, which is both a key component of forest ecosystems and economically important for timber production. Here, we show how the pathogen and climate change may interact to affect the future spatial distribution of the common ash. Using two presence-only models, seven General Circulation Models and four emission scenarios, we show that climate change, by affecting the host and the pathogen separately, may uncouple their spatial distribution to create a mismatch in species interaction and so a lowering of disease transmission. Consequently, as climate change expands the ranges of both species polewards it may alleviate the ash dieback crisis in southern and occidental regions at the same time. PMID:27739483

  3. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Also, fly ash has been found to be an efficient adsorbent for water treatment in the removal of ... properties for the removal of metal ions and organics; the residual sludge produced is used in ... investigate the reuse of the adsorbent for better economy of the process. ..... Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria to complete this article.

  4. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  5. Characterizing uncertainty in the motion, future location and ash concentrations of volcanic plumes and ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P.; Patra, A. K.; Bursik, M. I.; Pitman, E. B.; Dehn, J.; Singh, T.; Singla, P.; Stefanescu, E. R.; Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Jones, M.; Morton, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forecasting the location and airborne concentrations of volcanic ash plumes and their dispersing clouds is complex and knowledge of the uncertainty in these forecasts is critical to assess and mitigate the hazards that could exist. We show the results from an interdisciplinary project that brings together scientists drawn from the atmospheric sciences, computer science, engineering, mathematics, and geology. The project provides a novel integration of computational and statistical modeling with a widely-used volcanic particle dispersion code, to provide quantitative measures of confidence in predictions of the motion of ash clouds caused by volcanic eruptions. We combine high performance computing and stochastic analysis, resulting in real time predictions of ash cloud motion that account for varying wind conditions and a range of model variables. We show how coupling a real-time model for ash dispersal, PUFF, with a volcanic eruption model, BENT, allows for the definition of the variability in the dispersal model inputs and hence classify the uncertainty that can then propagate for the ash cloud location and downwind concentrations. We additionally analyze the uncertainty in the numerical weather prediction forecast data used by the dispersal model by using ensemble forecasts and assess how this affects the downwind concentrations. These are all coupled together and by combining polynomical chaos quadrature with stochastic integration techniques, we provide a quantitative measure of the reliability (i.e. error) of those predictions. We show comparisons of the downwind height calculations and mass loadings with observations of ash clouds available from satellite remote sensing data. The aim is to provide a probabilistic forecast of location and ash concentration that can be generated in real-time and used by those end users in the operational ash cloud hazard assessment environment.

  6. Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-05-01

    We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species.

  7. Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.

  8. Ash fusion temperatures and their association with the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilisation, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Creelman, R.A. [Creelman (R.A.) and Associates, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-04-01

    Ash deposition on furnace walls in PF (pulverized fuel) furnaces is called slagging when it occurs in the high temperature areas of furnaces directly exposed to flame radiation and fouling in other regions such as tubes in the convection section of the boiler. There are well documented shortcomings of certain approaches relating to their uncertainties as predictive tools for plant performance such as poor repeatability and re-producibility of ash fusion measurements. The nature of physical and chemical changes occurring during melting of coal ash has been investigated in the current study to provide an alternative procedure to the ash fusion test. Shrinkage measurements are frequently used in metallurgy and ceramic science to study the physical properties of materials at high temperatures. The output of this experiment provides three to four `peaks` (maximum rate of shrinkage with temperature) of different intensity and at different temperatures which are related to melting characteristics of the sample. It was concluded that shrinkage extents exceeding 50 percent indicated that the effect of the ash particle size is of secondary importance compared to ash chemistry in determining shrinkage levels, with fine particles giving rapid shrinkage events 10 degrees C lower in temperature. (author). 7 figs., refs.

  9. Analysis list: ash1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ash1 Cell line + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash1.1.t...sv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash...1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ash1.Cell_line.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml ...

