Supervisory Control Strategy Development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary D Storrick; Bojan Petrovic
2007-01-01
Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions
Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, A; Bindner, H; Lundsager, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)
1999-03-01
Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)
Supervisory Control and Court Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Lienhard
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Court management is an essential precondition for guaranteeing the adjudication of cases. At the same time, court administration is the key focus of supervisory control. Management instruments and structures, caseload management and other elements of quality assurance including the certification of judicial authorities must therefore be accorded considerable constitutional importance.
Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos Pereira, A. de
2000-06-01
The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)
Decision support in supervisory control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmussen, J.; Goodstein, L.P.
1985-08-01
It is argued that the supervisory control of complex industrial processes having a potential for serious consequences in case of accidents requires careful consideration of the allocation of decision making between the three main agents of control; namely the designer, the operator and the automatic control system. In particular, it is advocated that instead of continuing their efforts to make their preplanning of responses and countermeasures more and more complete and restricting the operator's initiative, designers should take advantage of modern information technology to make available to the operators their conceptual models and their processing resources so as to allow the operators to function as their extended arm in coping with the plant. Such an interactive decision making activity would thus benefit from this simultaneous availability of the design basis, up-to-date knowledge of plant status and accumualted operational experience. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dae-Jin Kim
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A programmable direct current (DC power supply with Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS-based photovoltaic (PV Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL simulators has been used to improve the control algorithm and reliability of a PV inverter. This paper proposes a supervisory control algorithm for a PV PHIL simulator with a non-RTDS device that is an alternative solution to a high-cost PHIL simulator. However, when such a simulator with the conventional algorithm which is used in an RTDS is connected to a PV inverter, the output is in the transient state and it makes it impossible to evaluate the performance of the PV inverter. Therefore, the proposed algorithm controls the voltage and current target values according to constant voltage (CV and constant current (CC modes to overcome the limitation of the Computing Unit and DC power supply, and it also uses a multi-rate system to account for the characteristics of each component of the simulator. A mathematical model of a PV system, programmable DC power supply, isolated DC measurement device, and Computing Unit are integrated to form a real-time processing simulator. Performance tests are carried out with a commercial PV inverter and prove the superiority of this proposed algorithm against the conventional algorithm.
Supervisory, hierarchical control for a multimodular ALMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.
1989-01-01
This paper describes the directions and present status of research in supervisory control for multimodular nuclear plants at ORNL as part of DOE's advanced controls program ACTO. The hierarchical supervisory structure envisioned for a PRISM-like supervisor closest to the process actuators and how it has actually been implemented for demonstration in a network of CPU's is presented next. Two demonstrations of supervisory control with an expert system are also described, one for control of a plant with a single reactor and turbine, the other for control of a plant with three reactors and one turbine. An appendix contains the mathematical basis for the novel approach to large scale system decomposition we have used in the demonstrations of supervisory distributed control of the single reactor plant. 6 refs., 5 figs
Migration of supervisory machine control architectures
Graaf, B.; Weber, S.; Deursen, van A.; Nord, R.; Medvidovic, N.; Krikhaar, R.; Stafford, J.; Bosch, J.
2005-01-01
In this position paper, we discuss a first step towards an approach for the migration of supervisory machine control (SMC) architectures. This approach is based on the identification of SMC concerns and the definition of corresponding transformation rules.
Automatic synthesis of supervisory control systems
Najafi, E.
2016-01-01
Sequential composition is an effective supervisory control method for addressing control problems in nonlinear dynamical systems. It executes a set of controllers sequentially to achieve a control specification that cannot be realized by a single controller. Sequential composition focuses on the
Development of intelligent supervisory control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takizawa, Y.; Fukumoto, A.; Makino, M.; Takiguchi, S.
1994-01-01
The objective of the development of an intelligent supervisory control system for next generation plants is enhancement of the operational reliability by applying the recent outcome of artificial intelligence and computer technologies. This system consists of the supervisory control and monitoring for automatic operation, the equipment operation support for historical data management and for test scheduling, the operators' decision making support for accidental plant situations and the human-friendly interface of these support functions. The verification test results showed the validity of the functions realized by this system for the next generation control room. (author)
Supervisory control synthesis for a waterway lock
Reijnen, F.F.H.; Goorden, M.A.; van de Mortel - Fronczak, J.M.; Rooda, J.E.
2017-01-01
Formal methods help in coping with the growing functionality and complexity, time-to-market and costs in cyber-physical systems (CPSs). Supervisory control synthesis (SCS) is such a method. It can be used to synthesize a controller for a CPS from the uncontrolled system model (plant) and the
Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Morten
1999-01-01
This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...
A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.
1994-01-01
This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment
A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.
1994-01-01
This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While, the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengqi Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new energy management system based on equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS for hybrid electric vehicles. The aim is to enhance fuel economy and impose state of charge (SoC charge-sustainability. First, the relationship between the equivalent factor (EF of ECMS and the co-state of pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP is derived. Second, a new method of implementing the adaptation law using fuzzy proportional plus integral (PI controller is developed to adjust EF for ECMS in real-time. This adaptation law is more robust than one with constant EF due to the variation of EF as well as driving cycle. Finally, simulations for two driving cycles using ECMS are conducted as opposed to the commonly used rule-based (RB control strategy, indicating that the proposed adaptation law can provide a promising blend in terms of fuel economy and charge-sustainability. The results confirm that ECMS with Fuzzy PI adaptation law is more robust than ECMS with constant EF as well as PI adaptation law and it achieves significant improvements compared with RB in terms of fuel economy, which is enhanced by 4.44% and 14.7% for china city bus cycle and economic commission of Europe (ECE cycle, respectively.
Supervisory control software for MFTF neutral beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodruff, J.P.
1981-01-01
We describe the software structures that control the operation of MFTF Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supplies (SNBPS). These components of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) comprise ten distinct tasks that exist in the SCDS system environment. The codes total about 16,000 lines of commented Pascal code and occupy 240 kbytes of memory. The controls have been running since March 1981, and at this writing are being integrated to the Local Control System and to the power supply Pulse Power Module Controller
Supervisory control of drilling of composite materials
Ozaki, Motoyoshi
Composite materials have attractive features, such as high ratios of strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight. However, they are easily damaged when they are machined. A typical damage is delamination, which can occur when fiber reinforced composite laminates are drilled. The objective of this research is to study the drilling processes of carbon fiber reinforced laminates, and to develop and test a supervisory control strategy for their delamination-free drilling. Characterization of thrust force and torque is achieved through constant feedrate drilling experiments. The average values of thrust force and torque during the full engagement of the drill are utilized to obtain the Shaw's equations' parameters. The thrust force profile just before exit is given special attention. The Hocheng-Dharan equations, which give conservative values of delamination at the entrance and at the exit, are modified to express the influence of one lamina thickness explicitly. They are utilized not only for the characterization of thrust force but also for the determination of the thrust force reference for force control. In the design of the controllers of thrust force and torque, both thrust force and torque are assumed to be proportional to FPHR (Feed Per Half Revolution). A discrete-time dynamic model is established for the case when the time interval for a half revolution of the drill is divided by the sampling time, and the model is extended to the case of general spindle speeds. PI controllers are designed for the dynamic models of thrust force and torque. Root-locus techniques are used in the analysis. The phases of the drilling process are introduced and the control strategy at each phase is explained. The supervisory controller chooses not only the best control strategy for each phase, but also the reference value and the controller gain that are suitable at each drill position. Drilling experiments are conducted to show the usefulness of the concepts introduced in this
The Davros III supervisory control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rice, P.
1996-01-01
Magnox Electric's Remote Operations Branch deploy a wide variety of remote inspection and maintenance tools into nuclear plant in order to perform a variety of tasks. In recent years much progress has been made on low-level control of individual manipulator axes, and a parallel need has emerged for a supervisory system to assist the operator in the control of the whole system. Some requirements are: 1) to improve operator control of systems; 2) to simplify software maintenance and version control; 3) to reduce the likelihood of damage to manipulators; 4) to assist with rehearsals and simulations. Davros III is a PC software system which has been developed over a number of years to address these requirements. In a single program capable of being configured for a wide variety of applications, it provides a technique for following pretaught routes, a comprehensive and fully configurable interlock system and several different facilities for simulation. (author)
The Davros III supervisory control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rice, P.
1996-01-01
Magnox Electric's Remote Operations Bbranch deploy a wide variety of remote inspection and maintenance tools into nuclear plant in order to perform a variety of tasks. In recent years much progress has been made on low-level control of individual manipulator axes and a parallel need has emerged for a supervisory system to assist the operator in the control of the whole system. Some requirements are: 1, To improve operator control of systems. 2, To simplify software maintenance and version control. 3, To reduce the likelihood of damage to manipulators. 4, To assist with rehearsals and simulations. Davros III is a PC software system which has been developed over a number of years to address these requirements. In a single program capable of being configured for a wide variety of applications, it provides a technique for following pretaught routes, a comprehensive and fully configurable interlock system and several different facilities for simulation. (author)
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Iacob
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents practical laboratories for teaching purpose in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems. A SCADA system is described in terms of architecture, process interfaces, functionality, and application development facilities. These concepts are implemented on an integrated automation system, particularly for digital control of electric drives with a distributed peripheral, i.e., Totally Integrated Automation with Democase from Siemens. Using this system, a wide range of applications can be designed, implemented and tested. A practical labs set is presented to introduce gradually the main SCADA elements, and finally to develop an application to control an induction motor in interlocked manual/automatic mode, with touch-screen Human Machine Interface (HMI. The system employs industrial busses like PROFIBus and industrial Ethernet. The SCADA system also shows trends, alarms, motor frequency and automatic sequence of motor speed profile.
MFTF supervisory control and diagnostics system hardware
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butner, D.N.
1979-01-01
The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a multiprocessor minicomputer system designed so that for most single-point failures, the hardware may be quickly reconfigured to provide continued operation of the experiment. The system is made up of nine Perkin-Elmer computers - a mixture of 8/32's and 7/32's. Each computer has ports on a shared memory system consisting of two independent shared memory modules. Each processor can signal other processors through hardware external to the shared memory. The system communicates with the Local Control and Instrumentation System, which consists of approximately 65 microprocessors. Each of the six system processors has facilities for communicating with a group of microprocessors; the groups consist of from four to 24 microprocessors. There are hardware switches so that if an SCDS processor communicating with a group of microprocessors fails, another SCDS processor takes over the communication
Model-Based Engineering of Supervisory Controllers using CIF
Schiffelers, R.R.H.; Theunissen, R.J.M.; Beek, van D.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Levendovsky, T.; Lengyel, L.
2009-01-01
In the Model-Based Engineering (MBE) paradigm, models are the core elements in the design process of a system from its requirements to the actual implementation of the system. By means of Supervisory Control Theory (SCT), supervisory controllers (supervisors) can be synthesized instead of
Supervisory control for a complex robotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D.J.
1988-01-01
The Robotic Radiation Survey and Analysis System investigates the use of advanced robotic technology for performing remote radiation surveys on nuclear waste shipping casks. Robotic systems have the potential for reducing personnel exposure to radiation and providing fast reliable throughput at future repository sites. A primary technology issue is the integrated control of distributed specialized hardware through a modular supervisory software system. Automated programming of robot trajectories based upon mathematical models of the cask and robot coupled with sensory feedback enables flexible operation of a commercial gantry robot with the reliability needed to perform autonomous operations in a hazardous environment. Complexity is managed using structured software engineering techniques resulting in the generation of reusable command primitives which contribute to a software parts catalog for a generalized robot programming language
Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System Distributed Operating System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGoldrick, P.R.
1979-01-01
This paper contains a description of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) Distributed Operating System. The SCDS consists of nine 32-bit minicomputers with shared memory. The system's main purpose is to control a large Mirror Fusion Test Facility
Supervisory control system implemented in programmable logical controller web server
Milavec, Simon
2012-01-01
In this thesis, we study the feasibility of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system realisation in a web server of a programmable logic controller. With the introduction of Ethernet protocol to the area of process control, the more powerful programmable logic controllers obtained integrated web servers. The web server of a programmable logic controller, produced by Siemens, will also be described in this thesis. Firstly, the software and the hardware equipment used for real...
A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles
2013-09-01
Autonomous Vehicles Joseph DiVita, PhD Robert L. Morris Maria Olinda Rodas SSC Pacific Approved...298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 09–2013 Final A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles Joseph...Mission Area: Command and Control, Queueing Model; Supervisory Control; Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles M. O. Rodas U U U U 38 (619)
Scale Transformations and Information Presentation in Supervisory Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Johannes; May, Michael
2006-01-01
It is commonly accepted that designers of supervisory control systems cannot comprehensively anticipate operators' information needs. In order to compensate the lack between the information presented by the Supervisory control system and the information needed, operators tailor the information...... presentation. Currently, there is a lack of theoretical understanding of tailoring activities and hence fundamental principles for the design of Supervisory control systems that support tailoring activities in a systematic manner. Any data being presented to the operator is oil one of the four different scale...... the paper proposes systematic principles for operator-initiated adaptation of the interpretation of system properties as presented by the supervisory control system. The value of the approach is illustrated by means of examples. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Review of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reva Nickelson; Briam Johnson; Ken Barnes
2004-01-01
A review using open source information was performed to obtain data related to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used to supervise and control domestic electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. This report provides the technical details for the types of systems used, system disposal, cyber and physical security measures, network connections, and a gap analysis of SCADA security holes.
Process theory for supervisory control of stochastic systems with data
Markovski, J.
2012-01-01
We propose a process theory for supervisory control of stochastic nondeterministic plants with data-based observations. The Markovian process theory with data relies on the notion of Markovian partial bisimulation to capture controllability of stochastic nondeterministic systems. It presents a
Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Cole, Daniel L [University of Pittsburgh; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL
2013-08-01
This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.
Supervisory Control Technique For An Assembly Workstation As A Dynamic Discrete Event System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Cristina CERNEGA
2001-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a control problem statement in the framework of supervisory control technique for the assembly workstations. A desired behaviour of an assembly workstation is analysed. The behaviour of such a workstation is cyclic and some linguistic properties are established. In this paper, it is proposed an algorithm for the computation of the supremal controllable language of the closed system desired language. Copyright © 2001 IFAC.
Predictive Models of Procedural Human Supervisory Control Behavior
2011-01-01
821708, Brest , France. Page 139 of 150 Boussemart, Y. and M. L. Cummings (2010). "Predicting Supervisory Control Behavior with Hidden Markov Models...Strategies for Strike Planning. COGIS 2006 - Cognitive Systems with Interactive Sensors, Paris . Burges, C. (1998). "A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines
Supervisory control of (max,+) automata: extensions towards applications
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lahaye, S.; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, J.-L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 88, č. 12 (2015), s. 2523-2537 ISSN 0020-7179 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete event systems * logical and time d behaviors * (max,+) automata * supervisory control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00207179.2015.1048295
Supervisory control of (max,+) automata: extensions towards applications
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lahaye, S.; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, J.-L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 88, č. 12 (2015), s. 2523-2537 ISSN 0020-7179 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete event systems * logical and timed behaviors * (max,+) automata * supervisory control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00207179.2015.1048295
Supervisory Control of (max,+) automata: a behavioral approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Komenda, Jan; Lahaye, S.; Boimond, J.-L.
2009-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 4 (2009), s. 525-549 ISSN 0924-6703 Grant - others:EU Projekt(XE) EU.ICT.DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : timed discrete-event systems * supervisory control * formal power series * (max,+) * automata Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2009
Development of an Automated Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2014-09-01
This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) Research and Development Program of the US Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular AdvSMR plants. This research activity advances the state of the art by incorporating real-time, probabilistic-based decision-making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides background information on the state of the art of automated decision-making, including the description of existing methodologies. It then presents a description of a generalized decision-making framework, upon which the supervisory control decision-making algorithm is based. The probabilistic portion of automated decision-making is demonstrated through a simple hydraulic loop example.
Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems
Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.
2004-01-01
This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.
International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control
Johannsen, Gunnar
1976-01-01
This book includes all papers presented at the International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held at Berchtesgaden, Federal Republic of Germany, March 8-12, 1976. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn. We believe the book constitutes an important and timely status report on monitoring behavior and supervisory control by human operators of complex man-machine systems in which the computer is sharing key functions with the man. These systems include aircraft and other vehicles, nuclear and more conventional power plants, and processes for the manu facture of chemicals, petroleum, and discrete parts. By "monitoring" we mean the systematic observation by a human operator of mul tiple sources of information, e. g. , ranging from integrated display consoles to disparate "live situations". The monitor's purpose is to determine whether operations are norm...
Complexity of verifying nonblockingness in modular supervisory control
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Masopust, Tomáš
2018-01-01
Roč. 63, č. 2 (2018), s. 602-607 ISSN 0018-9286 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonblockingness * modular supervisory control * complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 4.270, year: 2016 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7979596/
Supervisory Control Information Management Research (SCIMR)
2013-06-01
signal was a truck icon that was slightly larger than the non-critical signal (110 pixels vs . 100 pixels). All signals occurred in one of 6 fixed...joint terminal area controller (JTAC) who was equipped with a small hand-held computer (similar to an Apple iPad) that can only consume one video at a...desktop monitor and mouse, this study will be conducted on the mobile, touch-operated Samsung Slate. Discussion The hypothesis for this experiment
Discrete Event Supervisory Control Applied to Propulsion Systems
Litt, Jonathan S.; Shah, Neerav
2005-01-01
The theory of discrete event supervisory (DES) control was applied to the optimal control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system and demonstrated in a simulation. The supervisory control, which is implemented as a finite-state automaton, oversees the behavior of a system and manages it in such a way that it maximizes a performance criterion, similar to a traditional optimal control problem. DES controllers can be nested such that a high-level controller supervises multiple lower level controllers. This structure can be expanded to control huge, complex systems, providing optimal performance and increasing autonomy with each additional level. The DES control strategy for propulsion systems was validated using a distributed testbed consisting of multiple computers--each representing a module of the overall propulsion system--to simulate real-time hardware-in-the-loop testing. In the first experiment, DES control was applied to the operation of a nonlinear simulation of a turbofan engine (running in closed loop using its own feedback controller) to minimize engine structural damage caused by a combination of thermal and structural loads. This enables increased on-wing time for the engine through better management of the engine-component life usage. Thus, the engine-level DES acts as a life-extending controller through its interaction with and manipulation of the engine s operation.
Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles.
Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie
2007-02-01
This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.
Design of Multiregional Supervisory Fuzzy PID Control of pH Reactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shebel AlSabbah
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work concerns designing multiregional supervisory fuzzy PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative control for pH reactors. The proposed work focuses, mainly, on two themes. The first one is to propose a multiregional supervisory fuzzy-based cascade control structure. It would enable modifying dynamics and enhance system’s stability. The fuzzy system (master loop has been chosen as a tuner for PID controller (slave loop. It takes into consideration parameters uncertainties and reference tracking. The second theme concerns designing a hybrid neural network-based pH estimator. The proposed estimator would overcome the industrial drawbacks, that is, cost and size, found with conventional methods for pH measurement. The final end-user-interface (EUI front panel and the results that evaluate the performance of the supervisory fuzzy PID-based control system and hybrid NN-based estimator have been presented using the compatibility found between LabView and MatLab. They lead to conclude that the proposed algorithms are appropriate to systems nonlinearities encountered with pH reactors.
Automatic Generation of Supervisory Control System Software Using Graph Composition
Nakata, Hideo; Sano, Tatsuro; Kojima, Taizo; Seo, Kazuo; Uchida, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yasuaki
This paper describes the automatic generation of system descriptions for SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems. The proposed method produces various types of data and programs for SCADA systems from equipment definitions using conversion rules. At first, this method makes directed graphs, which represent connections between the equipment, from equipment definitions. System descriptions are generated using the conversion rules, by analyzing these directed graphs, and finding the groups of equipment that involve similar operations. This method can make the conversion rules multi levels by using the composition of graphs, and can reduce the number of rules. The developer can define and manage these rules efficiently.
Extended supervisory control of Peirce-Smith converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjiski, Mincho; Boshnakov, Kosta
2014-01-01
In this paper some problems of the tight integration of the Process Control (PC) and Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) are considered in the creation of a supervised control system for Peirce-Smith Converter. The motivation of this approach is carried out on the base of numerous experimental data analyses, which show a significant improving potential. Because of a very high level of stochastic components in the direct measurements, due to the melt crystallisation a data driven degradation model is derived. A multistage procedure is proposed for effective Maintenance Decision Making (MDM) using a threshold based policy, Rule-Based Reasoning (RBR) and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The extended functionality of the proposed system is discussed. Key words: mathematical modelling, Peirce-Smith converter (PSC), rule-based reasoning (RBR), supervisory control, threshold based maintenance, maintenance decision making
Overview of MFTF supervisory control and diagnostics system software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, W.C.
1979-01-01
The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is currently the largest mirror fusion research project in the world. Its Control and Diagnostics System is handled by a distributed computer network consisting of nine Interdata minicomputer systems and about 65 microprocessors. One of the design requirements is tolerance of single-point failure. If one of the computer systems becomes inoperative, the experiment can still be carried out, although the system responsiveness to operator command may be degraded. In a normal experiment cycle, the researcher can examine the result of the previous experiment, change any control parameter, fire a shot, collect four million bytes of diagnostics data, perform intershot analysis, and have the result presented - all within five minutes. The software approach adopted for the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System features chief programmer teams and structured programming. Pascal is the standard programming language in this project
Development of a supervisory control and data acquisitioning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamboh, A.M.; Fakhar, H.A.; Rafiq, G.; Kazmi, S.R.
2004-01-01
This paper describes a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisitioning system called SCADA that we have developed at NUST. This research is aimed at the development of a network where a central Control Server extends bidirectional data exchange capability to hundreds of geographically remote sensors and actuators spread over a distance greater than 3 Km. Several battery-driven handheld terminals called Remote Terminal Units (RTU) have been designed to provide both wired and wireless connectivity between sensors and the network, also adding limited mobility to the sensors. Simple transceivers give the RTUs wireless access to network. The Human-Machine Intel (HMI) for the RTUs and the Server have been provided. A repeater has also been designed to increase the number of RTUs connected, and the maximum allowed distance between units and the server. The wired network gives several times faster connectivity than the wireless network, in addition to the larger area covered, but at the cost of mobility. (author)
The structure and operation scheme of an automatic and supervisory control system for KEPCO UPFC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, S.J.; Lee, D.W.; Moon, S.I. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Electrical Engineering
2007-07-01
The structure and functions of a control system that can be used for automatic and supervisory control of a unified power flow controller (UPFC) was presented. A UPFC is a device used in power electronic based transmission to allow the independent control of active and reactive power flows as well as the simultaneous control of voltage profile. The Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) installed a {+-}80 MVA UPFC at the 154 kV Kangjin substation, operated in the Kangjin-Jangheung transmission line. The operation strategies used in both the normal state and emergency state were presented along with a scheme that includes the minimization of active power loss, coordination of voltage/Var control with an under load tap changer (ULTC), and better system security. Although this UPFC is operated by set-point control, it has some limitations, particularly in emergency events. In order to overcome the limitation of set-point control, this paper proposed the automatic and supervisory control system connected to a local SCADA for data exchange. The primary function of the system is to analyze the state of the power system, determine the control objectives and to calculate the optimal power flow. Details of each of these functions was described in this paper along with a detailed algorithm for each scheme. 5 refs., 6 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford
2012-05-14
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).
SUPERVISORY CONTROL FOR PEAK REDUCTION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS WHILE MAINTAINING COMFORT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL
2016-01-01
This paper describes a supervisory control strategy for limiting peak power demand by small and medium commercial buildings while still meeting the business needs of the occupants. This control strategy has two features that make it relevant to new and existing buildings. First, it is designed to operate with building equipment, such as air conditioning and refrigeration systems, as they are presently installed in most small and medium commercial buildings. Because of this, the supervisory control could be realized as a software-only retrofit to existing building management systems. Second, the proposed control acts as a supervisory management layer over existing control systems, rather than replacing them outright. The primary idea of this approach is that the controls for individual building equipment request energy resources for a control action and the supervisory control examines the requests and decides which control actions to allow while satisfying a limit on peak power demand.
Advanced I&C for Fault-Tolerant Supervisory Control of Small Modular Reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Daniel G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2018-01-30
In this research, we have developed a supervisory control approach to enable automated control of SMRs. By design the supervisory control system has an hierarchical, interconnected, adaptive control architecture. A considerable advantage to this architecture is that it allows subsystems to communicate at different/finer granularity, facilitates monitoring of process at the modular and plant levels, and enables supervisory control. We have investigated the deployment of automation, monitoring, and data collection technologies to enable operation of multiple SMRs. Each unit's controller collects and transfers information from local loops and optimize that unit’s parameters. Information is passed from the each SMR unit controller to the supervisory controller, which supervises the actions of SMR units and manage plant processes. The information processed at the supervisory level will provide operators the necessary information needed for reactor, unit, and plant operation. In conjunction with the supervisory effort, we have investigated techniques for fault-tolerant networks, over which information is transmitted between local loops and the supervisory controller to maintain a safe level of operational normalcy in the presence of anomalies. The fault-tolerance of the supervisory control architecture, the network that supports it, and the impact of fault-tolerance on multi-unit SMR plant control has been a second focus of this research. To this end, we have investigated the deployment of advanced automation, monitoring, and data collection and communications technologies to enable operation of multiple SMRs. We have created a fault-tolerant multi-unit SMR supervisory controller that collects and transfers information from local loops, supervise their actions, and adaptively optimize the controller parameters. The goal of this research has been to develop the methodologies and procedures for fault-tolerant supervisory control of small modular reactors. To achieve
Two-objective on-line optimization of supervisory control strategy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal (Canada)
2004-09-01
The set points of supervisory control strategy are optimized with respect to energy use and thermal comfort for existing HVAC systems. The set point values of zone temperatures, supply duct static pressure, and supply air temperature are the problem variables, while energy use and thermal comfort are the objective functions. The HVAC system model includes all the individual component models developed and validated against the monitored data of an existing VAV system. It serves to calculate energy use during the optimization process, whereas the actual energy use is determined by using monitoring data and the appropriate validated component models. A comparison, done for one summer week, of actual and optimal energy use shows that the on-line implementation of a genetic algorithm optimization program to determine the optimal set points of supervisory control strategy could save energy by 19.5%, while satisfying the minimum zone airflow rates and the thermal comfort. The results also indicate that the application of the two-objective optimization problem can help control daily energy use or daily building thermal comfort, thus saving more energy than the application of the one-objective optimization problem. (Author)
Supervisory control in a distributed, hierarchical architecture for a multimodular LMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.
1989-01-01
This paper describes the directions and present status of the research in supervisory control for multimodular nuclear plants being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of US Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Controls Program. First, the hierarchical supervisory control structure envisioned for a Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) multimodular LMR is discussed. Next, the architecture of the supervisory module closest to the process actuators and its implementation for demonstration in a network of CPU's are presented. 12 refs., 3 figs
The role of supervisory controller synthesis in automatic control software development
Baeten, J.C.M.; Markovski, J.
2015-01-01
We give an overview of a model-driven systems engineering approach for high-tech systems that relies on supervisory controller synthesis. The proposed framework has a process-theoretic foundation and supports extensions with quantitative features. We briefly discuss several industrial case studies
Zhou, Jin; Yu, Lu; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor
Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) is a very large scale stochastic dynamic optimization problem. Due to its vast state space, significant uncertainty and numerous resource constraints such as finite car capacities and registered hall/car calls, it is hard to manage EGSCS using conventional control methods. Recently, many solutions for EGSCS using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been reported. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), which is proposed as a new evolutionary computation method several years ago, is also proved to be efficient when applied to EGSCS problem. In this paper, we propose an extended algorithm for EGSCS by introducing Reinforcement Learning (RL) into GNP framework, and an improvement of the EGSCS' performances is expected since the efficiency of GNP with RL has been clarified in some other studies like tile-world problem. Simulation tests using traffic flows in a typical office building have been made, and the results show an actual improvement of the EGSCS' performances comparing to the algorithms using original GNP and conventional control methods. Furthermore, as a further study, an importance weight optimization algorithm is employed based on GNP with RL and its efficiency is also verified with the better performances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.; Gove, N.B.
1991-01-01
A hierarchical supervisory control architecture has being implemented at ORNL to coordinate the controllers of a multimodular nuclear plant. The supervisory controller form a network of distributed expert system interfaced with a real-time simulation of the plant, the plant's automatic controllers, and the human operator. The main goal of the supervisory controllers is to maintain the plant operating within safety envelopes while optimizing availability, minimizing stress to components and operators, and facilitating operations. Representative rules implementing strategies for situation dependent reassignment of process goals by embedding diagnostics into the control philosophy are discussed. It should noted that the control philosophies here described use the ALMR concept for illustration purposes and are not part of the official ALMR design at this time. 3 refs., 1 fig
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MOHAMED BAHITA
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a direct adaptive control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems is proposed. The architecture employs a Gaussian radial basis function (RBF network to construct an adaptive controller. The parameters of the adaptive controller are adapted and changed according to a law derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The centres of the RBF network are adapted on line using the k-means algorithm. Asymptotic Lyapunov stability is established without the use of a supervisory (compensatory term in the control law and with the tracking errors converging to a neighbourhood of the origin. Finally, a simulation is provided to explore the feasibility of the proposed neuronal controller design method.
Hale, C.; Valentino, G. J.
1982-01-01
Supervisory decision making and control behavior within a C(3) oriented, ground based weapon system is being studied. The program involves empirical investigation of the sequence of control strategies used during engagement of aircraft targets. An engagement is conceptually divided into several stages which include initial information processing activity, tracking, and ongoing adaptive control decisions. Following a brief description of model parameters, two experiments which served as initial investigation into the accuracy of assumptions regarding the importance of situation assessment in procedure selection are outlined. Preliminary analysis of the results upheld the validity of the assumptions regarding strategic information processing and cue-criterion relationship learning. These results indicate that this model structure should be useful in studies of supervisory decision behavior.
Conceptual design of a new supervisory control system for JT-60SA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Totsuka, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Shinya
2009-05-01
The functions of JT-60 discharge control computer system and the data processing computer system will be integrated into a new JT-60SA supervisory control system to improve the operational efficiency of the JT-60 control computer system. In this report, we first show the necessary requirements for the new JT-60SA supervisory control system that should have high cost performance and maintainability. Next, overall system image of the new JT-60SA supervisory control system is presented and the necessary functions and the issues to be solved in the development are shown. Finally, the necessary manpower for this development and performance of the computer hardware, and the expected reduction of maintenance cost of the computer system are described. (author)
Definition of a Robust Supervisory Control Scheme for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponciroli, R.; Passerini, S.; Vilim, R. B.
2016-04-17
In this work, an innovative control approach for metal-fueled Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors is proposed. With respect to the classical approach adopted for base-load Nuclear Power Plants, an alternative control strategy for operating the reactor at different power levels by respecting the system physical constraints is presented. In order to achieve a higher operational flexibility along with ensuring that the implemented control loops do not influence the system inherent passive safety features, a dedicated supervisory control scheme for the dynamic definition of the corresponding set-points to be supplied to the PID controllers is designed. In particular, the traditional approach based on the adoption of tabulated lookup tables for the set-point definition is found not to be robust enough when failures of the implemented SISO (Single Input Single Output) actuators occur. Therefore, a feedback algorithm based on the Reference Governor approach, which allows for the optimization of reference signals according to the system operating conditions, is proposed.
National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements supervisory control software SSDR 1.5.2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodruff, J.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.
1996-01-01
This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Supervisory Control Software, WBS 1.5.2, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in ICCS (WBS 1-5)
Model-based design of supervisory controllers for baggage handling systems
Swartjes, L.; van Beek, D.A.; Fokkink, W.J.; van Eekelen, J.A.W.M.
2017-01-01
The complexity of airport baggage handling systems in combination with the required high level of robustness makes designing supervisory controllers for these systems a challenging task. We show how a state of the art, formal, model-based design framework has been successfully used for model-based
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shun-Yuan Wang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes.
Behavior coordination of mobile robotics using supervisory control of fuzzy discrete event systems.
Jayasiri, Awantha; Mann, George K I; Gosine, Raymond G
2011-10-01
In order to incorporate the uncertainty and impreciseness present in real-world event-driven asynchronous systems, fuzzy discrete event systems (DESs) (FDESs) have been proposed as an extension to crisp DESs. In this paper, first, we propose an extension to the supervisory control theory of FDES by redefining fuzzy controllable and uncontrollable events. The proposed supervisor is capable of enabling feasible uncontrollable and controllable events with different possibilities. Then, the extended supervisory control framework of FDES is employed to model and control several navigational tasks of a mobile robot using the behavior-based approach. The robot has limited sensory capabilities, and the navigations have been performed in several unmodeled environments. The reactive and deliberative behaviors of the mobile robotic system are weighted through fuzzy uncontrollable and controllable events, respectively. By employing the proposed supervisory controller, a command-fusion-type behavior coordination is achieved. The observability of fuzzy events is incorporated to represent the sensory imprecision. As a systematic analysis of the system, a fuzzy-state-based controllability measure is introduced. The approach is implemented in both simulation and real time. A performance evaluation is performed to quantitatively estimate the validity of the proposed approach over its counterparts.
Regime-based supervisory control to reduce power fluctuations from offshore wind power plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Trombe, Pierre-Julien
2013-01-01
Wind power fluctuations, especially offshore, can pose challenges in the secure and stable operation of the power system. In modern large offshore wind farms, there are supervisory controls designed to reduce the power fluctuations. Their operation is limited due to the fact that they imply loss...... that consider different wind power regimes to derive control setpoints by using a Markov-Switching AutoRegressive model. We evaluate the performance versus measured data in terms of power ramp characteristics and energy efficiency....
Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.
2015-11-01
This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.
2015-05-07
Yerkes, R.M., and Dodson, J.D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit -formation. Journal of comparative neurology and psychology 18, 459-482. ...the amount of mental effort exerted (Kahneman, 1973; Beatty & Lucero-Wagoner, 2000; Andreassi, 2007). The vast majority of these studies , however...of this initial study , the authors were interested in investigating whether pupillometry data collected in a realistic UAV supervisory control
The Supervisory Control System for the HL-2A Neutral Beam Injector
Li, Bo; Li, Li; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xueyun; Yang, Jiaxing; Huang, Zhihui; Kang, Zihua; Wang, Mingwei; Zhang, Guoqing; Lei, Guangjiu; Rao, Jun
2009-06-01
Supervisory control and protection system of the neutral beam injector (NBI) in the HL-2A tokamak is presented. The system is used for a safe coordination of all the main NBI subsystems. Because the system is based on computer networks with its transmission medium of optical fiber, its advantages in high operational stability, reliability, security and flexible functional expandability are clearly shown during the NBI commissioning and heating experiment in HL-2A.
Supervisory Model Predictive Control of the Heat Integrated Distillation Column
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Kristian; Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted
2017-01-01
This paper benchmarks a centralized control system based on model predictive control for the operation of the heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) against a fully decentralized control system using the most complete column model currently available in the literature. The centralized control...... system outperforms the decentralized system, because it handles the interactions in the HIDiC process better. The integral absolute error (IAE) is reduced by a factor of 2 and a factor of 4 for control of the top and bottoms compositions, respectively....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zieba, Stéphane; Russotto, François-Xavier; Da Silva Simoes, Max; Measson, Yvan
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Improve supervisory control systems for ITER in-vessel and hot cell maintenance. ► Optimize remote handling operations effectiveness, reliability and safety. ► Provide a generic description of the maintenance tasks and scenarios. ► Development of context-based assistances for operators and supervisor. ► Improvement of operator's situation awareness. -- Abstract: This paper concerns the improvement of supervisory control systems in the context of remote handling for the maintenance tasks in ITER. This work aims at providing a single formalism and tools to define in a generic way the ITER maintenance tasks and scenarios for in-vessel and hot cell operations. A three-layered approach is proposed to model these tasks and scenarios. Physical actions are defined for the scene elements. From these physical actions, behaviours are defined to represent high-level functionalities. Finally, interaction modes define the way that behaviours are achieved in terms of human–machine interactions. Case study concerning the blanket maintenance procedure is discussed concerning the contributions of the descriptive model and the context-based assistances to the activities of supervisory control
Evaluating the Impact of Communication Network Performance on Supervisory Supermarket Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Minko, Tomasz; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova
2017-01-01
This paper addresses the evaluation of the impact of non-ideal communication networks on system performance of hierarchical control systems. It develops a stepwise evaluation approach that is applied to the example scenario of a supervisory controller for supermarket temperature control, addressing...... of communication network performance on the supermarket refrigeration control and resulting energy costs using simulation models. The results show that the controller is resilient to downstream information delays, however upstream delays or up- and downstream information loss can cause significant performance...
A supervisory approach to microgrid demand response and climate control
Korkas, Christos D.; Baldi, S.; Michailidis, Iakovos; Boutalis, Yiannis; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.; Antsaklis, Panos J.; Valavanis, Kimon P.; Theiliol, Didier
2016-01-01
Microgrids equipped with small-scale renewable-energy generation systems and energy storage units offer challenging opportunity from a control point of view. In fact, in order to improve resilience and enable islanded mode, micro-grid energy management systems must dynamically manage controllable
Framework for modeling supervisory control behavior of operators of nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baron, S.; Feehrer, C.; Muralidharan, R.; Pew, R.; Horwitz, P.
1982-01-01
The importance of modeling the human-machine system has long been recognized, and many attempts have been made to estimate the operator's effect on system performance and reliability. The development of reliability models has been aimed at providing the means for exploring the physical consequences of specific classes of human error. However, the total impact of human performance on system operation and the adequacy of existing design and operating standards cannot be adequatly captured or assessed by simple error probabilities, or even by the combination of such probabilities. The behaviors of relevance are supervisory in nature, with a substantial cognitive component. The broad requirements for a model of human supervisory control are extensive and suggest that a highly sophisticated computer model will be needed. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the approach employed in developing such supervisory control models; of some proposed specializations and extensions to adapt them for the nuclear power plant case; and of the potential utility of such a model
Adaptive Levels of Autonomy (ALOA) for UAV Supervisory Control
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Johnson, Rubin; Leen, Michael; Goldberg, Dan; Chiu, Michael
2005-01-01
.... To demonstrate the architecture and LOA implementation, we designed a prototype Multi-UAV Control Station Emulator research test bed, by building on existing ORCA-developed software components...
Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob
2013-01-01
A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballard, W.
1994-01-01
The author presents some additional information about what he considers are some really great opportunities for the business community to participate in developing the greatest scientific project in the history of mankind. Facility Engineering Services is part of Laboratory Technical Services. As part of this group, it has the responsibility to direct the construction of interim facilities, scientific labs, production process, cooling towers, cooling ponds and the operation and control of SSC Laboratory conventional support systems. These operations and controls will be accomplished through the employment of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system (SCADA)
Supervisory control synthesis of discrete-event systems using a coordination scheme
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; van Schuppen, J. H.
2012-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 2 (2012), s. 247-254 ISSN 0005-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR GPP202/11/P028 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EU.ICT.DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete-event systems * supervisory control * distributed control * closed-loop systems * controllability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.919, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005109811005395
Supervisory control synthesis of discrete-event systems using a coordination scheme
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; van Schuppen, J. H.