  10. Analysis list: ash2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ash2 Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash2.1.tsv ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash...2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ash2.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  11. Analysis list: Ash2l [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ash2l Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash2l.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash2l.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash...2l.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ash2l.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  12. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  13. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  14. Leachability of municipal solid waste ashes in simulated landfill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta Y; Ohtsubo, Masami; Higashi, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Shinya; Morishita, Tomotaka

    2007-01-01

    In Japan the volume of municipal solid waste is reduced by incineration, with fly ash and bottom ash disposed in controlled landfills. The leachability of anions and heavy metal cations, Zn, Cu and Pb, from MSW fly ash and bottom ash at different pHs was examined using batch- and column-leaching tests. The MSW ashes had a high capacity for neutralizing acids. Behaviour during leaching depended on the pH of the solution. For the volumes applied, the leachabilities of MSW fly ash were very similar at pHs from 3 to 6. Due to its amphoteric nature, Pb is leachable at pHs of approximately 10 or more, with leachate concentrations of about 3 and 3-10mg/L for the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively, much higher than for Zn and Cu. Pb concentrations for most leaching solutions were 1 and 3mg/L for the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. Zn, and Cu leached at low concentrations for solutions of pH 3-6. Na and K ions leached at high concentrations of approximately 5000 mg/L in the first batch leaching test, decreasing to 10mg/L by the fourth leach. Ca and Mg ions leached more gradually than Na and K. Cl(-) and SO(4)(2+) ions were the major anions in the MSW ash. The high pH and cation leaching are expected to have negative impacts on the performance of clay liners.

  15. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    of advanced deposit probe measurements have been conducted on biomass powerplants. The measurements have provided insight into the relations between the chemical composition of fuel ash, fly ash and deposits. Furthermore the measurements have provided quantitative data on deposit formation rates as a function...... the interface to the steam tube metal surface. Especially an increased tube temperature makes it more demanding to remove the ash deposit. Modelling of the deposit formation process have been developed by combining sub-models of the ash formation process, the condensation of ash species on tube surfaces, ash...... particle deposition, heat transfer in the deposit and deposit sintering. The model mainly providesinformation on how changes in fuel ash composition and local conditions influences depositformation rate and deposit chemistry. Comparison of the modeling results with laboratory andfull scale data shows...

  16. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even...... be modeled relatively precisely. Concerning fly ash formation from biomass or waste fractions, the situation is not nearly as good. Lots of data are available from campaigns where different ash fractions, including sometimes also in-situ ash, have been collected and analyzed chemically and for particle size...... distribution. Thus, there is a good flair of the chemistry of fly ash formed in plants fired with biomass or waste fractions, either alone, or in conjunction with coal. But data on dedicated studies of the physical size development of fly ash, are almost non-existing for biomasses and waste fractions...

  17. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  18. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  19. Volcanic Ash fall Impact on Vegetation, Colima 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. G.; Martin, A.; Fonseca, R.; Nieto, A.; Radillo, R.; Armienta, M.

    2007-05-01

    An ash sampling network was established arround Colima Volcano in 2005. Ash fall was sampled on the North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest and West of the volcano. Samples were analyzed for ash components, geochemistry and leachates. Ash fall ocurred on April (12), May (10, 23), June (2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 14), July (27), September (27), October (23) and November (24). Most of the ash is made of andesitic dome-lithics but shows diferences in crystal, juvenile material and lithic content. In May, some samples contained grey and dark pumice (scoria). Texture varies from phi >4 to phi 0. Leachate concentration were low: SO4 (7.33-54.19) Cl- (2.29-4.97) and F- (0.16-0.37). During 2005, Colima Volcano's ash fall rotted some of the guava and peach fruits and had a drying effect on spearment and epazote plants. Even these small ash amounts could have hindered sugar cane and agave growth.

  20. Analyses of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Multilayer Insulation Blankets Retrieved After 19 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Perry, Bruce A.; Mohammed, Jelila S.; Banks, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has made many important observations from its vantage point in low Earth orbit (LEO). However, as seen during five servicing missions, the outer layer of multilayer insulation (MLI) has become increasingly embrittled and has cracked in many areas. In May 2009, during the 5th servicing mission (called SM4), two MLI blankets were replaced with new insulation and the space-exposed MLI blankets were retrieved for degradation analyses by teams at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The retrieved MLI blankets were from Equipment Bay 8, which received direct sunlight, and Equipment Bay 5, which received grazing sunlight. Each blanket was divided into several regions based on environmental exposure and/or physical appearance. The aluminized-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) outer layers of the retrieved MLI blankets have been analyzed for changes in optical, physical, and mechanical properties, along with chemical and morphological changes. Pristine and as-retrieved samples (materials) were heat treated to help understand degradation mechanisms. When compared to pristine material, the analyses have shown how the Al-FEP was severely affected by the space environment. Most notably, the Al-FEP was highly embrittled, fracturing like glass at strains of 1 to 8 percent. Across all measured properties, more significant degradation was observed for Bay 8 material as compared to Bay 5 material. This paper reviews the tensile and bend-test properties, density, thickness, solar absorptance, thermal emittance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental composition measurements, surface and crack morphologies, and atomic oxygen erosion yields of the Al-FEP outer layer of the retrieved HST blankets after 19 years of space exposure.

  1. Modeling calcium dissolution from oil shale ash: Part 1. Ca dissolution during ash washing in a batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O.; Kallas, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Hautaniemi, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Kuusik, R. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2010-05-15

    Batch dissolution experiments were carried out to investigate Ca leachability from oil shale ashes formed in boilers operating with different combustion technologies. The main characteristics of Ca dissolution equilibrium and dynamics, including Ca internal mass transfer through effective diffusion coefficients inside the ash particle were evaluated. Based on the collected data, models allowing simulation of the Ca dissolution process from oil shale ashes during ash washing in a batch reactor were developed. The models are a set of differential equations that describe the changes in Ca content in the solid and liquid phase of the ash-water suspension. (author)

  2. Summary report for ITER task - T68: MHD facility preparation for Li/V blanket option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the question of insulator coatings. Design calculations show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low MHD pressure drop. To enable experimental investigations of the MHD performance of candidate insulator materials and the technology for putting them in place, the room-temperature ALEX (Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment) NaK facility was upgraded to a 300{degrees}C lithium system. The objective of this upgrade was to modify the existing facility to the minimum extent necessary, consistent with providing a safe, flexible, and easy to operate MHD test facility which uses lithium at ITER-relevant temperatures, Hartmann numbers, and interaction parameters. The facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups. The system design description for this lithium upgrade of the ALEX facility is given in this document.

  3. Development of radiation hard components for ITER blanket remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makiko, E-mail: saito.makiko@jaea.go.jp; Anzai, Katsunori; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Ueno, Kenichi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Clarify the components that will degrade by gamma ray irradiation. • Perform the irradiation tests to BRHS components. • Optimize the materials to increase the radiation hardness. - Abstract: The ITER blanket remote handling system (BRHS) will be operated in a high radiation environment (250 Gy/h max.) and must stably handle the blanket modules, which weigh 4.5 t and are more than 1.5 m in length, with a high degree of position and posture accuracy. The reliability of the system can be improved by reviewing the failure events of the system caused by high radiation. A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) identified failure modes and determined that lubricants, O-rings, and electric insulation cables were the dominant components affecting radiation hardness. Accordingly, we tried to optimize the lubricants and cables of the AC servo motors by using polyphenyl ether (PPE)-based grease and polyether ether ketone (PEEK), respectively. Materials containing radiation protective agents were also selected for the cable sheaths and O-rings to improve radiation hardness. Gamma ray irradiation tests were performed on these components and as a result, a radiation hardness of 8 MGy was achieved for the AC servo motors. On the other hand, to develop the radiation hardness and BRHS compatibility furthermore, the improvement of materials of cable and O ring were performed.