2012-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 2 (2012), s. 247-254 ISSN 0005-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR GPP202/11/P028 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EU. ICT .DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete-event systems * supervisory control * distributed control * closed-loop systems * controllability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.919, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005109811005395
A supervisory control approach in economic MPC design for refrigeration systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik
2013-01-01
A model predictive control at the supervisory level is proposed for refrigeration systems using price and temperature predictions. The control objective is to minimize the overall energy cost within the prediction horizon. The method is mainly developed for demand-side management in the future...... to rearrange the problem to facilitate convex programming. A nonlinear continuous time model validated by real data is employed to simulate system operation. The results show a considerable economic saving as well as a trade-off between the saving level and design complexity....
Auditory decision aiding in supervisory control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles.
Donmez, Birsen; Cummings, M L; Graham, Hudson D
2009-10-01
This article is an investigation of the effectiveness of sonifications, which are continuous auditory alerts mapped to the state of a monitored task, in supporting unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) supervisory control. UAV supervisory control requires monitoring a UAV across multiple tasks (e.g., course maintenance) via a predominantly visual display, which currently is supported with discrete auditory alerts. Sonification has been shown to enhance monitoring performance in domains such as anesthesiology by allowing an operator to immediately determine an entity's (e.g., patient) current and projected states, and is a promising alternative to discrete alerts in UAV control. However, minimal research compares sonification to discrete alerts, and no research assesses the effectiveness of sonification for monitoring multiple entities (e.g., multiple UAVs). The authors conducted an experiment with 39 military personnel, using a simulated setup. Participants controlled single and multiple UAVs and received sonifications or discrete alerts based on UAV course deviations and late target arrivals. Regardless of the number of UAVs supervised, the course deviation sonification resulted in reactions to course deviations that were 1.9 s faster, a 19% enhancement, compared with discrete alerts. However, course deviation sonifications interfered with the effectiveness of discrete late arrival alerts in general and with operator responses to late arrivals when supervising multiple vehicles. Sonifications can outperform discrete alerts when designed to aid operators to predict future states of monitored tasks. However, sonifications may mask other auditory alerts and interfere with other monitoring tasks that require divided attention. This research has implications for supervisory control display design.
Operational Performance Risk Assessment in Support of A Supervisory Control System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denning, Richard S. [Self Employed; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M. [ORNL; Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [ORNL
2017-06-01
Supervisory control system (SCS) is developed for multi-unit advanced small modular reactors to minimize human interventions in both normal and abnormal operations. In SCS, control action decisions made based on probabilistic risk assessment approach via Event Trees/Fault Trees. Although traditional PRA tools are implemented, their scope is extended to normal operations and application is reversed; success of non-safety related system instead failure of safety systems this extended PRA approach called as operational performance risk assessment (OPRA). OPRA helps to identify success paths, combination of control actions for transients and to quantify these success paths to provide possible actions without activating plant protection system. In this paper, a case study of the OPRA in supervisory control system is demonstrated within the context of the ALMR PRISM design, specifically power conversion system. The scenario investigated involved a condition that the feed water control valve is observed to be drifting to the closed position. Alternative plant configurations were identified via OPRA that would allow the plant to continue to operate at full or reduced power. Dynamic analyses were performed with a thermal-hydraulic model of the ALMR PRISM system using Modelica to evaluate remained safety margins. Successful recovery paths for the selected scenario are identified and quantified via SCS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Márcio Mendonça
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, it is analyzed a multivariate system control of an alcoholic fermentation process with no minimum phase. The control is made with PID classic controllers associated with a supervisory system based on Fuzzy Systems. The Fuzzy system, a priori, send set-points to PID controllers, but also adds protection functions, such as if the biomass valued is at zero or very close. The Fuzzy controller changes the campaign to prevent or mitigate the paralyzation of the process. Three control architectures based on Fuzzy Control Systems are presented and compared in performance with classic control in different campaigns. The third architecture, in particular, adds an adaptive function. A brief summary of Fuzzy theory and correlated works will be presented. And, finally simulations results, conclusions and future works end the article.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jared Verba; Michael Milvich
2008-05-01
Current Intrusion Detection System (IDS) technology is not suited to be widely deployed inside a Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) environment. Anomaly- and signature-based IDS technologies have developed methods to cover information technology-based networks activity and protocols effectively. However, these IDS technologies do not include the fine protocol granularity required to ensure network security inside an environment with weak protocols lacking authentication and encryption. By implementing a more specific and more intelligent packet inspection mechanism, tailored traffic flow analysis, and unique packet tampering detection, IDS technology developed specifically for SCADA environments can be deployed with confidence in detecting malicious activity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ike Bayusari
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses design of a suhue control monitoring system in stirred tank heater system that has an important function in industrial processes. Monitoring of suhue control system in stirred tank heater is designed using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA that control function of industrial processes. While the actuator to be controlled is the position of burner openings, so that the heat can be adjusted to meet a predetermined set-point. The suhue controller that is also used as a Remote Terminal Unit (RTU is Programmable Logic Controller (PLC. The testing result showed on SCADA system was quite good, where the average percentage of deviation for testing of set-point data was 0.76687%, and the percentage of deviation for testing of suhue data was 0.082%.
Safety Supervisory Strategy for an Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Robot Based on Impedance Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lizheng Pan
2013-02-01
Full Text Available User security is an important consideration for robots that interact with humans, especially for upper-limb rehabilitation robots, during the use of which stroke patients are often more susceptible to injury. In this paper, a novel safety supervisory control method incorporating fuzzy logic is proposed so as to guarantee the impaired limb's safety should an emergency situation occur and the robustness of the upper-limb rehabilitation robot control system. Firstly, a safety supervisory fuzzy controller (SSFC was designed based on the impaired-limb's real-time physical state by extracting and recognizing the impaired-limb's tracking movement features. Then, the proposed SSFC was used to automatically regulate the desired force either to account for reasonable disturbance resulting from pose or position changes or to respond in adequate time to an emergency based on an evaluation of the impaired-limb's physical condition. Finally, a position-based impedance controller was implemented to achieve compliance between the robotic end-effector and the impaired limb during the robot-assisted rehabilitation training. The experimental results show the effectiveness and potential of the proposed method for achieving safety and robustness for the rehabilitation robot.
Supervisory control of mobile sensor networks: math formulation, simulation, and implementation.
Giordano, Vincenzo; Ballal, Prasanna; Lewis, Frank; Turchiano, Biagio; Zhang, Jing Bing
2006-08-01
This paper uses a novel discrete-event controller (DEC) for the coordination of cooperating heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (WSNs) containing both unattended ground sensors (UGSs) and mobile sensor robots. The DEC sequences the most suitable tasks for each agent and assigns sensor resources according to the current perception of the environment. A matrix formulation makes this DEC particularly useful for WSN, where missions change and sensor agents may be added or may fail. WSN have peculiarities that complicate their supervisory control. Therefore, this paper introduces several new tools for DEC design and operation, including methods for generating the required supervisory matrices based on mission planning, methods for modifying the matrices in the event of failed nodes, or nodes entering the network, and a novel dynamic priority assignment weighting approach for selecting the most appropriate and useful sensors for a given mission task. The resulting DEC represents a complete dynamical description of the WSN system, which allows a fast programming of deployable WSN, a computer simulation analysis, and an efficient implementation. The DEC is actually implemented on an experimental wireless-sensor-network prototyping system. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness and versatility of the developed control architecture.
A Safe Supervisory Flight Control Scheme in the Presence of Constraints and Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franzè Giuseppe
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper the hybrid supervisory control architecture developed by Famularo et al. (2011 for constrained control systems is adopted with the aim to improve safety in aircraft operations when critical events like command saturations or unpredicted anomalies occur. The capabilities of a low-computational demanding predictive scheme for the supervision of non-linear dynamical systems subject to sudden switchings amongst operating conditions and time-varying constraints are exploited in the flight control systems framework. The strategy is based on command governor ideas and is tailored to jointly take into account time-varying set-points/constraints. Unpredictable anomalies in the nominal plant behaviour, whose models fall in the category of time-varying constraints, can also be tolerated by the control scheme. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, simulations both on a high altitude performance demonstrator unmanned aircraft with redundant control surfaces and the P92 general aviation aircraft are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, G.A.
1998-01-01
This document defines the requirements applicable to the operation, maintenance and storage of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADAS) and Control Network in support of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGoldrick, P.R.
1981-01-01
The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jirsa, P.
2000-11-01
Inclusion into the programming of inputs of the supervisory algorithm (data collection from the monitoring system, transmission of diagnostic output fro other system and transmission of technological data), of the supervisory process proper based on the data obtained (data analysis) and of the output (presentation of the results to the operator, communication with the master and archiving systems, etc.) requires knowledge of the format of the data transmitted, their availability, communication network protocols, operating system, etc. Hence, the environment for which the algorithm will be developed should be specified, roughly at least. The following topics are addressed: Description of technical means of Czech nuclear power plants (Dukovany, Temelin, Mochovce), and Proposal for technical means to implement the monitoring algorithm (Requirements related to the monitoring systems, Identification of the reference system, Parameters of the selected system). Since no domestic manufacturer of HW for monitoring and diagnostic systems exists, a novel system of the Brueel and Kjaer company for on-line diagnosis and monitoring, COMPASS, was selected as a model model system for the implementation of the supervisory algorithms. (P.A.)
Decision Support in Supervisory Control of High-Risk Industrial Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Jens; Goodstein, L. P.
1987-01-01
available to the operators their conceptual models and their processing resources so as to allow the operators to function as their extended arm in coping with the plant. Such as interactive decision-making activity would thus benefit from this simultaneous availability of the design basis, up......It is argued that the supervisory control of complex industrial processes having a potential for serious consequences in case of accidents requires careful consideration of the allocation of decision making between the three main agents of control; namely the designer, the operator...... and the automatic control system. In particular, it is advocated that, instead of continuing their efforts to make their preplanning of responses and countermeasures more and more complete and thus restrict the operators' own initiative, designers should take advantage of modern information technology to make...
Report on the experience with the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) of MFTF-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyman, R.H.
1983-01-01
The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) of MFTF is a multiprocessor computer system using graphics oriented displays with touch sensitive panels as the primary operator interface. Late in the calendar year 1981 the system was used to control an integrated test of the vacuum vessel, vacuum system, cryogenics system and the superconducting magnet of MFTF. Since the completion of those tests and starting in early calendar 1983 the system has been used for control of the neutral beam test facility at LLNL. This paper presents a short overview of SCDS for the purpose of orientation and then proceeds to describe the difficulties encountered in these preliminary encounters with reality. The band-aids used to hold things together as disaster threatened as well as the long-term solutions to the problems will be discussed. Finally, we will present some comments on system costs and management philosophy
Morsey, Christopher
2017-01-01
In the critical infrastructure world, many critical infrastructure sectors use a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The sectors that use SCADA systems are the electric power, nuclear power and water. These systems are used to control, monitor and extract data from the systems that give us all the ability to light our homes…
Computer-based supervisory control and data acquisition system for the radioactive waste evaporator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pope, N.G.; Schreiber, S.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Gomez, B.G.; Nekimken, H.L.; Sanchez, D.E.; Bibeau, R.A.; Macdonald, J.M.
1994-12-01
The evaporator process at TA-55 reduces the amount of transuranic liquid radioactive waste by separating radioactive salts from relatively low-level radioactive nitric acid solution. A computer-based supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed on the process that allows the operators to easily interface with process equipment. Individual single-loop controllers in the SCADA system allow more precise process operation with less human intervention. With this system, process data can be archieved in computer files for later analysis. Data are distributed throughout the TA-55 site through a local area network so that real-time process conditions can be monitored at multiple locations. The entire system has been built using commercially available hardware and software components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zainudin Jaafar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Mohd Hanafiah Chik
2015-01-01
Nuclear Power supplies in Malaysia supplied from the power utility company Tenaga Nasional Berhad through several substations before reaching the building and equipment. The power supply is received and passed down through the 11000 V high voltage switch gears to 415 V 3-phase or 1-phase 240 V. The equipment used in this process is dangerous and monitoring hardware operating remotely (remote) is the best as only guard machinery may engage in business operations. Similarly, the supply of electrical parameters should be monitored to ensure safe and continuous supply of and according to the appropriate voltage for record and analysis when needed. This paper discusses the monitoring and data acquisition is performed using the system 'Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) was developed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lagunas Mendoza, Javier
2004-11-15
This work presents the development of a fuzzy supervisory controller for a hybrid power system (HPS). After reviewing the actual configurations for Hybrid Systems used around the world, it was defined the configuration and constitutive elements to be implemented in proposed HPS. The HPS includes: photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines as renewable sources, a Gen-set as a back-up system, a battery bank a mean for energy storage, AC loads and finally an inverter to transform DC to AC in order to provide electricity to the loads. Once the HPS configuration was selected, the mathematical models for the different elements of the system were selected. The validation of the models was made comparing the results from the model with collected real data of an experimental HPS installed in Pachuca Hidalgo. Using MatLab it was developed a program to simulate the operation of the a HPS. The main function of the supervisory controller within the HPS is to satisfy the objectives of operation of the system, and it was defined as part of the research work. The operation philosophy of the supervisory controller was defined having selected HPS configuration and the operation objectives of the system. Regarding to the supervisory controller development, first it was carried out a bibliographic review of the supervisory controllers that are used nowadays whose use some techniques of intelligent control. As result form this review the fuzzy logic technique was chosen to be implemented in the supervisory controller proposed. The resulting supervisory controller was a multi- variable system type, and it is implementation was challenging task. Its development was made using the hierarchic decomposition based on meta-knowledge. As result a smaller diffuse systems with a less number of rules were obtained. An important part of the work was the implementation of the supervisory controller in Matlab. The controller tested in the developed simulation program for SHGE. The results of operation of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahiska, Rasit; Mamur, Hayati
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A new TEG test measurement system with the PLC has been carried out. ► A new SCADA program has been written and tested for the test measurement system. ► An operator panel has been used for monitoring to the instant TEG data. ► All of the measurement data of TEG have been aggregated in the system. - Abstract: In this study, a new test measurement system and supervisory control and data acquisition application with programmable logic controller has been carried out to be enable the collection of the data of thermoelectric generator for the usage of thermoelectric modules as thermoelectric generator. During the production of the electric energy from the thermoelectric generator, the temperatures of the surfaces of the thermoelectric generator, current–voltage values obtained from output of the thermoelectric generator, hot and cold flows have been measured by the newly established system instantly. All these data have been monitored continuously from the computer and recorded by a supervisory control and data acquisition program. At the same time, in environments where there was no computer, an operator panel with the ability to communicate with the programmable logic controller has been added for the monitoring of the instant thermoelectric generator data. All of the measurement data of the thermoelectric generator have been aggregated in the new test measurement and supervisory control and data acquisition system. The setup test measurement system has been implemented on the thermoelectric generator system with about 10 W. Thermoelectric generators, Altec-GM-1 brand-coded have been examined by the new proposed test measurement system and the values of maximum power and thermoelectric generator efficiency were calculated by the programmable logic controller. When the obtained results were compared with the datasheets, the relative error for the maximum power was around 4% and the value for efficiency was below 3%.
Zhan, Jinliang; Lu, Pei
2006-11-01
Since the quality of traditional Chinese medicine products are affected by raw material, machining and many other factors, it is difficult for traditional Chinese medicine production process especially the extracting process to ensure the steady and homogeneous quality. At the same time, there exist some quality control blind spots due to lacking on-line quality detection means. But if infrared spectrum analysis technology was used in traditional Chinese medicine production process on the basis of off-line analysis to real-time detect the quality of semi-manufactured goods and to be assisted by advanced automatic control technique, the steady and homogeneous quality can be obtained. It can be seen that the on-line detection of extracting process plays an important role in the development of Chinese patent medicines industry. In this paper, the design and implement of a traditional Chinese medicine extracting process monitoring experiment system which is based on PROFIBUS-DP field bus, OPC, and Internet technology is introduced. The system integrates intelligence node which gathering data, superior sub-system which achieving figure configuration and remote supervisory, during the process of traditional Chinese medicine production, monitors the temperature parameter, pressure parameter, quality parameter etc. And it can be controlled by the remote nodes in the VPN (Visual Private Network). Experiment and application do have proved that the system can reach the anticipation effect fully, and with the merits of operational stability, real-time, reliable, convenient and simple manipulation and so on.
Cristea Ciprian; Saşa Ciprian; Cristea Maria
2017-01-01
Monitoring and control of electric transformer stations, frequently spread out over small or large geographical areas, are achieved with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). Quality function deployment (QFD) is a valuable analyzing tool in product design and development. To solve the uncertainty or inherent imprecision in QFD, many researchers have applied the fuzzy set theory to QFD and have developed various fuzzy QFD approaches. The literature regarding applying fuzzy QFD for ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Budi Setiawan
2016-10-01
Full Text Available SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems as the control unit of the smart grid has been used in almost various industries around the world in terms of automation systems. Smart grid technology combines the energy infrastructure and telecommunications and Internet networks. The system provides the operational ease and efficiency in the industry. However, the system has a lot of vulnerabilities in information security aspects that can have a major impact for the industry and even the economy. This study tried to design in building a smart grid cyber security, it includes the strategies that must be done and the information security system architecture to be built. The study was conducted qualitative in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation. Results of this research is the design strategy recommendations ddalam development of smart grid cyber security. Recommendation results of this study also intended as a suggestion-making framework for smart grid cyber security as a reference implementation of the smart grid in Indonesia.
Investigation of crew performance in a multi-vehicle supervisory control task
Miller, R. A.; Plamondon, B. D.; Jagacinski, R. J.; Kirlik, A. C.
1986-01-01
Crew information processing and decision making in a supervisory control task which is loosely based on the mission of future generation helicopters is measured and represented. Subjects control the motion and activities of their own vehicle and direct the activities of four additional craft. The task involves searching an uncertain environment for cargo and enemies, returning cargo to home base and destroying enemies while attempting to avoid destruction of the scout and the supervised vehicles. A series of experiments with two-person crews and one-person crews were performed. Resulting crew performance was modeled with the objective of describing and understanding the information processing strategies utilized. Of particular interest are problem simplification strategies under time stress and high work load, simplification and compensation in the one-person cases, crew coordination in the two-person cases, and the relationship between strategy and errors in all cases. The results should provide some insight into the effective use of aids, particularly aids based on artificial intelligence, for similar tasks. The simulation is described which is used for the study and some preliminary results from the first two-person crew study are discussed.
Design on human supervisory control of safety management for advance NPP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nugroho, D.H.; Soentono, S.; Taryo, T.; Wahyon, P.I.
2006-01-01
Full text: Full text: Characteristics of an advance NPP related with economic and safety enhancement was represented on capabilities in intelligent control and diagnostic to provide nearly autonomous operation with anticipatory maintenance. An autonomous control system should enable automatic operation while adapting to component faults and system variable upsets. It needs therefore to have many intelligent capabilities, such as modeling, analysis, self-validation, diagnosis and decision. This paper describes a human supervisory control design for nuclear reactor fault management which collaborates between human and autonomous control. The beneficial of collaboration is provided based on belief of information value evaluated from Dempster's rule of evidence. The belief of the collaboration is better compared with single usage. The collaboration was conducted in which agent will autonomously and periodically be conducting surveillance by checking the component abnormalities in the plant if anomalies occur. The anomalies were determined using fault detection module. Thereby the system will be able to conduct preventive maintenance. In the situation of accident happened, hence the system will diagnose to determine the location of component failure autonomously. A human supervisor will then determine the action of decison making based on the prediction result. The decision making will be conducted based on the 4th Sheridan's autonomous level in which the autonomous control will execute the duty autonomously when the plant is in normal condition, or in the predictable accident range. But if the unpredictable accident occurs in the plant, the supervisor will then take over the role to control the plant, and the machine will do what commanded by the supervisor. Sistematically, the system explained before was represented by Traveling Salesman Problem-based surveillance, modified ART-2 artificial neural networks-based fault detection and Bayesian Networks-based fault
Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.
Algorithms and procedures in the model based control of accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozoki, E.
1987-10-01
The overall design of a Model Based Control system was presented. The system consists of PLUG-IN MODULES, governed by a SUPERVISORY PROGRAM and communicating via SHARED DATA FILES. Models can be ladded or replaced without affecting the oveall system. There can be more then one module (algorithm) to perform the same task. The user can choose the most appropriate algorithm or can compare the results using different algorithms. Calculations, algorithms, file read and write, etc. which are used in more than one module, will be in a subroutine library. This feature will simplify the maintenance of the system. A partial list of modules is presented, specifying the task they perform. 19 refs., 1 fig
McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja
2014-05-01
Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.
Supervisory Control for Real Time Reactive Power Flow Optimization in Islanded Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milczarek, Adam; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Malinowski, Mariusz
2013-01-01
-line measurements. Similarly to any process system, MG hierarchical control is divided into three levels. However, an additional control algorithm is required to manage power transmission between sources and loads, maximizing efficiency and minimizing transmission losses. This real-time optimization problem......A microgrid (MG) is a local energy system consisting of a number of energy sources, energy storage units and loads that operate connected to the main electrical grid or autonomously. MGs include wind, solar or other renewable energy sources. MGs provide flexibility, reduce the main electricity grid...... dependence and contribute to change the large centralized production paradigm to local and distributed generation. However, such energy systems require complex management, advanced control and optimization. Interest on MGs hierarchical control has increased due to the availability of cheap on...
Damage Control Automation for Reduced Manning (DC-ARM) Supervisory Control System Software Summary
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Downs, Ryan
2002-01-01
.... The SCS currently interfaces and controls the ship's automated fire main, outfitted with smart valves, a high-pressure water mist system, a video over IP system, a door position indication system...
2011-03-01
Byres, E. J., Lowe, J. (2004). The Myths and facts behind cyber security risks for industrial control systems . Berlin, Germany: VDE 2004 Congress...ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM THESIS Jason R. Nielsen, Major, USAF AFIT/GCO/ENG/11-10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE...DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of
A Process Algebra for Supervisory Coordination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jos Baeten
2011-08-01
Full Text Available A supervisory controller controls and coordinates the behavior of different components of a complex machine by observing their discrete behaviour. Supervisory control theory studies automated synthesis of controller models, known as supervisors, based on formal models of the machine components and a formalization of the requirements. Subsequently, code generation can be used to implement this supervisor in software, on a PLC, or embedded microprocessor. In this article, we take a closer look at the control loop that couples the supervisory controller and the machine. We model both event-based and state-based observations using process algebra and bisimulation-based semantics. The main application area of supervisory control that we consider is coordination, referred to as supervisory coordination, and we give an academic and an industrial example, discussing the process-theoretic concepts employed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Jung In; Chung, Sung Wook; Koh, Won Seok [Kyungwon University, Sungman (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duk Young; Cheon, Sei Young [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Kyung; Kim, Sung Hun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1995-07-01
A major objective of the project is to develop a digital automatic supervisory limitation system and validate its design for the next generation= nuclear power plant. The limitation system assures that the plant does not exceed the operating limits by regulation the plant operations through on-line monitoring the operating margins of the critical parameters. A new conceptual model of power maneuverability has been proposed for the design of the limitation system and for its validation. Also, the limitation system monitors overall operation processes throughout a nuclear power plant by implementing hierarchical communication networks. Based on the conceptual design in software of the 1 st year results, the detailed design of the limitation system has been performed during the 2 nd year with constructing a prototype digital system. The system consists of the software module for plant simulation and the hardware module for implementation of limitation system and the associated interfaces in hardware. The limitation algorithm were implemented into the microprocessor and the interfaces were realized through the I/O modules. Also, these modules are incorporated into the communication networks. The products of the project could be directly applicable to the following nuclear unit adopting the limitation system, providing the bumpless transition to the commercial design phase. And the prototype evaluation scheme will be very useful for the succeeding studies related to the digital nuclear I and C fields, such as fault-tolerance design methods, software verification and validation and response time execution of digital systems. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 44 figs. (author)
Development of a First-of-a-Kind Deterministic Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL
2015-07-01
Decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives where each alternative offers a different approach or path to move from a given state or condition to a desired state or condition. The generation of consistent decisions requires that a structured, coherent process be defined, immediately leading to a decision-making framework. The overall objective of the generalized framework is for it to be adopted into an autonomous decision-making framework and tailored to specific requirements for various applications. In this context, automation is the use of computing resources to make decisions and implement a structured decision-making process with limited or no human intervention. The overriding goal of automation is to replace or supplement human decision makers with reconfigurable decision- making modules that can perform a given set of tasks reliably. Risk-informed decision making requires a probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of success given the status of the plant/systems and component health, and a deterministic assessment between plant operating parameters and reactor protection parameters to prevent unnecessary trips and challenges to plant safety systems. The implementation of the probabilistic portion of the decision-making engine of the proposed supervisory control system was detailed in previous milestone reports. Once the control options are identified and ranked based on the likelihood of success, the supervisory control system transmits the options to the deterministic portion of the platform. The deterministic multi-attribute decision-making framework uses variable sensor data (e.g., outlet temperature) and calculates where it is within the challenge state, its trajectory, and margin within the controllable domain using utility functions to evaluate current and projected plant state space for different control decisions. Metrics to be evaluated include stability, cost, time to complete (action), power level, etc. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2016-09-20
This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.
Subcubic Control Flow Analysis Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Midtgaard, Jan; Van Horn, David
We give the first direct subcubic algorithm for performing control flow analysis of higher-order functional programs. Despite the long held belief that inclusion-based flow analysis could not surpass the ``cubic bottleneck, '' we apply known set compression techniques to obtain an algorithm...... that runs in time O(n^3/log n) on a unit cost random-access memory model machine. Moreover, we refine the initial flow analysis into two more precise analyses incorporating notions of reachability. We give subcubic algorithms for these more precise analyses and relate them to an existing analysis from...
Yu, Lu; Zhou, Jin; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor
The Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems (EGSCS) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers in buildings. Double-deck elevators, where two elevators are connected with each other, serve passengers at two consecutive floors simultaneously. Double-deck Elevator systems (DDES) become more complex in their behavior than conventional single-deck elevator systems (SDES). Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been used in such complex systems. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a graph-based evolutionary method, has been applied to EGSCS and its advantages are shown in some papers. GNP can obtain the strategy of a new hall call assignment to the optimal elevator when it performs crossover and mutation operations to judgment nodes and processing nodes. Meanwhile, Destination Floor Guidance System (DFGS) is installed in DDES, so that passengers can also input their destinations at elevator halls. In this paper, we have applied GNP to DDES and compared DFGS with normal systems. The waiting time and traveling time of DFGS are all improved because of getting more information from DFGS. The simulations showed the effectiveness of the double-deck elevators with DFGS in different building traffics.
Cabaret, S; Coppier, H; Rachid, A; Barillère, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
2007-01-01
The GCS (Gas Control System) project team at CERN uses a Model Driven Approach with a Framework - UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) - based on PLC (Programming Language Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) technologies. The first' UNICOS versions were able to provide a PID (Proportional Integrative Derivative) controller whereas the Gas Systems required more advanced control strategies. The MultiController is a new UNICOS object which provides the following advanced control algorithms: Smith Predictor, PFC (Predictive Function Control), RST* and GPC (Global Predictive Control). Its design is based on a monolithic entity with a global structure definition which is able to capture the desired set of parameters of any specific control algorithm supported by the object. The SCADA system -- PVSS - supervises the MultiController operation. The PVSS interface provides users with supervision faceplate, in particular it links any MultiController with recipes: the GCS experts are ab...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wetherington Jr, G Randall [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Mahderekal, Isaac [ORNL; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL
2017-06-01
A preliminary evaluation of the performance of a consumer-based control system was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southwest Gas as part of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) authorized by the Department of Energy (DOE) (Mahderekal et al. (2013). The goal of the research was to evaluate the low-cost approach as a solution for implementing a supervisory control system for a residential gas-operated heat pump. The design incorporated two consumer-based micro-controllers; the Arduino Mega-2650 and the BeagleBone (white). Ten five-ton heat pump systems were designed, fabricated, and operationally tested in the Las Vega NV region. A robust data set was produced that allowed detailed assessment of the reliability and the operational perfromance of the newly developed control system. Experiences gained from the test provided important points of improvement for subsequent evolution of the heat pump technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez M, Miguel A; Sanchez P, Marino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gonzalez Rubio S, Jose L [Cento Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2005-07-01
Under the expectations of expansion of electric power generation in Mexico, this work exposes the development of a conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control (CSG) for a combined cycle generation power plant. This one allows to obtain the optimal operation of the power plant through the automatic starting of the generating units and to obtain the maximum possible amount of electrical power in automatic and safe form. For the development of the CSG a control loop by temperature was implemented for the gas turbine system and a control loop by strangled pressure for the gas turbine and a control loop by strangled pressure for the steam turbine. The design of these supervisory systems was made with base in the critical limits on the involved variables of the process: blading average temperature, for the gas turbine (GT) and strangled pressure for the steam turbine (ST) [Spanish] Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, este trabajo expone el desarrollo de un control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) para una central generacion de ciclo combinado. Este permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor. El diseno de estos sistemas supervisorio se realizo con base en los limites criticos de las variables del proceso involucradas: temperatura promedio de empaletado para la turbina de gas (TG) y presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV)
Borst, C.; Bijsterbosch, V.A.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.
2017-01-01
Future air traffic control will have to rely on more advanced automation to support human controllers in their job of safely handling increased traffic volumes. A prerequisite for the success of such automation is that the data driving it are reliable. Current technology, however, still warrants
Supervisory Control of an Adaptive-Droop Regulated DC Microgrid with Battery Management Capability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos
2014-01-01
DC power systems are gaining an increasing interest in renewable energy applications because of the good matching with dc output type sources such as photovoltaic (PV) systems and secondary batteries. In this paper, several distributed generators (DGs) have been merged together with a pair...... of batteries and loads to form an autonomous dc Microgrid (MG). To overcome the control challenge associated with coordination of multiple batteries within one stand-alone MG, a double-layer hierarchical control strategy was proposed; 1) The unit-level primary control layer was established by an adaptive...
A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
2014-09-01
RISC ) platforms running some version of UNIX.4 Around the turn of the millennium work began on applying Web technologies to SCADA systems.5–8 Lately...the 2 trend has been to move from the UNIX/ RISC system to commodity hardware and Microsoft solutions although there is some Linux,1 to move from...Control Center MTU Master Terminal Unit OS operating system PKI Public Key Infrastructure PLC Programmable Logic Controller RISC Reduced Instruction
Supervisory Fault Tolerant Control of the GTM UAV Using LPV Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Péni Tamás
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A multi-level reconfiguration framework is proposed for fault tolerant control of over-actuated aerial vehicles, where the levels indicate how much authority is given to the reconfiguration task. On the lowest, first level the fault is accommodated by modifying only the actuator/sensor configuration, so the fault remains hidden from the baseline controller. A dynamic reallocation scheme is applied on this level. The allocation mechanism exploits the actuator/sensor redundancy available on the aircraft. When the fault cannot be managed at the actuator/sensor level, the reconfiguration process has access to the baseline controller. Based on the LPV control framework, this is done by introducing fault-specific scheduling parameters. The baseline controller is designed to provide an acceptable performance level along all fault scenarios coded in these scheduling variables. The decision on which reconfiguration level has to be initiated in response to a fault is determined by a supervisor unit. The method is demonstrated on a full six-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation model of the GTM UAV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, R.; Mahesuria, G.; Gupta, N.C.; Sonara, D.; Panchal, R.; Panchal, P.; Tanna, V.L.; Pradhan, S.
2014-01-01
The Current Feeders System (CFS) is essentially an optimized bridge between the power supply at room temperature and Super Conducting Magnet System (SCMS) of the SST-1 machine at 4.5 K.CFS is a complex electrical and cryogenic network which consists of ten pairs of 10 KA rating helium Vapor cooled Conventional Current Leads (VCCLs), superconducting (SC) current feeder and associated components. For the safe and reliable operation of CFS, it is equipped with different physical process parameters measuring instruments like flow, pressure, temperature, level, vacuum, voltage taps and final control element like control valves, heaters, vacuum pumps etc. PLC program is developed in ladder language for acquiring and controlling the process parameters. Independent SCADA applications developed in WonderwareIntouch software for data communication from PLC, front-end Graphical User Interface (GUI), auto-manual interface, real time trends, history trends, events and alarm pages. Time synchronized communication established between CFS control system and Industrial SQL server (InSQL) Historian for centralized storage of CFS process parameters which intern provides the CFS process data to SST-1 central control room. SCADA based data acquisition and data retrieval system is found to be satisfactory during the recent SST-1 cool down experiment. This paper describes the SCADA and PLC application development and their communication to InSQL server. (author)
Atomos IV : enabling integrated decision support in the supervisory control of ships
Breda, L. van; Veen, H.A.H.C. van
2005-01-01
TNO participated during eight years in a European Consortium ATOMOS IV (Advanced Technology ro Optimise Marine Operational Safety - Intelligent Vessels), performing research in the human-centred development of decision support systems for ship control centers. New concepts were developed and tested,
The effect of a priori probability and complexity on decision making in a supervisory control task
Kerstholt, J.H.; Passenier, P.O.; Houttuin, K.; Schuffel, H.
1996-01-01
In the present study we investigated how monitoring and fault management in a ship control task are affected by complexity and a priori probability of disturbances. Partici-pants were required to supervise four independent shipping subsystems and to adjust the subsystems whenever deviations
Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system
Feru, E.; Murgovski, N.; de Jager, A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.
This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO2–NOxCO2–NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with
Fault management in supervisory control: the effect of false alarms and support
Kerstholt, J.H.; Passenier, P.O.
2000-01-01
Automation has changed the role of human operators from direct manual control to supervision. Their main task is to monitor whether system performance remains within pre-specified ranges and intervention is only required in unusual situations. One of the consequences is a loss of situation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyman, R.H.
1979-01-01
The design and implementation of the SCDS is a relatively complex problem involving a nine-computer network coupled with a unique color graphics control console system, 50 local control minicomputers, and the usual array of drives, printers, magnetic tapes, etc. Four million bytes of data are to be collected on each MFTF cycle with a repetition rate of five minutes per shot, and the associated data processing and storing load is a major concern. Crude paper studies were made initially to try to size the various components of the system and various configurations were proposed and analyzed prior to the solicitation for the computer system. However, once the hardware was purchased and a preliminary software design was completed, it became essential and feasible to do an analysis of the system to considerably greater depth in order to identify bottlenecks and other system problems and to verify those parts of the design that met the MFTF requirements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel
2004-12-15
The Mexican Electricity Utility (Comision Federal de Electricidad - CFE) growing program in Power Generation for the 2004 - 2008 period is based on Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). In accordance with [CFE, 2000], the expected power generation capacity developed during such period will rise by the amount of 12876 MW, 10655 MW belonging to CCPP (82.75 %). With such important program for the increasing of Power Generation in Mexico, researches have to receive new technologies for CCPP, some of them not completely tested and immature, with the compromise to make then more efficient and reliable. Under such idea and looking to increase the automation level for CCPP with better control algorithms, the Supervisory Generalized Control (SGC) for CCPP was developed in this thesis, based on PID strategies and intelligent (fuzzy) control strategies. With the SGC is possible to get the best performance for the whole CCPP through the automatic starting, synchronizing and loading of the generating units (two gas turbines and one steam turbine) with a minimum participation of operators. To get the increased efficiency, the SGC generates the reference paths for both gas turbines (GT) first, and the steam turbine (ST). The SGC accelerates each unit with a minimum effort and vibrations getting the synchronizing speed in a minimum time and wasted energy. Then the SGC synchronize each unit taking minimum load quickly and loading up to the highest electric power value. All these can be done in an automated operation. The SGC employs two critical-process variable- control strategies, based on blade path temperature average (BPT Average) for Gas Turbines (GT) and the throttle steam pressure for the Steam Turbine (ST). The control algorithms designed take both units, the GT and the ST, picking up load to the highest process value avoiding the alarms activation and shutdown. This is possible only with such an automated control strategy. Test performed showed that with the SGC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, V.K.; Kaushik, S.; Haneef, K.K.M.
2014-01-01
Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Facility (PREFRE II) is a radio-chemical plant located at Tarapur. The electric power supply to PREFRE-II plant has been provided from a 33 KV Sub-station located in PREFRE-II complex to meet the O and M requirement of plant. The major equipment of the substation includes HT switch board, dry type transformer, LT switch board, Diesel Generator (DG) set and Un-interrupted Power Supply (UPS) System. The power supply to the plant is provided at 415 V voltage level with the help of Power Distribution Boards (PDBs) and Motor Control Centres (MCCs) located at different floors of the plant. The parameters of the electrical equipment of substation and plant are recorded in each shift in the log-book, manually by the operator. To maintain the log-book, the operator needs to go closer to the individual equipment in radioactive area of the plant to read the parameters. The log-book method of monitoring is a cumbersome method and does not include fault event records, trends and diagnostic behavior of the equipment. Electrical Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (E-SCADA) system has been increasingly used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) for control and monitoring of electrical parameters of plant and switchyard equipment. E-SCADA system has been designed, developed and implemented for PREFRE-II plant for remote monitoring of parameters of electrical equipment. E-SCADA system provides monitoring of electrical equipment and renders complete guidance and information with the help of Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the operator to take necessary action during normal and abnormal conditions. E-SCADA with intelligent communication features helps in reducing cabling from field equipment which enhances the fire safety of plant. As a result engineering, operation and maintenance efforts for monitoring are reduced considerably in terms of requirement of skilled man power and accurate data logging of electrical parameters. This system also helps to
A. Shahzad; S. Musa; A. Aborujilah; M. Irfan
2014-01-01
Now days cloud computing is an important and hot topic in arena of information technology and computer system. Several companies and educational institutes have been deployed cloud infrastructures to overcome their problems such as easy data access, software updates with minimal cost, large or unlimited storage, efficient cost factor, backup storage and disaster recovery and several other benefits compare with the traditional network infrastructures. In this research paper; Supervisory Contro...
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators.
Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J
2014-06-01
The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without
2000-01-01
This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for the control of the four LHC experiments. Following a market survey carried out among 63 firms in thirteen Member States and one firm in Israel, a call for tenders (IT-2814/IT) was sent on 29 May 2000 to two firms and two consortia, each consisting of two firms, in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received four tenders from three firms and one consortium in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ETM (AT), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for the control of the four LHC experiments, including consultancy services and training, for a total amount of 407 500 euros (634 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, and 10 years? maintenance for a total amount of 308 500 euros (480 000 Swiss francs), subject to annual rev...
Reshaping supervisory practice in home care.