  4. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  5. Improvement of Core Performance by Introduction of Moderators in a Blanket Region of Fast Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Wakabayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of deuteride moderator for fast reactor cores is proposed for power flattening that can mitigate thermal spikes and alleviate the decrease in breeding ratio, which sometimes occurs when hydrogen moderator is applied as a moderator. Zirconium deuteride is employed in a form of pin arrays at the inner most rows of radial blanket fuel assemblies, which works as a reflector in order to flatten the radial power distribution in the outer core region of MONJU. The power flattening can be utilized to increase core average burn-up by increasing operational time. The core characteristics have been evaluated with a continuous-energy model Monte Carlo code MVP and the JENDL-3.3 cross-section library. The result indicates that the discharged fuel burn-up can be increased by about 7% relative to that of no moderator in the blanket region due to the power flattening when the number of deuteride moderator pins is 61. The core characteristics and core safety such as void reactivity, Doppler coefficient, and reactivity insertion that occurred at dissolution of deuteron were evaluated. It was clear that the serious drawback did not appear from the viewpoints of the core characteristics and core safety.

  6. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuming, E-mail: Yuming.chen@kit.edu; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  7. A fail–safe and cost effective fabrication route for blanket First Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commin, L., E-mail: lorelei.commin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Zimmermann, H.; Bolich, D.; Baumgärtner, S.; Ziegler, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dichiser, S.; Fabry, T.; Fischer, S.; Hildebrand, W.; Palussek, O.; Ritz, H.; Sponda, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Technische Infrastruktur und Dienste (TID), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Helium Cooled Pebble Bed concepts have been selected as European Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER. The TBM fabrication will need the assembly of six Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel sub-components, namely First Wall, Caps, Stiffening Grid, Breeding Units, Back Plates/Manifolds, and Attachment system. The fabrication of the First Wall requires the production of cooling channels inside 30 mm thick bended plates. For this specific component, the main issues consist of the lack of accessibility of some areas to join, the process tolerances, the dimensional stability and the resulting assembly mechanical properties. Several fabrication routes have been already investigated, which involve diffusion welding and fusion welding (electron beam, laser beam, hybrid MIG/laser). In this study, an alternative processing method was developed, based on Hot Isostatic Pressing of inner pipes within two half-shells. This method presents some major advantages over the existing ones, in particular its inherent fail–safe design due to the application of the double containment principle, the solely use of cost effective standard fabrication processes and the resulting component dimensional stability. A four channel mock-up was fabricated and analyzed to validate the fabrication procedure. The joint quality was assessed using microstructural characterization and Charpy tests. The results confirm the predicted perfect weld lines as well as the preservation of the mechanical properties. Therefore, the presented fabrication procedure is very appropriate for the fabrication of First Walls for fusion reactor blankets.

  8. Feasibility study of a neutron activation system for EU test blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Calderoni, Pattrick [Fusion for Energy(F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Klix, Axel [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper summarizes the technical baseline and preliminary design of EU TBM Neutron Activation System, briefly describes the key components, and outlines the major integration challenges. - Abstract: The Neutron Activation System (NAS) for the EU Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) is an instrument that is proposed to determine the absolute neutron fluence and absolute neutron flux with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the corresponding Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). In the NAS activation probes are exposed to the ITER neutron flux for periods ranging from several tens of seconds up to a full plasma pulse length, and the induced gamma activities are subsequently measured. The NAS is composed of a pneumatic transfer system and a counting station. The pneumatic transfer system includes irradiation ends in TBMs, transfer pipes, return gas pipes, a transfer station with a distributor (carousel), and a pressurized gas driving system, while the counting station consists of gamma ray detectors, signal processing electronic devices, and data analyzing software for neutron source strength evaluation. In this paper, a brief description on the proposed TBM NAS as well as the key components is presented, and the integration challenges of TBM NAS are outlined.

  9. The feasibility study I on the blanket fuel options for the ATW/HYPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok; Meyer, M.K; Hayes, S.L

    2001-01-01

    The choice of a blanket fuel cycle technology and the fuel type for HYPER/ATW are important to develop an ADS with better economics, performance and safety. Even though several fuel types have been considered as an alternative of the blanket fuels for HYPER/ATW, the metal alloy and the dispersion fuels were selected as the candidate fuels for ADS, and the technical feasibilities for both fuels are evaluated in this report. General performance characteristics, fabrication abilities, technical aspects, safety aspects, economics, and non-proliferation aspects for each fuel type are reviewed and evaluated. And some technological problems are addressed in this report, focused on the development strategy, the roadmaps, and the flexibility to meet the missions and specific designs. This study has been performed at the first stage of conceptual design. Since it is under the lack of physical properties for each fuel material, no an attempt is made to select the best fuel option, but the more better fuel options are recommended.

  10. Octalithium plumbate as breeding blanket ceramic: Neutronic performances, synthesis and partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colominas, S., E-mail: sergi.colominas@iqs.es [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Palermo, I., E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Ros, J.M., E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J., E-mail: jsanz@ind.uned.es [UNED, Department of Nuclear Energy, c./Juan del Rosal 12, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sedano, L., E-mail: luis.sedano@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of a suitable configuration for the Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} breeding blanket design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of the feasibility of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} as a breeding material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis optimization in the Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} by X-ray phase analysis is discussed. - Abstract: A neutronic assessment of the performances of a helium-cooled Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} breeding blanket (BB) for the conceptual design of a DEMO fusion reactor is given. Different BB configurations have been considered in order to minimize the amount of beryllium required for neutron multiplication, including the use of graphite as reflector material. The calculated neutronic responses: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), power deposition in TF coils and power amplification factor, indicate the feasibility of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} as breeding material. Furthermore, the synthesis and characterization of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} by X-ray phase analysis are also discussed.

  11. Application Effect’s Research of Vetiver Eco Blanket in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the ecological disasters in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone, ecological blanket governance model is proposed in this paper, which may provide good early environment for plants’ survival in fluctuation zone, and then play the function of greening and sustainable development to ensure the slopes’ stability. Meanwhile, based on the result of vetiver ecological blanket in Hanyuan experimental zone, we find that three kinds of typical Fluctuating Zone slope’s greening effect is good, which includes the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope, and it gets an average coverage of 90.3 % as well as good strength. Due to the different geological conditions, the ecological blankets’ governance effect differs from slope to slope. Using analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight, we get the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope’s weights are 0.41, 0.17, 0.42, respectively, namely, the dirt piling up slope and the gravel piling up slope have good results overall, followed by the whole lump of rock slope.

  12. Fusion-Driven Sub-Critical Dual-Cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket:Design and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weihua(汪卫华); Wu Yican(吴宜灿); Ke Yan(柯严); Kang Zhicheng(康志诚); Wang Hongyan(王红艳); Huang Qunying(黄群英)

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is one of the Chinese programs to be further developed for fusion application. Its Dual-cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket (DWTB),as one the most important part of the FDS is cooled by helium and liquid metal, and have the features of safety, tritium self-sustaining, high efficiency and feasibility. Its conceptual design has been finished. This paper is mainly involved with the basic structure design and thermalhydraulics analysis of DWTB. On the basis of a three-dimensional (3-D) model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal temperature gradients and structure analysis made with a comprehensive finite element method (FEM) have been performed with the computer code ANSYS5.7 and computational fluid dynamic finite element codes. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating condition of an outboard blanket segment. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions have been also taken into account.All the above loads have been combined as an input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated. Finally, the structure design and Pb-17Li flow velocity has been optimized according to the calculations and analysis.