Knollmueller, R N
1988-06-01
Reshaping supervisory practice in home care is not an if but a when issue. We need the best wisdom in how to reshape the practice so that it builds on the experience of the individual and the agency. It is time to deliberately plan to change from the paper-shuffling tendency among supervisors toward supporting more people-oriented activity and to rediscover the pivotal role that supervisors have in keeping a community healthy, staff stimulated, and the agency solvent. Some summary points to consider in reshaping supervisory practice include: (1) redefine supervision to reflect what is desired, needed, and possible, (2) recognize the contribution from change theory and apply it, (3) recapture the commitment and philosophy of supervision from the past, (4) reward the supervisor commensurate with the scope of practice expected, (5) reverse selection of supervisors from preservers of territory to manager as idea entrepreneur, (6) respond to varying and dynamic models of supervisory practice, (7) recharge the supervisor through timely in-service programs, continuing education, and formal academic study, (8) require educational content and practice from colleges and universities that stimulate creative supervisory skills and improve job satisfaction, (9) respect the work of the supervisor and provide appropriate support to achieve success, (10) reconsider current supervisory models and expand opportunities for professional growth among staff, and (11) reshape the supervisory role from one of controller to facilitator and innovator.
Communicating Processes with Data for Supervisory Coordination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jasen Markovski
2012-08-01
Full Text Available We employ supervisory controllers to safely coordinate high-level discrete(-event behavior of distributed components of complex systems. Supervisory controllers observe discrete-event system behavior, make a decision on allowed activities, and communicate the control signals to the involved parties. Models of the supervisory controllers can be automatically synthesized based on formal models of the system components and a formalization of the safe coordination (control requirements. Based on the obtained models, code generation can be used to implement the supervisory controllers in software, on a PLC, or an embedded (microprocessor. In this article, we develop a process theory with data that supports a model-based systems engineering framework for supervisory coordination. We employ communication to distinguish between the different flows of information, i.e., observation and supervision, whereas we employ data to specify the coordination requirements more compactly, and to increase the expressivity of the framework. To illustrate the framework, we remodel an industrial case study involving coordination of maintenance procedures of a printing process of a high-tech Oce printer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-03-01
Toshiba delivered the traffic supervisory/control system for Kobe-Awaji-Naruto expressway of Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority opened in May 1998. This traffic supervisory system rapidly exactly collects and services the information on the expressway of 89km including Akashi Kaikyo bridge and O-Naruto bridge. The facility control system totally efficiently maintains and controls various facilities for lighting and air circulation of tunnels on the expressway. The previous control system transmitted road information on traffic volume and traffic congestion to offices by using specific lines and terminals, while this system with a monitoring function using intranet can easily service such information by existing PCs. (translated by NEDO)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1999-03-01
Toshiba delivered the traffic supervisory/control system for Kobe-Awaji-Naruto expressway of Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority opened in May 1998. This traffic supervisory system rapidly exactly collects and services the information on the expressway of 89km including Akashi Kaikyo bridge and O-Naruto bridge. The facility control system totally efficiently maintains and controls various facilities for lighting and air circulation of tunnels on the expressway. The previous control system transmitted road information on traffic volume and traffic congestion to offices by using specific lines and terminals, while this system with a monitoring function using intranet can easily service such information by existing PCs. (translated by NEDO)
Automatic control algorithm effects on energy production
Mcnerney, G. M.
1981-01-01
A computer model was developed using actual wind time series and turbine performance data to simulate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model was used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long term energy production. The results from local site and turbine characteristics were generalized to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minko, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Rafal; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
2016-01-01
. The retrieved heat excess can be stored in the water tank. For this purpose the charging and the discharging water loops has been designed. We present the non-linear model of the above described system and a non-linear model predictive supervisory controller that according to the received price signal......, occupancy information and ambient temperature minimizes the operation cost of the whole system and distributes set points to local controllers of supermarkets subsystems. We find that when reliable information about the high price period is available, it is profitable to use the refrigeration system...... to generate heat during the low price period, store it and use it to substitute the conventional heater during the high price period....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lagunas M, Javier; Ortega S, Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Caratozzolo M, Patricia [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Cd. de Mexico (Mexico)
2005-07-01
The development and integration of hybrid systems of electrical generation (SHGE) of small capacity: The intention of these developments is its implementation in isolated or far away communities from conventional electric networks, that contribute in the own productive processes of these towns. As part of these work a system of control for their hybrid system wind-photovoltaic- internal combustion machine was developed that operates nowadays in a system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. However, in the two past years, the GENC has worked, altogether with the Management of Control and Instrumentation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET) (National Center of Research and Technological Development), to incorporate an intelligent control technique in the regulation of the hybrid systems of wind-photovoltaic-machine of internal combustion type. Lemos de Pereira rises that the main problems of the present technology of the SHGE are related to the control and supervision of the power systems. The system that is in charge of the actions of load control and dispatch is denominated supervisory control. This controller supervises the operation of all the components, regulates the entry or exiting of operation of the generation systems, as well as the loads. [Spanish] El desarrollo e integracion de sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica (SHGE) de pequena capacidad. El proposito de estos desarrollos es su implementacion en comunidades aisladas o alejadas de la red electrica convencional, las cuales contribuyan en los procesos productivos propios de estos poblados. Como parte de dichos trabajos se desarrollo un sistema de control para su sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico-maquina de combustion interna que opera actualmente en un sistema instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Ahora bien, en los dos ultimos anos, la GENC ha trabajado, en conjunto con la Gerencia de Control e
Joint control algorithm in access network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
To deal with long probing delay and inaccurate probing results in the endpoint admission control method,a joint local and end-to-end admission control algorithm is proposed,which introduces local probing of access network besides end-to-end probing.Through local probing,the algorithm accurately estimated the resource status of the access network.Simulation shows that this algorithm can improve admission control performance and reduce users' average waiting time when the access network is heavily loaded.
Algorithms for orbit control on SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corbett, J.; Keeley, D.; Hettel, R.; Linscott, I.; Sebek, J.
1994-06-01
A global orbit feedback system has been installed on SPEAR to help stabilize the position of the photon beams. The orbit control algorithms depend on either harmonic reconstruction of the orbit or eigenvector decomposition. The orbit motion is corrected by dipole corrector kicks determined from the inverse corrector-to-bpm response matrix. This paper outlines features of these control algorithms as applied to SPEAR
Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walz, H.V.; Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Cherkassky, R.; Constant, T.; Matheson, R.
1989-03-01
The Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System, DSPI, is under development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for requirements in the areas of personnel protection, beam containment and equipment protection interlocks. The DSPI system, distributed over the application site, consists of segments with microprocessor-based controller and I/O modules, local area networks for communication, and a global supervisor computer. Segments are implemented with commercially available controller and I/O modules arranged in local interlock clusters, and associated software. Segments provide local interlock data acquisition, processing and control. Local area networks provide the communication backbone between segments and a global supervisor processor. The supervisor processor monitors the overall system, reports detail status and provides human interfaces. Details of an R and D test system, which will implement the requirements for personnel protection of 4 typical linear accelerator sectors, will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs
Industrial Control System Process-Oriented Intrusion Detection (iPoid) Algorithm
2016-08-01
SUBJECT TERMS supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), Modbus, industrial control system, intrusion detection system 16. SECURITY...List of Tables iv Acknowledgments v 1. Background 1 2. iPoid Modbus Packet-Inspection Capability 2 2.1 Software Requirements 2 2.2 Startup ...Mr Curtis Arnold’s support of Industrial Control Systems–Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition research at the US Army Research Laboratory
Comparison of bi-level optimization frameworks for sizing and control of a hybrid electric vehicle
Silvas, E.; Bergshoeff, N.D.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.
2015-01-01
This paper discusses the integrated design problem related to determining the power specifications of the main subsystems (sizing) and the supervisory control (energy management). Different bi-level optimization methods, with the outer loop using algorithms as Genetic Algorithms, Sequential
Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo
2014-01-01
In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms
Model based development of engine control algorithms
Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.
1996-01-01
Model based development of engine control systems has several advantages. The development time and costs are strongly reduced because much of the development and optimization work is carried out by simulating both engine and control system. After optimizing the control algorithm it can be executed
Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jorgensen, C.C.
1985-01-01
This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced
Leadership Development: A Supervisory Responsibility
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
French, David
2000-01-01
.... This is a recurring theme found throughout leadership literature and speeches. The US Air Force clearly establishes subordinate development as a supervisory responsibility in top-level doctrine...
Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework
Boehe, Dirk Michael
2016-01-01
While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…
Evaluation of train-speed control algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slavik, M.M. [BKS Advantech (Pty.) Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)
2000-07-01
A relatively simple and fast simulator has been developed and used for the preliminary testing of train cruise-control algorithms. The simulation is done in software on a PC. The simulator is used to gauge the consequences and feasibility of a cruise-control strategy prior to more elaborate testing and evaluation. The tool was used to design and pre-test a train-cruise control algorithm called NSS, which does not require knowledge of exact train mass, vertical alignment, or actual braking force. Only continuous measurements on the speed of the train and electrical current are required. With this modest input, the NSS algorithm effected speed changes smoothly and efficiently for a wide range of operating conditions. (orig.)
VLSI PARTITIONING ALGORITHM WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL PARAMETER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. N. Filippenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning. A graph is selected as a mathematical model describing integrated circuit. Modification of ant colony optimization algorithm is presented, which is used to solve graph partitioning problem. Ant colony optimization algorithm is an optimization method based on the principles of self-organization and other useful features of the ants’ behavior. The proposed search system is based on ant colony optimization algorithm with the improved method of the initial distribution and dynamic adjustment of the control search parameters. The experimental results and performance comparison show that the proposed method of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning provides the better search performance over other well known algorithms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Sheng-Yi; Liu Wen-Jin; Chen Shan-Qiu; Dong Li-Zhi; Yang Ping; Xu Bing
2015-01-01
Among all kinds of wavefront control algorithms in adaptive optics systems, the direct gradient wavefront control algorithm is the most widespread and common method. This control algorithm obtains the actuator voltages directly from wavefront slopes through pre-measuring the relational matrix between deformable mirror actuators and Hartmann wavefront sensor with perfect real-time characteristic and stability. However, with increasing the number of sub-apertures in wavefront sensor and deformable mirror actuators of adaptive optics systems, the matrix operation in direct gradient algorithm takes too much time, which becomes a major factor influencing control effect of adaptive optics systems. In this paper we apply an iterative wavefront control algorithm to high-resolution adaptive optics systems, in which the voltages of each actuator are obtained through iteration arithmetic, which gains great advantage in calculation and storage. For AO system with thousands of actuators, the computational complexity estimate is about O(n 2 ) ∼ O(n 3 ) in direct gradient wavefront control algorithm, while the computational complexity estimate in iterative wavefront control algorithm is about O(n) ∼ (O(n) 3/2 ), in which n is the number of actuators of AO system. And the more the numbers of sub-apertures and deformable mirror actuators, the more significant advantage the iterative wavefront control algorithm exhibits. (paper)
Design of an advanced human-centered supervisory system for a nuclear fuel reprocessing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riera, B.; Lambert, M.; Martel, G.
1999-01-01
In the field of highly automated processes, our research concerns supervisory system design adapted to supervisory and default diagnosis by human operators. The interpretation of decisional human behaviour models shows that the tasks of human operators require different information, which has repercussions on the supervisory system design. We propose an advanced human-centred supervisory system (AHCSS) which is more adapted to human-beings, because it integrates new representation of the production system,(such as functional and behavioural aspects) with the use of advanced algorithms of detection and location. Based on an approach using these new concepts, and AHCSS was created for a nuclear fuel reprocessing system. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Sun
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a short-term wind turbine (WT outage model based on the data collected from a wind farm supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system. Neural networks (NNs are used to establish prediction models of the WT condition parameters that are dependent on environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and wind speed. The prediction error distributions are discussed and used to calculate probabilities of the operation of protection relays (POPRs that were caused by the threshold exceedance of the environmentally sensitive parameters. The POPRs for other condition parameters are based on the setting time of the operation of protection relays. The union probability method is used to integrate the probabilities of operation of each protection relay to predict the WT short term outage probability. The proposed method has been used for real 1.5 MW WTs with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs. The results show that the proposed method is more effective in WT outage probability prediction than traditional methods.
Johnson, Tony; Metcalfe, Jason; Brewster, Benjamin; Manteuffel, Christopher; Jaswa, Matthew; Tierney, Terrance
2010-04-01
The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.
Figuring Control in the Algorithmic Era
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markham, Annette; Bossen, Claus
Drawing on actor network theory, we follow how algorithms, information, selfhood and identity-for-others tangle in interesting and unexpected ways. Starting with simple moments in everyday life that might be described as having implications for ‘control,’ we focus attention on the ways in which t...
Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Wen [School of Information and Mathematics, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Lü, Jinhu [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Shihua [College of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Xinghuo [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne VIC 3001 (Australia)
2014-03-15
In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.
Chemical optimization algorithm for fuzzy controller design
Astudillo, Leslie; Castillo, Oscar
2014-01-01
In this book, a novel optimization method inspired by a paradigm from nature is introduced. The chemical reactions are used as a paradigm to propose an optimization method that simulates these natural processes. The proposed algorithm is described in detail and then a set of typical complex benchmark functions is used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed optimization algorithm can outperform other methods in a set of benchmark functions. This chemical reaction optimization paradigm is also applied to solve the tracking problem for the dynamic model of a unicycle mobile robot by integrating a kinematic and a torque controller based on fuzzy logic theory. Computer simulations are presented confirming that this optimization paradigm is able to outperform other optimization techniques applied to this particular robot application
Algorithm for Controlling a Centrifugal Compressor
Benedict, Scott M.
2004-01-01
An algorithm has been developed for controlling a centrifugal compressor that serves as the prime mover in a heatpump system. Experimental studies have shown that the operating conditions for maximum compressor efficiency are close to the boundary beyond which surge occurs. Compressor surge is a destructive condition in which there are instantaneous reversals of flow associated with a high outlet-to-inlet pressure differential. For a given cooling load, the algorithm sets the compressor speed at the lowest possible value while adjusting the inlet guide vane angle and diffuser vane angle to maximize efficiency, subject to an overriding requirement to prevent surge. The onset of surge is detected via the onset of oscillations of the electric current supplied to the compressor motor, associated with surge-induced oscillations of the torque exerted by and on the compressor rotor. The algorithm can be implemented in any of several computer languages.
Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paško Bilić
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.
Gradient algorithm applied to laboratory quantum control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roslund, Jonathan; Rabitz, Herschel
2009-01-01
The exploration of a quantum control landscape, which is the physical observable as a function of the control variables, is fundamental for understanding the ability to perform observable optimization in the laboratory. For high control variable dimensions, trajectory-based methods provide a means for performing such systematic explorations by exploiting the measured gradient of the observable with respect to the control variables. This paper presents a practical, robust, easily implemented statistical method for obtaining the gradient on a general quantum control landscape in the presence of noise. In order to demonstrate the method's utility, the experimentally measured gradient is utilized as input in steepest-ascent trajectories on the landscapes of three model quantum control problems: spectrally filtered and integrated second harmonic generation as well as excitation of atomic rubidium. The gradient algorithm achieves efficiency gains of up to approximately three times that of the standard genetic algorithm and, as such, is a promising tool for meeting quantum control optimization goals as well as landscape analyses. The landscape trajectories directed by the gradient should aid in the continued investigation and understanding of controlled quantum phenomena.
An efficient control algorithm for nonlinear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, S.
1990-12-01
We suggest a scheme to step up the efficiency of a recently proposed adaptive control algorithm, which is remarkably effective for regulating nonlinear systems. The technique involves monitoring of the ''stiffness of control'' to get maximum gain while maintaining a predetermined accuracy. The success of the procedure is demonstrated for the case of the logistic map, where we show that the improvement in performance is often factors of tens, and for small control stiffness, even factors of hundreds. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
Cheng, Sheng-Yi; Liu, Wen-Jin; Chen, Shan-Qiu; Dong, Li-Zhi; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing
2015-08-01
Among all kinds of wavefront control algorithms in adaptive optics systems, the direct gradient wavefront control algorithm is the most widespread and common method. This control algorithm obtains the actuator voltages directly from wavefront slopes through pre-measuring the relational matrix between deformable mirror actuators and Hartmann wavefront sensor with perfect real-time characteristic and stability. However, with increasing the number of sub-apertures in wavefront sensor and deformable mirror actuators of adaptive optics systems, the matrix operation in direct gradient algorithm takes too much time, which becomes a major factor influencing control effect of adaptive optics systems. In this paper we apply an iterative wavefront control algorithm to high-resolution adaptive optics systems, in which the voltages of each actuator are obtained through iteration arithmetic, which gains great advantage in calculation and storage. For AO system with thousands of actuators, the computational complexity estimate is about O(n2) ˜ O(n3) in direct gradient wavefront control algorithm, while the computational complexity estimate in iterative wavefront control algorithm is about O(n) ˜ (O(n)3/2), in which n is the number of actuators of AO system. And the more the numbers of sub-apertures and deformable mirror actuators, the more significant advantage the iterative wavefront control algorithm exhibits. Project supported by the National Key Scientific and Research Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. ZDYZ2013-2), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11173008), and the Sichuan Provincial Outstanding Youth Academic Technology Leaders Program, China (Grant No. 2012JQ0012).
Adaptive Control Algorithm of the Synchronous Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shevchenko Victor
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the the problem of controlling a synchronous generator, namely, maintaining the stability of the control object in the conditions of occurrence of noise and disturbances in the regulatory process. The model of a synchronous generator is represented by a system of differential equations of Park-Gorev, where state variables are computed relative to synchronously rotating d, q-axis. Management of synchronous generator is proposed to organize on the basis of the position-path control using algorithms to adapt with the reference model. Basic control law directed on the stabilizing indicators the frequency generated by the current and the required power level, which is achieved by controlling the mechanical torque on the shaft of the turbine and the value of the excitation voltage of the synchronous generator. Modification of the classic adaptation algorithm using the reference model, allowing to minimize the error of the reference regulation and the model under investigation within the prescribed limits, produced by means of the introduction of additional variables controller adaptation in the model. Сarried out the mathematical modeling of control provided influence on the studied model of continuous nonlinear and unmeasured the disturbance. Simulation results confirm the high level accuracy of tracking and adaptation investigated model with respect to the reference, and the present value of the loop error depends on parameters performance of regulator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agus Eko Handoko
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract SCADA is a combination of telemetry and data acquisition. SCADA proceeding by means of accumulating some information and return back to center controlling, it is also implementing every analysis and necessary control through PID control system as a control parameter to SCADA input data system in this research. In designing PID control system it is needed the arrangement of P, I and D parameter in order to acquire output signal system to particular input system which has adjusted to necessity. The research was implemented on Water Treatment Plant in Bogor Agricultural University at Cihideung's area region. The NTU score as a starting operational data is necessary as a bench mark in PAC dose application which is obtained from the samples of morning and afternoon raw water and dose proportion is 75% for 14kgs PAC mixed with 200 Litre water within 30 NTU as the maximal treatment. 75% dose application can be imposed for 7 hours PAC usage. The result of research indicated that the variety of percentages value in PAC dose application delivered the advantage in operating of clean water processing installation particularly for PAC needed. Design Of SCADA System SCADA indicated the outcome of unit data acquirement on certain period to determine the PAC necessity in operating Water Treatment Plant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwer Ahmed Memon
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Our work is the small part of the smart grid system. This is regarding the check and balance of power consumption at the consumer level. It is a well known fact that the consumers are allocated a fixed load according to their requirement at the time of application for the electricity connection. When the consumer increases its load and does not inform the power company, the result is the overloading of the system. This paper presents a solution regarding distribution and load allocation to each customer. If the customer uses power greater than the load allocated, further power is not provided and consequently that appliance is not turned on unless the total load must not be decreased than the allocated load. This is achieved by designing a processor controlled system that measures the power on main line and also the power taken by each device. Now when a device is turned on, its power is measured by the controller and compares it with the main line power, and when the device consumes some power consequently main line power will also be increased thus this main line power is monitored and if it exceeds particular limit that device is turned off through its relay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, A.W.; Memon, Z.A.; Aamir, R.R.
2014-01-01
Our work is the small part of the smart grid system. This is regarding the check and balance of power consumption at the consumer level. It is a well known fact that the consumers are allocated a fixed load according to their requirement at the time of application for the electricity connection. When the consumer increases its load and does not inform the power company, the result is the overloading of the system. This paper presents a solution regarding distribution and load allocation to each customer. If the customer uses power greater than the load allocated, further power is not provided and consequently that appliance is not turned on unless the total load must not be decreased than the allocated load. This is achieved by designing a processor controlled system that measures the power on main line and also the power taken by each device. Now when a device is turned on, its power is measured by the controller and compares it with the main line power, and when the device consumes some power consequently main line power will also be increased thus this main line power is monitored and if it exceeds particular limit that device is turned off through its relay. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.V. Goryaev
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the control system of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population under the control of Rospotrebnadzor in the Krasnoyarsk region, a register of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, whose activities are subject to sanitary and epidemiological supervision was established. For each of the 21 386 economic entities the number of population was defined (workers, consumers of goods and services, the potential risk of harm to the health of these populations was calculated. The computational methods and expert assessments were used. Testing of objects classification into four classes (1-extremely high, 2-high, 3-moderate, 4 class – low risk allowed to rank to the class 1 around 0.6% of supervised legal entities and individual entrepreneurs; to object class 2 – about 14%; to class 3 – almost 48%. More than 36.7% of business entities have been referred to the fourth class; the frequency of scheduled inspections of their activity is minimal or can be ruled out at all (in the absence of violations of sanitary legislation for certain time. Using a risk-based planning model has streamlined planning towards increasing the share of inspections in respect of the subjects that are highly relevant and hygienically engaged in providing health care to the population (from 3.9% to 6.8%, education (from 32.8% to 55.6%, services and audits of local governments (from 0.9% to 15.2%.
Application of genetic algorithm to control design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho
1995-01-01
A classical PID controller is designed by applying the GA (Genetic Algorithm) which searches the optimal parameters through three major operators of reproduction, crossover and mutation under the given constraints. The GA could minimize the designer's interference and the whole design process could easily be automated. In contrast with other traditional PID design methods which allows for the system output responses only, the design with the GA can take account of the magnitude or the rate of change of control input together with the output responses, which reflects the more realistic situations. Compared with other PIDs designed by the traditional methods such as Ziegler and analytic, the PID by the GA shows the superior response characteristics to those of others with the least control input energy
Nonlinear model predictive control theory and algorithms
Grüne, Lars
2017-01-01
This book offers readers a thorough and rigorous introduction to nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) for discrete-time and sampled-data systems. NMPC schemes with and without stabilizing terminal constraints are detailed, and intuitive examples illustrate the performance of different NMPC variants. NMPC is interpreted as an approximation of infinite-horizon optimal control so that important properties like closed-loop stability, inverse optimality and suboptimality can be derived in a uniform manner. These results are complemented by discussions of feasibility and robustness. An introduction to nonlinear optimal control algorithms yields essential insights into how the nonlinear optimization routine—the core of any nonlinear model predictive controller—works. Accompanying software in MATLAB® and C++ (downloadable from extras.springer.com/), together with an explanatory appendix in the book itself, enables readers to perform computer experiments exploring the possibilities and limitations of NMPC. T...
MPPT algorithm for voltage controlled PV inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel concept for an MPPT that can be used in case of a voltage controlled grid connected PV inverters. In case of single-phase systems, the 100 Hz ripple in the AC power is also present on the DC side. Depending on the DC link capacitor, this power fluctuation can be used t...... to track the MPP of the PV array, using the information that at MPP the power oscillations are very small. In this way the algorithm can detect the fact that the current working point is at the MPP, for the current atmospheric conditions....
Fault-tolerant Supervisory Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
of this work has been to develop and employ concepts and methods that are suitable for use in different automation processes, with applicability in various industrial fields. The requirements for high productivity and quality has resulted in employing additional instrumentation and use of more sophisticated...
Seismic active control by a heuristic-based algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Yu.
1996-01-01
A heuristic-based algorithm for seismic active control is generalized to permit consideration of the effects of control-structure interaction and actuator dynamics. Control force is computed at onetime step ahead before being applied to the structure. Therefore, the proposed control algorithm is free from the problem of time delay. A numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. Also, two indices are introduced in the paper to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of control laws
Control algorithms and applications of the wavefront sensorless adaptive optics
Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Yuanshen; Yang, Huizhen
2017-10-01
Compared with the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system need not to measure the wavefront and reconstruct it. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. Based on the analysis of principle and system model of the WFSless AO system, wavefront correction methods of the WFSless AO system were divided into two categories: model-free-based and model-based control algorithms. The WFSless AO system based on model-free-based control algorithms commonly considers the performance metric as a function of the control parameters and then uses certain control algorithm to improve the performance metric. The model-based control algorithms include modal control algorithms, nonlinear control algorithms and control algorithms based on geometrical optics. Based on the brief description of above typical control algorithms, hybrid methods combining the model-free-based control algorithm with the model-based control algorithm were generalized. Additionally, characteristics of various control algorithms were compared and analyzed. We also discussed the extensive applications of WFSless AO system in free space optical communication (FSO), retinal imaging in the human eye, confocal microscope, coherent beam combination (CBC) techniques and extended objects.
Board of Directors or Supervisory Board
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Werlauff, Erik
2009-01-01
The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control...... over the management board, including its appointment and dismissal. The article considers which companies a two-tier structure may be relevant for, and reviews the consequences for the composition, election and functioning of the company organs....
Packet-Based Control Algorithms for Cooperative Surveillance and Reconnaissance
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Murray, Richard M
2007-01-01
..., and repeated transmissions. Results include analysis and design of estimation and control algorithms in the presence of packet loss and across multi-hop data networks, distributed estimation and sensor fusion algorithms...
Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm applied to dengue control.
Florentino, Helenice O; Cantane, Daniela R; Santos, Fernando L P; Bannwart, Bettina F
2014-12-01
Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the Flaviridae family and transmitted to the person by a mosquito of the genus Aedes aegypti. This disease has been a global public health problem because a single mosquito can infect up to 300 people and between 50 and 100 million people are infected annually on all continents. Thus, dengue fever is currently a subject of research, whether in the search for vaccines and treatments for the disease or efficient and economical forms of mosquito control. The current study aims to study techniques of multiobjective optimization to assist in solving problems involving the control of the mosquito that transmits dengue fever. The population dynamics of the mosquito is studied in order to understand the epidemic phenomenon and suggest strategies of multiobjective programming for mosquito control. A Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MGA_DENGUE) is proposed to solve the optimization model treated here and we discuss the computational results obtained from the application of this technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favarò, Francesca M.; Saleh, Joseph H.
2016-01-01
Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a staple in the engineering risk community, and it has become to some extent synonymous with the entire quantitative risk assessment undertaking. Limitations of PRA continue to occupy researchers, and workarounds are often proposed. After a brief review of this literature, we propose to address some of PRA's limitations by developing a novel framework and analytical tools for model-based system safety, or safety supervisory control, to guide safety interventions and support a dynamic approach to risk assessment and accident prevention. Our work shifts the emphasis from the pervading probabilistic mindset in risk assessment toward the notions of danger indices and hazard temporal contingency. The framework and tools here developed are grounded in Control Theory and make use of the state-space formalism in modeling dynamical systems. We show that the use of state variables enables the definition of metrics for accident escalation, termed hazard levels or danger indices, which measure the “proximity” of the system state to adverse events, and we illustrate the development of such indices. Monitoring of the hazard levels provides diagnostic information to support both on-line and off-line safety interventions. For example, we show how the application of the proposed tools to a rejected takeoff scenario provides new insight to support pilots’ go/no-go decisions. Furthermore, we augment the traditional state-space equations with a hazard equation and use the latter to estimate the times at which critical thresholds for the hazard level are (b)reached. This estimation process provides important prognostic information and produces a proxy for a time-to-accident metric or advance notice for an impending adverse event. The ability to estimate these two hazard coordinates, danger index and time-to-accident, offers many possibilities for informing system control strategies and improving accident prevention and risk mitigation
Rate-control algorithms testing by using video source model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Anna
2008-01-01
In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set.......In this paper the method of rate control algorithms testing by the use of video source model is suggested. The proposed method allows to significantly improve algorithms testing over the big test set....
Implementation of fuzzy logic control algorithm in embedded ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Fuzzy logic control algorithm solves problems that are difficult to address with traditional control techniques. This paper describes an implementation of fuzzy logic control algorithm using inexpensive hardware as well as how to use fuzzy logic to tackle a specific control problem without any special software tools. As a case ...
Roozegar, M.; Angeles, J.
2018-05-01
In light of the current low energy-storage capacity of electric batteries, multi-speed transmissions (MSTs) are being considered for applications in electric vehicles (EVs), since MSTs decrease the energy consumption of the EV via gear-shifting. Nonetheless, swiftness and seamlessness are the major concerns in gear-shifting. This study focuses on developing a gear-shifting control scheme for a novel MST designed for EVs. The main advantages of the proposed MST are simplicity and modularity. Firstly, the dynamics model of the transmission is formulated. Then, a two-phase algorithm is proposed for shifting between each two gear ratios, which guarantees a smooth and swift shift. In other words, a separate control set is applied for shifting between each gear pair, which includes two independent PID controllers, tuned using trial-and-error and a genetic algorithm (GA), for the two steps of the algorithm and a switch. A supervisory controller is also employed to choose the proper PID gains, called PID gain-scheduling. Simulation results for various controllers and conditions are reported and compared, indicating that the proposed scheme is highly promising for a desired gear-shifting even in the presence of an unknown external disturbance.
RTE - Report by the Chairman of the Supervisory Board 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
The Chairman of the Supervisory Board of RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite) draws up and publishes an annual report on corporate governance and internal control procedures, in application of Paragraph 7 of Article L. 225-68 of French company law (Code de Commerce). This is a requirement on companies whose shares are traded on a regulated market, as is the case of RTE. Paragraph 7 of Article L. 225-68 of French company law (Code de Commerce) stipulates that the report must present: the composition of the Supervisory Board and the application of the principle of equal representation of men and women, the conditions of preparing and organising the work of the Supervisory Board, internal control and risk management procedures implemented by the company, the corporate governance code to which the company adheres. Additionally, this report must set out: the principles for determining the remuneration of senior executives, specific provisions relating to the involvement of shareholders at the General Meeting of Shareholders. Within RTE, this report has been prepared by the Legal Affairs Department, which directed a work team. They reported on the functioning of the Supervisory Board and the implementation of internal control and risk management procedures, both for RTE and for its subsidiaries. The present report was approved by the Executive Board and was submitted to the Statutory Auditors. It was then presented to the Economic and Audit Supervisory Committee on 07 February 2017 and the Supervisory Board on 09 February 2017. The report was published at the same time as the activity report, the management report and consolidated accounts, annual accounts and the sustainability report. This document takes account of the various recommendations published by the French Financial Markets Authority (AMF)
Application of functional analysis techniques to supervisory systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, Manuel; Riera, Bernard; Martel, Gregory
1999-01-01
The aim of this paper is to apply firstly two interesting functional analysis techniques for the design of supervisory systems for complex processes, and secondly to discuss the strength and the weaknesses of each of them. Two functional analysis techniques have been applied, SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) and FAST (Functional Analysis System Technique) on a process, an example of a Water Supply Process Control (WSPC) system. These techniques allow a functional description of industrial processes. The paper briefly discusses the functions of a supervisory system and some advantages of the application of functional analysis for the design of a 'human' centered supervisory system. Then the basic principles of the two techniques applied on the WSPC system are presented. Finally, the different results obtained from the two techniques are discussed
Photovoltaic Cells Mppt Algorithm and Design of Controller Monitoring System
Meng, X. Z.; Feng, H. B.
2017-10-01
This paper combined the advantages of each maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, put forward a kind of algorithm with higher speed and higher precision, based on this algorithm designed a maximum power point tracking controller with ARM. The controller, communication technology and PC software formed a control system. Results of the simulation and experiment showed that the process of maximum power tracking was effective, and the system was stable.
Maintenance of Process Control Algorithms based on Dynamic Program Slicing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ole Fink; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole
2010-01-01
Today’s industrial control systems gradually lose performance after installation and must be regularly maintained by means of adjusting parameters and modifying the control algorithm, in order to regain high performance. Industrial control algorithms are complex software systems, and it is partic...
PSO Algorithm for an Optimal Power Controller in a Microgrid
Al-Saedi, W.; Lachowicz, S.; Habibi, D.; Bass, O.
2017-07-01
This paper presents the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to improve the quality of the power supply in a microgrid. This algorithm is proposed for a real-time selftuning method that used in a power controller for an inverter based Distributed Generation (DG) unit. In such system, the voltage and frequency are the main control objectives, particularly when the microgrid is islanded or during load change. In this work, the PSO algorithm is implemented to find the optimal controller parameters to satisfy the control objectives. The results show high performance of the applied PSO algorithm of regulating the microgrid voltage and frequency.
Supervisory Presentation for Research, Information, Integration and Testing (SPRINT)
2015-03-29
in Microsoft Visual Studio and several third party developer libraries (See Figure 4). All distributed laboratory sites have similar hardware...Testing (SPRINT). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Supervisory Control, Multi-Modal Interfaces, Scalable Interfaces, Advanced Visualization , Augmented Symbology 16...23 Figure 9. Fusion Visual Framework Components
Optimal Pid Controller Design Using Adaptive Vurpso Algorithm
Zirkohi, Majid Moradi
2015-04-01
The purpose of this paper is to improve theVelocity Update Relaxation Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (VURPSO). The improved algorithm is called Adaptive VURPSO (AVURPSO) algorithm. Then, an optimal design of a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is obtained using the AVURPSO algorithm. An adaptive momentum factor is used to regulate a trade-off between the global and the local exploration abilities in the proposed algorithm. This operation helps the system to reach the optimal solution quickly and saves the computation time. Comparisons on the optimal PID controller design confirm the superiority of AVURPSO algorithm to the optimization algorithms mentioned in this paper namely the VURPSO algorithm, the Ant Colony algorithm, and the conventional approach. Comparisons on the speed of convergence confirm that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence in a less computation time to yield a global optimum value. The proposed AVURPSO can be used in the diverse areas of optimization problems such as industrial planning, resource allocation, scheduling, decision making, pattern recognition and machine learning. The proposed AVURPSO algorithm is efficiently used to design an optimal PID controller.
Research on intelligent algorithm of electro - hydraulic servo control system
Wang, Yannian; Zhao, Yuhui; Liu, Chengtao
2017-09-01
In order to adapt the nonlinear characteristics of the electro-hydraulic servo control system and the influence of complex interference in the industrial field, using a fuzzy PID switching learning algorithm is proposed and a fuzzy PID switching learning controller is designed and applied in the electro-hydraulic servo controller. The designed controller not only combines the advantages of the fuzzy control and PID control, but also introduces the learning algorithm into the switching function, which makes the learning of the three parameters in the switching function can avoid the instability of the system during the switching between the fuzzy control and PID control algorithms. It also makes the switch between these two control algorithm more smoother than that of the conventional fuzzy PID.
The research on algorithms for optoelectronic tracking servo control systems
Zhu, Qi-Hai; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Zhu, Zheng; Li, Kun
2016-10-01
The photoelectric servo control system based on PC controllers is mainly used to control the speed and position of the load. This paper analyzed the mathematical modeling and the system identification of the servo system. In the aspect of the control algorithm, the IP regulator, the fuzzy PID, the Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) and the adaptive algorithms were compared and analyzed. The PI-P control algorithm was proposed in this paper, which not only has the advantages of the PI regulator that can be quickly saturated, but also overcomes the shortcomings of the IP regulator. The control system has a good starting performance and the anti-load ability in a wide range. Experimental results show that the system has good performance under the guarantee of the PI-P control algorithm.
Model-Free Adaptive Control Algorithm with Data Dropout Compensation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuhui Bu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The convergence of model-free adaptive control (MFAC algorithm can be guaranteed when the system is subject to measurement data dropout. The system output convergent speed gets slower as dropout rate increases. This paper proposes a MFAC algorithm with data compensation. The missing data is first estimated using the dynamical linearization method, and then the estimated value is introduced to update control input. The convergence analysis of the proposed MFAC algorithm is given, and the effectiveness is also validated by simulations. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can compensate the effect of the data dropout, and the better output performance can be obtained.
A controllable sensor management algorithm capable of learning
Osadciw, Lisa A.; Veeramacheneni, Kalyan K.
2005-03-01
Sensor management technology progress is challenged by the geographic space it spans, the heterogeneity of the sensors, and the real-time timeframes within which plans controlling the assets are executed. This paper presents a new sensor management paradigm and demonstrates its application in a sensor management algorithm designed for a biometric access control system. This approach consists of an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm focused on uncertainty measures, which makes the high level decisions to reduce uncertainties and interfaces with the user, integrated cohesively with a bottom up evolutionary algorithm, which optimizes the sensor network"s operation as determined by the AI algorithm. The sensor management algorithm presented is composed of a Bayesian network, the AI algorithm component, and a swarm optimization algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm. Thus, the algorithm can change its own performance goals in real-time and will modify its own decisions based on observed measures within the sensor network. The definition of the measures as well as the Bayesian network determine the robustness of the algorithm and its utility in reacting dynamically to changes in the global system.
PID controller tuning using metaheuristic optimization algorithms for benchmark problems
Gholap, Vishal; Naik Dessai, Chaitali; Bagyaveereswaran, V.
2017-11-01
This paper contributes to find the optimal PID controller parameters using particle swarm optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. The algorithms were developed through simulation of chemical process and electrical system and the PID controller is tuned. Here, two different fitness functions such as Integral Time Absolute Error and Time domain Specifications were chosen and applied on PSO, GA and SA while tuning the controller. The proposed Algorithms are implemented on two benchmark problems of coupled tank system and DC motor. Finally, comparative study has been done with different algorithms based on best cost, number of iterations and different objective functions. The closed loop process response for each set of tuned parameters is plotted for each system with each fitness function.
Algorithm improvement for phase control of subharmonic buncher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Junqiang; Yu Luyang; Yin Chongxian; Zhao Minghua; Zhong Shaopeng
2011-01-01
To realize digital phase control of subharmonic buncher,a low level radio frequency control system using down converter, IQ modulator and demodulator techniques, and commercial PXI system, was developed on the platform of LabVIEW. A single-neuron adaptive PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control algorithm with ability of self learning was adopted, satisfying the requirements of phase stability. By comparison with the traditional PID algorithm in field testing, the new algorithm has good stability, fast response and strong anti-interference ability. (authors)
Numerical Algorithms for Deterministic Impulse Control Models with Applications
Grass, D.; Chahim, M.
2012-01-01
Abstract: In this paper we describe three different algorithms, from which two (as far as we know) are new in the literature. We take both the size of the jump as the jump times as decision variables. The first (new) algorithm considers an Impulse Control problem as a (multipoint) Boundary Value
Dynamic Algorithm for LQGPC Predictive Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hangstrup, M.; Ordys, A.W.; Grimble, M.J.
1998-01-01
In this paper the optimal control law is derived for a multi-variable state space Linear Quadratic Gaussian Predictive Controller (LQGPC). A dynamic performance index is utilized resulting in an optimal steady state controller. Knowledge of future reference values is incorporated into the control......In this paper the optimal control law is derived for a multi-variable state space Linear Quadratic Gaussian Predictive Controller (LQGPC). A dynamic performance index is utilized resulting in an optimal steady state controller. Knowledge of future reference values is incorporated...... into the controller design and the solution is derived using the method of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown how well-known GPC controller can be obtained as a special case of the LQGPC controller design. The important advantage of using the LQGPC framework for designing predictive, e.g. GPS is that LQGPC enables...
Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and control...
Secondary Coordinated Control of Islanded Microgrids Based on Consensus Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos
2014-01-01
systems. Nevertheless, the conventional decentralized secondary control, although does not need to be implemented in a microgrid central controller (MGCC), it has the limitation that all decentralized controllers must be mutually synchronized. In a clear cut contrast, the proposed secondary control......This paper proposes a decentralized secondary control for islanded microgrids based on consensus algorithms. In a microgrid, the secondary control is implemented in order to eliminate the frequency changes caused by the primary control when coordinating renewable energy sources and energy storage...... requires only a more simplified communication protocol and a sparse communication network. Moreover, the proposed approach based on dynamic consensus algorithms is able to achieve the coordinated secondary performance even when all units are initially out-of-synchronism. The control algorithm implemented...
Researching on YH100 Numerical Control Servo Press Hydraulic Control System and Control Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai LI
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In order to study the numerical control (NC servo press hydraulic control system and its control algorithm. The numerical control servo press performance and control principle of hydraulic control system are analyzed. According to the flow equation of the hydraulic control valve, hydraulic cylinder flow continuity equation and the force balance equation of the hydraulic cylinder with load press, the mathematical model of hydraulic control system is established. And the servo press hydraulic system transfer function is deduced. Introducing the suitable immune particle swarm control algorithm for servo press hydraulic system, and the control system block diagram is established. Immune algorithm is used to optimize new control parameters of the system and adopt the new optimization results to optimize the system simulation. The simulation result shows that the hydraulic system’s transition time controlled by the immune particle swarm algorithm is shorter than traditional ones, and the control performance is obviously improved. Finally it can be concluded that immune particle swarm PID control have these characteristics such as quickness, stability and accuracy. Applying this principle into application, the obtained YH100 numerical control servo press hydraulic control system meets the requirement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Shoaib Shahriar
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Present-day power systems are mostly equipped with conventional meters and intended for the installation of highly accurate phasor measurement units (PMUs to ensure better protection, monitoring and control of the network. PMU is a deliberate choice due to its unique capacity in providing accurate phasor readings of bus voltages and currents. However, due to the high expense and a requirement for communication facilities, the installation of a limited number of PMUs in a network is common practice. This paper presents an optimal approach to selecting the locations of PMUs to be installed with the objective of ensuring maximum accuracy of the state estimation (SE. The optimization technique ensures that the critical locations of the system will be covered by PMU meters which lower the negative impact of bad data on state-estimation performance. One of the well-known intelligent optimization techniques, the genetic algorithm (GA, is used to search for the optimal set of PMUs. The proposed technique is compared with a heuristic approach of PMU placement. The weighted least square (WLS, with a modified Jacobian to deal with the phasor quantities, is used to compute the estimation accuracy. IEEE 30-bus and 118-bus systems are used to demonstrate the suggested technique.
Basic Research on Adaptive Model Algorithmic Control
1985-12-01
Control Conference. Richalet, J., A. Rault, J.L. Testud and J. Papon (1978). Model predictive heuristic control: applications to industrial...pp.977-982. Richalet, J., A. Rault, J. L. Testud and J. Papon (1978). Model predictive heuristic control: applications to industrial processes
Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)
Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)
Randomized algorithms in automatic control and data mining
Granichin, Oleg; Toledano-Kitai, Dvora
2015-01-01
In the fields of data mining and control, the huge amount of unstructured data and the presence of uncertainty in system descriptions have always been critical issues. The book Randomized Algorithms in Automatic Control and Data Mining introduces the readers to the fundamentals of randomized algorithm applications in data mining (especially clustering) and in automatic control synthesis. The methods proposed in this book guarantee that the computational complexity of classical algorithms and the conservativeness of standard robust control techniques will be reduced. It is shown that when a problem requires "brute force" in selecting among options, algorithms based on random selection of alternatives offer good results with certain probability for a restricted time and significantly reduce the volume of operations.
Fuzzy power control algorithm for a pressurized water reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hah, Y.J.; Lee, B.W.
1994-01-01
A fuzzy power control algorithm is presented for automatic reactor power control in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Automatic power shape control is complicated by the use of control rods with a conventional proportional-integral-differential controller because it is highly coupled with reactivity compensation. Thus, manual shape controls are usually employed even for the limited capability needed for load-following operations including frequency control. In an attempt to achieve automatic power shape control without any design modifications to the core, a fuzzy power control algorithm is proposed. For the fuzzy control, the rule base is formulated based on a multiple-input multiple-output system. The minimum operation rule and the center of area method are implemented for the development of the fuzzy algorithm. The fuzzy power control algorithm has been applied to Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 3. The simulation results show that the fuzzy control can be adapted as a practical control strategy for automatic reactor power control of PWRs during the load-following operations
Design and simulation of airport congestion control algorithms
Simaiakis, Ioannis; Balakrishnan, Hamsa
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a stochastic model of runway departures and a dynamic programming algorithm for their control at congested airports. Using a multi-variable state description that includes the capacity forecast, the runway system is modeled as a semi-Markov process. The paper then introduces a queuing system for modeling the controlled departure process that enables the efficient calculation of optimal pushback policies using decomposition techniques. The developed algorithm is simulated a...
B ampersand W PWR advanced control system algorithm development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winks, R.W.; Wilson, T.L.; Amick, M.
1992-01-01
This paper discusses algorithm development of an Advanced Control System for the B ampersand W Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. The paper summarizes the history of the project, describes the operation of the algorithm, and presents transient results from a simulation of the plant and control system. The history discusses the steps in the development process and the roles played by the utility owners, B ampersand W Nuclear Service Company (BWNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Foxboro Company. The algorithm description is a brief overview of the features of the control system. The transient results show that operation of the algorithm in a normal power maneuvering mode and in a moderately large upset following a feedwater pump trip
Visual Perception Based Rate Control Algorithm for HEVC
Feng, Zeqi; Liu, PengYu; Jia, Kebin
2018-01-01
For HEVC, rate control is an indispensably important video coding technology to alleviate the contradiction between video quality and the limited encoding resources during video communication. However, the rate control benchmark algorithm of HEVC ignores subjective visual perception. For key focus regions, bit allocation of LCU is not ideal and subjective quality is unsatisfied. In this paper, a visual perception based rate control algorithm for HEVC is proposed. First bit allocation weight of LCU level is optimized based on the visual perception of luminance and motion to ameliorate video subjective quality. Then λ and QP are adjusted in combination with the bit allocation weight to improve rate distortion performance. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces average 0.5% BD-BR and maximum 1.09% BD-BR at no cost in bitrate accuracy compared with HEVC (HM15.0). The proposed algorithm devotes to improving video subjective quality under various video applications.
Reactor controller design using genetic algorithms with simulated annealing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkan, K.; Buetuen, E.
2000-01-01
This chapter presents a digital control system for ITU TRIGA Mark-II reactor using genetic algorithms with simulated annealing. The basic principles of genetic algorithms for problem solving are inspired by the mechanism of natural selection. Natural selection is a biological process in which stronger individuals are likely to be winners in a competing environment. Genetic algorithms use a direct analogy of natural evolution. Genetic algorithms are global search techniques for optimisation but they are poor at hill-climbing. Simulated annealing has the ability of probabilistic hill-climbing. Thus, the two techniques are combined here to get a fine-tuned algorithm that yields a faster convergence and a more accurate search by introducing a new mutation operator like simulated annealing or an adaptive cooling schedule. In control system design, there are currently no systematic approaches to choose the controller parameters to obtain the desired performance. The controller parameters are usually determined by test and error with simulation and experimental analysis. Genetic algorithm is used automatically and efficiently searching for a set of controller parameters for better performance. (orig.)
Impulse position control algorithms for nonlinear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sesekin, A. N., E-mail: sesekin@list.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation); Nepp, A. N., E-mail: anepp@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)
2015-11-30
The article is devoted to the formalization and description of impulse-sliding regime in nonlinear dynamical systems that arise in the application of impulse position controls of a special kind. The concept of trajectory impulse-sliding regime formalized as some limiting network element Euler polygons generated by a discrete approximation of the impulse position control This paper differs from the previously published papers in that it uses a definition of solutions of systems with impulse controls, it based on the closure of the set of smooth solutions in the space of functions of bounded variation. The need for the study of such regimes is the fact that they often arise when parry disturbances acting on technical or economic control system.
Impulse position control algorithms for nonlinear systems
Sesekin, A. N.; Nepp, A. N.
2015-11-01
The article is devoted to the formalization and description of impulse-sliding regime in nonlinear dynamical systems that arise in the application of impulse position controls of a special kind. The concept of trajectory impulse-sliding regime formalized as some limiting network element Euler polygons generated by a discrete approximation of the impulse position control This paper differs from the previously published papers in that it uses a definition of solutions of systems with impulse controls, it based on the closure of the set of smooth solutions in the space of functions of bounded variation. The need for the study of such regimes is the fact that they often arise when parry disturbances acting on technical or economic control system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-Jen Mon
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A supervisory Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (SANFIS is proposed for the empirical control of a mobile robot. This controller includes an ANFIS controller and a supervisory controller. The ANFIS controller is off-line tuned by an adaptive fuzzy inference system, the supervisory controller is designed to compensate for the approximation error between the ANFIS controller and the ideal controller, and drive the trajectory of the system onto a specified surface (called the sliding surface or switching surface while maintaining the trajectory onto this switching surface continuously to guarantee the system stability. This SANFIS controller can achieve favourable empirical control performance of the mobile robot in the empirical tests of driving the mobile robot with a square path. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SANFIS can achieve better control performance than that achieved using an ANFIS controller for empirical control of the mobile robot.
Fitchett, George; Altenbaumer, Mary L; Atta, Osofo Kwesi; Stowman, Sheryl Lyndes; Vlach, Kyle
2014-12-01
Revisions to the processes for training and certifying supervisors continue to be debated within the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education (ACPE). In 2012 Ragsdale and colleagues published, "Mutually engaged supervisory processes," a qualitative research study utilizing grounded theory based on interviews with 19 recently certified Associate CPE Supervisors, of nine components that facilitate the development of CPE supervisory education students. In this article we critically engage this theory and the research upon which it is based. We also reflect on three issues highlighted by the theory: personal transformation in CPE supervisory education, how CPE supervisory education students develop theoretical foundations for their work, and engaging multicultural issues in supervisory education. We conclude that this theory offers ACPE the possibility of using research to guide future modifications to its practice of Supervisory education. © 2014 Journal of Pastoral Care Publications Inc.
Immune algorithm based active PID control for structure systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Young Jin; Cho, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Kwon Soon
2006-01-01
An immune algorithm is a kind of evolutional computation strategies, which is developed in the basis of a real immune mechanism in the human body. Recently, scientific or engineering applications using this scheme are remarkably increased due to its significant ability in terms of adaptation and robustness for external disturbances. Particularly, this algorithm is efficient to search optimal parameters against complicated dynamic systems with uncertainty and perturbation. In this paper, we investigate an immune algorithm embedded Proportional Integral Derivate (called I P ID) control, in which an optimal parameter vector of the controller is determined offline by using a cell-mediated immune response of the immunized mechanism. For evaluation, we apply the proposed control to mitigation of vibrations for nonlinear structural systems, cased by external environment load such as winds and earthquakes. Comparing to traditional controls under same simulation scenarios, we demonstrate the innovation control is superior especially in robustness aspect
Searching for the majority: algorithms of voluntary control.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Fan
Full Text Available Voluntary control of information processing is crucial to allocate resources and prioritize the processes that are most important under a given situation; the algorithms underlying such control, however, are often not clear. We investigated possible algorithms of control for the performance of the majority function, in which participants searched for and identified one of two alternative categories (left or right pointing arrows as composing the majority in each stimulus set. We manipulated the amount (set size of 1, 3, and 5 and content (ratio of left and right pointing arrows within a set of the inputs to test competing hypotheses regarding mental operations for information processing. Using a novel measure based on computational load, we found that reaction time was best predicted by a grouping search algorithm as compared to alternative algorithms (i.e., exhaustive or self-terminating search. The grouping search algorithm involves sampling and resampling of the inputs before a decision is reached. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the implications of voluntary control via algorithms of mental operations.
Efficient evolutionary algorithms for optimal control
López Cruz, I.L.
2002-01-01
If optimal control problems are solved by means of gradient based local search methods, convergence to local solutions is likely. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use
Computationally efficient model predictive control algorithms a neural network approach
Ławryńczuk, Maciej
2014-01-01
This book thoroughly discusses computationally efficient (suboptimal) Model Predictive Control (MPC) techniques based on neural models. The subjects treated include: · A few types of suboptimal MPC algorithms in which a linear approximation of the model or of the predicted trajectory is successively calculated on-line and used for prediction. · Implementation details of the MPC algorithms for feedforward perceptron neural models, neural Hammerstein models, neural Wiener models and state-space neural models. · The MPC algorithms based on neural multi-models (inspired by the idea of predictive control). · The MPC algorithms with neural approximation with no on-line linearization. · The MPC algorithms with guaranteed stability and robustness. · Cooperation between the MPC algorithms and set-point optimization. Thanks to linearization (or neural approximation), the presented suboptimal algorithms do not require d...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mkuzangwe, NNP
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This work implements two anomaly detection algorithms for detecting Transmission Control Protocol Synchronized (TCP SYN) flooding attack. The two algorithms are an adaptive threshold algorithm and a cumulative sum (CUSUM) based algorithm...
Tuning of active vibration controllers for ACTEX by genetic algorithm
Kwak, Moon K.; Denoyer, Keith K.
1999-06-01
This paper is concerned with the optimal tuning of digitally programmable analog controllers on the ACTEX-1 smart structures flight experiment. The programmable controllers for each channel include a third order Strain Rate Feedback (SRF) controller, a fifth order SRF controller, a second order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) controller, and a fourth order PPF controller. Optimal manual tuning of several control parameters can be a difficult task even though the closed-loop control characteristics of each controller are well known. Hence, the automatic tuning of individual control parameters using Genetic Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The optimal control parameters of each control law are obtained by imposing a constraint on the closed-loop frequency response functions using the ACTEX mathematical model. The tuned control parameters are then uploaded to the ACTEX electronic control electronics and experiments on the active vibration control are carried out in space. The experimental results on ACTEX will be presented.
Towards Automatic Controller Design using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Gerulf
of evolutionary computation, a choice was made to use multi-objective algorithms for the purpose of aiding in automatic controller design. More specifically, the choice was made to use the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which is one of the most potent algorithms currently in use...... for automatic controller design. However, because the field of evolutionary computation is relatively unknown in the field of control engineering, this thesis also includes a comprehensive introduction to the basic field of evolutionary computation as well as a description of how the field has previously been......In order to design the controllers of tomorrow, a need has risen for tools that can aid in the design of these. A desire to use evolutionary computation as a tool to achieve that goal is what gave inspiration for the work contained in this thesis. After having studied the foundations...
Wong, Jennifer H K; Kelloway, E Kevin
2016-04-01
We investigated the relationship between workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes using hourly diary entries and ambulatory blood pressure data from an experience sampling study of 55 long-term care employees. After accounting for relevant cardiovascular controls, significant effects of supervisory interactions on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery were found. Multilevel analyses revealed that negatively perceived supervisory interactions predicted higher systolic blood pressure at work (B = -1.59, p pressure recovery after work (B = -14.52, p < .05, N = 33). Specifically, negatively perceived supervisory interactions at work predicted poorer cardiovascular recovery after work. Suggestions for improving practices in organizations and in experience sampling research are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming.
Stall Recovery Guidance Algorithms Based on Constrained Control Approaches
Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Acosta, Diana
2016-01-01
Aircraft loss-of-control, in particular approach to stall or fully developed stall, is a major factor contributing to aircraft safety risks, which emphasizes the need to develop algorithms that are capable of assisting the pilots to identify the problem and providing guidance to recover the aircraft. In this paper we present several stall recovery guidance algorithms, which are implemented in the background without interfering with flight control system and altering the pilot's actions. They are using input and state constrained control methods to generate guidance signals, which are provided to the pilot in the form of visual cues. It is the pilot's decision to follow these signals. The algorithms are validated in the pilot-in-the loop medium fidelity simulation experiment.
A Traffic Prediction Algorithm for Street Lighting Control Efficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
POPA Valentin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pérez L.V.
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The optimization of the supervisory control of hybrid electric vehicles over predetermined driving cycles has been used as a previous study for determining on-line strategies and also for design and sizing purposes. This problem may be posed as an optimal control problem, in which the energy in the bank of batteries is often the state variable, and the power from any of the system sources is, the control action. As both of these quantities are bounded, the optimal control problem has control constraints or state constraints or both. Usually, the charge-sustaining mode of operation is ensured just by imposing a transversality condition, i.e. a fixed final energy, or including an additional term in the cost functional that penalizes the moving away of the state variable from the nominal value. We considered the problem where the state is allowed to move freely within a band. This led to an optimal control problem with control and state constraints. In this work we describe the difficulties that arise while solving the equations given by the Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle and how these difficulties can be overcome by using the so-called Direct Transcription approach that consists of a programming tool to solve the resultant large-scale finite dimensional optimization problem. L’optimisation de la commande au niveau superviseur de véhicules hybrides sur cycles d’usage prédéterminés a été utilisée comme une première étude pour déterminer des stratégies en ligne mais aussi avec des objectifs de conception et dimensionnement. Ce problème peut être posé comme un problème de commande optimale, où l’énergie dans les batteries est généralement la variable d’état et où la puissance de n’importe quelle source du système est l’action de commande. Comme ces deux quantités sont bornées, le problème de commande optimale a des restrictions sur la fonction de commande et sur l’état. Généralement, le fonctionnement
ROBUST CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR MULTIVARIABLE PLANTS WITH QUANTIZED OUTPUT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Margun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with robust output control algorithm for multivariable plants under disturbances. A plant is described by the system of linear differential equations with known relative degrees. Plant parameters are unknown but belong to the known closed bounded set. Plant state vector is unmeasured. Plant output is measured only via static quantizer. Control system algorithm is based on the high gain feedback method. Developed controller provides exponential convergence of tracking error to the bounded area. The area bounds depend on quantizer parameters and the value of external disturbances. Experimental approbation of the proposed control algorithm is performed with the use of Twin Rotor MIMO System laboratory bench. This bench is a helicopter like model with two degrees of freedom (pitch and yaw. DC motors are used as actuators. The output signals are measured via optical encoders. Mathematical model of laboratory bench is obtained. Proposed algorithm was compared with proportional - integral – differential controller in conditions of output quantization. Obtained results have confirmed the efficiency of proposed controller.
On flexible CAD of adaptive control and identification algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Anders; Ravn, Ole
1988-01-01
a total redesign of the system within each sample. The necessary design parameters are evaluated and a decision vector is defined, from which the identification algorithm can be generated by the program. Using the decision vector, a decision-node tree structure is built up, where the nodes define......SLLAB is a MATLAB-family software package for solving control and identification problems. This paper concerns the planning of a general-purpose subroutine structure for solving identification and adaptive control problems. A general-purpose identification algorithm is suggested, which allows...
Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Using Super Twisting Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Rafiq Mufti
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The inherent problem of chattering in traditional sliding mode control is harmful for practical application of control system. This paper pays a considerable attention to a chattering-free control method, that is, higher-order sliding mode (super twisting algorithm. The design of a position controller for switched reluctance motor is presented and its stability is assured using Lyapunov stability theorem. In order to highlight the advantages of higher-order sliding mode controller (HOSMC, a classical first-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC is also applied to the same system and compared. The simulation results reflect the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nascimento Filho, Epitacio
2000-01-01
This paper presents the conception and the benefits of the integrated supervisory control architecture for performance, aero thermodynamic and mechanical monitoring of the Ubarana Phase V Turbo compressor Station in Guamare-Rn. The compression station has four gas turbines, each one developing 6.640 kW ( 9.600 rpm - ISO power), driving four centrifugal compressors, each one with unitary capacity of 850.000 m 3 /d, arranged in parallel. The integrated architecture allows the continuous tele monitoring of a large range of mechanical and process parameters. Other resources are real time identification of deterioration signs or performance decaying of each machine in service, serving as a precious tool for the operation and maintenance decisions like wash application intervals and partial or general equipment revision. Just for the sake of operational cost impacts: a small increase of 1% in overall thermal efficiency represents a reduction of US$ 60,000 in annual operational cost, since the annual fuel consume nears US$ 6 million (considering 20 MW with 8,000 h). (author)
Review of control algorithms for offshore wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spruce, C.J.; Markou, H.; Leithead, W.E.; Dominguez Ruiz, S.
2005-07-01
Innovative turbine control strategies could allow the improvements to cost and performance considered essential to reduce the cost of energy from offshore wind farms around the UK. This project reviewed and investigated the possibility for further development of a power control algorithm originally developed by NEG Micon Rotors Ltd for use with offshore wind turbines in the hope that more advanced algorithms would reduce the loads on, and hence the costs of, components such as the foundation/support structure, tower, blades and bedplate. Three models (simulation model, linearisation of the simulation model and control model) were produced in order to conduct the review. Application of these models produced the conclusion that the size of the latest generation of offshore wind turbines has now reached a level where performance is starting to be constrained by fundamental factors in the dynamics caused by the machine's physical size. It was also concluded that an ideal control strategy could achieve potential cost savings for the tower and support structure of 5-10% of the total cost of the turbine plus support structure. Further work to develop controllers to reduce loads in the tower and support structure is urged. The report considers non-linear simulation, the linear model, the control model, general operation of the controller, the drive train damping filter, torque control, pitch control and advanced algorithms, and makes detailed recommendations for future work.
Review of control algorithms for offshore wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spruce, C J; Markou, H; Leithead, W E; Dominguez Ruiz, S
2005-07-01
Innovative turbine control strategies could allow the improvements to cost and performance considered essential to reduce the cost of energy from offshore wind farms around the UK. This project reviewed and investigated the possibility for further development of a power control algorithm originally developed by NEG Micon Rotors Ltd for use with offshore wind turbines in the hope that more advanced algorithms would reduce the loads on, and hence the costs of, components such as the foundation/support structure, tower, blades and bedplate. Three models (simulation model, linearisation of the simulation model and control model) were produced in order to conduct the review. Application of these models produced the conclusion that the size of the latest generation of offshore wind turbines has now reached a level where performance is starting to be constrained by fundamental factors in the dynamics caused by the machine's physical size. It was also concluded that an ideal control strategy could achieve potential cost savings for the tower and support structure of 5-10% of the total cost of the turbine plus support structure. Further work to develop controllers to reduce loads in the tower and support structure is urged. The report considers non-linear simulation, the linear model, the control model, general operation of the controller, the drive train damping filter, torque control, pitch control and advanced algorithms, and makes detailed recommendations for future work.
Configuration-defined control algorithms with the ASDEX Upgrade DCS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Treutterer, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf Germany (Germany); Gräter, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf Germany (Germany); Neu, Gregor; Rapson, Christopher; Raupp, Gerhard; Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Control algorithm built from combination of pre-fabricated standard function blocks. • Seamless integration in multi-threaded computation context. • Block composition defined by configuration data, only. - Abstract: The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS) is a distributed real-time control system executing complex control and monitoring tasks. Up to now, DCS control algorithms have been implemented by coding dedicated application processes with the C++ programming language. Algorithm changes required code modification, compilation and commissioning which only experienced programmers could perform. This was a significant constraint of flexibility for both control system operation and design. The new approach extends DCS with the capability of configuration-defined control algorithms. These are composed of chains of small, configurable standard function blocks providing general purpose functions like algebraic operations, filters, feedback controllers, output limiters and decision logic. In a later phase a graphical editor could help to compose and modify such configuration in a Simulink-like fashion. Building algorithms from standard functions can result in a high number of elements. In order to achieve a similar performance as with C++ coding, it is essential to avoid administrative bottlenecks by design. As a consequence, DCS executes a function block chain in the context of a single real-time thread of an application process. No concurrency issues as in a multi-threaded context need to be considered resulting in strongly simplified signal handling and zero performance overhead for inter-block communication. Instead of signal-driven synchronization, a block scheduler derives the execution sequence automatically from the block dependencies as defined in the configuration. All blocks and connecting signals are instantiated dynamically, based on definitions in a configuration file. Algorithms thus are not defined in the code but only in
Application of genetic algorithms to tuning fuzzy control systems
Espy, Todd; Vombrack, Endre; Aldridge, Jack
1993-01-01
Real number genetic algorithms (GA) were applied for tuning fuzzy membership functions of three controller applications. The first application is our 'Fuzzy Pong' demonstration, a controller that controls a very responsive system. The performance of the automatically tuned membership functions exceeded that of manually tuned membership functions both when the algorithm started with randomly generated functions and with the best manually-tuned functions. The second GA tunes input membership functions to achieve a specified control surface. The third application is a practical one, a motor controller for a printed circuit manufacturing system. The GA alters the positions and overlaps of the membership functions to accomplish the tuning. The applications, the real number GA approach, the fitness function and population parameters, and the performance improvements achieved are discussed. Directions for further research in tuning input and output membership functions and in tuning fuzzy rules are described.
Fuzzy model predictive control algorithm applied in nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuheir, Ahmad
2006-01-01
The aim of this paper is to design a predictive controller based on a fuzzy model. The Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model with an Adaptive B-splines neuro-fuzzy implementation is used and incorporated as a predictor in a predictive controller. An optimization approach with a simplified gradient technique is used to calculate predictions of the future control actions. In this approach, adaptation of the fuzzy model using dynamic process information is carried out to build the predictive controller. The easy description of the fuzzy model and the easy computation of the gradient sector during the optimization procedure are the main advantages of the computation algorithm. The algorithm is applied to the control of a U-tube steam generation unit (UTSG) used for electricity generation. (author)
Implantation of algorithms of diffuse control in DSPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez C, B.
2003-01-01
In this thesis work there are presented: a) The characteristics and main components used in an electronic system based on a Dsp guided to control applications of processes, b) The description of an algorithm of diffuse control whose objective is the regulation of neutron power in a model of the punctual kinetics of a nuclear research reactor type TRIGA, and c) The installation in language assembler and execution in real time of the control algorithm in the system based on a Dsp. With regard to the installation and execution of the algorithm, the reaches of the project have been delimited to the following: a) Readiness of the entrance values to the controller in specific registrations of the system Dsp, b) Conversion of the entrances to the numerical formats with those that one obtains the best acting in the control algorithm, c) Execution of the algorithm until the obtaining of the value of the controller's exit, and d) Placement of the result in specific registrations of the Dsp for their later reading for an external parallel interface. It is necessary to mention that the simulation of the punctual kinetics of a reactor type TRIGA in the Pc and its integration with the control system based on the one Dsp is had contemplated as continuation of this work and that one of those will constitute main activities in my project of master thesis. A brief description of the topics presented in this thesis is given next. In the chapter one it is presented a general description of the diffuse logic and some of their applications in the industry. The main characteristics of a Dsp are also presented that they make it different from a micro controller or a microprocessor of general purpose. In the chapter 2 details of the internal architecture of the Dsp TMS320CS0 of Texas Instruments that are not explained with detail in the manual of user of the same one. This chapter has as objective to understand the internal hardware of the Dsp that is used for to carry out the program in
Application of epidemic algorithms for smart grids control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krkoleva, Aleksandra
2012-01-01
Smart Grids are a new concept for electricity networks development, aiming to provide economically efficient and sustainable power system by integrating effectively the actions and needs of the network users. The thesis addresses the Smart Grids concept, with emphasis on the control strategies developed on the basis of epidemic algorithms, more specifically, gossip algorithms. The thesis is developed around three Smart grid aspects: the changed role of consumers in terms of taking part in providing services within Smart Grids; the possibilities to implement decentralized control strategies based on distributed algorithms; and information exchange and benefits emerging from implementation of information and communication technologies. More specifically, the thesis presents a novel approach for providing ancillary services by implementing gossip algorithms. In a decentralized manner, by exchange of information between the consumers and by making decisions on local level, based on the received information and local parameters, the group achieves its global objective, i. e. providing ancillary services. The thesis presents an overview of the Smart Grids control strategies with emphasises on new strategies developed for the most promising Smart Grids concepts, as Micro grids and Virtual power plants. The thesis also presents the characteristics of epidemic algorithms and possibilities for their implementation in Smart Grids. Based on the research on epidemic algorithms, two applications have been developed. These applications are the main outcome of the research. The first application enables consumers, represented by their commercial aggregators, to participate in load reduction and consequently, to participate in balancing market or reduce the balancing costs of the group. In this context, the gossip algorithms are used for aggregator's message dissemination for load reduction and households and small commercial and industrial consumers to participate in maintaining
control of a dc motor using fuzzy logic control algorithm
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
controller in the control performance of an industrial type DC motor using MATLAB. The fuzzy logic .... controlled separately excited permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC). ... When the field current is constant, the flux induced by the field ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Yun Kim; Poong Hyun Seong; .
1997-01-01
In this research, we propose a fuzzy gain scheduler (FGS) with an intelligent learning algorithm for a reactor control. In the proposed algorithm, the gradient descent method is used in order to generate the rule bases of a fuzzy algorithm by learning. These rule bases are obtained by minimizing an objective function, which is called a performance cost function. The objective of the FGS with an intelligent learning algorithm is to generate gains, which minimize the error of system. The proposed algorithm can reduce the time and effort required for obtaining the fuzzy rules through the intelligent learning function. It is applied to reactor control of nuclear power plant (NPP), and the results are compared with those of a conventional PI controller with fixed gains. As a result, it is shown that the proposed algorithm is superior to the conventional PI controller. (author)
System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов
2015-06-01
Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.
Design of PID Controller Simulator based on Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fahri VATANSEVER
2013-08-01
Full Text Available PID (Proportional Integral and Derivative controllers take an important place in the field of system controlling. Various methods such as Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, Chien Hrones Reswick (CHR and Wang-Juang-Chan are available for the design of such controllers benefiting from the system time and frequency domain data. These controllers are in compliance with system properties under certain criteria suitable to the system. Genetic algorithms have become widely used in control system applications in parallel to the advances in the field of computer and artificial intelligence. In this study, PID controller designs have been carried out by means of classical methods and genetic algorithms and comparative results have been analyzed. For this purpose, a graphical user interface program which can be used for educational purpose has been developed. For the definite (entered transfer functions, the suitable P, PI and PID controller coefficients have calculated by both classical methods and genetic algorithms and many parameters and responses of the systems have been compared and presented numerically and graphically
Control of the lighting system using a genetic algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Čongradac Velimir D.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The manufacturing, distribution and use of electricity are of fundamental importance for the social life and they have the biggest influence on the environment associated with any human activity. The energy needed for building lighting makes up 20-40% of the total consumption. This paper displays the development of the mathematical model and genetic algorithm for the control of dimmable lighting on problems of regulating the level of internal lighting and increase of energetic efficiency using daylight. A series of experiments using the optimization algorithm on the realized model confirmed very high savings in electricity consumption.
Automatic brightness control algorithms and their effect on fluoroscopic imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, P.W.; Gagne, R.M.
1989-01-01
This paper reports a computer model used to investigate the effect on dose and image quality of three automatic brightness control (ABC) algorithms used in the imaging of barium during general-purpose fluoroscopy. A model incorporating all aspects of image formation - i.e., x- ray production, phantom attenuation, and energy absorption in the CSI phosphor - was driven according to each ABC algorithm as a function of patient thickness. The energy absorbed in the phosphor was kept constant, while the changes in exposure, integral dose, organ dose, and contrast were monitored
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Gee Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun
1994-01-01
In order to reduce the load of tuning works by trial-and-error for obtaining the best control performance of conventional fuzzy control algorithm, a fuzzy control algorithm with learning function is investigated in this work. This fuzzy control algorithm can make its rule base and tune the membership functions automatically by use of learning function which needs the data from the control actions of the plant operator or other controllers. Learning process in fuzzy control algorithm is to find the optimal values of parameters, which consist of the membership functions and the rule base, by gradient descent method. Learning speed of gradient descent is significantly improved in this work with the addition of modified momentum. This control algorithm is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the good performance of this control algorithm for level control and show that the fuzzy learning algorithm has the generalization capability for the relation of inputs and outputs and it also has the excellent capability of disturbance rejection
Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong
2013-01-01
For the traditional simplified first-order pitch-control system model, it is difficult to describe a real dynamic characteristic of a variable pitch action system, thus a complete high order mathematical model has to be developed for the pitch control of wind turbine generation (WTG). In the paper...... controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller...... with ICPSO-PID algorithm has a smaller overshoot, a shorter tuning time and better robustness. The design method proposed in the paper can be applied in a practical electro-hydraulic pitch control system for WTG....
Robotics, vision and control fundamental algorithms in Matlab
Corke, Peter
2017-01-01
Robotic vision, the combination of robotics and computer vision, involves the application of computer algorithms to data acquired from sensors. The research community has developed a large body of such algorithms but for a newcomer to the field this can be quite daunting. For over 20 years the author has maintained two open-source MATLAB® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and compu...
Optimal control of hybrid qubits: Implementing the quantum permutation algorithm
Rivera-Ruiz, C. M.; de Lima, E. F.; Fanchini, F. F.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Castelano, L. K.
2018-03-01
The optimal quantum control theory is employed to determine electric pulses capable of producing quantum gates with a fidelity higher than 0.9997, when noise is not taken into account. Particularly, these quantum gates were chosen to perform the permutation algorithm in hybrid qubits in double quantum dots (DQDs). The permutation algorithm is an oracle based quantum algorithm that solves the problem of the permutation parity faster than a classical algorithm without the necessity of entanglement between particles. The only requirement for achieving the speedup is the use of a one-particle quantum system with at least three levels. The high fidelity found in our results is closely related to the quantum speed limit, which is a measure of how fast a quantum state can be manipulated. Furthermore, we model charge noise by considering an average over the optimal field centered at different values of the reference detuning, which follows a Gaussian distribution. When the Gaussian spread is of the order of 5 μ eV (10% of the correct value), the fidelity is still higher than 0.95. Our scheme also can be used for the practical realization of different quantum algorithms in DQDs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moraru, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Stefan, Liviu; Bucur, Ciprian; Hartescu, Florin
2006-01-01
Full text: The implementation of the new trends for tritium processing nuclear plants, and especially those with an experimental character or of new technology development, shows a very high complexity due to issues raised by the integration of a high diversity of instrumentation and equipment into a unitary control system of the technological process. Keeping the system's flexibility is a demand of the experimental plants for which the change of configuration, process and parameters is something usual. The big amount of data that needs to be monitored, stored and accessed for ulterior analyses demands the achievement of an information network where the data acquiring, control and analysis systems of the technological process can be integrated with a data base system. Thus, integrated computing and control systems needed for the control of the technological process will be executed, to be continued with the execution of failure protection system, by choosing methods corresponding to the technological processes within the tritium processing nuclear plants. (authors)
Quantum control using genetic algorithms in quantum communication: superdense coding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domínguez-Serna, Francisco; Rojas, Fernando
2015-01-01
We present a physical example model of how Quantum Control with genetic algorithms is applied to implement the quantum superdense code protocol. We studied a model consisting of two quantum dots with an electron with spin, including spin-orbit interaction. The electron and the spin get hybridized with the site acquiring two degrees of freedom, spin and charge. The system has tunneling and site energies as time dependent control parameters that are optimized by means of genetic algorithms to prepare a hybrid Bell-like state used as a transmission channel. This state is transformed to obtain any state of the four Bell basis as required by superdense protocol to transmit two bits of classical information. The control process protocol is equivalent to implement one of the quantum gates in the charge subsystem. Fidelities larger than 99.5% are achieved for the hybrid entangled state preparation and the superdense operations. (paper)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted algorithm design paradigms. In this article, we illustrate algorithm design techniques such as balancing, greedy strategy, dynamic programming strategy, and backtracking or traversal of ...
Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse
Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue
2003-09-01
In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.
2010-01-01
... available to supervised financial institutions and financial institution supervisory agencies. 261.20... Supervised Institutions, Financial Institution Supervisory Agencies, Law Enforcement Agencies, and Others in... institutions and financial institution supervisory agencies. (a) Disclosure of confidential supervisory...
Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. O. Samodov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.
The algorithms for control of heating massive material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karol Kostúr
2008-03-01
Full Text Available In numerous technological processes a change on the output follows change on the input pending specific time. This time is called dead time and if this time is too large, it causes problems in the control. This contribution is aimed at analyzing the algorithms of discreet regulation of the systems with dead time. Verified were classical PID regulator and a regulator using Dead Beat method. The control was also tried with Dead interval method. The regulators were tested by simulation and in the electrical laboratory furnace. The task was to control the temperature inside the material heated by furnace power.
Genetic Algorithm Optimizes Q-LAW Control Parameters
Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard
2008-01-01
A document discusses a multi-objective, genetic algorithm designed to optimize Lyapunov feedback control law (Q-law) parameters in order to efficiently find Pareto-optimal solutions for low-thrust trajectories for electronic propulsion systems. These would be propellant-optimal solutions for a given flight time, or flight time optimal solutions for a given propellant requirement. The approximate solutions are used as good initial solutions for high-fidelity optimization tools. When the good initial solutions are used, the high-fidelity optimization tools quickly converge to a locally optimal solution near the initial solution. Q-law control parameters are represented as real-valued genes in the genetic algorithm. The performances of the Q-law control parameters are evaluated in the multi-objective space (flight time vs. propellant mass) and sorted by the non-dominated sorting method that assigns a better fitness value to the solutions that are dominated by a fewer number of other solutions. With the ranking result, the genetic algorithm encourages the solutions with higher fitness values to participate in the reproduction process, improving the solutions in the evolution process. The population of solutions converges to the Pareto front that is permitted within the Q-law control parameter space.
Design and implementation of adaptive inverse control algorithm for a micro-hand control system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wan-Cheng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Letter proposes an online tuned adaptive inverse position control algorithm for a micro-hand. First, the configuration of the micro-hand is discussed. Next, a kinematic analysis of the micro-hand is investigated and then the relationship between the rotor position of micro-permanent magnet synchronous motor and the tip of the micro-finger is derived. After that, an online tuned adaptive inverse control algorithm, which includes an adaptive inverse model and an adaptive inverse control, is designed. The online tuned adaptive inverse control algorithm has better performance than the proportional–integral control algorithm does. In addition, to avoid damaging the object during the grasping process, an online force control algorithm is proposed here as well. An embedded micro-computer, cRIO-9024, is used to realise the whole position control algorithm and the force control algorithm by using software. As a result, the hardware circuit is very simple. Experimental results show that the proposed system can provide fast transient responses, good load disturbance responses, good tracking responses and satisfactory grasping responses.
A Design of a Hybrid Non-Linear Control Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farinaz Behrooz
2017-11-01
Full Text Available One of the high energy consuming devices in the buildings is the air-conditioning system. Designing a proper controller to consider the thermal comfort and simultaneously control the energy usage of the device will impact on the system energy efficiency and its performance. The aim of this study was to design a Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, non-linear, and intelligent controller on direct expansion air-conditioning system The control algorithm uses the Fuzzy Cognitive Map method as a main controller and the Generalized Predictive Control method is used for assigning the initial weights of the main controller. The results of the proposed controller shows that the controller was successfully designed and works in set point tracking and under disturbance rejection tests. The obtained results of the Generalized Predictive Control-Fuzzy Cognitive Map controller are compared with the previous MIMO Linear Quadratic Gaussian control design on the same direct expansion air-conditioning system under the same conditions. The comparative results indicate energy savings would be achieved with the proposed controller with long-term usage. Energy efficiency and thermal comfort conditions are achieved by the proposed controller.