  13. Fabrication of ITER Semi-Prototype Blanket First Wall for the Final Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jeong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Kwon; Lee, Don Won; Kim, Duck Hoi; Cho, Seung Yon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The ITER semi-prototype was designed to qualify the manufacturing technology for the ITER blanket first wall. According to the design of the semi-prototype, its fabrication is expected to face great difficulty. The blanket first wall consists of three different materials, i.e., beryllium (Be), CuCrZr, and stainless-steel (SS), which are joined into one part. For fabrication of these multi-layered structures, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), which is one of the diffusion bonding methods, has been considered as a promising technology to realize sufficient mechanical integrity of a joint under the anticipated high neutron and stress fields. HIP provides high dimensional accuracy, low residual stress during the joining process, and the joining of three-dimensionally complex structures in comparison with other joining methods. Even though the joining technology for the different materials had been developed in the first stage of the qualification, the joining is still a key issue for the fabrication of the semi-prototype

  14. Stellar model atmospheres with magnetic line blanketing. II. Introduction of polarized radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, S A

    2006-01-01

    The technique of model atmosphere calculation for magnetic Ap and Bp stars with polarized radiative transfer and magnetic line blanketing is presented. A grid of model atmospheres of A and B stars are computed. These calculations are based on direct treatment of the opacities due to the bound-bound transitions that ensures an accurate and detailed description of the line absorption and anomalous Zeeman splitting. The set of model atmospheres was calculated for the field strengths between 1 and 40 kG. The high-resolution energy distribution, photometric colors and the hydrogen Balmer line profiles are computed for magnetic stars with different metallicities and are compared to those of non-magnetic reference models and to the previous paper of this series. The results of modelling confirmed the main outcomes of the previous study: energy redistribution from UV to the visual region and flux depression at 5200A. However, we found that effects of enhanced line blanketing when transfer for polarized radiation take...

  15. Comparison of emerald ash borer preference for ash of different species, sun exposure, age, and stress treatments in relation to foliar volatiles and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Yigen Chen

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the host selection behavior and feeding preference of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on six different species of ash including Manchurian ash (F...

  16. Properties and Technology for Quasi-Composite Blanket Using Natural Reinforcement of the Metal by Strain Affected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirichek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for making materials with advanced performance attributes at the expense of blanket heterogeneous strengthening are considered. A new trend is defined in a multiple increase of performance attributes in metal materials by natural reinforcement with nanostructural and ultra-fine-grained fragments. The application of a wave strain hardening technique is substantiated for obtaining a heterogeneous structure in wide-area listed full-size products including bulky ones. A high carrying capacity of heavy-loaded material with a deep-strengthened blanket is determined.

  17. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 2: with Beam Shutdown Only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. This report documents the results of simulations of a Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) where power is lost to all of the pumps that circulate water in the blanket region, the accelerator beam is shut off and neither the residual heat removal nor cavity flood systems operate.

  18. ITER Blanket First Wall (WBS 1.6{sub 1}A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kim, H. G.; Kim, J. H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is the international collaboration one for the commercialization of nuclear fusion energy through the technical and engineering verification. In ITER project, we plan to procure the blanket systems which has the risk of technology and cost when it is newly developed. We are developing the manufacturing process and joining technology for the ITER blanket to complete the procurement with qualified blanket system. To evaluate the soundness of manufacturing process, specimen and mock-up tests are being prepared. Finally, we can obtain the key technology of nuclear fusion reactor especially on the blanket design, joining and manufacturing technology through the present project and these technologies will help the construction of Korea fusion DEMO reactor and the development of commercial nuclear fusion reactor in Korea. In 1st year, through the fabrication of the Cu/SS and Be/Cu joint specimen, fabrication procedure such as material preparation, canning, degassing, HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), PHHT (Post HIP heat treatment) was established. The optimized HIP conditions (1050 .deg. C, 150 MPa, 2 hr for Cu/SS and 580 - 620 .deg. C, 100-150 MPa, 2 hr for Be/Cu) were developed through the investigation on joint specimen fabricated with the various HIP conditions; the destructive tests of joint and NDT such as UT (10 MHz, 0.25 inch D, flat type) and ECT. Several mock-ups were fabricated for confirming the joint integrity and NDT. specimens fabricated with these mock-ups were used in mechanical tests including microstructure observation. The mock-ups were used in the HHF test after the developed NDT. In 2nd year, PHHT of Cu was investigated in order to recover its mechanical properties, and the pre-qualification mock-up were fabricated against the Qualification Program and sent to RF for HHF testing in TSEFEY. FW fabrication and joining procedure were documented in the form of the TSD. Qualification mock

  19. Geomorphological control of water tables in a blanket peat landscape: implications for carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Tim; Evans, Martin; Lindsay, John; Agnew, Clive; Freer, Jim

    2010-05-01

    Water tables are an important control on carbon cycling and rates of carbon sequestration in peatland systems, and water table depth is therefore a key parameter in carbon models for blanket peat systems. Although there is a wide literature on blanket peat hydrology, including studies which specifically evaluate water table conditions, detailed data on water table behaviour and variability at the landscape scale are sparse. In particular, many British blanket peats are affected by gully erosion and this has been generally assumed to influence water table conditions. However, there has been limited evaluation of this geomomorphological control on peatland water tables. This paper presents results from a project which evaluated water table conditions in the blanket peatlands of the Peak District National Park, UK. A key aim was to quantify the impact of gully erosion on peatland water tables. A detailed programme of water table monitoring was undertaken during 2008/09, involving regular measurements of water table depth in over 530 dipwells at 19 sites across the 47 km2 peatland landscape of the Kinder Scout / Bleaklow area. This included a campaign of regular, simultaneous water table measurements from clusters of dipwells at the main sites, supplemented by continuous (hourly) water table monitoring in selected dipwells. It also included studies to evaluate within-site variation in water table conditions and local water table drawdown effects associated with gully erosion. Results indicate that gully erosion causes water table drawdown through two distinct processes. The first is local water table drawdown immediately adjacent to erosion gullies. This effect is restricted to a zone within 2 m of gully edges, and water tables within the gully edge drawdown zone are approximately 200 mm lower than in the adjacent peatland. The second effect is a more general water table lowering at eroded sites, with median water table depths at heavily eroded sites up to 300 mm lower

  20. Mapping ash properties using principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Ubeda, Xavier; Novara, Agata; Francos, Marcos; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesus; Bogunovic, Igor; Khaledian, Yones

    2017-04-01

    In post-fire environments ash has important benefits for soils, such as protection and source of nutrients, crucial for vegetation recuperation (Jordan et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2015a; 2016a,b). The thickness and distribution of ash are fundamental aspects for soil protection (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015b) and the severity at which was produced is important for the type and amount of elements that is released in soil solution (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash is very mobile material, and it is important were it will be deposited. Until the first rainfalls are is very mobile. After it, bind in the soil surface and is harder to erode. Mapping ash properties in the immediate period after fire is complex, since it is constantly moving (Pereira et al., 2015b). However, is an important task, since according the amount and type of ash produced we can identify the degree of soil protection and the nutrients that will be dissolved. The objective of this work is to apply to map ash properties (CaCO3, pH, and select extractable elements) using a principal component analysis (PCA) in the immediate period after the fire. Four days after the fire we established a grid in a 9x27 m area and took ash samples every 3 meters for a total of 40 sampling points (Pereira et al., 2017). The PCA identified 5 different factors. Factor 1 identified high loadings in electrical conductivity, calcium, and magnesium and negative with aluminum and iron, while Factor 3 had high positive loadings in total phosphorous and silica. Factor 3 showed high positive loadings in sodium and potassium, factor 4 high negative loadings in CaCO3 and pH, and factor 5 high loadings in sodium and potassium. The experimental variograms of the extracted factors showed that the Gaussian model was the most precise to model factor 1, the linear to model factor 2 and the wave hole effect to model factor 3, 4 and 5. The maps produced confirm the patternd observed in the experimental variograms. Factor 1 and 2