Optimum Actuator Selection with a Genetic Algorithm for Aircraft Control
Rogers, James L.
2004-01-01
The placement of actuators on a wing determines the control effectiveness of the airplane. One approach to placement maximizes the moments about the pitch, roll, and yaw axes, while minimizing the coupling. For example, the desired actuators produce a pure roll moment without at the same time causing much pitch or yaw. For a typical wing, there is a large set of candidate locations for placing actuators, resulting in a substantially larger number of combinations to examine in order to find an optimum placement satisfying the mission requirements and mission constraints. A genetic algorithm has been developed for finding the best placement for four actuators to produce an uncoupled pitch moment. The genetic algorithm has been extended to find the minimum number of actuators required to provide uncoupled pitch, roll, and yaw control. A simplified, untapered, unswept wing is the model for each application.
Active control of flexible structures using a fuzzy logic algorithm
Cohen, Kelly; Weller, Tanchum; Ben-Asher, Joseph Z.
2002-08-01
This study deals with the development and application of an active control law for the vibration suppression of beam-like flexible structures experiencing transient disturbances. Collocated pairs of sensors/actuators provide active control of the structure. A design methodology for the closed-loop control algorithm based on fuzzy logic is proposed. First, the behavior of the open-loop system is observed. Then, the number and locations of collocated actuator/sensor pairs are selected. The proposed control law, which is based on the principles of passivity, commands the actuator to emulate the behavior of a dynamic vibration absorber. The absorber is tuned to a targeted frequency, whereas the damping coefficient of the dashpot is varied in a closed loop using a fuzzy logic based algorithm. This approach not only ensures inherent stability associated with passive absorbers, but also circumvents the phenomenon of modal spillover. The developed controller is applied to the AFWAL/FIB 10 bar truss. Simulated results using MATLAB© show that the closed-loop system exhibits fairly quick settling times and desirable performance, as well as robustness characteristics. To demonstrate the robustness of the control system to changes in the temporal dynamics of the flexible structure, the transient response to a considerably perturbed plant is simulated. The modal frequencies of the 10 bar truss were raised as well as lowered substantially, thereby significantly perturbing the natural frequencies of vibration. For these cases, too, the developed control law provides adequate settling times and rates of vibrational energy dissipation.
A neuro-fuzzy controlling algorithm for wind turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Li [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Eriksson, J T [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1996-12-31
The wind turbine control system is stochastic and nonlinear, offering a demanding field for different control methods. An improved and efficient controller will have great impact on the cost-effectiveness of the technology. In this article, a design method for a self-organizing fuzzy controller is discussed, which combines two popular computational intelligence techniques, neural networks and fuzzy logic. Based on acquisited dynamic parameters of the wind, it can effectively predict wind changes in speed and direction. Maximum power can always be extracted from the kinetic energy of the wind. Based on the stimulating experiments applying nonlinear dynamics to a `Variable Speed Fixed Angle` wind turbine, it is demonstrated that the proposed control model 3rd learning algorithm provide a predictable, stable and accurate performance. The robustness of the controller to system parameter variations and measurement disturbances is also discussed. (author)
A neuro-fuzzy controlling algorithm for wind turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Lin [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Eriksson, J.T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1995-12-31
The wind turbine control system is stochastic and nonlinear, offering a demanding field for different control methods. An improved and efficient controller will have great impact on the cost-effectiveness of the technology. In this article, a design method for a self-organizing fuzzy controller is discussed, which combines two popular computational intelligence techniques, neural networks and fuzzy logic. Based on acquisited dynamic parameters of the wind, it can effectively predict wind changes in speed and direction. Maximum power can always be extracted from the kinetic energy of the wind. Based on the stimulating experiments applying nonlinear dynamics to a `Variable Speed Fixed Angle` wind turbine, it is demonstrated that the proposed control model 3rd learning algorithm provide a predictable, stable and accurate performance. The robustness of the controller to system parameter variations and measurement disturbances is also discussed. (author)
Enabling Critical Reflection on Research Supervisory Practice
Pearson, Margot; Kayrooz, Carole
2004-01-01
This paper describes the development of an instrument--The Reflective Supervisor Questionnaire (RSQ). The RSQ maps the domain of research supervisory practice as a facilitative process involving educational tasks and activities. It is designed to assist research supervisors explore, by means of self-reflection and reflection on feedback from…
Supervisory behavior, reciprocity and subordinate absenteeism
Dierendonck, van D.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Breukelen, van W.
2002-01-01
The present study among 242 professionals working in a lung clinic and nursing home was designed to test a model that links supervisory behavior (i.e. leader member exchange (LMX) behavior and conflict management behavior) and reciprocity in the supervisor/subordinate relationship to objectively
A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felix Jost
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moraru, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Bucur, Ciprian; Stefan, Liviu; Bornea, Anisia; Stefanescu, Ioan
2008-01-01
The system responds to the monitoring requirements of the technological processes specific to the nuclear installation that processes radioactive substances, with severe consequences in case of technological failure, as is the case with a tritium processing nuclear plant. The big amount of data that needs to be processed, stored and accessed for real time simulation and optimization demands the achievement of the virtual technologic platform where the data acquiring, control and analysis systems of the technological process can be integrated with an advanced technological monitoring system. Thus, integrated computing and monitoring systems needed for the supervising of the technological process will be effected, to be then continued with optimization of the system, by implementing new and performing methods corresponding to the technological processes within the tritium removal processing nuclear plants. (authors)
Research on digital PID control algorithm for HPCT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng Yi; Li Rui; Shen Tianjian; Ke Xinhua
2009-01-01
Digital PID applied in high-precision HPCT (High-precision current transducer) based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) TMS320F2812 and special D/A converter was researched. By using increment style PID Control algorithm, the stability and precision of high-precision HPCT output voltage is improved. On basis of deeply analysing incremental digital PID, the scheme model of HPCT is proposed, the feasibility simulation using Matlab is given. Practical hardware circuit verified the incremental PID has closed-loop control process in tracking HPCT output voltage. (authors)
Nuclear power control system design using genetic algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho
1996-01-01
The genetic algorithm(GA) is applied to the design of the nuclear power control system. The reactor control system model is described in the LQR configuration. The LQR system order is increased to make the tracking system. The key parameters of the design are weighting matrices, and these are usually determined through numerous simulations in the conventional design. To determine the more objective and optimal weightings, the improved GA is applied. The results show that the weightings determined by the GA yield the better system responses than those obtained by the conventional design method
A comparison of three self-tuning control algorithms developed for the Bristol-Babcock controller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapp, P.A.
1992-04-01
A brief overview of adaptive control methods relating to the design of self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers is given. The methods discussed include gain scheduling, self-tuning, auto-tuning, and model-reference adaptive control systems. Several process identification and parameter adjustment methods are discussed. Characteristics of the two most common types of self-tuning controllers implemented by industry (i.e., pattern recognition and process identification) are summarized. The substance of the work is a comparison of three self-tuning proportional-plus-integral (STPI) control algorithms developed to work in conjunction with the Bristol-Babcock PID control module. The STPI control algorithms are based on closed-loop cycling theory, pattern recognition theory, and model-based theory. A brief theory of operation of these three STPI control algorithms is given. Details of the process simulations developed to test the STPI algorithms are given, including an integrating process, a first-order system, a second-order system, a system with initial inverse response, and a system with variable time constant and delay. The STPI algorithms' performance with regard to both setpoint changes and load disturbances is evaluated, and their robustness is compared. The dynamic effects of process deadtime and noise are also considered. Finally, the limitations of each of the STPI algorithms is discussed, some conclusions are drawn from the performance comparisons, and a few recommendations are made. 6 refs
Diversity Controlling Genetic Algorithm for Order Acceptance and Scheduling Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Selection and scheduling are an important topic in production systems. To tackle the order acceptance and scheduling problem on a single machine with release dates, tardiness penalty, and sequence-dependent setup times, in this paper a diversity controlling genetic algorithm (DCGA is proposed, in which a diversified population is maintained during the whole search process through survival selection considering both the fitness and the diversity of individuals. To measure the similarity between individuals, a modified Hamming distance without considering the unaccepted orders in the chromosome is adopted. The proposed DCGA was validated on 1500 benchmark instances with up to 100 orders. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the experimental results show that DCGA improves the solution quality obtained significantly, in terms of the deviation from upper bound.
A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Young, Joseph G.
2012-01-01
Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.
Combined Intelligent Control (CIC an Intelligent Decision Making Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moteaal Asadi Shirzi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available The focus of this research is to introduce the concept of combined intelligent control (CIC as an effective architecture for decision-making and control of intelligent agents and multi-robot sets. Basically, the CIC is a combination of various architectures and methods from fields such as artificial intelligence, Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI, control and biological computing. Although any intelligent architecture may be very effective for some specific applications, it could be less for others. Therefore, CIC combines and arranges them in a way that the strengths of any approach cover the weaknesses of others. In this paper first, we introduce some intelligent architectures from a new aspect. Afterward, we offer the CIC by combining them. CIC has been executed in a multi-agent set. In this set, robots must cooperate to perform some various tasks in a complex and nondeterministic environment with a low sensory feedback and relationship. In order to investigate, improve, and correct the combined intelligent control method, simulation software has been designed which will be presented and considered. To show the ability of the CIC algorithm as a distributed architecture, a central algorithm is designed and compared with the CIC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Yun
1997-02-01
In this research, we propose a fuzzy gain scheduler (FGS) with an intelligent learning algorithm for a reactor control. In the proposed algorithm, the gradient descent method is used in order to generate the rule bases of a fuzzy algorithm by learning. These rule bases are obtained by minimizing an objective function, which is called a performance cost function. The objective of the FGS with an intelligent learning algorithm is to generate adequate gains, which minimize the error of system. The proposed algorithm can reduce the time and efforts required for obtaining the fuzzy rules through the intelligent learning function. The evolutionary programming algorithm is modified and adopted as the method in order to find the optimal gains which are used as the initial gains of FGS with learning function. It is applied to reactor control of nuclear power plant (NPP), and the results are compared with those of a conventional PI controller with fixed gains. As a result, it is shown that the proposed algorithm is superior to the conventional PI controller
Discrete Globalised Dual Heuristic Dynamic Programming in Control of the Two-Wheeled Mobile Robot
Marcin Szuster; Zenon Hendzel
2014-01-01
Network-based control systems have been emerging technologies in the control of nonlinear systems over the past few years. This paper focuses on the implementation of the approximate dynamic programming algorithm in the network-based tracking control system of the two-wheeled mobile robot, Pioneer 2-DX. The proposed discrete tracking control system consists of the globalised dual heuristic dynamic programming algorithm, the PD controller, the supervisory term, and an additional control signal...
Optimization Design by Genetic Algorithm Controller for Trajectory Control of a 3-RRR Parallel Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lianchao Sheng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the control precision and robustness of the existing proportion integration differentiation (PID controller of a 3-Revolute–Revolute–Revolute (3-RRR parallel robot, a variable PID parameter controller optimized by a genetic algorithm controller is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the inverse kinematics model of the 3-RRR parallel robot was established according to the vector method, and the motor conversion matrix was deduced. Then, the error square integral was chosen as the fitness function, and the genetic algorithm controller was designed. Finally, the control precision of the new controller was verified through the simulation model of the 3-RRR planar parallel robot—built in SimMechanics—and the robustness of the new controller was verified by adding interference. The results show that compared with the traditional PID controller, the new controller designed in this paper has better control precision and robustness, which provides the basis for practical application.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ticians but also forms the foundation of computer science. Two ... with methods of developing algorithms for solving a variety of problems but ... applications of computers in science and engineer- ... numerical calculus are as important. We will ...
Human Information Processing and Supervisory Control.
1980-05-01
errors (that is of the output of the human operator). There is growing evidence (Senders, personal communication; Norman , personal communication...relates to the relative tendency to depend on sensory information or to be more analytic and independent. Norman (personal communication) has referred...decision process model. Ergonomics, 12, 543-557. Senders, J., Elkid, J., Grignetti, M., & Smallwood , R. 1966. An investigation of the visual sampling
Use of artificial intelligence in supervisory control
Cohen, Aaron; Erickson, Jon D.
1989-01-01
Viewgraphs describing the design and testing of an intelligent decision support system called OFMspert are presented. In this expert system, knowledge about the human operator is represented through an operator/system model referred to as the OFM (Operator Function Model). OFMspert uses the blackboard model of problem solving to maintain a dynamic representation of operator goals, plans, tasks, and actions given previous operator actions and current system state. Results of an experiment to assess OFMspert's intent inferencing capability are outlined. Finally, the overall design philosophy for an intelligent tutoring system (OFMTutor) for operators of complex dynamic systems is summarized.
Navigation Algorithm Using Fuzzy Control Method in Mobile Robotics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cviklovič Vladimír
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The issue of navigation methods is being continuously developed globally. The aim of this article is to test the fuzzy control algorithm for track finding in mobile robotics. The concept of an autonomous mobile robot EN20 has been designed to test its behaviour. The odometry navigation method was used. The benefits of fuzzy control are in the evidence of mobile robot’s behaviour. These benefits are obtained when more physical variables on the base of more input variables are controlled at the same time. In our case, there are two input variables - heading angle and distance, and two output variables - the angular velocity of the left and right wheel. The autonomous mobile robot is moving with human logic.
DOOCS environment for FPGA-based cavity control system and control algorithms development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pucyk, P.; Koprek, W.; Kaleta, P.; Szewinski, J.; Pozniak, K.T.; Czarski, T.; Romaniuk, R.S.
2005-01-01
The paper describes the concept and realization of the DOOCS control software for FPGAbased TESLA cavity controller and simulator (SIMCON). It bases on universal software components, created for laboratory purposes and used in MATLAB based control environment. These modules have been recently adapted to the DOOCS environment to ensure a unified software to hardware communication model. The presented solution can be also used as a general platform for control algorithms development. The proposed interfaces between MATLAB and DOOCS modules allow to check the developed algorithm in the operation environment before implementation in the FPGA. As the examples two systems have been presented. (orig.)
Software-Defined Congestion Control Algorithm for IP Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Hu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The rapid evolution of computer networks, increase in the number of Internet users, and popularity of multimedia applications have exacerbated the congestion control problem. Congestion control is a key factor in ensuring network stability and robustness. When the underlying network and flow information are unknown, the transmission control protocol (TCP must increase or reduce the size of the congestion window to adjust to the changes of traffic in the Internet Protocol (IP network. However, it is possible that a software-defined approach can relieve the network congestion problem more efficiently. This approach has the characteristic of centralized control and can obtain a global topology for unified network management. In this paper, we propose a software-defined congestion control (SDCC algorithm for an IP network. We consider the difference between TCP and the user datagram protocol (UDP and propose a new method to judge node congestion. We initially apply the congestion control mechanism in the congested nodes and then optimize the link utilization to control network congestion.
Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment
Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.
2009-01-01
Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883
Supervisory selection and development yields payback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubino, E.A.
1991-01-01
The selection and development of first line supervisors is a critical factor in a strategic effort to bring about organizational change, to improve performance and productivity and to enhance professionalism in the work force. Candidates for first line supervisory positions at Philadelphia Electric Company are no longer promoted purely on the basis of seniority. A Supervisory Selection Assessment Center permits candidates to demonstrate leadership potential. Successful candidates then attend an eight week Supervisory Development Academy, away from the work place. On successful completion of the Academy, the supervisor assembles his or her work team and, with training and leadership, shapes a performance based work team ready to plan, execute and assess its own work. Since this radically different program was initiated in September, 1989, results have been highly acclaimed by management. Contractor support has been sharply reduced, budgets have been met and reduced more work has been accomplished and fewer overtime hours have been needed. Workers attend training with no loss of team productivity. Each SDA graduate and his team sets goals to improve quality, increase productivity, increase efficiency, maintain ALARA, improve safety and effect cultural change while improving job satisfaction and morale
Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications
Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.
2015-05-01
CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.
Combustion distribution control using the extremum seeking algorithm
Marjanovic, A.; Krstic, M.; Djurovic, Z.; Kvascev, G.; Papic, V.
2014-12-01
Quality regulation of the combustion process inside the furnace is the basis of high demands for increasing robustness, safety and efficiency of thermal power plants. The paper considers the possibility of spatial temperature distribution control inside the boiler, based on the correction of distribution of coal over the mills. Such control system ensures the maintenance of the flame focus away from the walls of the boiler, and thus preserves the equipment and reduces the possibility of ash slugging. At the same time, uniform heat dissipation over mills enhances the energy efficiency of the boiler, while reducing the pollution of the system. A constrained multivariable extremum seeking algorithm is proposed as a tool for combustion process optimization with the main objective of centralizing the flame in the furnace. Simulations are conducted on a model corresponding to the 350MW boiler of the Nikola Tesla Power Plant, in Obrenovac, Serbia.
Combustion distribution control using the extremum seeking algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marjanovic, A; Djurovic, Z; Kvascev, G; Papic, V; Krstic, M
2014-01-01
Quality regulation of the combustion process inside the furnace is the basis of high demands for increasing robustness, safety and efficiency of thermal power plants. The paper considers the possibility of spatial temperature distribution control inside the boiler, based on the correction of distribution of coal over the mills. Such control system ensures the maintenance of the flame focus away from the walls of the boiler, and thus preserves the equipment and reduces the possibility of ash slugging. At the same time, uniform heat dissipation over mills enhances the energy efficiency of the boiler, while reducing the pollution of the system. A constrained multivariable extremum seeking algorithm is proposed as a tool for combustion process optimization with the main objective of centralizing the flame in the furnace. Simulations are conducted on a model corresponding to the 350MW boiler of the Nikola Tesla Power Plant, in Obrenovac, Serbia
Application of Fuzzy Algorithm in Optimizing Hierarchical Sliding Mode Control for Pendubot System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuan Dung Huynh
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Pendubot is a classical under-actuated SIMO model for control algorithm testing in laboratory of universities. In this paper, authors design a fuzzy-sliding control for this system. The controller is designed from a new idea of application of fuzzy algorithm for optioning control parameters. The response of system on TOP position under fuzzysliding control algorithm is proved to be better than under sliding controller through Matlab/Simulink simulation.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
algorithm design technique called 'divide-and-conquer'. One of ... Turtle graphics, September. 1996. 5. ... whole list named 'PO' is a pointer to the first element of the list; ..... Program for computing matrices X and Y and placing the result in C *).
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
algorithm that it is implicitly understood that we know how to generate the next natural ..... Explicit comparisons are made in line (1) where maximum and minimum is ... It can be shown that the function T(n) = 3/2n -2 is the solution to the above ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. H. Kwong
2000-06-01
Full Text Available The development of a new simplified model predictive control algorithm has been proposed in this work. The algorithm is developed within the framework of internal model control, and it is easy to understanding and implement. Simulation results for a continuous fermenter, which show that the proposed control algorithm is robust for moderate variations in plant parameters, are presented. The algorithm shows a good performance for setpoint tracking.
Algorithm for Public Electric Transport Schedule Control for Intelligent Embedded Devices
Alps, Ivars; Potapov, Andrey; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly
2010-01-01
In this paper authors present heuristics algorithm for precise schedule fulfilment in city traffic conditions taking in account traffic lights. The algorithm is proposed for programmable controller. PLC is proposed to be installed in electric vehicle to control its motion speed and signals of traffic lights. Algorithm is tested using real controller connected to virtual devices and real functional models of real tram devices. Results of experiments show high precision of public transport schedule fulfilment using proposed algorithm.
The product composition control system at Savannah River: Statistical process control algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, K.G.
1994-01-01
The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be used to immobilize the approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive insoluble sludge and precipitate and less radioactive water soluble salts. In DWPF, precipitate (PHA) is blended with insoluble sludge and ground glass frit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in an geologic repository. Described here is the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) process control algorithm. The PCCS is the amalgam of computer hardware and software intended to ensure that the melt will be processable and that the glass wasteform produced will be acceptable. Within PCCS, the Statistical Process Control (SPC) Algorithm is the means which guides control of the DWPF process. The SPC Algorithm is necessary to control the multivariate DWPF process in the face of uncertainties arising from the process, its feeds, sampling, modeling, and measurement systems. This article describes the functions performed by the SPC Algorithm, characterization of DWPF prior to making product, accounting for prediction uncertainty, accounting for measurement uncertainty, monitoring a SME batch, incorporating process information, and advantages of the algorithm. 9 refs., 6 figs
Areva - Press release from the Supervisory Board
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du
2012-01-01
During its meeting held on December 12, 2011, devoted in particular to the examination of the 2011 closing estimates, the AREVA Executive Board indicated that it expected to book a provision of 1.46 billion euros (2.025 billion US dollars) in the company's accounts for fiscal year 2011 for impairment of assets for the reporting entity UraMin, a mining company acquired by AREVA in 2007, which, given the provision booked in 2010 (426 million euros), brings the value of these assets on the AREVA balance sheet down to 410 million euros. Given the size of these provisions, the Supervisory Board decided to make three of its members, meeting as an ad hoc committee, in charge of analyzing the terms of acquisition of this company, as well as the key decisions made in this reporting entity up to 2011 and, based on the outcome of these analyses, to recommend to it any appropriate measures in AREVA's interest. This committee reported on its work during the Supervisory Board meeting held on February 14, 2012. In light of this report, the Supervisory Board found that the fairness and reliability of the financial statements of previous years were not in question. Nevertheless, considering the malfunctions raised, the Board considers it appropriate to thoroughly review AREVA's governance in order to ensure that decisions concerning large acquisitions or investments be reviewed and validated in the future under conditions ensuring better legal and financial security and enabling a more transparent dialogue between management and the Supervisory Board. It thus asked the Executive Board to recommend, at the next General Meeting of Shareholders, that the by-laws of the company be modified to make the Supervisory Board's prior approval of investments, stake acquisitions and acquisitions mandatory above a threshold of 20 million euros. It also decided to set up a business ethics committee within the Supervisory Board responsible for ensuring that rules of conduct are properly applied
2010-01-01
..., supervisory (other than for the management and operation of the borrower's electric system, see § 1717.608(d... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS approval of expenditures for legal, accounting... COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.611 RUS approval of...
Reactor controller design using genetic algorithm with simulated annealing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willjuice Iruthyarajan, M.
2012-01-01
Many reactor control design work, specifically the problem of synthesis and optimization of reactor networks involving the classical reaction schemes was studied, considering a superstructure formed by a CSTR and a PFR and their possible arrangements. A genetic algorithm was proposed, together with a systematic procedure. Two case studies were solved with the proposed systematic. Both of them present similar results than the published in the literature. The first case studied was the Trambouze reaction scheme. Although selectivity values are smaller then the values published in the referred papers, the reactors system combined volume is always minor them the other ones. The second case studied was the Van de Vusse reaction scheme. In this case, the obtained value for the total volume is always minor then the considered papers. One can conclude that when compared with the other works presented in the literature results are compatible and very interesting. The developed algorithms can be used as a good alternative for reactor networks design and optimization problem
Energy Optimal Control Strategy of PHEV Based on PMP Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiezhou Wu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Under the global voice of “energy saving” and the current boom in the development of energy storage technology at home and abroad, energy optimal control of the whole hybrid electric vehicle power system, as one of the core technologies of electric vehicles, is bound to become a hot target of “clean energy” vehicle development and research. This paper considers the constraints to the performance of energy storage system in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, from which lithium-ion battery frequently charges/discharges, PHEV largely consumes energy of fuel, and their are difficulty in energy recovery and other issues in a single cycle; the research uses lithium-ion battery combined with super-capacitor (SC, which is hybrid energy storage system (Li-SC HESS, working together with internal combustion engine (ICE to drive PHEV. Combined with PSO-PI controller and Li-SC HESS internal power limited management approach, the research proposes the PHEV energy optimal control strategy. It is based on revised Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP algorithm, which establishes the PHEV vehicle simulation model through ADVISOR software and verifies the effectiveness and feasibility. Finally, the results show that the energy optimization control strategy can improve the instantaneity of tracking PHEV minimum fuel consumption track, implement energy saving, and prolong the life of lithium-ion batteries and thereby can improve hybrid energy storage system performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Yun; Seong, Poong Hyun
1996-01-01
In this study, we proposed a fuzzy gain scheduler with intelligent learning algorithm for a reactor control. In the proposed algorithm, we used the gradient descent method to learn the rule bases of a fuzzy algorithm. These rule bases are learned toward minimizing an objective function, which is called a performance cost function. The objective of fuzzy gain scheduler with intelligent learning algorithm is the generation of adequate gains, which minimize the error of system. The condition of every plant is generally changed as time gose. That is, the initial gains obtained through the analysis of system are no longer suitable for the changed plant. And we need to set new gains, which minimize the error stemmed from changing the condition of a plant. In this paper, we applied this strategy for reactor control of nuclear power plant (NPP), and the results were compared with those of a simple PI controller, which has fixed gains. As a result, it was shown that the proposed algorithm was superior to the simple PI controller
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
will become clear in the next article when we discuss a simple logo like programming language. ... Rod B may be used as an auxiliary store. The problem is to find an algorithm which performs this task. ... No disks are moved from A to Busing C as auxiliary rod. • move _disk (A, C);. (No + l)th disk is moved from A to C directly ...
Wavelet Adaptive Algorithm and Its Application to MRE Noise Control System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Yulin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To address the limitation of conventional adaptive algorithm used for active noise control (ANC system, this paper proposed and studied two adaptive algorithms based on Wavelet. The twos are applied to a noise control system including magnetorheological elastomers (MRE, which is a smart viscoelastic material characterized by a complex modulus dependent on vibration frequency and controllable by external magnetic fields. Simulation results reveal that the Decomposition LMS algorithm (D-LMS and Decomposition and Reconstruction LMS algorithm (DR-LMS based on Wavelet can significantly improve the noise reduction performance of MRE control system compared with traditional LMS algorithm.
A psychometric approach to supervisory competency assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Vorster
2003-10-01
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using a psychometric approach for assessing supervisory competencies relevant to the mining and refining environment. The competency questionnaire was developed using supervisory roles and registered supervisory unit standards from the United Kingdom (UK, as no registered unit standards exist in South Africa. Twenty-four supervisors from three departments (Production, Engineering and Laboratory were evaluated by 125 raters; besides by themselves, also by their managers, peers, customers and their sub-ordinates. Based on difference scores derived from the Importance and Performance scales, a single factor was extracted with an internal reliability of 0,965. No statistical significant differences were obtained (ANOVA’s, t-test and F-statistics between groups based on biographical variables or between rater groups. The findings and their implications are further discussed. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die studie was om die moontlikheid vir die gebruik van ’n psigometriese benadering tot toesighouerbevoegdheidsbeoordeling, te evalueer. Die bevoegdheidsvraelys is ontwikkel deur gebruik te maak van toesighouersrolle en geregistreerde toesighouerseenheidstandaarde van die Verenigde Koningkryk, as gevolg van ‘n gebrek aan bestaande eenheidstandaarde in Suid-Afrika. Vier-en-twintig toesighouers van drie departemente (Produksie, Ingenieurswese en Laboratorium is deur 125 beoordelaars geëvalueer; buiten deur hulself, ook deur hul bestuurders, kollegas, kliënte en hul ondergeskiktes. ’n Enkele faktor, met ’n betroubaarheid van 0,965, gebaseer op die verskiltellings van die Prestasie- en Belangrikheidskaal, is onttrek. Geen beduidende verskille (ANOVA’s, t-toetse en F-statistiek kon tussen groepe gebaseer op biografiese veranderlikes en die onderskeie beoordelaarsgroepe gevind word nie. Hierdie bevindinge en die implikasies daarvan word verder bespreek.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gang Qin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The acceleration performance of EV, which affects a lot of performances of EV such as start-up, overtaking, driving safety, and ride comfort, has become increasingly popular in recent researches. An improved variable gain PID control algorithm to improve the acceleration performance is proposed in this paper. The results of simulation with Matlab/Simulink demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through the control performance of motor velocity, motor torque, and three-phase current of motor. Moreover, it is investigated that the proposed controller is valid by comparison with the other PID controllers. Furthermore, the AC induction motor experiment set is constructed to verify the effect of proposed controller.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez C, B
2003-07-01
In this thesis work there are presented: a) The characteristics and main components used in an electronic system based on a Dsp guided to control applications of processes, b) The description of an algorithm of diffuse control whose objective is the regulation of neutron power in a model of the punctual kinetics of a nuclear research reactor type TRIGA, and c) The installation in language assembler and execution in real time of the control algorithm in the system based on a Dsp. With regard to the installation and execution of the algorithm, the reaches of the project have been delimited to the following: a) Readiness of the entrance values to the controller in specific registrations of the system Dsp, b) Conversion of the entrances to the numerical formats with those that one obtains the best acting in the control algorithm, c) Execution of the algorithm until the obtaining of the value of the controller's exit, and d) Placement of the result in specific registrations of the Dsp for their later reading for an external parallel interface. It is necessary to mention that the simulation of the punctual kinetics of a reactor type TRIGA in the Pc and its integration with the control system based on the one Dsp is had contemplated as continuation of this work and that one of those will constitute main activities in my project of master thesis. A brief description of the topics presented in this thesis is given next. In the chapter one it is presented a general description of the diffuse logic and some of their applications in the industry. The main characteristics of a Dsp are also presented that they make it different from a micro controller or a microprocessor of general purpose. In the chapter 2 details of the internal architecture of the Dsp TMS320CS0 of Texas Instruments that are not explained with detail in the manual of user of the same one. This chapter has as objective to understand the internal hardware of the Dsp that is used for to carry out the program in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez C, B
2003-07-01
In this thesis work there are presented: a) The characteristics and main components used in an electronic system based on a Dsp guided to control applications of processes, b) The description of an algorithm of diffuse control whose objective is the regulation of neutron power in a model of the punctual kinetics of a nuclear research reactor type TRIGA, and c) The installation in language assembler and execution in real time of the control algorithm in the system based on a Dsp. With regard to the installation and execution of the algorithm, the reaches of the project have been delimited to the following: a) Readiness of the entrance values to the controller in specific registrations of the system Dsp, b) Conversion of the entrances to the numerical formats with those that one obtains the best acting in the control algorithm, c) Execution of the algorithm until the obtaining of the value of the controller's exit, and d) Placement of the result in specific registrations of the Dsp for their later reading for an external parallel interface. It is necessary to mention that the simulation of the punctual kinetics of a reactor type TRIGA in the Pc and its integration with the control system based on the one Dsp is had contemplated as continuation of this work and that one of those will constitute main activities in my project of master thesis. A brief description of the topics presented in this thesis is given next. In the chapter one it is presented a general description of the diffuse logic and some of their applications in the industry. The main characteristics of a Dsp are also presented that they make it different from a micro controller or a microprocessor of general purpose. In the chapter 2 details of the internal architecture of the Dsp TMS320CS0 of Texas Instruments that are not explained with detail in the manual of user of the same one. This chapter has as objective to understand the internal hardware of the Dsp that is used for to carry out the program
Development of new supervisory system with ITV. ITV ni yoru kanshi system ni kansuru kenkyu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimonaga, S; Matsunaga, R; Ono, H [The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)
1994-02-28
This paper describes an automatic trespassing supervisory system with ITV and picture processing (PP). The paper details an integrated control system and automatic supervision. The system functions to automatically detect a trespassing by means of PP, transfers items of information collected by sensors to a remote control center, and records relevant data. The operation principle consists of measurement of change in two or more images of moving bodies with binary value at a certain interval, determination on acceptability of the moving bodies represented by human characteristics, and identification of a trespasser. The system consists of an automatic supervisory device using PP and an automatic patrolling and searching device by means of sensor measurements. The supervisory device has images outputted from ITV and VTR processed by PP, host computer, and HD, and linked to an indication mechanism. According to the result of a site test at wireless transmission station of Kyushu Electric Power Company, the difference between measurement values collected by the searching device and those by the supervisory device was [plus minus]3% or less (other than EG output current), which is a useful value for verification. Although the basic technique has been established, practical use of the system still has some problems including performance improvement in picture processing. 37 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs.
Debbarma, Sanjoy; Saikia, Lalit Chandra; Sinha, Nidul
2014-03-01
Present work focused on automatic generation control (AGC) of a three unequal area thermal systems considering reheat turbines and appropriate generation rate constraints (GRC). A fractional order (FO) controller named as I(λ)D(µ) controller based on crone approximation is proposed for the first time as an appropriate technique to solve the multi-area AGC problem in power systems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA) is used for the simultaneous optimization of the gains and other parameters such as order of integrator (λ) and differentiator (μ) of I(λ)D(µ) controller and governor speed regulation parameters (R). The dynamic responses corresponding to optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller gains, λ, μ, and R are compared with that of classical integer order (IO) controllers such as I, PI and PID controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller provides more improved dynamic responses and outperforms the IO based classical controllers. Further, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the so optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller to wide changes in system loading conditions and size and position of SLP. Proposed controller is also found to have performed well as compared to IO based controllers when SLP takes place simultaneously in any two areas or all the areas. Robustness of the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller is also tested against system parameter variations. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Conrad, Finn; Zhou, Jianjun; Gabacik, Andrzej
1998-01-01
Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control.......Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control....
Qiang, Jiang; Meng-wei, Liao; Ming-jie, Luo
2018-03-01
Abstract.The control performance of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor will be affected by the fluctuation or changes of mechanical parameters when PMSM is applied as driving motor in actual electric vehicle,and external disturbance would influence control robustness.To improve control dynamic quality and robustness of PMSM speed control system, a new second order integral sliding mode control algorithm is introduced into PMSM vector control.The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional PID control,the modified control scheme optimized has better control precision and dynamic response ability and perform better with a stronger robustness facing external disturbance,it can effectively solve the traditional sliding mode variable structure control chattering problems as well.
PSO-RBF Neural Network PID Control Algorithm of Electric Gas Pressure Regulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanchang Zhong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The current electric gas pressure regulator often adopts the conventional PID control algorithm to take drive control of the core part (micromotor of electric gas pressure regulator. In order to further improve tracking performance and to shorten response time, this paper presents an improved PID intelligent control algorithm which applies to the electric gas pressure regulator. The algorithm uses the improved RBF neural network based on PSO algorithm to make online adjustment on PID parameters. Theoretical analysis and simulation result show that the algorithm shortens the step response time and improves tracking performance.
Pole placement algorithm for control of civil structures subjected to earthquake excitation
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Nikos Pnevmatikos
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper the control algorithm for controlled civil structures subjected to earthquake excitation is thoroughly investigated. The objective of this work is the control of structures by means of the pole placement algorithm, in order to improve their response against earthquake actions. Successful application of the algorithm requires judicious placement of the closed-loop eigenvalues from the part of the designer. The pole placement algorithm was widely applied to control mechanical systems. In this paper, a modification in the mathematical background of the algorithm in order to be suitable for civil fixed structures is primarily presented. The proposed approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations for the control of both single and multi-degree of freedom systems subjected to seismic actions. Numerical results have shown that the control algorithm is efficient in reducing the response of building structures, with small amount of required control forces.
A Compatible Control Algorithm for Greenhouse Environment Control Based on MOCC Strategy
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Bingkun Zhu
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Conventional methods used for solving greenhouse environment multi-objective conflict control problems lay excessive emphasis on control performance and have inadequate consideration for both energy consumption and special requirements for plant growth. The resulting solution will cause higher energy cost. However, during the long period of work and practice, we find that it may be more reasonable to adopt interval or region control objectives instead of point control objectives. In this paper, we propose a modified compatible control algorithm, and employ Multi-Objective Compatible Control (MOCC strategy and an extant greenhouse model to achieve greenhouse climate control based on feedback control architecture. A series of simulation experiments through various comparative studies are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The results are encouraging and suggest the energy-saving application to real-world engineering problems in greenhouse production. It may be valuable and helpful to formulate environmental control strategies, and to achieve high control precision and low energy cost for real-world engineering application in greenhouse production. Moreover, the proposed approach has also potential to be useful for other practical control optimization problems with the features like the greenhouse environment control system.
A compatible control algorithm for greenhouse environment control based on MOCC strategy.
Hu, Haigen; Xu, Lihong; Zhu, Bingkun; Wei, Ruihua
2011-01-01
Conventional methods used for solving greenhouse environment multi-objective conflict control problems lay excessive emphasis on control performance and have inadequate consideration for both energy consumption and special requirements for plant growth. The resulting solution will cause higher energy cost. However, during the long period of work and practice, we find that it may be more reasonable to adopt interval or region control objectives instead of point control objectives. In this paper, we propose a modified compatible control algorithm, and employ Multi-Objective Compatible Control (MOCC) strategy and an extant greenhouse model to achieve greenhouse climate control based on feedback control architecture. A series of simulation experiments through various comparative studies are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The results are encouraging and suggest the energy-saving application to real-world engineering problems in greenhouse production. It may be valuable and helpful to formulate environmental control strategies, and to achieve high control precision and low energy cost for real-world engineering application in greenhouse production. Moreover, the proposed approach has also potential to be useful for other practical control optimization problems with the features like the greenhouse environment control system.
Supervisory monitoring system in nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftcioglu, O.; Turkcan, E.
1997-01-01
Monitoring of a power plant is one of the essential tasks during operation and the computer-based implementations are nowadays seemingly quite mature. However, presently these are still not satisfactory enough to meet the high standards to the licensing requirements and they are mostly not truly integrated to the plant's design-based monitoring system. This is basically due to the robustness problem as the majority of the methods are not robust enough for the monitoring of the safety parameter set in a plant or intelligent supervision. Therefore, a supervisory monitoring system (SMS) in a plant is necessary to supervise the monitoring tasks: determining the objectives to be obtained and finding the means to support them. SMS deals with the changing plant status and the coordination of the information flow among the monitoring subunits. By means of these robustness and consistency in monitoring is achieved. The paper will give the guidelines of knowledge and data management techniques in a framework of robust comprehensive and coordinated monitoring which is presented as supervisory monitoring. Such a high level monitoring serves for consistent and immediate actions in fault situations while this particularly has vital importance in preventing imminent severe accidents next to the issues of recognition of the monitoring procedures for licensing and enhanced plant safety. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs
The Supervisory Process of EFL Teachers: A Case Study
Chen, Cheryl Wei-Yu; Cheng, Yuh-show
2013-01-01
Supervision is an essential part of language teachers' professional experiences. The literature on language teacher supervision from the past few decades consists largely of descriptions of supervisory approaches (Bailey, 2009) and analysis of the supervisory discourse (Hooton, 2008; Wajnryb, 1994; 1995; 1998; Wallace & Woolger, 1991). This…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woonki Na
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC in order to extract potential maximum power from photovoltaic cells. The objectives of the proposed algorithm are to improve the tracking speed, and to simultaneously solve the inherent drawbacks such as slow tracking in the conventional perturb and observe (P and O algorithm. The performances of the conventional P and O algorithm and the proposed algorithm are compared by using MATLAB/Simulink in terms of the tracking speed and steady-state oscillations. Additionally, both algorithms were experimentally validated through a digital signal processor (DSP-based controlled-boost DC-DC converter. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs with a shorter tracking time, smaller output power oscillation, and higher efficiency, compared with the conventional P and O algorithm.
Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed
Tian, Ye; Song, Qi; Cattafesta, Louis
2005-01-01
This report summarizes the activities on "Implementation of Real-Time Feedback Flow Control Algorithms on a Canonical Testbed." The work summarized consists primarily of two parts. The first part summarizes our previous work and the extensions to adaptive ID and control algorithms. The second part concentrates on the validation of adaptive algorithms by applying them to a vibration beam test bed. Extensions to flow control problems are discussed.
Fuzzy algorithm for an automatic reactor power control in a PWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hah, Yung Joon; Song, In Ho; Yu, Sung Sik; Choi, Jung In; Lee, Byong Whi
1994-01-01
A fuzzy algorithm is presented for automatic reactor power control in a pressurized water reactor. Automatic power shape control is complicated by the use of control rods because it is highly coupled with reactivity compensation. Thus, manual shape controls are usually employed even for the limited capability for the load - follow operation including frequency control. In an attempt to achieve automatic power shape control without any design modification of the core, a fuzzy power control algorithm is proposed. For the fuzzy control, the rule base is formulated based on a multi - input multi - output system. The minimum operation rule and the center of area method are implemented for the development of the fuzzy algorithm. The fuzzy power control algorithm has been applied to the Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 3. The simulation results show that the fuzzy control can be adapted as a practical control strategy for automatic reactor power control of the pressurized water reactor during the load - follow operation
Tran, Huu-Khoa; Chiou, Juing -Shian; Peng, Shou-Tao
2016-01-01
In this paper, the feasibility of a Genetic Algorithm Optimization (GAO) education software based Fuzzy Logic Controller (GAO-FLC) for simulating the flight motion control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is designed. The generated flight trajectories integrate the optimized Scaling Factors (SF) fuzzy controller gains by using GAO algorithm. The…
Classon, Johan; Andersson, Viktor
2016-01-01
This thesis describes the implementation and evaluation of a genetic algorithm (GA) for procedurally generating levels with controllable difficulty for a motion-based 2D platform game. Manually creating content can be time-consuming, and it may be desirable to automate this process with an algorithm, using Procedural Content Generation (PCG). An algorithm was implemented and then refined with an iterative method by conducting user tests. The resulting algorithm is considered a success and sho...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashutosh K. AGARWAL
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are robust search techniques based on the principles of evolution. A genetic algorithm maintains a population of encoded solutions and guides the population towards the optimum solution. This important property of genetic algorithm is used in this paper to stabilize the Inverted pendulum system. This paper highlights the application and stability of inverted pendulum using PID controller with fuzzy logic genetic algorithm supervisor . There are a large number of well established search techniques in use within the information technology industry. We propose a method to control inverted pendulum steady state error and overshoot using genetic algorithm technique.
Newton algorithm for Hamiltonian characterization in quantum control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ndong, M; Sugny, D; Salomon, J
2014-01-01
We propose a Newton algorithm to characterize the Hamiltonian of a quantum system interacting with a given laser field. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the evolution operator of the system is perfectly known at a fixed time. The computational scheme uses the Crank–Nicholson approximation to explicitly determine the derivatives of the propagator with respect to the Hamiltonians of the system. In order to globalize this algorithm, we use a continuation method that improves its convergence properties. This technique is applied to a two-level quantum system and to a molecular one with a double-well potential. The numerical tests show that accurate estimates of the unknown parameters are obtained in some cases. We discuss the numerical limits of the algorithm in terms of the basin of convergence and the non-uniqueness of the solution. (paper)
Power control algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuraj L. Pradhan
2011-07-01
We will also focus on an adaptive distributed power management (DISPOW algorithm as an example of the multi-parameter optimization approach which manages the transmit power of nodes in a wireless ad hoc network to preserve network connectivity and cooperatively reduce interference. We will show that the algorithm in a distributed manner builds a unique stable network topology tailored to its surrounding node density and propagation environment over random topologies in a dynamic mobile wireless channel.
Optimal Control of Complex Systems Based on Improved Dual Heuristic Dynamic Programming Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available When applied to solving the data modeling and optimal control problems of complex systems, the dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP technique, which is based on the BP neural network algorithm (BP-DHP, has difficulty in prediction accuracy, slow convergence speed, poor stability, and so forth. In this paper, a dual DHP technique based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM algorithm (ELM-DHP was proposed. Through constructing three kinds of network structures, the paper gives the detailed realization process of the DHP technique in the ELM. The controller designed upon the ELM-DHP algorithm controlled a molecular distillation system with complex features, such as multivariability, strong coupling, and nonlinearity. Finally, the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation that compares DHP and HDP algorithms based on ELM and BP neural network. The algorithm can also be applied to solve the data modeling and optimal control problems of similar complex systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joung, JinWook; Chung, Lan; Smyth, Andrew W
2010-01-01
The active interaction control (AIC) system consisting of a primary structure, an auxiliary structure and an interaction element was proposed to protect the primary structure against earthquakes and winds. The objective of the AIC system in reducing the responses of the primary structure is fulfilled by activating or deactivating the switching between the engagement and the disengagement of the primary and auxiliary structures through the interaction element. The status of the interaction element is controlled by switching control algorithms. The previously developed switching control algorithms require an excessive amount of switching, which is inefficient. In this paper, the excessive amount of switching is restricted by imposing an appropriately designed switching boundary region, where switching is prohibited, on pre-designed engagement–disengagement conditions. Two different approaches are used in designing the newly proposed AID-off and AID-off 2 algorithms. The AID-off 2 algorithm is designed to affect deactivated switching regions explicitly, unlike the AID-off algorithm, which follows the same procedure of designing the engagement–disengagement conditions of the previously developed algorithms, by using the current status of the AIC system. Both algorithms are shown to be effective in reducing the amount of switching times triggered from the previously developed AID algorithm under an appropriately selected control sampling period for different earthquakes, but the AID-off 2 algorithm outperforms the AID-off algorithm in reducing the number of switching times
Distributed control software of high-performance control-loop algorithm
Blanc, D
1999-01-01
The majority of industrial cooling and ventilation plants require the control of complex processes. All these processes are highly important for the operation of the machines. The stability and reliability of these processes are leading factors identifying the quality of the service provided. The control system architecture and software structure, as well, are required to have high dynamical performance and robust behaviour. The intelligent systems based on PID or RST controllers are used for their high level of stability and accuracy. The design and tuning of these complex controllers require the dynamic model of the plant to be known (generally obtained by identification) and the desired performance of the various control loops to be specified for achieving good performances. The concept of having a distributed control algorithm software provides full automation facilities with well-adapted functionality and good performances, giving methodology, means and tools to master the dynamic process optimization an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saifullah Khalid
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Three conventional control constant instantaneous power control, sinusoidal current control, and synchronous reference frame techniques for extracting reference currents for shunt active power filters have been optimized using Fuzzy Logic control and Adaptive Tabu search Algorithm and their performances have been compared. Critical analysis of Comparison of the compensation ability of different control strategies based on THD and speed will be done, and suggestions will be given for the selection of technique to be used. The simulated results using MATLAB model are presented, and they will clearly prove the value of the proposed control method of aircraft shunt APF. The waveforms observed after the application of filter will be having the harmonics within the limits and the power quality will be improved.
The Research and Improvement of SDT Algorithm for Historical Data in SCADA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Xu-Dong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet of things and big data technology, the amount of data collected by SCADA(Supervisory Control And Data Acquisitionsystem is growing exponentially, which the traditional SDT algorithm can not meet the requirements of SCADA system for historical data compression. In this paper, ASDT(Advanced SDT algorithm based on SDT algorithm is proposed and implemented in the Java language, which is based on the deep research of the data compression method, especially the Swing Door Trending. ASDT algorithm through the sine curve fitting data to achieve data compression, compared with the performance of the traditional SDT algorithm, which it can achieve better compression results. The experimental results show that compared with the traditional SDT algorithm, the ASDT algorithm can improve the compression ratio in the case of no significant increase in the compression error, and the compression radio is increased by nearly 50%.
Modified Firefly Algorithm based controller design for integrating and unstable delay processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gupta
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, Modified Firefly Algorithm has been used for optimizing the controller parameters of Smith predictor structure. The proposed algorithm modifies the position formula of the standard Firefly Algorithm in order to achieve faster convergence rate. Performance criteria Integral Square Error (ISE is optimized using this optimization technique. Simulation results show high performance for Modified Firefly Algorithm as compared to conventional Firefly Algorithm in terms of convergence rate. Integrating and unstable delay processes are taken as examples to indicate the performance of the proposed method.
Genetic algorithms for adaptive real-time control in space systems
Vanderzijp, J.; Choudry, A.
1988-01-01
Genetic Algorithms that are used for learning as one way to control the combinational explosion associated with the generation of new rules are discussed. The Genetic Algorithm approach tends to work best when it can be applied to a domain independent knowledge representation. Applications to real time control in space systems are discussed.
A parallel row-based algorithm for standard cell placement with integrated error control
Sargent, Jeff S.; Banerjee, Prith
1989-01-01
A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel approaches to control error in parallel cell-placement algorithms: (1) Heuristic Cell-Coloring; (2) Adaptive Sequence Length Control.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dammann, Bernd; Madsen, Henrik
2014-01-01
This paper presents a decomposition algorithm for solving the optimal control problem (OCP) that arises in Mean-Variance Economic Model Predictive Control of stochastic linear systems. The algorithm applies the alternating direction method of multipliers to a reformulation of the OCP...
Implementation of Genetic Algorithm in Control Structure of Induction Motor A.C. Drive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BRANDSTETTER, P.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Modern concepts of control systems with digital signal processors allow the implementation of time-consuming control algorithms in real-time, for example soft computing methods. The paper deals with the design and technical implementation of a genetic algorithm for setting proportional and integral gain of the speed controller of the A.C. drive with the vector-controlled induction motor. Important simulations and experimental measurements have been realized that confirm the correctness of the proposed speed controller tuned by the genetic algorithm and the quality speed response of the A.C. drive with changing parameters and disturbance variables, such as changes in load torque.
PSO-Based Algorithm Applied to Quadcopter Micro Air Vehicle Controller Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huu-Khoa Tran
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of science and technology in recent times, many effective controllers are designed and applied successfully to complicated systems. The significant task of controller design is to determine optimized control gains in a short period of time. With this purpose in mind, a combination of the particle swarm optimization (PSO-based algorithm and the evolutionary programming (EP algorithm is introduced in this article. The benefit of this integration algorithm is the creation of new best-parameters for control design schemes. The proposed controller designs are then demonstrated to have the best performance for nonlinear micro air vehicle models.
A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dohner, J.L.
1998-03-01
Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed
A guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicle swarms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dohner, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.
1998-03-01
Cooperative micro-robotic scent tracking vehicles are designed to collectively sniff out locations of high scent concentrations in unknown, geometrically complex environments. These vehicles are programmed with guidance and control algorithms that allow inter cooperation among vehicles. In this paper a cooperative guidance and control algorithm for scent tracking micro-robotic vehicles is presented. This algorithm is comprised of a sensory compensation sub-algorithm using point source cancellation, a guidance sub-algorithm using gradient descent tracking, and a control sub-algorithm using proportional feedback. The concepts of social rank and point source cancellation are new concepts introduced within. Simulation results for cooperative vehicles swarms are given. Limitations are discussed.
Perceptions of Administrative and Supervisory Support in Public Child Welfare
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tonya M. Westbrook
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Using the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory (CWOCI in a public child welfare agency, perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees with social work degrees (BSW and MSW were compared to perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees without social work degrees. Child welfare employees with social work degrees reported lower administrative and supervisory support than employees without social work degrees. Implications for social work educators, public child welfare administrators and supervisors, and future research are presented.
Synthesis of sequential control algorithms for pneumatic drives controlled by monostable valves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ł. Dworzak
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Application of the Grafpol method [1] for synthesising sequential control algorithms for pneumatic drives controlled by monostable valves is presented. The developed principles simplify the MTS method of programming production processes in the scope of the memory realisation [2]. Thanks to this, time for synthesising the schematic equation can be significantly reduced in comparison to the network transformation method [3]. The designed schematic equation makes a ground for writing an application program of a PLC using any language defined in IEC 61131-3.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyragas, V.; Pyragas, K.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple adaptive delayed feedback control algorithm for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. The state dependent time delay is varied continuously towards the period of controlled orbit according to a gradient-descent method realized through three simple ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm with the Roessler and Mackey-Glass chaotic systems. The stability of the controlled orbits is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents of linearized equations. -- Highlights: → A simple adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm is proposed. → It enables the control of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. → The delay time is varied continuously according to a gradient descend method. → The algorithm is embodied by three simple ordinary differential equations. → The validity of the algorithm is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents.
Algorithms and Methods for High-Performance Model Predictive Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frison, Gianluca
routines employed in the numerical tests. The main focus of this thesis is on linear MPC problems. In this thesis, both the algorithms and their implementation are equally important. About the implementation, a novel implementation strategy for the dense linear algebra routines in embedded optimization...... is proposed, aiming at improving the computational performance in case of small matrices. About the algorithms, they are built on top of the proposed linear algebra, and they are tailored to exploit the high-level structure of the MPC problems, with special care on reducing the computational complexity....
A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks.
Li, Yuhong; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni
2018-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm-parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm-which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes.
Semi-flocking algorithm for motion control of mobile sensors in large-scale surveillance systems.
Semnani, Samaneh Hosseini; Basir, Otman A
2015-01-01
The ability of sensors to self-organize is an important asset in surveillance sensor networks. Self-organize implies self-control at the sensor level and coordination at the network level. Biologically inspired approaches have recently gained significant attention as a tool to address the issue of sensor control and coordination in sensor networks. These approaches are exemplified by the two well-known algorithms, namely, the Flocking algorithm and the Anti-Flocking algorithm. Generally speaking, although these two biologically inspired algorithms have demonstrated promising performance, they expose deficiencies when it comes to their ability to maintain simultaneous robust dynamic area coverage and target coverage. These two coverage performance objectives are inherently conflicting. This paper presents Semi-Flocking, a biologically inspired algorithm that benefits from key characteristics of both the Flocking and Anti-Flocking algorithms. The Semi-Flocking algorithm approaches the problem by assigning a small flock of sensors to each target, while at the same time leaving some sensors free to explore the environment. This allows the algorithm to strike balance between robust area coverage and target coverage. Such balance is facilitated via flock-sensor coordination. The performance of the proposed Semi-Flocking algorithm is examined and compared with other two flocking-based algorithms once using randomly moving targets and once using a standard walking pedestrian dataset. The results of both experiments show that the Semi-Flocking algorithm outperforms both the Flocking algorithm and the Anti-Flocking algorithm with respect to the area of coverage and the target coverage objectives. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed algorithm demonstrates shorter target detection time and fewer undetected targets than the other two flocking-based algorithms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xiangguo; Pan Yan; Deng Shiming; Xia Liang; Chan Mingyin
2013-01-01
The use of a multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) system is advantageous in terms of installation convenience, high design flexibility, being easy to maintain and commission, better indoor thermal comfort control and higher energy efficiency. While MEAC units worth billions of dollars are sold worldwide, the detailed accounts on compressor capacity control and refrigeration flow distribution amongst evaporators remain unavailable in public domain, mainly due to commercial confidentiality. Limited control algorithms for MEAC systems have been developed based on system simulation, and no experimental-based capacity controller developments and their controllability tests may be identified in open literature. In the study reported in this paper, a novel capacity control algorithm, which imitated On–Off control of a single evaporator air conditioning (A/C) system in each indoor unit of a MEAC system by using variable speed compressor and electronic expansion valves (EEVs), was developed. Controllability tests under various settings for experimentally validating the novel capacity control algorithm were carried out and the control algorithm was further improved based on the experimental results. - Highlights: ► A capacity control algorithm for a multi-evaporator air conditioning system was developed. ► Experimental controllability tests under various settings were carried out. ► The control algorithm was further improved based on the experimental results.
Kuzishchin, V. F.; Merzlikina, E. I.; Van Va, Hoang
2017-11-01
The problem of PID and PI-algorithms tuning by means of the approximation by the least square method of the frequency response of a linear algorithm to the sub-optimal algorithm is considered. The advantage of the method is that the parameter values are obtained through one cycle of calculation. Recommendations how to choose the parameters of the least square method taking into consideration the plant dynamics are given. The parameters mentioned are the time constant of the filter, the approximation frequency range and the correction coefficient for the time delay parameter. The problem is considered for integrating plants for some practical cases (the level control system in a boiler drum). The transfer function of the suboptimal algorithm is determined relating to the disturbance that acts in the point of the control impact input, it is typical for thermal plants. In the recommendations it is taken into consideration that the overregulation for the transient process when the setpoint is changed is also limited. In order to compare the results the systems under consideration are also calculated by the classical method with the limited frequency oscillation index. The results given in the paper can be used by specialists dealing with tuning systems with the integrating plants.
A novel adaptive joint power control algorithm with channel estimation in a CDMA cellular system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Joint power control has advantages of multi-user detection and power control; and it can combat the multi-access interference and the near-far problem. A novel adaptive joint power control algorithm with channel estimation in a CDMA cellular system was designed. Simulation results show that the algorithm can control the power not only quickly but also precisely with a time change. The method is useful for increasing system capacity.
Control of baker’s yeast fermentation : PID and fuzzy algorithms
Machado, Carlos; Gomes, Pedro; Soares, Rui; Pereira, Silvia; Soares, Filomena
2001-01-01
A MATLAB/SIMULINK-based simulator was employed for studies concerning the control of baker’s yeast fed-batch fermentation. Four control algorithms were implemented and compared: the classical PID control, two discrete versions- modified velocity and position algorithms, and a fuzzy law. The simulation package was seen to be an efficient tool for the simulation and tests of control strategies of the non-linear process.
Fouladi, Ehsan; Mojallali, Hamed
2018-01-01
In this paper, an adaptive backstepping controller has been tuned to synchronise two chaotic Colpitts oscillators in a master-slave configuration. The parameters of the controller are determined using shark smell optimisation (SSO) algorithm. Numerical results are presented and compared with those of particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm. Simulation results show better performance in terms of accuracy and convergence for the proposed optimised method compared to PSO optimised controller or any non-optimised backstepping controller.
Reinforcement Learning for Online Control of Evolutionary Algorithms
Eiben, A.; Horvath, Mark; Kowalczyk, Wojtek; Schut, Martijn
2007-01-01
The research reported in this paper is concerned with assessing the usefulness of reinforcment learning (RL) for on-line calibration of parameters in evolutionary algorithms (EA). We are running an RL procedure and the EA simultaneously and the RL is changing the EA parameters on-the-fly. We
Control algorithm for multiscale flow simulations of water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kotsalis, E. M.; Walther, Jens Honore; Kaxiras, E.
2009-01-01
We present a multiscale algorithm to couple atomistic water models with continuum incompressible flow simulations via a Schwarz domain decomposition approach. The coupling introduces an inhomogeneity in the description of the atomistic domain and prevents the use of periodic boundary conditions...
Hasbullah Mohd Isa, Wan; Taha, Zahari; Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Fikri Muhammad, Khairul; Abdo Hashem, Mohammed; Mahmud, Jamaluddin; Mohamed, Zulkifli
2016-02-01
This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton by means of an intelligent active force control (AFC) mechanism. The Newton-Euler formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the anthropometry based human upper extremity as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives. An intelligent AFC algorithm is also incorporated into the PD to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. The Mamdani Fuzzy based rule is employed to approximate the estimated inertial properties of the system to ensure the AFC loop responds efficiently. It is found that the IAFC-PD performed well against the disturbances introduced into the system as compared to the conventional PD control architecture in performing the desired trajectory tracking.
CAS algorithm-based optimum design of PID controller in AVR system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Hui; Li Lixiang; Zhao Ying; Guo Yu; Yang Yixian
2009-01-01
This paper presents a novel design method for determining the optimal PID controller parameters of an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system using the chaotic ant swarm (CAS) algorithm. In the tuning process of parameters, the CAS algorithm is iterated to give the optimal parameters of the PID controller based on the fitness theory, where the position vector of each ant in the CAS algorithm corresponds to the parameter vector of the PID controller. The proposed CAS-PID controllers can ensure better control system performance with respect to the reference input in comparison with GA-PID controllers. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of PID controller based on CAS algorithm.
Active Noise Control Using Modified FsLMS and Hybrid PSOFF Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjan Walia
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Active noise control is an efficient technique for noise cancellation of the system, which has been defined in this paper with the aid of Modified Filtered-s Least Mean Square (MFsLMS algorithm. The Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization and Firefly (HPSOFF algorithm are used to identify the stability factor of the MFsLMS algorithm. The computational difficulty of the modified algorithm is reduced when compared with the original Filtered-s Least Mean Square (FsLMS algorithm. The noise sources are removed from the signal and it is compared with the existing FsLMS algorithm. The performance of the system is established with the normalized mean square error for two different types of noises. The proposed method has also been compared with the existing algorithms for the same purposes.
Controller Parameter Optimization for Nonlinear Systems Using Enhanced Bacteria Foraging Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Rajinikanth
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An enhanced bacteria foraging optimization (EBFO algorithm-based Proportional + integral + derivative (PID controller tuning is proposed for a class of nonlinear process models. The EBFO algorithm is a modified form of standard BFO algorithm. A multiobjective performance index is considered to guide the EBFO algorithm for discovering the best possible value of controller parameters. The efficiency of the proposed scheme has been validated through a comparative study with classical BFO, adaptive BFO, PSO, and GA based controller tuning methods proposed in the literature. The proposed algorithm is tested in real time on a nonlinear spherical tank system. The real-time results show that, EBFO tuned PID controller gives a smooth response for setpoint tracking performance.
Supervisory Monitoring of Workplace at CIAE in 2011
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
1 Introduction Based on The Routine Monitoring Programme for Workplace at CIAE in 2011 which approved by Division of Safe and Environmental Protection, a management sector of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), supervisory monitoring of
Building Supervisory Confidence--A Key to Transfer of Training
Byham, William C.; Robinson, James
1977-01-01
A training concept is described which suggests that efforts toward maintaining and/or building the confidence of the participants in supervisory training programs can increase their likelihood of using the skills on the job. (TA)
Self-Disclosure as a Predictor of EAP Supervisory Utilization
Donohoe, Timothy L.; Johnson, James T.; Taquino, Maurice A.
1999-01-01
The value of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPS) has been cited in a variety of published papers and articles. An important managerial element relative to the assessment and referral of troubled employees has been supervisory training. There has been numerous studies highlighting the various factors and circumstances associated with supervisory behavior and EAP referrals. The inclusion of emotional awareness factors in EAP supervisory utilization has not been thoroughly investigated, although frequently found in the literature as a training and development objective for managers in business and education. The present study sought to determine what role supervisory denial and anxiety avoidance plays in confrontation of troubled employees and if admission of specific, internal emotional events is a characteristic among EAP utilizing supervisors.
Genetic Algorithm Tuning of PID Controller in Smith Predictor for Glucose Concentration Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsonyo Slavov
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of a glucose concentration control system based on nonlinear model plant of E. coli MC4110 fed-batch cultivation process. Due to significant time delay in real time glucose concentration measurement, a correction is proposed in glucose concentration measurement and a Smith predictor (SP control structure based on universal PID controller is designed. To reduce the influence of model error in SP structure the estimate of measured glucose concentration is used. For the aim an extended Kalman filter (EKF is designed. To achieve good closed-loop system performance genetic algorithm (GA based optimal controller tuning procedure is applied. A standard binary encoding GA is applied. The GA parameters and operators are specified for the considered here problem. As a result the optimal PID controller settings are obtained. The simulation experiments of the control systems based on SP with EKF and without EKF are performed. The results show that the control system based on SP with EKF has a better performance than the one without EKF. For a short time the controller sets the control variable and maintains it at the desired set point during the cultivation process. As a result, a high biomass concentration of 48.3 g·l-1 is obtained at the end of the process.
Development of real-time plasma analysis and control algorithms for the TCV tokamak using SIMULINK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felici, F.; Le, H.B.; Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Coda, S.; Moret, J.-M.; Bortolon, A.; Federspiel, L.; Goodman, T.P.; Hommen, G.; Karpushov, A.; Piras, F.; Pitzschke, A.; Romero, J.; Sevillano, G.; Sauter, O.; Vijvers, W.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A new digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • The system is entirely programmable by SIMULINK, allowing rapid algorithm development. • Different control system nodes can run different algorithms at varying sampling times. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: One of the key features of the new digital plasma control system installed on the TCV tokamak is the possibility to rapidly design, test and deploy real-time algorithms. With this flexibility the new control system has been used for a large number of new experiments which exploit TCV's powerful actuators consisting of 16 individually controllable poloidal field coils and 7 real-time steerable electron cyclotron (EC) launchers. The system has been used for various applications, ranging from event-based real-time MHD control to real-time current diffusion simulations. These advances have propelled real-time control to one of the cornerstones of the TCV experimental program. Use of the SIMULINK graphical programming language to directly program the control system has greatly facilitated algorithm development and allowed a multitude of different algorithms to be deployed in a short time. This paper will give an overview of the developed algorithms and their application in physics experiments
Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.
2012-01-01
Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.
Data-Driven Participation: Algorithms, Cities, Citizens, and Corporate Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Tenney
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we critically explore the interplay of algorithms and civic participation in visions of a city governed by equation, sensor and tweet. We begin by discussing the rhetoric surrounding techno-enabled paths to participatory democracy. This leads to us interrogating how the city is impacted by a discourse that promises to harness social/human capital through data science. We move to a praxis level and examine the motivations of local planners to adopt and increasingly automate forms of VGI as a form of citizen engagement. We ground theory and praxis with a report on the uneven impacts of algorithmic civic participation underway in the Canadian city of Toronto.
Fuzzy Sets-based Control Rules for Terminating Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose L. VERDEGAY
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper some problems arising in the interface between two different areas, Decision Support Systems and Fuzzy Sets and Systems, are considered. The Model-Base Management System of a Decision Support System which involves some fuzziness is considered, and in that context the questions on the management of the fuzziness in some optimisation models, and then of using fuzzy rules for terminating conventional algorithms are presented, discussed and analyzed. Finally, for the concrete case of the Travelling Salesman Problem, and as an illustration of determination, management and using the fuzzy rules, a new algorithm easy to implement in the Model-Base Management System of any oriented Decision Support System is shown.
An approach of traffic signal control based on NLRSQP algorithm
Zou, Yuan-Yang; Hu, Yu
2017-11-01
This paper presents a linear program model with linear complementarity constraints (LPLCC) to solve traffic signal optimization problem. The objective function of the model is to obtain the minimization of total queue length with weight factors at the end of each cycle. Then, a combination algorithm based on the nonlinear least regression and sequence quadratic program (NLRSQP) is proposed, by which the local optimal solution can be obtained. Furthermore, four numerical experiments are proposed to study how to set the initial solution of the algorithm that can get a better local optimal solution more quickly. In particular, the results of numerical experiments show that: The model is effective for different arrival rates and weight factors; and the lower bound of the initial solution is, the better optimal solution can be obtained.
Genetic algorithms for optimal design and control of adaptive structures
Ribeiro, R; Dias-Rodrigues, J; Vaz, M
2000-01-01
Future High Energy Physics experiments require the use of light and stable structures to support their most precise radiation detection elements. These large structures must be light, highly stable, stiff and radiation tolerant in an environment where external vibrations, high radiation levels, material aging, temperature and humidity gradients are not negligible. Unforeseen factors and the unknown result of the coupling of environmental conditions, together with external vibrations, may affect the position stability of the detectors and their support structures compromising their physics performance. Careful optimization of static and dynamic behavior must be an essential part of the engineering design. Genetic Algorithms ( GA) belong to the group of probabilistic algorithms, combining elements of direct and stochastic search. They are more robust than existing directed search methods with the advantage of maintaining a population of potential solutions. There is a class of optimization problems for which Ge...
An improved cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) algorithm considering invalid communication
Wang, Pangwei; Wang, Yunpeng; Yu, Guizhen; Tang, Tieqiao
2014-05-01
For the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Algorithm, existing research studies mainly focus on how inter-vehicle communication can be used to develop CACC controller, the influence of the communication delays and lags of the actuators to the string stability. However, whether the string stability can be guaranteed when inter-vehicle communication is invalid partially has hardly been considered. This paper presents an improved CACC algorithm based on the sliding mode control theory and analyses the range of CACC controller parameters to maintain string stability. A dynamic model of vehicle spacing deviation in a platoon is then established, and the string stability conditions under improved CACC are analyzed. Unlike the traditional CACC algorithms, the proposed algorithm can ensure the functionality of the CACC system even if inter-vehicle communication is partially invalid. Finally, this paper establishes a platoon of five vehicles to simulate the improved CACC algorithm in MATLAB/Simulink, and the simulation results demonstrate that the improved CACC algorithm can maintain the string stability of a CACC platoon through adjusting the controller parameters and enlarging the spacing to prevent accidents. With guaranteed string stability, the proposed CACC algorithm can prevent oscillation of vehicle spacing and reduce chain collision accidents under real-world circumstances. This research proposes an improved CACC algorithm, which can guarantee the string stability when inter-vehicle communication is invalid.
Development of traffic light control algorithm in smart municipal network
Kuzminykh, Ievgeniia
2016-01-01
This paper presents smart system that bypasses the normal functioning algorithm of traffic lights, triggers a green light when the lights are red or reset the timer of the traffic lights when they are about to turn red. Different pieces of hardware like microcontroller units, transceivers, resistors, diodes, LEDs, a digital compass and accelerometer will be coupled together and programed to create unified complex intelligent system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirp, W.
1996-01-01
The article discusses legal and procedural aspects in the context of expert opinions demanded by the supervisory and licensing authorities of nuclear power plants, and the role and activities of experts known for their critical approach to nuclear electricity generation. The aspects addressed are: Reasons to break the dominance of ''established'' experts who in general are members of the TUeV organisations (technical control boards), reasons for challenging motions such as suspicion of prejudice or insufficient expertise, order by the supervisory authority to take a ''dual approach'' and involve two experts for a task, as well as the relevant administrative and legal procedures. (orig./CB) [de
Sanjay Kr. Singh; D. Boolchandani; S.G. Modani; Nitish Katal
2014-01-01
This study focuses on multi-objective optimization of the PID controllers for optimal speed control for an isolated steam turbine. In complex operations, optimal tuning plays an imperative role in maintaining the product quality and process safety. This study focuses on the comparison of the optimal PID tuning using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) against normal genetic algorithm and Ziegler Nichols methods for the speed control of an isolated steam turbine. Isolated steam turbine...
New mode switching algorithm for the JPL 70-meter antenna servo controller
Nickerson, J. A.
1988-01-01
The design of control mode switching algorithms and logic for JPL's 70 m antenna servo controller are described. The old control mode switching logic was reviewed and perturbation problems were identified. Design approaches for mode switching are presented and the final design is described. Simulations used to compare old and new mode switching algorithms and logic show that the new mode switching techniques will significantly reduce perturbation problems.
Noise filtering algorithm for the MFTF-B computer based control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minor, E.G.
1983-01-01
An algorithm to reduce the message traffic in the MFTF-B computer based control system is described. The algorithm filters analog inputs to the control system. Its purpose is to distinguish between changes in the inputs due to noise and changes due to significant variations in the quantity being monitored. Noise is rejected while significant changes are reported to the control system data base, thus keeping the data base updated with a minimum number of messages. The algorithm is memory efficient, requiring only four bytes of storage per analog channel, and computationally simple, requiring only subtraction and comparison. Quantitative analysis of the algorithm is presented for the case of additive Gaussian noise. It is shown that the algorithm is stable and tends toward the mean value of the monitored variable over a wide variety of additive noise distributions
van Ophem, S.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.
2016-01-01
For broadband active noise control applications with a rapidly changing primary path, it is desirable to find algorithms with a rapid convergence, a fast tracking performance, and a low computational cost. Recently, a promising algorithm has been presented, called the fast-array Kalman filter, which
Data-driven gradient algorithm for high-precision quantum control
Wu, Re-Bing; Chu, Bing; Owens, David H.; Rabitz, Herschel
2018-04-01
In the quest to achieve scalable quantum information processing technologies, gradient-based optimal control algorithms (e.g., grape) are broadly used for implementing high-precision quantum gates, but their performance is often hindered by deterministic or random errors in the system model and the control electronics. In this paper, we show that grape can be taught to be more effective by jointly learning from the design model and the experimental data obtained from process tomography. The resulting data-driven gradient optimization algorithm (d-grape) can in principle correct all deterministic gate errors, with a mild efficiency loss. The d-grape algorithm may become more powerful with broadband controls that involve a large number of control parameters, while other algorithms usually slow down due to the increased size of the search space. These advantages are demonstrated by simulating the implementation of a two-qubit controlled-not gate.
A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp
2016-01-01
The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions in ...
Fuzzy PID control algorithm based on PSO and application in BLDC motor
Lin, Sen; Wang, Guanglong
2017-06-01
A fuzzy PID control algorithm is studied based on improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) to perform Brushless DC (BLDC) motor control which has high accuracy, good anti-jamming capability and steady state accuracy compared with traditional PID control. The mathematical and simulation model is established for BLDC motor by simulink software, and the speed loop of the fuzzy PID controller is designed. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID control algorithm based on PSO has higher stability, high control precision and faster dynamic response speed.
Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.
1983-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with the formulation of energy management strategies for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, taking into account a basic control algorithm for a possible predictive, (and adaptive) controller. The control system controls the flow of energy in the system according to the amount of energy available, and predicts the appropriate control set-points based on the energy (insolation) available by using an appropriate system model. Aspects of adaptation to the conditions of the system are also considered. Attention is given to a statistical analysis technique, the analysis inputs, the analysis procedure, and details regarding the basic control algorithm.
Telban, Robert J.
While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. To address this, new human-centered motion cueing algorithms were developed. A revised "optimal algorithm" uses time-invariant filters developed by optimal control, incorporating human vestibular system models. The "nonlinear algorithm" is a novel approach that is also formulated by optimal control, but can also be updated in real time. It incorporates a new integrated visual-vestibular perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. A time-varying control law requires the matrix Riccati equation to be solved in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. As a result of unsatisfactory sensation, an augmented turbulence cue was added to the vertical mode for both the optimal and nonlinear algorithms. The relative effectiveness of the algorithms, in simulating aircraft maneuvers, was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance test conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input
Design of SVC Controller Based on Improved Biogeography-Based Optimization Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feifei Dong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Considering that common subsynchronous resonance controllers cannot adapt to the characteristics of the time-varying and nonlinear behavior of a power system, the cosine migration model, the improved migration operator, and the mutative scale of chaos and Cauchy mutation strategy are introduced into an improved biogeography-based optimization (IBBO algorithm in order to design an optimal subsynchronous damping controller based on the mechanism of suppressing SSR by static var compensator (SVC. The effectiveness of the improved controller is verified by eigenvalue analysis and electromagnetic simulations. The simulation results of Jinjie plant indicate that the subsynchronous damping controller optimized by the IBBO algorithm can remarkably improve the damping of torsional modes and thus effectively depress SSR, and ensure the safety and stability of units and power grid operation. Moreover, the IBBO algorithm has the merits of a faster searching speed and higher searching accuracy in seeking the optimal control parameters over traditional algorithms, such as BBO algorithm, PSO algorithm, and GA algorithm.
Dynamic Control of Airport Departures: Algorithm Development and Field Evaluation
Simaiakis, Ioannis; Balakrishnan, Hamsa
2012-01-01
Surface congestion leads to significant increases in taxi times and fuel burn at major airports. In this paper, we formulate the airport surface congestion management problem as a dynamic control problem. We address two main challenges: the random delay between actuation (at the gate) and the server being controlled (the runway), and the need to develop control strategies that can be implemented in practice by human air traffic controllers. The second requirement necessitates a strategy that ...
Investigation of an automatic trim algorithm for restructurable aircraft control
Weiss, J.; Eterno, J.; Grunberg, D.; Looze, D.; Ostroff, A.
1986-01-01
This paper develops and solves an automatic trim problem for restructurable aircraft control. The trim solution is applied as a feed-forward control to reject measurable disturbances following control element failures. Disturbance rejection and command following performances are recovered through the automatic feedback control redesign procedure described by Looze et al. (1985). For this project the existence of a failure detection mechanism is assumed, and methods to cope with potential detection and identification inaccuracies are addressed.
Optimization and Control of Bilinear Systems Theory, Algorithms, and Applications
Pardalos, Panos M
2008-01-01
Covers developments in bilinear systems theory Focuses on the control of open physical processes functioning in a non-equilibrium mode Emphasis is on three primary disciplines: modern differential geometry, control of dynamical systems, and optimization theory Includes applications to the fields of quantum and molecular computing, control of physical processes, biophysics, superconducting magnetism, and physical information science
Different Control Algorithms for a Platoon of Autonomous Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zoran Gacovski
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of platoon movement of autonomous vehicles (smart cars. These vehicles have Adaptive or Advanced cruise control (ACC system also called Intelligent cruise control (ICC or Adaptive Intelligent cruise control (AICC system. The vehicles are suitable to follow other vehicles on desired distance and to be organized in platoons. To perform a research on the control and stability of an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles string, we have developed a car-following model. To do this, first a single vehicle is modeled and since all cars in the platoon have the same dynamics, the single vehicle model is copied ten times to form model of platoon (string with ten vehicles. To control this string, we have applied equal PID controllers to all vehicles, except the leading vehicle. These controllers try to keep the headway distance as constant as possible and the velocity error between subsequent vehicles - small. For control of vehicle with nonlinear dynamics combination of feedforward control and feedback control approach is used. Feedforward control is based on the inverse model of nominal dynamics of the vehicle, and feedback PID control is designed based on the linearized model of the vehicle. For simulation and analysis of vehicle and platoon of vehicles – we have developed Matlab/Simulink models. Simulation results, discussions and conclusions are given at the end of the paper.
SVC control enhancement applying self-learning fuzzy algorithm for islanded microgrid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossam Gabbar
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Maintaining voltage stability, within acceptable levels, for islanded Microgrids (MGs is a challenge due to limited exchange power between generation and loads. This paper proposes an algorithm to enhance the dynamic performance of islanded MGs in presence of load disturbance using Static VAR Compensator (SVC with Fuzzy Model Reference Learning Controller (FMRLC. The proposed algorithm compensates MG nonlinearity via fuzzy membership functions and inference mechanism imbedded in both controller and inverse model. Hence, MG keeps the desired performance as required at any operating condition. Furthermore, the self-learning capability of the proposed control algorithm compensates for grid parameter’s variation even with inadequate information about load dynamics. A reference model was designed to reject bus voltage disturbance with achievable performance by the proposed fuzzy controller. Three simulations scenarios have been presented to investigate effectiveness of proposed control algorithm in improving steady-state and transient performance of islanded MGs. The first scenario conducted without SVC, second conducted with SVC using PID controller and third conducted using FMRLC algorithm. A comparison for results shows ability of proposed control algorithm to enhance disturbance rejection due to learning process.
The research of automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC
Lin, Ying; Xiong, Hui; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Youyou; Zhang, Chuanqi
2017-06-01
Automatic speed control algorithm is one of the core technologies of train operation control system. It’s a typical multi-objective optimization control algorithm, which achieve the train speed control for timing, comfort, energy-saving and precise parking. At present, the train speed automatic control technology is widely used in metro and inter-city railways. It has been found that the automatic speed control technology can effectively reduce the driver’s intensity, and improve the operation quality. However, the current used algorithm is poor at energy-saving, even not as good as manual driving. In order to solve the problem of energy-saving, this paper proposes an automatic speed control algorithm based on Green CBTC system. Based on the Green CBTC system, the algorithm can adjust the operation status of the train to improve the efficient using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy while ensuring the timing, comfort and precise parking targets. Due to the reason, the energy-using of Green CBTC system is lower than traditional CBTC system. The simulation results show that the algorithm based on Green CBTC system can effectively reduce the energy-using due to the improvement of the using rate of regenerative braking feedback energy.
Model Predictive Control Algorithms for Pen and Pump Insulin Administration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boiroux, Dimitri
at mealtime, and the case where the insulin sensitivity increases during the night. This thesis consists of a summary report, glucose and insulin proles of the clinical studies and research papers submitted, peer-reviewed and/or published in the period September 2009 - September 2012....... of current closed-loop controllers. In this thesis, we present different control strategies based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) for an artificial pancreas. We use Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) in order to determine the optimal insulin and blood glucose profiles. The optimal control problem...
Active Engine Mounting Control Algorithm Using Neural Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadly Jashi Darsivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of neural network as a controller to isolate engine vibration in an active engine mounting system. It has been shown that the NARMA-L2 neurocontroller has the ability to reject disturbances from a plant. The disturbance is assumed to be both impulse and sinusoidal disturbances that are induced by the engine. The performance of the neural network controller is compared with conventional PD and PID controllers tuned using Ziegler-Nichols. From the result simulated the neural network controller has shown better ability to isolate the engine vibration than the conventional controllers.
Learning Mobility: Adaptive Control Algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Blackburn, Mike
2003-01-01
Mobility is a serious limiting factor in the usefulness of unmanned ground vehicles, This paper contains a description of our approach to develop control algorithms for the Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle (NUGV...
Digital control for nuclear reactors - lessons learned
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, J.A.; Aviles, B.N.; Lanning, D.D.
1992-01-01
Lessons learned during the course of the now decade-old MIT program on the digital control of nuclear reactors are enumerated. Relative to controller structure, these include the importance of a separate safety system, the need for signal validation, the role of supervisory algorithms, the significance of command validation, and the relevance of automated reasoning. Relative to controller implementation, these include the value of nodal methods to the creation of real-time reactor physics and thermal hydraulic models, the advantages to be gained from the use of real-time system models, and the importance of a multi-tiered structure to the simultaneous achievement of supervisory, global, and local control. Block diagrams are presented of proposed controllers and selected experimental and simulation-study results are shown. In addition, a history is given of the MIT program on reactor digital control
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop and test a framework referred to as the ADVANCE (Algorithm Design and Validation for Adaptive Nonlinear Control Enhancement), within which...
Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Algorithms on the Windows Vista Platform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Yee-Ting; /SLAC
2006-07-07
CTCP, an innovative TCP congestion control algorithm developed by Microsoft, is evaluated and compared to HSTCP and StandardTCP. Tests were performed on the production Internet from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to various geographically located hosts to give a broad overview of the performances. We find that certain issues were apparent during testing (not directly related to the congestion control algorithms) which may skew results. With this in mind, we find that CTCP performed similarly to HSTCP across a multitude of different network environments. However, to improve the fairness and to reduce the impact of CTCP upon existing StandardTCP traffic, two areas of further research were investigated. Algorithmic additions to CTCP for burst control to reduce the aggressiveness of its cwnd increments demonstrated beneficial improvements in both fairness and throughput over the original CTCP algorithm. Similarly, {gamma} auto-tuning algorithms were investigated to dynamically adapt CTCP flows to their network conditions for optimal performance. While the effects of these auto-tuning algorithms when used in addition to burst control showed little to no benefit to fairness nor throughput for the limited number of network paths tested, one of the auto-tuning algorithms performed such that there was negligible impact upon StandardTCP. With these improvements, CTCP was found to perform better than HSTCP in terms of fairness and similarly in terms of throughput under the production environments tested.
Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Algorithms on the Windows Vista Platform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Y
2006-01-01
CTCP, an innovative TCP congestion control algorithm developed by Microsoft, is evaluated and compared to HSTCP and StandardTCP. Tests were performed on the production Internet from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to various geographically located hosts to give a broad overview of the performances. We find that certain issues were apparent during testing (not directly related to the congestion control algorithms) which may skew results. With this in mind, we find that CTCP performed similarly to HSTCP across a multitude of different network environments. However, to improve the fairness and to reduce the impact of CTCP upon existing StandardTCP traffic, two areas of further research were investigated. Algorithmic additions to CTCP for burst control to reduce the aggressiveness of its cwnd increments demonstrated beneficial improvements in both fairness and throughput over the original CTCP algorithm. Similarly, auto-tuning algorithms were investigated to dynamically adapt CTCP flows to their network conditions for optimal performance. Whilst the effects of these auto-tuning algorithms when used in addition to burst control showed little to no benefit to fairness nor throughput for the limited number of network paths tested, one of the auto-tuning algorithms performed such that there was negligible impact upon StandardTCP. With these improvements, CTCP was found to perform better than HSTCP in terms of fairness and similarly in terms of throughput under the production environments tested
Study on improved Ip-iq APF control algorithm and its application in micro grid
Xie, Xifeng; Shi, Hua; Deng, Haiyingv
2018-01-01
In order to enhance the tracking velocity and accuracy of harmonic detection by ip-iq algorithm, a novel ip-iq control algorithm based on the Instantaneous reactive power theory is presented, the improved algorithm adds the lead correction link to adjust the zero point of the detection system, the Fuzzy Self-Tuning Adaptive PI control is introduced to dynamically adjust the DC-link Voltage, which meets the requirement of the harmonic compensation of the micro grid. Simulation and experimental results verify the proposed method is feasible and effective in micro grid.
Chaos control of ferroresonance system based on RBF-maximum entropy clustering algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Fan; Sun Caixin; Sima Wenxia; Liao Ruijin; Guo Fei
2006-01-01
With regards to the ferroresonance overvoltage of neutral grounded power system, a maximum-entropy learning algorithm based on radial basis function neural networks is used to control the chaotic system. The algorithm optimizes the object function to derive learning rule of central vectors, and uses the clustering function of network hidden layers. It improves the regression and learning ability of neural networks. The numerical experiment of ferroresonance system testifies the effectiveness and feasibility of using the algorithm to control chaos in neutral grounded system
Implementation Of Fuzzy Automated Brake Controller Using TSK Algorithm
Mittal, Ruchi; Kaur, Magandeep
2010-11-01
In this paper an application of Fuzzy Logic for Automatic Braking system is proposed. Anti-blocking system (ABS) brake controllers pose unique challenges to the designer: a) For optimal performance, the controller must operate at an unstable equilibrium point, b) Depending on road conditions, the maximum braking torque may vary over a wide range, c) The tire slippage measurement signal, crucial for controller performance, is both highly uncertain and noisy. A digital controller design was chosen which combines a fuzzy logic element and a decision logic network. The controller identifies the current road condition and generates a command braking pressure signal Depending upon the speed and distance of train. This paper describes design criteria, and the decision and rule structure of the control system. The simulation results present the system's performance depending upon the varying speed and distance of the train.
Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control Algorithms and Stability
Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Ding
2013-01-01
There are many methods of stable controller design for nonlinear systems. In seeking to go beyond the minimum requirement of stability, Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control approaches the challenging topic of optimal control for nonlinear systems using the tools of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The range of systems treated is extensive; affine, switched, singularly perturbed and time-delay nonlinear systems are discussed as are the uses of neural networks and techniques of value and policy iteration. The text features three main aspects of ADP in which the methods proposed for stabilization and for tracking and games benefit from the incorporation of optimal control methods: • infinite-horizon control for which the difficulty of solving partial differential Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations directly is overcome, and proof provided that the iterative value function updating sequence converges to the infimum of all the value functions obtained by admissible control law sequences; • finite-...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Dyke
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE. The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives.
Energy efficient topology control algorithm for wireless mesh networks
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Aron, FO
2008-08-01
Full Text Available The control of the topology of a network makes it possible for the network nodes to reduce their power of transmission while ensuring that network connectivity is preserved. This paper explains the need for energy consumption control in Wireless...
Benchmarking Advanced Control Algorithms for a Laser Scanner System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoustrup, Jakob; Ordys, A.W.; Smillie, I.
1996-01-01
The paper describes tests performed on the laser scanner system toassess feasibility of modern control techniques in achieving a requiredperformance in the trajectory following problem. The two methods tested areQTR H-infinity and Predictive Control. The results are ilustated ona simulation example....
Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller for air conditioning systems at different pressures. The first order Sugeno fuzzy inference system was implemented and utilized for modeling and controller design. In addition, the estimation of the heat transfer rate and water mass flow rate ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghoudjehbaklou, H.; Danai, B.
2001-01-01
Reactive power dispatch for voltage profile modification has been of interest to power utilities. Usually local bus voltages can be altered by changing generator voltages, reactive shunts, ULTC transformers and SVCs. Determination of optimum values for control parameters, however, is not simple for modern power system networks. Heuristic and rather intelligent algorithms have to be sought. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed that is based on a variant of a genetic algorithm combined with simulated annealing updates. In this algorithm a fuzzy multi-objective a approach is used for the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. This fuzzy multi-objective function can efficiently modify the voltage profile in order to minimize transmission lines losses, thus reducing the operating costs. The reason for such a combination is to utilize the best characteristics of each method and overcome their deficiencies. The proposed algorithm is much faster than the classical genetic algorithm and cna be easily integrated into existing power utilities software. The proposed algorithm is tested on an actual system model of 1284 buses, 799 lines, 1175 fixed and ULTC transformers, 86 generators, 181 controllable shunts and 425 loads
Making the error-controlling algorithm of observable operator models constructive.
Zhao, Ming-Jie; Jaeger, Herbert; Thon, Michael
2009-12-01
Observable operator models (OOMs) are a class of models for stochastic processes that properly subsumes the class that can be modeled by finite-dimensional hidden Markov models (HMMs). One of the main advantages of OOMs over HMMs is that they admit asymptotically correct learning algorithms. A series of learning algorithms has been developed, with increasing computational and statistical efficiency, whose recent culmination was the error-controlling (EC) algorithm developed by the first author. The EC algorithm is an iterative, asymptotically correct algorithm that yields (and minimizes) an assured upper bound on the modeling error. The run time is faster by at least one order of magnitude than EM-based HMM learning algorithms and yields significantly more accurate models than the latter. Here we present a significant improvement of the EC algorithm: the constructive error-controlling (CEC) algorithm. CEC inherits from EC the main idea of minimizing an upper bound on the modeling error but is constructive where EC needs iterations. As a consequence, we obtain further gains in learning speed without loss in modeling accuracy.
A Novel Control Algorithm for Static Series Compensators by Use of PQR Instantaneous Power Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Hyosung; Sul, Seung-Ki
2004-01-01
in coordinates is very simple and clear, has better steady state and dynamic performance. The controlled variables in coordinates are then inversely transformed to the original coordinates without time delay, generating control signals to SSCs. The control algorithm can be used for various kinds of SSCs...
Automatic Tuning of PID Controller for a 1-D Levitation System Using a Genetic Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Gerulf K.m.
2006-01-01
The automatic PID control design for a onedimensional magnetic levitation system is investigated. The PID controller is automatically tuned using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on a nonlinear system model. The developed controller is digitally implemented and tested...
A chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yong; Wong, K.-W.; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiang Tao; Chen Guanrong
2009-01-01
In recent years, a number of image encryption algorithms based on the permutation-diffusion structure have been proposed. However, the control parameters used in the permutation stage are usually fixed in the whole encryption process, which favors attacks. In this paper, a chaos-based image encryption algorithm with variable control parameters is proposed. The control parameters used in the permutation stage and the keystream employed in the diffusion stage are generated from two chaotic maps related to the plain-image. As a result, the algorithm can effectively resist all known attacks against permutation-diffusion architectures. Theoretical analyses and computer simulations both confirm that the new algorithm possesses high security and fast encryption speed for practical image encryption.
Scalable algorithms for optimal control of stochastic PDEs
Ghattas, Omar
2016-01-07
We present methods for the optimal control of systems governed by partial differential equations with infinite-dimensional uncertain parameters. We consider an objective function that involves the mean and variance of the control objective, leading to a risk-averse optimal control formulation. To make the optimal control problem computationally tractable, we employ a local quadratic approximation of the objective with respect to the uncertain parameter. This enables computation of the mean and variance of the control objective analytically. The resulting risk-averse optimization problem is formulated as a PDE-constrained optimization problem with constraints given by the forward and adjoint PDEs for the first and second-order derivatives of the quantity of interest with respect to the uncertain parameter, and with an objective that involves the trace of a covariance-preconditioned Hessian (of the objective with respect to the uncertain parameters) operator. A randomized trace estimator is used to make tractable the trace computation. Adjoint-based techniques are used to derive an expression for the infinite-dimensional gradient of the risk-averse objective function via the Lagrangian, leading to a quasi-Newton method for solution of the optimal control problem. A specific problem of optimal control of a linear elliptic PDE that describes flow of a fluid in a porous medium with uncertain permeability field is considered. We present numerical results to study the consequences of the local quadratic approximation and the efficiency of the method.
Scalable algorithms for optimal control of stochastic PDEs
Ghattas, Omar; Alexanderian, Alen; Petra, Noemi; Stadler, Georg
2016-01-01
We present methods for the optimal control of systems governed by partial differential equations with infinite-dimensional uncertain parameters. We consider an objective function that involves the mean and variance of the control objective, leading to a risk-averse optimal control formulation. To make the optimal control problem computationally tractable, we employ a local quadratic approximation of the objective with respect to the uncertain parameter. This enables computation of the mean and variance of the control objective analytically. The resulting risk-averse optimization problem is formulated as a PDE-constrained optimization problem with constraints given by the forward and adjoint PDEs for the first and second-order derivatives of the quantity of interest with respect to the uncertain parameter, and with an objective that involves the trace of a covariance-preconditioned Hessian (of the objective with respect to the uncertain parameters) operator. A randomized trace estimator is used to make tractable the trace computation. Adjoint-based techniques are used to derive an expression for the infinite-dimensional gradient of the risk-averse objective function via the Lagrangian, leading to a quasi-Newton method for solution of the optimal control problem. A specific problem of optimal control of a linear elliptic PDE that describes flow of a fluid in a porous medium with uncertain permeability field is considered. We present numerical results to study the consequences of the local quadratic approximation and the efficiency of the method.
Commissioning of Temelin NPP as seen by scientific supervisory group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svoboda, C.
2003-01-01
Scientific Supervisory Group worked during the Temelin NPP commissioning process as an independent supervisor. The main tasks and main results of its activity are described in this contribution. The characteristic common features of commissioning process and most important events from the Scientific Supervisory Group point of view are presented. In April 1999 the Czech Power Utility with the objective to achieve maximum level of nuclear safety and quality within the NPP Temelin commissioning procedures has established a special body / Scientific Supervisory Group and requested Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to perform the required function. The Scientific Supervisory Group proceeds in accordance with its Statute and provides an independent specialised professional and expert work focused on nuclear safety assurance, assesment of the selected documentation related to plant preparedness for the individual commissioning stages, and, of course. on assessment of the commissioning tests results. While performing its function the Scientific Supervisory Group is guided by the Atomic Act and the relevant Directives of State Office for Nuclear Safety; its activities are in compliance with the applicable IAEA recommendations (Authors)
Development of fuzzy algorithm with learning function for nuclear steam generator level control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Gee Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun
1993-01-01
A fuzzy algorithm with learning function is applied to the steam generator level control of nuclear power plant. This algorithm can make its rule base and membership functions suited for steam generator level control by use of the data obtained from the control actions of a skilled operator or of other controllers (i.e., PID controller). The rule base of fuzzy controller with learning function is divided into two parts. One part of the rule base is provided to level control of steam generator at low power level (0 % - 30 % of full power) and the other to level control at high power level (30 % - 100 % of full power). Response time of steam generator level control at low power range with this rule base is shown to be shorter than that of fuzzy controller with direct inference. (Author)
A review on control system algorithm for building automation systems
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Noubissie-Tientcheu, SI
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The building with its components such as Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and lighting constitute a bigger part of energy consumption in Southern Africa. Control system in a building reduced the energy consumption, according to different...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coban, Ramazan
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → A closed-loop fuzzy logic controller based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm was proposed for controlling the power level of nuclear research reactors. → The proposed control system was tested for various initial and desired power levels, and it could control the reactor successfully for most situations. → The proposed controller is robust against the disturbances. - Abstract: In this paper, a closed-loop fuzzy logic controller based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for controlling the power level of nuclear research reactors. The principle of the fuzzy logic controller is based on the rules constructed from numerical experiments made by means of a computer code for the core dynamics calculation and from human operator's experience and knowledge. In addition to these intuitive and experimental design efforts, consequent parts of the fuzzy rules are optimally (or near optimally) determined using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The contribution of the proposed algorithm to a reactor control system is investigated in details. The performance of the controller is also tested with numerical simulations in numerous operating conditions from various initial power levels to desired power levels, as well as under disturbance. It is shown that the proposed control system performs satisfactorily under almost all operating conditions, even in the case of very small initial power levels.
State-Space Equations and the First-Phase Algorithm for Signal Control of Single Intersections
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jinyuan; PAN Xin; WANG Xiqin
2007-01-01
State-space equations were applied to formulate the queuing and delay of traffic at a single intersection in this paper. The signal control of a single intersection was then modeled as a discrete-time optimal control problem, with consideration of the constraints of stream conflicts, saturation flow rate, minimum green time, and maximum green time. The problem cannot be solved directly due to the nonlinear constraints.However, the results of qualitative analysis were used to develop a first-phase signal control algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm substantially reduces the total delay compared to fixed-time control.
Moore, J H
1995-06-01
A genetic algorithm for instrumentation control and optimization was developed using the LabVIEW graphical programming environment. The usefulness of this methodology for the optimization of a closed loop control instrument is demonstrated with minimal complexity and the programming is presented in detail to facilitate its adaptation to other LabVIEW applications. Closed loop control instruments have variety of applications in the biomedical sciences including the regulation of physiological processes such as blood pressure. The program presented here should provide a useful starting point for those wishing to incorporate genetic algorithm approaches to LabVIEW mediated optimization of closed loop control instruments.
Extracting quantum dynamics from genetic learning algorithms through principal control analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, J L; Pearson, B J; Bucksbaum, P H
2004-01-01
Genetic learning algorithms are widely used to control ultrafast optical pulse shapes for photo-induced quantum control of atoms and molecules. An unresolved issue is how to use the solutions found by these algorithms to learn about the system's quantum dynamics. We propose a simple method based on covariance analysis of the control space, which can reveal the degrees of freedom in the effective control Hamiltonian. We have applied this technique to stimulated Raman scattering in liquid methanol. A simple model of two-mode stimulated Raman scattering is consistent with the results. (letter to the editor)
Quadratic Stabilization of LPV System by an LTI Controller Based on ILMI Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xie
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A linear time-invariant (LTI output feedback controller is designed for a linear parameter-varying (LPV control system to achieve quadratic stability. The LPV system includes immeasurable dependent parameters that are assumed to vary in a polytopic space. To solve this control problem, a heuristic algorithm is proposed in the form of an iterative linear matrix inequality (ILMI formulation. Furthermore, an effective method of setting an initial value of the ILMI algorithm is also proposed to increase the probability of getting an admissible solution for the controller design problem.
Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi; Gupta, Amitava
2011-01-01
An optimal PID and an optimal fuzzy PID have been tuned by minimizing the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE) and squared controller output for a networked control system (NCS). The tuning is attempted for a higher order and a time delay system using two stochastic algorithms viz. the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and two variants of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the closed loop performances are compared. The paper shows that random variation in network delay can be handled efficiently with fuzzy logic based PID controllers over conventional PID controllers. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optimization of type-2 fuzzy controllers using the bee colony algorithm
Amador, Leticia
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the fields of fuzzy logic, bio-inspired algorithm; especially bee colony optimization algorithm and also considering the fuzzy control area. The main idea is that this areas together can to solve various control problems and to find better results. In this book we test the proposed method using two benchmark problems; the problem for filling a water tank and the problem for controlling the trajectory in an autonomous mobile robot. When Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System is implemented to model the behavior of systems, the results show a better stabilization, because the analysis of uncertainty is better. For this reason we consider in this book the proposed method using fuzzy systems, fuzzy controllers, and bee colony optimization algorithm improve the behavior of the complex control problems.
Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems With Applications
Tempo, Roberto; Dabbene, Fabrizio
2013-01-01
The presence of uncertainty in a system description has always been a critical issue in control. The main objective of Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control of Uncertain Systems, with Applications (Second Edition) is to introduce the reader to the fundamentals of probabilistic methods in the analysis and design of systems subject to deterministic and stochastic uncertainty. The approach propounded by this text guarantees a reduction in the computational complexity of classical control algorithms and in the conservativeness of standard robust control techniques. The second edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect recent research and new applications with chapters on statistical learning theory, sequential methods for control and the scenario approach being completely rewritten. Features: · self-contained treatment explaining Monte Carlo and Las Vegas randomized algorithms from their genesis in the principles of probability theory to their use for system analysis; · ...
Velocity control of servo systems using an integral retarded algorithm.
Ramírez, Adrián; Garrido, Rubén; Mondié, Sabine
2015-09-01
This paper presents a design technique for the delay-based controller called Integral Retarded (IR), and its applications to velocity control of servo systems. Using spectral analysis, the technique yields a tuning strategy for the IR by assigning a triple real dominant root for the closed-loop system. This result ultimately guarantees a desired exponential decay rate σ(d) while achieving the IR tuning as explicit function of σ(d) and system parameters. The intentional introduction of delay allows using noisy velocity measurements without additional filtering. The structure of the controller is also able to avoid velocity measurements by using instead position information. The IR is compared to a classical PI, both tested in a laboratory prototype. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Advanced algorithm for MPPT control of photovoltaic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, C.; Wu, B.; Cheung, R. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
2006-07-01
Although photovoltaic (PV) energy is a renewable, environmentally sound source of electricity, it is relatively costly. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV output for all sunshine conditions is key to keeping the output power per unit cost low for successful PV applications. The MPPT control is challenging, because the sunshine condition that determines the amount of sun energy into the PV array may change at any time, and the voltage/current characteristic of PV arrays is highly nonlinear. The 5 components of a PV system for the grid-connected applications are a PV array that converts solar energy to electric energy; a dc-dc converter that converts low dc voltages produced by the PV arrays to a high dc voltage; an inverter that converts the high dc voltage to a single- or three-phase ac voltage; a digital controller that controls the converter operation with MPPT capability; and, an ac filter that absorbs voltage/current harmonics generated by the inverter. The technical requirements in developing a practical PV system include an optimal control that can extract the maximum output power from the PV arrays under all operating and weather conditions, and a high performance-to-cost ratio to help commercialize developed PV technologies. This paper proposed a new method for the MPPT control of PV systems. The new method uses one estimate process for every two perturb processes in search of the maximum PV output for all sunshine conditions. In this estimate-perturb-perturb (EPP) method, the perturb process conducts the search over a highly nonlinear PV characteristic, and the estimate process compensates the perturb process for irradiance-changing conditions. The EPP method improves the tracking accuracy and speed of the MPPT control compared to other methods. This paper demonstrated that the EPP method can provide accurate and reliable MPPT even under rapidly changing irradiance conditions. A grid-connected PV system using three MPPT controls was
An Algorithm for Creating Virtual Controls Using Integrated and Harmonized Longitudinal Data.
Hansen, William B; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Saldana, Santiago; Ip, Edward H
2018-06-01
We introduce a strategy for creating virtual control groups-cases generated through computer algorithms that, when aggregated, may serve as experimental comparators where live controls are difficult to recruit, such as when programs are widely disseminated and randomization is not feasible. We integrated and harmonized data from eight archived longitudinal adolescent-focused data sets spanning the decades from 1980 to 2010. Collectively, these studies examined numerous psychosocial variables and assessed past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Additional treatment and control group data from two archived randomized control trials were used to test the virtual control algorithm. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed intentions, normative beliefs, and values as well as past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. We developed an algorithm that used percentile scores from the integrated data set to create age- and gender-specific latent psychosocial scores. The algorithm matched treatment case observed psychosocial scores at pretest to create a virtual control case that figuratively "matured" based on age-related changes, holding the virtual case's percentile constant. Virtual controls matched treatment case occurrence, eliminating differential attrition as a threat to validity. Virtual case substance use was estimated from the virtual case's latent psychosocial score using logistic regression coefficients derived from analyzing the treatment group. Averaging across virtual cases created group estimates of prevalence. Two criteria were established to evaluate the adequacy of virtual control cases: (1) virtual control group pretest drug prevalence rates should match those of the treatment group and (2) virtual control group patterns of drug prevalence over time should match live controls. The algorithm successfully matched pretest prevalence for both RCTs. Increases in prevalence were observed, although there were discrepancies between live
Acikmese, Behcet A.; Carson, John M., III
2005-01-01
A robustly stabilizing MPC (model predictive control) algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems is developed that guarantees the resolvability of the associated finite-horizon optimal control problem in a receding-horizon implementation. The control consists of two components; (i) feedforward, and (ii) feedback part. Feed-forward control is obtained by online solution of a finite-horizon optimal control problem for the nominal system dynamics. The feedback control policy is designed off-line based on a bound on the uncertainty in the system model. The entire controller is shown to be robustly stabilizing with a region of attraction composed of initial states for which the finite-horizon optimal control problem is feasible. The controller design for this algorithm is demonstrated on a class of systems with uncertain nonlinear terms that have norm-bounded derivatives, and derivatives in polytopes. An illustrative numerical example is also provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinzhi Feng
2015-02-01
Full Text Available A new hierarchical control strategy for active hydropneumatic suspension systems is proposed. This strategy considers the dynamic characteristics of the actuator. The top hierarchy controller uses a combined control scheme: a genetic algorithm- (GA- based self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative controller and a fuzzy logic controller. For practical implementations of the proposed control scheme, a GA-based self-learning process is initiated only when the defined performance index of vehicle dynamics exceeds a certain debounce time threshold. The designed control algorithm is implemented on a virtual prototype and cosimulations are performed with different road disturbance inputs. Cosimulation results show that the active hydropneumatic suspension system designed in this study significantly improves riding comfort characteristics of vehicles. The robustness and adaptability of the proposed controller are also examined when the control system is subjected to extremely rough road conditions.
A semi-active suspension control algorithm for vehicle comprehensive vertical dynamics performance
Nie, Shida; Zhuang, Ye; Liu, Weiping; Chen, Fan
2017-08-01
Comprehensive performance of the vehicle, including ride qualities and road-holding, is essentially of great value in practice. Many up-to-date semi-active control algorithms improve vehicle dynamics performance effectively. However, it is hard to improve comprehensive performance for the conflict between ride qualities and road-holding around the second-order resonance. Hence, a new control algorithm is proposed to achieve a good trade-off between ride qualities and road-holding. In this paper, the properties of the invariant points are analysed, which gives an insight into the performance conflicting around the second-order resonance. Based on it, a new control algorithm is proposed. The algorithm employs a novel frequency selector to balance suspension ride and handling performance by adopting a medium damping around the second-order resonance. The results of this study show that the proposed control algorithm could improve the performance of ride qualities and suspension working space up to 18.3% and 8.2%, respectively, with little loss of road-holding compared to the passive suspension. Consequently, the comprehensive performance can be improved by 6.6%. Hence, the proposed algorithm is of great potential to be implemented in practice.
Distributed topology control algorithm for multihop wireless netoworks
Borbash, S. A.; Jennings, E. H.
2002-01-01
We present a network initialization algorithmfor wireless networks with distributed intelligence. Each node (agent) has only local, incomplete knowledge and it must make local decisions to meet a predefined global objective. Our objective is to use power control to establish a topology based onthe relative neighborhood graph which has good overall performance in terms of power usage, low interference, and reliability.
Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
... conditioning system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... (Hossien and Karla, 2012) presented an overview work which provides an .... energy balance for SSSF and the mass flow balance for the water in the air are ..... of Automatic Control and Electrical Engineering at Siegen University, Germany.
Scheduling algorithms for automatic control systems for technological processes
Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Tsarev, R. Yu; Kapulin, D. V.
2017-01-01
Wide use of automatic process control systems and the usage of high-performance systems containing a number of computers (processors) give opportunities for creation of high-quality and fast production that increases competitiveness of an enterprise. Exact and fast calculations, control computation, and processing of the big data arrays - all of this requires the high level of productivity and, at the same time, minimum time of data handling and result receiving. In order to reach the best time, it is necessary not only to use computing resources optimally, but also to design and develop the software so that time gain will be maximal. For this purpose task (jobs or operations), scheduling techniques for the multi-machine/multiprocessor systems are applied. Some of basic task scheduling methods for the multi-machine process control systems are considered in this paper, their advantages and disadvantages come to light, and also some usage considerations, in case of the software for automatic process control systems developing, are made.
Efficient Algorithms for Network-Wide Road Traffic Control
van de Weg, G.S.
2017-01-01
Controlling road traffic networks is a complex problem. One of the difficulties is the coordination of actuators, such as traffic lights, variables speed limits, ramp metering and route guidance, with the aim to improve the network performance over a near-future time horizon. This dissertation
Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy ... system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... It can construct an input-output mapping based on human knowledge and specific input-output data ... fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, ...
Instructional Regulation and Control: Cybernetics, Algorithmization and Heuristics in Education.
Landa, L. N.; And Others
This book on the aspects of instructional processes focuses on control of student cognitive activity during instruction. Chapter 1 introduces the cybernetic approach to the theory of instruction. It is followed by a chapter on instructional effectiveness and efficiency. The third chapter discusses cognitive processes and thinking. Chapter 4…
Efficient Algorithms for Distributed Control : A Structured Matrix Approach
Rice, J.K.
2010-01-01
Distributed systems are all around us, and they are fascinating, and have an enormous potential to improve our lives, if their complexity can be properly harnessed. All scientists and engineers are aware of the great potential of this subject, since we witness fantastic distributed control systems
Online learning algorithms : For passivity-based and distributed control
Nageshrao, S.P.
2016-01-01
Over the last couple of decades the demand for high precision and enhanced performance of physical systems has been steadily increasing. This demand often results in miniaturization and complex design, thus increasing the need for complex nonlinear control methods. Some of the state of the art
A Modified LQG Algorithm (MLQG for Robust Control of Nonlinear Multivariable Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens G. Balchen
1993-07-01
Full Text Available The original LQG algorithm is often characterized for its lack of robustness. This is because in the design of the estimator (Kalman filter the process disturbance is assumed to be white noise. If the estimator is to give good estimates, the Kalman gain is increased which means that the estimator fails to become robust. A solution to this problem is to replace the proportional Kalman gain matrix by a dynamic PI algorithm and the proportional LQ feedback gain matrix by a PI algorithm. A tuning method is developed which facilitates the tuning of a modified LQG control system (MLQG by only two tuning parameters.
Analysis of the Command and Control Segment (CCS) attitude estimation algorithm
Stockwell, Catherine
1993-01-01
This paper categorizes the qualitative behavior of the Command and Control Segment (CCS) differential correction algorithm as applied to attitude estimation using simultaneous spin axis sun angle and Earth cord length measurements. The categories of interest are the domains of convergence, divergence, and their boundaries. Three series of plots are discussed that show the dependence of the estimation algorithm on the vehicle radius, the sun/Earth angle, and the spacecraft attitude. Common qualitative dynamics to all three series are tabulated and discussed. Out-of-limits conditions for the estimation algorithm are identified and discussed.
A homotopy algorithm for digital optimal projection control GASD-HADOC
Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen; Davis, Lawrence D.
1993-01-01
The linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) compensator was developed to facilitate the design of control laws for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The compensator is computed by solving two algebraic equations for which standard closed-loop solutions exist. Unfortunately, the minimal dimension of an LQG compensator is almost always equal to the dimension of the plant and can thus often violate practical implementation constraints on controller order. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control-design for high-order systems such as flexible space structures. This deficiency motivated the development of techniques that enable the design of optimal controllers whose dimension is less than that of the design plant. A homotopy approach based on the optimal projection equations that characterize the necessary conditions for optimal reduced-order control. Homotopy algorithms have global convergence properties and hence do not require that the initializing reduced-order controller be close to the optimal reduced-order controller to guarantee convergence. However, the homotopy algorithm previously developed for solving the optimal projection equations has sublinear convergence properties and the convergence slows at higher authority levels and may fail. A new homotopy algorithm for synthesizing optimal reduced-order controllers for discrete-time systems is described. Unlike the previous homotopy approach, the new algorithm is a gradient-based, parameter optimization formulation and was implemented in MATLAB. The results reported may offer the foundation for a reliable approach to optimal, reduced-order controller design.
Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.
1995-01-01
Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter'' that uses embedded simulation, has been presented
Algorithm for motion control of an exoskeleton during verticalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jatsun Sergey
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers lower limb exoskeleton that performs sit-to-stand motion. The work is focused on the control system design. An application of a null space projection methods for solving inverse kinematics problem is discussed. An adaptive multi-input multi-output regulator for the system is presented with the motivation for that choice. Results of the simulation for different versions of the regulator are shown.
Robust PD Sway Control of a Lifted Load for a Crane Using a Genetic Algorithm
Kawada, Kazuo; Sogo, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Mada, Yasuhiro
PID control schemes still continue to be widely used for most industrial control systems. This is mainly because PID controllers have simple control structures, and are simple to maintain and tune. However, it is difficult to find a set of suitable control parameters in the case of time-varying and/or nonlinear systems. For such a problem, the robust controller has been proposed.Although it is important to choose the suitable nominal model in designing the robust controller, it is not usually easy.In this paper, a new robust PD controller design scheme is proposed, which utilizes a genetic algorithm.
Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System
R. Prakash; B. Meenakshipriya; R. Kumaravelan
2014-01-01
This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with pro...
A controlled genetic algorithm by fuzzy logic and belief functions for job-shop scheduling.
Hajri, S; Liouane, N; Hammadi, S; Borne, P
2000-01-01
Most scheduling problems are highly complex combinatorial problems. However, stochastic methods such as genetic algorithm yield good solutions. In this paper, we present a controlled genetic algorithm (CGA) based on fuzzy logic and belief functions to solve job-shop scheduling problems. For better performance, we propose an efficient representational scheme, heuristic rules for creating the initial population, and a new methodology for mixing and computing genetic operator probabilities.
Method to evaluate steering and alignment algorithms for controlling emittance growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adolphsen, C.; Raubenheimer, T.
1993-04-01
Future linear colliders will likely use sophisticated beam-based alignment and/or steering algorithms to control the growth of the beam emittance in the linac. In this paper, a mathematical framework is presented which simplifies the evaluation of the effectiveness of these algorithms. As an application, a quad alignment that uses beam data taken with the nominal linac optics, and with a scaled optics, is evaluated in terms of the dispersive emittance growth remaining after alignment
A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks
Li, Yuhong
2018-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm—parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm—which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes. PMID:29554140
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Floodeen, David
1998-01-01
The objective of this thesis is two-fold. The first goal is to expand the operational capabilities of the Ship's Service Converter Module control algorithm for a DC-to-DC converter using the Universal Controller...
An on-line modified least-mean-square algorithm for training neurofuzzy controllers.
Tan, Woei Wan
2007-04-01
The problem hindering the use of data-driven modelling methods for training controllers on-line is the lack of control over the amount by which the plant is excited. As the operating schedule determines the information available on-line, the knowledge of the process may degrade if the setpoint remains constant for an extended period. This paper proposes an identification algorithm that alleviates "learning interference" by incorporating fuzzy theory into the normalized least-mean-square update rule. The ability of the proposed methodology to achieve faster learning is examined by employing the algorithm to train a neurofuzzy feedforward controller for controlling a liquid level process. Since the proposed identification strategy has similarities with the normalized least-mean-square update rule and the recursive least-square estimator, the on-line learning rates of these algorithms are also compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabindra Kumar Sahu
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An attempt is made for the effective application of Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA to optimize PI/PIDF controller parameters in Automatic Generation Control (AGC of interconnected power systems. Initially, comparison of several conventional objective functions reveals that ITAE yields better system performance. Then, the parameters of GSA technique are properly tuned and the GSA control parameters are proposed. The superiority of the proposed approach is demonstrated by comparing the results of some recently published techniques such as Differential Evolution (DE, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA and Genetic Algorithm (GA. Additionally, sensitivity analysis is carried out that demonstrates the robustness of the optimized controller parameters to wide variations in operating loading condition and time constants of speed governor, turbine, tie-line power. Finally, the proposed approach is extended to a more realistic power system model by considering the physical constraints such as reheat turbine, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Governor Dead Band nonlinearity.
Z. Darvas (Zsolt); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); N. Véron (Nicolas)
2017-01-01
textabstractEuropean Union (EU) countries offer a unique experience of financial regulatory and supervisory integration, complementing various other European integration efforts following the Second World War. Financial regulatory and supervisory integration was a very slow process before 2008,
A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.
Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan
2015-01-01
In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.
A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanfu Mo
Full Text Available In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET, the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.
Expert system driven fuzzy control application to power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsoukalas, L.H.; Berkan, R.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Uhrig, R.E.
1990-01-01
For the purpose of nonlinear control and uncertainty/imprecision handling, fuzzy controllers have recently reached acclaim and increasing commercial application. The fuzzy control algorithms often require a ''supervisory'' routine that provides necessary heuristics for interface, adaptation, mode selection and other implementation issues. Performance characteristics of an on-line fuzzy controller depend strictly on the ability of such supervisory routines to manipulate the fuzzy control algorithm and enhance its control capabilities. This paper describes an expert system driven fuzzy control design application to nuclear reactor control, for the automated start-up control of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. The methodology is verified through computer simulations using a valid nonlinear model. The necessary heuristic decisions are identified that are vitally important for the implemention of fuzzy control in the actual plant. An expert system structure incorporating the necessary supervisory routines is discussed. The discussion also includes the possibility of synthesizing the fuzzy, exact and combined reasoning to include both inexact concepts, uncertainty and fuzziness, within the same environment
Machine vision algorithms applied to dynamic traffic light control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Andrés Espinosa Valcárcel
2013-01-01
número de autos presentes en imágenes capturadas por un conjunto de cámaras estratégicamente ubicadas en cada intersección. Usando esta información, el sistema selecciona la secuencia de acciones que optimicen el flujo vehicular dentro de la zona de control, en un escenario simulado. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sistema disminuye en un 20% los tiempos de retraso para cada vehículo y que además es capaz de adaptarse rápida y eficientemente a los cambios de flujo.
Yanagisawa, Masahiro
2007-01-01
We provide a control theoretical method for a computational lower bound of quantum algorithms based on quantum walks of a finite time horizon. It is shown that given a quantum network, there exists a control theoretical expression of the quantum system and the transition probability of the quantum walk is related to a norm of the associated transfer function.
Saltik, M.B.; Özkan, L.; Ludlage, J.H.A.; Weiland, S.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the model predictive control algorithms that are tailored for uncertain systems. Robustness notions with respect to both deterministic (or set based) and stochastic uncertainties are discussed and contributions are reviewed in the model predictive control literature. We
Control Algorithms Along Relative Equilibria of Underactuated Lagrangian Systems on Lie Groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, F.
2008-01-01
We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...
Control algorithms along relative equilibria of underactuated Lagrangian systems on Lie groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, Francesco
2007-01-01
We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...
Cohesive Motion Control Algorithm for Formation of Multiple Autonomous Agents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debabrata Atta
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control strategy for a rigid and constraint consistent formation that can be modeled by a directed graph whose each vertex represents individual agent kinematics and each of directed edges represents distance constraints maintained by an agent, called follower, to its neighbouring agent. A rigid and constraint consistent graph is called persistent graph. A persistent graph is minimally persistent if it is persistent, and no edge can be removed without losing its persistence. An acyclic (free of cycles in its sensing pattern minimally persistent graph of Leader-Follower structure has been considered here which can be constructed from an initial Leader-Follower seed (initial graph with two vertices, one is Leader and another one is First Follower and one edge in between them is directed towards Leader by Henneberg sequence (a procedure of growing a graph containing only vertex additions. A set of nonlinear optimization-based decentralized control laws for mobile autonomous point agents in two dimensional plane have been proposed. An infinitesimal deviation in formation shape created continuous motion of Leader is compensated by corresponding continuous motion of other agents fulfilling the shortest path criteria.
Output Feedback Control of Electro-Hydraulic Cylinder Drives using the Twisting Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2014-01-01
contributions in literature. This paper considers the twisting algorithm when applied directly for output feedback control, and with the design based on a reduced order model representation of an arbitrary valve driven hydraulic cylinder drive. The consequence of implementing such a controller with the well......This paper discusses the utilization of the so-called twisting algorithm when applied in output feedback position control schemes for electro-hydraulic cylinder drives. The twisting controller was the first second order sliding controller ever introduced, and can structure-wise be considered...... feedback controller may be successfully applied to hydraulic valve driven cylinder drives, with performance being on the level with a conventional surface based first order sliding mode controller....
Controller tuning based on optimization algorithms of a novel spherical rolling robot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadegjian, Rasou [Dept. of Electrical, Biomedical, and Mechatronics Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, QazvinI (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masouleh, Mehdi Tale [Human and Robot Interaction Laboratory, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-11-15
This study presents the construction process of a novel spherical rolling robot and control strategies that are used to improve robot locomotion. The proposed robot drive mechanism is constructed based on a combination of the pendulum and wheel drive mechanisms. The control model of the proposed robot is developed, and the state space model is calculated based on the obtained control model. Two control strategies are defined to improve the synchronization performance of the proposed robot motors. The proportional-derivative and proportional-integral-derivative controllers are designed based on the pole placement method. The proportional-integral-derivative controller leads to a better step response than the proportional-derivative controller. The controller parameters are tuned with genetic and differential evaluation algorithms. The proportional-integral-derivative controller which is tuned based on the differential evaluation algorithm leads to a better step response than the proportional-integral-derivative controller that is tuned based on genetic algorithm. Fuzzy logics are used to reduce the robot drive mechanism motors synchronizing process time to the end of achieving a high-performance controller. The experimental implementation results of fuzzy-proportional-integral-derivative on the proposed spherical rolling robot resulted in a desirable synchronizing performance in a short time.
Controller tuning based on optimization algorithms of a novel spherical rolling robot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadegjian, Rasou; Masouleh, Mehdi Tale
2016-01-01
This study presents the construction process of a novel spherical rolling robot and control strategies that are used to improve robot locomotion. The proposed robot drive mechanism is constructed based on a combination of the pendulum and wheel drive mechanisms. The control model of the proposed robot is developed, and the state space model is calculated based on the obtained control model. Two control strategies are defined to improve the synchronization performance of the proposed robot motors. The proportional-derivative and proportional-integral-derivative controllers are designed based on the pole placement method. The proportional-integral-derivative controller leads to a better step response than the proportional-derivative controller. The controller parameters are tuned with genetic and differential evaluation algorithms. The proportional-integral-derivative controller which is tuned based on the differential evaluation algorithm leads to a better step response than the proportional-integral-derivative controller that is tuned based on genetic algorithm. Fuzzy logics are used to reduce the robot drive mechanism motors synchronizing process time to the end of achieving a high-performance controller. The experimental implementation results of fuzzy-proportional-integral-derivative on the proposed spherical rolling robot resulted in a desirable synchronizing performance in a short time
30 CFR 77.1703 - First-Aid training; supervisory employees.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-Aid training; supervisory employees. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1703 First-Aid training; supervisory employees. The mine operator shall conduct first-aid training courses for selected supervisory employees at the mine. Within 60 days...
32 CFR 776.53 - Responsibilities of the Judge Advocate General and supervisory attorneys.
2010-07-01
... of the Judge Advocate General and supervisory attorneys. (a) Responsibilities of the Judge Advocate General and supervisory attorneys. (1) The JAG and supervisory attorneys shall make reasonable efforts to... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Judge Advocate General...
Control and monitoring of On-line Trigger Algorithms using gaucho
Van Herwijnen, Eric
2005-01-01
In the LHCb experiment, the trigger decisions are computed by Gaudi (the LHCb software framework) algorithms running on an event filter farm of around 2000 PCs. The control and monitoring of these algorithms has to be integrated in the overall experiment control system (ECS). To enable and facilitate this integration Gaucho, the GAUdi Component Helping Online, was developed. Gaucho consists of three parts: a C++ package integrated with Gaudi, the communications package DIM, and a set of PVSS panels and libraries. PVSS is a commercial SCADA system chosen as toolkit and framework for the LHCb controls system. The C++ package implements monitor service interface (IMonitorSvc) following the Gaudi specifications, with methods to declare variables and histograms for monitoring. Algorithms writers use them to indicate which quantities should be monitored. Since the interface resides in the GaudiKernel the code does not need changing if the monitoring services are not present. The Gaudi main job implements a state ma...
3 x 3 free-space optical router based on crossbar network and its control algorithm
Hou, Peipei; Sun, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Liren
2015-08-01
A 3 × 3 free-space optical router, which comprises optical switches and polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and based on crossbar network, is proposed in this paper. A control algorithm for the 3 × 3 free-space optical router is also developed to achieve rapid control without rearrangement. In order to test the performance of the network based on 3 × 3 free-space optical router and that of the algorithm developed for the optical router, experiments are designed. The experiment results show that the interconnection network based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router has low cross talk, fast connection speed. Under the control of the algorithm developed, a non-block and real free interconnection network is obtained based on the 3 × 3 free-space optical router we proposed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gimazov Ruslan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of supplying autonomous robots by solar batteries. Low efficiency of modern solar batteries is a critical issue for the whole industry of renewable energy. The urgency of solving the problem of improved energy efficiency of solar batteries for supplying the robotic system is linked with the task of maximizing autonomous operation time. Several methods to improve the energy efficiency of solar batteries exist. The use of MPPT charge controller is one these methods. MPPT technology allows increasing the power generated by the solar battery by 15 – 30%. The most common MPPT algorithm is the perturbation and observation algorithm. This algorithm has several disadvantages, such as power fluctuation and the fixed time of the maximum power point tracking. These problems can be solved by using a sufficiently accurate predictive and adaptive algorithm. In order to improve the efficiency of solar batteries, autonomous power supply system was developed, which included an intelligent MPPT charge controller with the fuzzy logic-based perturbation and observation algorithm. To study the implementation of the fuzzy logic apparatus in the MPPT algorithm, in Matlab/Simulink environment, we developed a simulation model of the system, including solar battery, MPPT controller, accumulator and load. Results of the simulation modeling established that the use of MPPT technology had increased energy production by 23%; introduction of the fuzzy logic algorithm to MPPT controller had greatly increased the speed of the maximum power point tracking and neutralized the voltage fluctuations, which in turn reduced the power underproduction by 2%.
A new home energy management algorithm with voltage control in a smart home environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elma, Onur; Selamogullari, Ugur Savas
2015-01-01
Energy management in electrical systems is one of the important issues for energy efficiency and future grid systems. Energy management is defined as a HEM (home energy management) on the residential consumer side. The HEM system plays a key role in residential demand response applications. In this study, a new HEM algorithm is proposed for smart home environments to reduce peak demand and increase the energy efficiency. The proposed algorithm includes VC (voltage control) methodology to reduce the power consumption of residential appliances so that the shifting of appliances is minimized. The results of the survey are used to produce representative load profiles for a weekday and for a weekend. Then, case studies are completed to test the proposed HEM algorithm in reducing the peak demand in the house. The main aim of the proposed HEM algorithm is to minimize the number of turned-off appliances to decrease demand so that the customer comfort is maximized. The smart home laboratory at Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey is used in case studies. Experimental results show that the proposed HEM algorithm reduces the peak demand by 17.5% with the voltage control and by 38% with both the voltage control and the appliance shifting. - Highlights: • A new HEM (home energy management) algorithm is proposed. • Voltage control in the HEM is introduced as a solution for peak load reduction. • Customer comfort is maximized by minimizing the number of turned-off appliances. • The proposed HEM algorithm is experimentally validated at a smart home laboratory. • A survey is completed to produce typical load profiles of a Turkish family.
Research on Real-Time Supervisory System for Compaction Quality in Face Rockfill Dam Engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengxiang Huang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Compaction quality control in filling construction is of great significance to the stability and durability of the face rockfill dam. The conventional method of quality control mainly relies on manual process control and inspection for a limited number of test holes, which cannot meet the high requirements of modern mechanized construction and schedule anymore, with increasing of scale of face rockfill dams. There is an urgent need to propose a new quality control method of face rockfill dams during the entire compaction process. In this paper, a supervisory system based on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System technology, wireless data communication technology, Internet of things technology, and computer technology is developed to supervise the real-time roller compaction parameters of the working surface including rolling track, rolling times, rolling speed, thickness, and smoothness. The system obtains continuous and high-precision spatial position information of roller compaction machines through GNSS technology and then calculates the roller compaction parameter information. The compaction quality control for the face rockfill dam is achieved through the supervision of roller compaction parameters. The feasibility and robustness of the developed supervisory system are validated by a case study in the face rockfill dam of Shuibuya project in China. The practice shows that the system provides a new and effective method of process control for the construction quality of the roller compaction in dam engineering and realizes real-time, precision, and automatic supervising of roller compaction parameters and ensures better construction quality.
Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Husam Fayiz, Al Masri
2017-01-01
The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms. (paper)
Supervisory practices in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Formal training that specifically focuses on the ODL environment is recommended. Bridging the generational gap of supervisors regarding the use of information technology in supervisory practices needs to be addressed. A virtual appreciative coaching and mentoring programme can be a solution for providing support to ...
A Review of the Literature on Professional Doctorate Supervisory Styles
Johansson, Carol; Yerrabati, Sridevi
2017-01-01
At the core of doctoral education is the importance of the quality of the supervisor and student relationship. Research has shown that this relationship is directly linked to completion rates, and impacts the quality of the doctorate and its ultimate success or failure (Gill and Burnard, 2008). One influence on the supervisory relationship is the…
Commerce Supervisory Course: Discussion Guide. Theories of Supervision.
McCaw, Edward A.
The contributions of Frederick W. Taylor, Henri Fayol and Elton Mayo to the development of current concepts of supervisory theory are outlined. Ten newer concepts of management, with graphics, provide the supervisor with an opportunity to formulate his own personal theory. Suggested bibliography for supervisors is given. (Author/NF)
strategies for improving supervisory skills for effective primary ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Elizabeth
certain basic concepts such as inspection and supervision, the responsibility of supervisors, relevant areas in ... Strategies For Improving Supervisory Skills For Effective Primary Education In Nigeria. Enaigbe A. P. 236 ... book, attendance book etc. 6) Managerial Skills: These are skills on time management, good use.
Organizational and Supervisory Apology Effectiveness: Apology Giving in Work Settings
Bisel, Ryan S.; Messersmith, Amber S.
2012-01-01
We synthesize the interdisciplinary literature into a heuristic for crafting effective organizational and supervisory apologies (the OOPS four-component apology). In the first experiment, we demonstrate how an offense committed by an organization is perceived to be more egregious than an offense committed by a friend or supervisor. Furthermore,…
An Exploration of Supervisory and Therapeutic Relationships and Client Outcomes
Bell, Hope; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Robinson, E. H. Mike
2016-01-01
The authors explored the connection between the facilitative conditions present within the supervisory relationship, the therapeutic relationship, and client outcomes. A correlational research design was used with a sample of 55 counselors-in-training and 88 clients. Results indicated a significant positive relationship between the therapeutic…
Investigating mentor teachers’ use and acquisition of supervisory skills:
Dr. Niels Brouwer; Dr. F.J.A.J. Crasborn; Dr. Paul Hennissen; Prof. dr. Fred Korthagen
2015-01-01
The quality of mentoring in teacher education is an essential component of a powerful learning environment for teachers. There is no single approach to mentoring that will work in the same way for every teacher in each context. Nevertheless, most mentor teachers hardly vary their supervisory
Promoting versatility in mentor teachers’ use of supervisory skills
Crasborn, F.J.A.J.; Hennissen, P.P.M.; Korthagen, F.A.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.
2008-01-01
Mentor teachers need a versatile supervisory skills repertoire. Besides taking the prevalent role of daily advisor and instructor, mentor teachers should also be able to stimulate reflection in student teachers. Video recordings of 60 mentoring dialogues were analysed, both before and after a mentor
Promoting versatililty in mentor teachers' use of supervisory skills
Dr. Paul Hennissen; Dr. F.J.A.J. Crasborn; Niels Brouwer; Theo Bergen; Fred Korthagen
2008-01-01
Mentor teachers need a versatile supervisory skills repertoire. Besides taking the prevalent role of daily advisor and instructor, mentor teachers should also be able to stimulate reflection in student teachers. Video recordings were analyzed of 60 mentoring dialogues, both before and after a mentor
A Tool For Enhancing Supervisory Effectiveness In Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper examined the relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a tool for enhancing supervisory effectiveness in Nigerian educational institutions. The paper highlighted various tools of ICT that could be used in educational supervision such as Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Cameras, e-mails ...
Influence of perceived co-worker involvement and supervisory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the influence of perceived co-worker involvement and Supervisory Support on Job Satisfaction among Staff of Champion Brewery, Uyo. One hundred and fifty (150) participants were drawn as participant using simple randomization. The participants were ninety five males and fifty five females whose ...
Sum-of-squares-based fuzzy controller design using quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm
Yu, Gwo-Ruey; Huang, Yu-Chia; Cheng, Chih-Yung
2016-07-01
In the field of fuzzy control, control gains are obtained by solving stabilisation conditions in linear-matrix-inequality-based Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control method and sum-of-squares-based polynomial fuzzy control method. However, the optimal performance requirements are not considered under those stabilisation conditions. In order to handle specific performance problems, this paper proposes a novel design procedure with regard to polynomial fuzzy controllers using quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms. The first contribution of this paper is a combination of polynomial fuzzy control and quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms to undertake an optimal performance controller design. The second contribution is the proposed stability condition derived from the polynomial Lyapunov function. The proposed design approach is dissimilar to the traditional approach, in which control gains are obtained by solving the stabilisation conditions. The first step of the controller design uses the quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms to determine the control gains with the best performance. Then, the stability of the closed-loop system is analysed under the proposed stability conditions. To illustrate effectiveness and validity, the problem of balancing and the up-swing of an inverted pendulum on a cart is used.
Fuzzy algorithms to generate level controllers for nuclear power plant steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Byung Soo; Park, Jae Chang; Kim, Dong Hwa; Kim, Byung Koo
1993-01-01
In this paper, we present two sets of fuzzy algorithms for the steam generater level control; one for the high power operations where the flow error is available and the other for the low power operations where the flow error is not available. These are converted to a PID type controller for the high power case and to a quadratic function form of a controller for the low power case. These controllers are implemented on the Compact Nuclear Simulator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and tested by a set of four simulation experiments for each. For both cases, the results show that the total variation of the level error and of the flow error are about 50% of those by the PI controllers with about one half of the control action. For the high power case, this is mainly due to the fact that a combination of two PD type controllers in the velocity algorithm form rather than a combination of two PI type controllers in the position algorithm form is used. For the low power case, the controller is essentially a PID type with a very small integral component where the average values for the derivative component input and for the controller output are used. (Author)
Optimization of Aero Engine Acceleration Control in Combat State Based on Genetic Algorithms
Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor
2012-03-01
In order to drastically exploit the potential of the aero engine and improve acceleration performance in the combat state, an on-line optimized controller based on genetic algorithms is designed for an aero engine. For testing the validity of the presented control method, detailed joint simulation tests of the designed controller and the aero engine model are performed in the whole flight envelope. Simulation test results show that the presented control algorithm has characteristics of rapid convergence speed, high efficiency and can fully exploit the acceleration performance potential of the aero engine. Compared with the former controller, the designed on-line optimized controller (DOOC) can improve the security of the acceleration process and greatly enhance the aero engine thrust in the whole range of the flight envelope, the thrust increases an average of 8.1% in the randomly selected working states. The plane which adopts DOOC can acquire better fighting advantage in the combat state.
The new supervisory system of the ENEA'S TRIGA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessenyei, Z.; Businaro, T.; Rabbani, M.I.
1986-01-01
The largest effect on the development of supervisory systems was caused by the TMI accident in 1979. Many-many regulation, testing and control requirements and operator aid systems have been born since that time. In the first phase fault model based systems were developed, but it has been turned out, the reality is more inventive, than the best fault model designer. In recent years the researchers' attention has turned to the supervision and diagnostic methods based on the comparison of the the behaviour of the plant and its model. This way is strongly supported by the exponential growth in the capability of the available computers. It is supposed that the description of the wanted behaviour of a plant is easier than gathering its possible disturbances and their consequences. The project on the ENEA's TRIGA supervisory system intends to solve the problems of a plant wide supervision. The new control room of the ENEA's TRIGA reactor will probably be realised in the second part of 1987. For information presentation and diagnostic purposes the multilevel flow modelling and the mimic method were chosen. The diagnostic concept of these two methods are process model based. Both of them have been planned to detect faults earlier than an accident occurs. Their way of information presentation is fundamentally different. The mimic version is an equipment oriented, symbolic, graphic method, where the components of the plant are represented by very simple graphic symbols, and the symbols are ordered into pictures, according to their real interconnections. Pictures with different detailness are interrelated in hierarchical order. The top picture contains the fully simplified technological scheme of the plant, with the most important variables. On the lowest level there are pictures of the equipments with their own descriptive variables. The color of the different parts of a picture gives qualitative information about the actual status of the plant, subsystems or equipments. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machnes, S.; Sander, U.; Glaser, S. J.; Schulte-Herbrueggen, T.; Fouquieres, P. de; Gruslys, A.; Schirmer, S.
2011-01-01
For paving the way to novel applications in quantum simulation, computation, and technology, increasingly large quantum systems have to be steered with high precision. It is a typical task amenable to numerical optimal control to turn the time course of pulses, i.e., piecewise constant control amplitudes, iteratively into an optimized shape. Here, we present a comparative study of optimal-control algorithms for a wide range of finite-dimensional applications. We focus on the most commonly used algorithms: GRAPE methods which update all controls concurrently, and Krotov-type methods which do so sequentially. Guidelines for their use are given and open research questions are pointed out. Moreover, we introduce a unifying algorithmic framework, DYNAMO (dynamic optimization platform), designed to provide the quantum-technology community with a convenient matlab-based tool set for optimal control. In addition, it gives researchers in optimal-control techniques a framework for benchmarking and comparing newly proposed algorithms with the state of the art. It allows a mix-and-match approach with various types of gradients, update and step-size methods as well as subspace choices. Open-source code including examples is made available at http://qlib.info.
DC Voltage Droop Control Implementation in the AC/DC Power Flow Algorithm: Combinational Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akhter, F.; Macpherson, D.E.; Harrison, G.P.
2015-01-01
of operational flexibility, as more than one VSC station controls the DC link voltage of the MTDC system. This model enables the study of the effects of DC droop control on the power flows of the combined AC/DC system for steady state studies after VSC station outages or transient conditions without needing...... to use its complete dynamic model. Further, the proposed approach can be extended to include multiple AC and DC grids for combined AC/DC power flow analysis. The algorithm is implemented by modifying the MATPOWER based MATACDC program and the results shows that the algorithm works efficiently....
Chaotic queue-based genetic algorithm for design of a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller
Saini, Sanju; Saini, J. S.
2012-11-01
This paper employs a chaotic queue-based method using logistic equation in a non-canonical genetic algorithm for optimizing the performance of a self-tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller, used for controlling a nonlinear double-coupled system. A comparison has been made with a standard canonical genetic algorithm implemented on the same plant. It has been shown that chaotic queue-method brings an improvement in the performance of the FLC for wide range of set point changes by a more profound initial population spread in the search space.
Genetic Algorithm Based PID Controller Tuning Approach for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
A. Jayachitra; R. Vinodha
2014-01-01
Genetic algorithm (GA) based PID (proportional integral derivative) controller has been proposed for tuning optimized PID parameters in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) process using a weighted combination of objective functions, namely, integral square error (ISE), integral absolute error (IAE), and integrated time absolute error (ITAE). Optimization of PID controller parameters is the key goal in chemical and biochemical industries. PID controllers have narrowed down the operating r...
Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.
1997-01-01
Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control design...... examples is used to indicate the computational efficiency of the method. These results indicate that the proposed alternating projections are effective in obtaining low-order controllers for small and medium order problems...
An Overview of the Automated Dispatch Controller Algorithms in the System Advisor Model (SAM)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-11-22
Three automatic dispatch modes have been added to the battery model within the System Adviser Model. These controllers have been developed to perform peak shaving in an automated fashion, providing users with a way to see the benefit of reduced demand charges without manually programming a complicated dispatch control. A flexible input option allows more advanced interaction with the automated controller. This document will describe the algorithms in detail and present brief results on its use and limitations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Roldan Perez, Javier
2016-01-01
Distributed control methods based on consensus algorithms have become popular in recent years for microgrid (MG) systems. These kinds of algorithms can be applied to share information in order to coordinate multiple distributed generators within a MG. However, stability analysis becomes a challen......Distributed control methods based on consensus algorithms have become popular in recent years for microgrid (MG) systems. These kinds of algorithms can be applied to share information in order to coordinate multiple distributed generators within a MG. However, stability analysis becomes...... in the communication network, continuous-time methods can be inaccurate for this kind of dynamic study. Therefore, this paper aims at modeling a complete DC MG using a discrete-time approach in order to perform a sensitivity analysis taking into account the effects of the consensus algorithm. To this end......, a generalized modeling method is proposed and the influence of key control parameters, the communication topology and the communication speed are studied in detail. The theoretical results obtained with the proposed model are verified by comparing them with the results obtained with a detailed switching...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aziz, H. M. Abdul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhu, Feng [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering; Ukkusuri, Satish V. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering
2017-10-04
Here, this research applies R-Markov Average Reward Technique based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm, namely RMART, for vehicular signal control problem leveraging information sharing among signal controllers in connected vehicle environment. We implemented the algorithm in a network of 18 signalized intersections and compare the performance of RMART with fixed, adaptive, and variants of the RL schemes. Results show significant improvement in system performance for RMART algorithm with information sharing over both traditional fixed signal timing plans and real time adaptive control schemes. Additionally, the comparison with reinforcement learning algorithms including Q learning and SARSA indicate that RMART performs better at higher congestion levels. Further, a multi-reward structure is proposed that dynamically adjusts the reward function with varying congestion states at the intersection. Finally, the results from test networks show significant reduction in emissions (CO, CO_{2}, NO_{x}, VOC, PM_{10}) when RL algorithms are implemented compared to fixed signal timings and adaptive schemes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, Kevan C.; Sandquist, Gary M.
1990-01-01
The emphasis of this work is the development and implementation of an automatic control philosophy which uses the classical operational philosophies as a foundation. Three control algorithms were derived based on various simplifying assumptions. Two of the algorithms were tested in computer simulations. After realizing the insensitivity of the system to the simplifications, the most reduced form of the algorithms was implemented on the computer control system at the University of Utah (UNEL). Since the operational philosophies have a higher priority than automatic control, they determine when automatic control may be utilized. Unlike the operational philosophies, automatic control is not concerned with component failures. The object of this philosophy is the movement of absorber rods to produce a requested power. When the current power level is compared to the requested power level, an error may be detected which will require the movement of a control rod to correct the error. The automatic control philosophy adds another dimension to the classical operational philosophies. Using this philosophy, normal operator interactions with the computer would be limited only to run parameters such as power, period, and run time. This eliminates subjective judgements, objective judgements under pressure, and distractions to the operator and insures the reactor will be operated in a safe and controlled manner as well as providing reproducible operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon
2016-01-01
The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
The PI (Proportional plus Integral) controller, which is the essential functional block in control systems, can automatically perform the stable control of an important plant process while reducing the steady state error and improving the transient response. However, if the received input PV (Process Variable) is not normal due to input channel trouble, it will be difficult to control the system automatically. For this reason, many control systems are implemented to change the operation mode from automatic to manual mode in the PI controller when the failed input PV is detected. If the PI controller is in automatic mode for all the time, the control signal varies as the change of the input PV is continuously reflected in the control algorithm. In the other cases, since the controller changes into the manual mode at t=0, the control signal is fixed at the last PI controller output and thus the feedback control is not performed anymore until the operator takes an action such as the operation mode change. As a result of analysis and simulations for the controller’s operation modes in all the cases of input channel trouble, we discovered that it is more appropriate to maintain the automatic mode despite the bad quality in the PV. Therefore, we improved the control system algorithm reflecting the analysis results for the operator’s convenience and the stability of a control system.
Fuzzy Tracking and Control Algorithm for an SSVEP-Based BCI System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeou-Jiunn Chen
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS consistently experience decreasing quality of life because of this distinctive disease. Thus, a practical brain-computer interface (BCI application can effectively help subjects with ALS to participate in communication or entertainment. In this study, a fuzzy tracking and control algorithm is proposed for developing a BCI remote control system. To represent the characteristics of the measured electroencephalography (EEG signals after visual stimulation, a fast Fourier transform is applied to extract the EEG features. A self-developed fuzzy tracking algorithm quickly traces the changes of EEG signals. The accuracy and stability of a BCI system can be greatly improved by using a fuzzy control algorithm. Fifteen subjects were asked to attend a performance test of this BCI system. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA was adopted to compare the proposed approach, and the average recognition rates are 96.97% and 94.49% for proposed approach and CCA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach is preferable to CCA. Overall, the proposed fuzzy tracking and control algorithm applied in the BCI system can profoundly help subjects with ALS to control air swimmer drone vehicles for entertainment purposes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilkov, N.Ya.; Kryukov, Yu.V.; Cheshun, A.V.
2001-01-01
When elaborating software for the standard algorithms of the information support of the efficient control (keeping) of water chemistry operation (WCO) at the NPP power units one introduces an approach when the systems of chemical control are realized as the systems of quality control of in-loop physical and chemical processes gathering force in the course of time. Elaboration of algorithms to proceed data of the operational chemical control seeks for elaboration of the statistic procedures to detect anomalies of the processes at the early stages of their development more efficient in contrast to the standard procedures of control. The introduced procedure is used in the demonstration model of the system for diagnostics of some typical reasons of violation of the first circuit WCO of WWER-1000 power units [ru
A robust controller design method for feedback substitution schemes using genetic algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trujillo, Mirsha M; Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Becerra, Victor M, E-mail: s.hadjiloucas@reading.ac.uk [Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, RG6 6AY (United Kingdom)
2011-08-17
Controllers for feedback substitution schemes demonstrate a trade-off between noise power gain and normalized response time. Using as an example the design of a controller for a radiometric transduction process subjected to arbitrary noise power gain and robustness constraints, a Pareto-front of optimal controller solutions fulfilling a range of time-domain design objectives can be derived. In this work, we consider designs using a loop shaping design procedure (LSDP). The approach uses linear matrix inequalities to specify a range of objectives and a genetic algorithm (GA) to perform a multi-objective optimization for the controller weights (MOGA). A clonal selection algorithm is used to further provide a directed search of the GA towards the Pareto front. We demonstrate that with the proposed methodology, it is possible to design higher order controllers with superior performance in terms of response time, noise power gain and robustness.
AN ALGORITHM OF ADAPTIVE TORQUE CONTROL IN INJECTOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. N. Gerasimov
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research. Internal combustion engine as a plant is a highly nonlinear complex system that works mostly in dynamic regimes in the presence of noise and disturbances. A number of engine characteristics and parameters is not known or known approximately due to the complex structure and multimode operating of the engine. In this regard the problem of torque control is not trivial and motivates the use of modern techniques of control theory that give the possibility to overcome the mentioned problems. As a consequence, a relatively simple algorithm of adaptive torque control of injector engine is proposed in the paper. Method. Proposed method is based on nonlinear dynamic model with parametric and functional uncertainties (static characteristics which are suppressed by means of adaptive control algorithm with single adjustable parameter. The algorithm is presented by proportional control law with adjustable feedback gain and provides the exponential convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium. It is shown that the radius of the neighborhood can be arbitrary reduced by the change of controller design parameters. Main Results. A dynamical nonlinear model of the engine has been designed for the purpose of control synthesis and simulation of the closed-loop system. The parameters and static functions of the model are identified with the use of data aquired during Federal Test Procedure (USA of Chevrolet Tahoe vehicle with eight cylinders 5,7L engine. The algorithm of adaptive torque control is designed, and the properties of the closed-loop system are analyzed with the use of Lyapunov functions approach. The closed-loop system operating is verified by means of simulation in the MatLab/Simulink environment. Simulation results show that the controller provides the boundedness of all signals and convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium despite significant variations of engine speed. The
Review of first line supervisory positions in nuclear power plants - Phase II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackenzie, C W; Huntley, M [Hickling Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)
1995-10-01
This report provides an overview of first line supervisory activities at Ontario Hydro nuclear generating stations (Pickering `A` and Bruce `B`) and the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station in New Brunswick. Activity profiles describing the range of first line supervisory roles and responsibilities for nuclear operators have been developed from survey data and flowcharting methods. These activity profiles have then been compared with formal job responsibilities as identified in job descriptions, supervisory training provided and assessment criteria used to evaluate supervisors. Finally, this report relates the findings of supervisory practices in the group under study with the findings in the current literature relating to supervisory functioning. (author). 32 tabs., 2 figs.
Review of first line supervisory positions in nuclear power plants - Phase II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, C.W.; Huntley, M.
1995-10-01
This report provides an overview of first line supervisory activities at Ontario Hydro nuclear generating stations (Pickering 'A' and Bruce 'B') and the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station in New Brunswick. Activity profiles describing the range of first line supervisory roles and responsibilities for nuclear operators have been developed from survey data and flowcharting methods. These activity profiles have then been compared with formal job responsibilities as identified in job descriptions, supervisory training provided and assessment criteria used to evaluate supervisors. Finally, this report relates the findings of supervisory practices in the group under study with the findings in the current literature relating to supervisory functioning. (author). 32 tabs., 2 figs
Zamani, Abbasali; Barakati, S Masoud; Yousofi-Darmian, Saeed
2016-09-01
Load-frequency control is one of the most important issues in power system operation. In this paper, a Fractional Order PID (FOPID) controller based on Gases Brownian Motion Optimization (GBMO) is used in order to mitigate frequency and exchanged power deviation in two-area power system with considering governor saturation limit. In a FOPID controller derivative and integrator parts have non-integer orders which should be determined by designer. FOPID controller has more flexibility than PID controller. The GBMO algorithm is a recently introduced search method that has suitable accuracy and convergence rate. Thus, this paper uses the advantages of FOPID controller as well as GBMO algorithm to solve load-frequency control. However, computational load will higher than conventional controllers due to more complexity of design procedure. Also, a GBMO based fuzzy controller is designed and analyzed in detail. The performance of the proposed controller in time domain and its robustness are verified according to comparison with other controllers like GBMO based fuzzy controller and PI controller that used for load-frequency control system in confronting with model parameters variations. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin M. Cowan
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We describe a modification to the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for electromagnetics on a Cartesian grid which eliminates numerical dispersion error in vacuum for waves propagating along a grid axis. We provide details of the algorithm, which generalizes previous work by allowing 3D operation with a wide choice of aspect ratio, and give conditions to eliminate dispersive errors along one or more of the coordinate axes. We discuss the algorithm in the context of laser-plasma acceleration simulation, showing significant reduction—up to a factor of 280, at a plasma density of 10^{23} m^{-3}—of the dispersion error of a linear laser pulse in a plasma channel. We then compare the new algorithm with the standard electromagnetic update for laser-plasma accelerator stage simulations, demonstrating that by controlling numerical dispersion, the new algorithm allows more accurate simulation than is otherwise obtained. We also show that the algorithm can be used to overcome the critical but difficult challenge of consistent initialization of a relativistic particle beam and its fields in an accelerator simulation.
Li, Ning; Cürüklü, Baran; Bastos, Joaquim; Sucasas, Victor; Fernandez, Jose Antonio Sanchez; Rodriguez, Jonathan
2017-05-04
The aim of the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) project is to make autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), remote operated vehicles (ROVs) and unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) more accessible and useful. To achieve cooperation and communication between different AUVs, these must be able to exchange messages, so an efficient and reliable communication network is necessary for SWARMs. In order to provide an efficient and reliable communication network for mission execution, one of the important and necessary issues is the topology control of the network of AUVs that are cooperating underwater. However, due to the specific properties of an underwater AUV cooperation network, such as the high mobility of AUVs, large transmission delays, low bandwidth, etc., the traditional topology control algorithms primarily designed for terrestrial wireless sensor networks cannot be used directly in the underwater environment. Moreover, these algorithms, in which the nodes adjust their transmission power once the current transmission power does not equal an optimal one, are costly in an underwater cooperating AUV network. Considering these facts, in this paper, we propose a Probabilistic Topology Control (PTC) algorithm for an underwater cooperating AUV network. In PTC, when the transmission power of an AUV is not equal to the optimal transmission power, then whether the transmission power needs to be adjusted or not will be determined based on the AUV's parameters. Each AUV determines their own transmission power adjustment probability based on the parameter deviations. The larger the deviation, the higher the transmission power adjustment probability is, and vice versa. For evaluating the performance of PTC, we combine the PTC algorithm with the Fuzzy logic Topology Control (FTC) algorithm and compare the performance of these two algorithms. The simulation results have demonstrated that the PTC is efficient at reducing the transmission power
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Li
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The aim of the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs project is to make autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs, remote operated vehicles (ROVs and unmanned surface vehicles (USVs more accessible and useful. To achieve cooperation and communication between different AUVs, these must be able to exchange messages, so an efficient and reliable communication network is necessary for SWARMs. In order to provide an efficient and reliable communication network for mission execution, one of the important and necessary issues is the topology control of the network of AUVs that are cooperating underwater. However, due to the specific properties of an underwater AUV cooperation network, such as the high mobility of AUVs, large transmission delays, low bandwidth, etc., the traditional topology control algorithms primarily designed for terrestrial wireless sensor networks cannot be used directly in the underwater environment. Moreover, these algorithms, in which the nodes adjust their transmission power once the current transmission power does not equal an optimal one, are costly in an underwater cooperating AUV network. Considering these facts, in this paper, we propose a Probabilistic Topology Control (PTC algorithm for an underwater cooperating AUV network. In PTC, when the transmission power of an AUV is not equal to the optimal transmission power, then whether the transmission power needs to be adjusted or not will be determined based on the AUV’s parameters. Each AUV determines their own transmission power adjustment probability based on the parameter deviations. The larger the deviation, the higher the transmission power adjustment probability is, and vice versa. For evaluating the performance of PTC, we combine the PTC algorithm with the Fuzzy logic Topology Control (FTC algorithm and compare the performance of these two algorithms. The simulation results have demonstrated that the PTC is efficient at reducing the
Supervisor localization a top-down approach to distributed control of discrete-event systems
Cai, Kai
2016-01-01
This monograph presents a systematic top-down approach to distributed control synthesis of discrete-event systems (DES). The approach is called supervisor localization; its essence is the allocation of external supervisory control action to individual component agents as their internal control strategies. The procedure is: first synthesize a monolithic supervisor, to achieve globally optimal and nonblocking controlled behavior, then decompose the monolithic supervisor into local controllers, one for each agent. The collective behavior of the resulting local controllers is identical to that achieved by the monolithic supervisor. The basic localization theory is first presented in the Ramadge–Wonham language-based supervisory control framework, then demonstrated with distributed control examples of multi-robot formations, manufacturing systems, and distributed algorithms. An architectural approach is adopted to apply localization to large-scale DES; this yields a heterarchical localization procedure, which is...
Research on Segmentation Monitoring Control of IA-RWA Algorithm with Probe Flow
Ren, Danping; Guo, Kun; Yao, Qiuyan; Zhao, Jijun
2018-04-01
The impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm with probe flow (P-IA-RWA) can make an accurate estimation for the transmission quality of the link when the connection request comes. But it also causes some problems. The probe flow data introduced in the P-IA-RWA algorithm can result in the competition for wavelength resources. In order to reduce the competition and the blocking probability of the network, a new P-IA-RWA algorithm with segmentation monitoring-control mechanism (SMC-P-IA-RWA) is proposed. The algorithm would reduce the holding time of network resources for the probe flow. It segments the candidate path suitably for the data transmitting. And the transmission quality of the probe flow sent by the source node will be monitored in the endpoint of each segment. The transmission quality of data can also be monitored, so as to make the appropriate treatment to avoid the unnecessary probe flow. The simulation results show that the proposed SMC-P-IA-RWA algorithm can effectively reduce the blocking probability. It brings a better solution to the competition for resources between the probe flow and the main data to be transferred. And it is more suitable for scheduling control in the large-scale network.
A Biologically-Inspired Power Control Algorithm for Energy-Efficient Cellular Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyun-Ho Choi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Most of the energy used to operate a cellular network is consumed by a base station (BS, and reducing the transmission power of a BS can therefore afford a substantial reduction in the amount of energy used in a network. In this paper, we propose a distributed transmit power control (TPC algorithm inspired by bird flocking behavior as a means of improving the energy efficiency of a cellular network. Just as each bird in a flock attempts to match its velocity with the average velocity of adjacent birds, in the proposed algorithm, each mobile station (MS in a cell matches its rate with the average rate of the co-channel MSs in adjacent cells by controlling the transmit power of its serving BS. We verify that this bio-inspired TPC algorithm using a local rate-average process achieves an exponential convergence and maximizes the minimum rate of the MSs concerned. Simulation results show that the proposed TPC algorithm follows the same convergence properties as the flocking algorithm and also effectively reduces the power consumption at the BSs while maintaining a low outage probability as the inter-cell interference increases; in so doing, it significantly improves the energy efficiency of a cellular network.