This report contains the description of a number of benchmarks with the purpose of evaluating flow models for near-shore wind resource estimation. The benchmarks are designed based on the comprehensive database of observations that the RUNE coastal experiment established from onshore lidar...
Speed-lines, movement-lines and emotion-enhancing flourishes ("pictorial runes") may contribute, marginally or substantially, to the potential meanings to be inferred from a comic’s panel. It seems plausible that pictorial runes convey their meanings in patterned ways, but hitherto little systematic research appears to have been done to investigate them. The primary aim of this paper is to present the first version of a model to research pictorial runes by inventorying and categorizing all sp...
Speed-lines, movement-lines and emotion-enhancing flourishes ("pictorial runes") may contribute, marginally or substantially, to the potential meanings to be inferred from a comic’s panel. It seems plausible that pictorial runes convey their meanings in patterned ways, but hitherto little systematic
McKinnell, J.; Simek, R.; Düwel, K.
The present source book offers a survey of all types of runic inscriptions with religious or magical connotations from the earliest periods to the late Middle Ages, from Rune on weapons and jewellery to runic gravestones and Christian runic amulets. It is intended as a scholarly answer against the common misconception of the supposedly dominant use of runes in magic. The present volume is structured in 15 units which enable its use as an aid to teaching without being excessively comprehensive.
Olesen, Rikke Steenholt
in the well between c. 1220 and 1235. The reading of the individual runes is in almost every case certain. The reading order of the lines, the interpretation of the linguistic content and the provenance, however, have caused disagreement among those who have studied the object. The inscription was tentatively...
Bradley, D J
Some rune verses are, apparently, thematically derived from Chinese Radical sequences. The 33 runes are, like the Sanskrit letters, mnemonically valenced and formally associated with the nervous system.
Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Lea, Guillaume
We present a comprehensive database of near-shore wind observations that were carried out during the experimental campaign of the RUNE project. RUNE aims at reducing the uncertainty of the near-shore wind resource estimates from model outputs by using lidar, ocean, and satellite observations. Here...
Yin haihua; Yao Zhigang
This article describes the environmental impact assessment methods of the radiation generated by the runing. medical linear accelerator. The material and thickness of shielding wall and protective doors of the linear accelerator were already knew, therefore we can evaluate the radiation by the runing. medical linear accelerator whether or not in the normal range of national standard by calculating the annual effective radiation dose of the surrounding personnel suffered. (authors)
Pedersen, Inge Nygaard
on the experience of an integrated supervisor training programme offered in Aalborg, Denmark in 2009/2010. In this programme general issues of professional supervision and the application of artistic media as a core element in the supervisory process were Integrated. It is the hope of the author that this article...... will inspire other music therapists to develop supervisor training programmes for professional music therapists and also to undertake further research into professional supervision....
Nordt, D.P.; Stone, M.S.
This paper helps prepare the inexperienced rig supervisor to manage a drilling operation. It outlines operational-knowledge requirements and optimization concepts for improving drilling performance and lowering drilling costs. It gives guidelines on safety and environmental responsibilities, and provides recommendations on work tools, leadership, and communication
Luiz Adolfo Andrade
Full Text Available Os pesquisadores do Centro para Pesquisas em Jogos de Computador da IT – Universidade de Copenhagen, Espen Aarseth e Rune Nielsen, discutem nesta entrevista a relação entre jogos e cuidados com a saúde.
The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names
The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr
Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob
Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is
This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000
Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard
Kapitlet redegør for aspekter ved det komplekse forhold mellem supervisand og supervisor, og der anlægges en række forskellige perspektiver. Først beskrives forholdet fra supervisandens perspektiv. At indtræde i rollen som supervisand er, foruden at være lærerigt og fagligt udviklende, ofte også ...
Beohar, H.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Baeten, J.C.M.
One of the main drawbacks while implementing the interaction between a plant and a supervisor, synthesised by the supervisory control theory of Ramadge and Wonham, is the inexact synchronisation. Balemi was the first to consider this problem, and the solutions given in his PhD thesis were in the
Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian
At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...
Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)
William C. Miller
A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)
Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork
were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...
Nakagiri, Toshio; Ohno, Shuji; Miyake, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center
The calculation of Sodium Fire Test-I (Run-E6) was performed using the ASSCOPS (Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustions in Pool and Spray) code version 2.0 in order to determine the parameters used in the code for the calculations of sodium combustion behavior of small or medium scale sodium leak, and to validate the applicability of the code. The parameters used in the code were determined and the validation of the code was confirmed because calculated temperatures, calculated oxygen concentration and other calculated values almost agreed with the test results. (author)
Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin
We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction
Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.
The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction
Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015
William C. Miller
Full Text Available A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015
Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This course, Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study (#43442), addresses training requirements for supervisors of respirator wearers as specified by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard for Respiratory Protection, ANSI Z88.2, and as incorporated by reference in the Department of Energy (DOE) Worker Health and Safety Rule, 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 851. This course also presents the responsibilities of supervisors of respirator wearers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).
Daley, Dennis M.
Cross-sectional analysis of federal employee opinions of their supervisors showed that they believed the following to be crucial supervisor responsibilities: performance appraisal, protecting the merit system from prohibited practices, and enhancing employee job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. (SK)
.... The premise of the report is that many of the problems that supervisors face in fulfilling their human resources management responsibilities spring from an organizational orientation towards short...
Niemeyer, Roger C.; Moon, R. Arden
This study focused on the thoughts, related schema, and decision-making of student teaching supervisors as they go about their work of supervision. Twelve practicing supervisors were asked to write their thoughts on a three-stage data gathering, circle instrument. These concepts were weighted to reflect the significance each concept had in the…
In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…
Full Text Available Bullying is one of behaviors which occur in various forms at workplaces. These types of behaviors are associated with diverse range of behaviors and other variables. Considering the lack of instrument to assess supervisor's bullying in workplaces of Iran, this research was carried out to constructing and studying reliability and validity of supervisor's bullying questionnaire at workplace. Statistical population of this research was all of Isfahan oil refinery’s staff that 402 participants was chosen as participant by simple random sampling mehod. The tools included perceived organizational justice questionnaire, organizational citizenship behaviors questionnaire and deviant behaviors questionnaire which used for studying convergent and divergent validity of researcher-made questionnaire of supervisor's bullying. Data were analyzed by using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, canonical correlation coefficient (for studying convergent and divergent validity and reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha and test- retest reliability. Results showed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has five factor structures which named: supervisors’ threat, insult and scorn by supervisor, anger and revengefulness of supervisor, ignorance and unconventional work pressure of supervisor, supervisors’ boring and cheap. Cronbach’s alpha for the five factors was equal to 0.87, 0.84, 0.82, 0.81, 0.81, and test-retest reliability for those five factors was equal to 0.81, 0.59, 0.58, 0.83, and 0.77. The results of this study revealed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has suitable validity and reliability for assessment the level of supervisor's bullying at workplaces.
Starting with this issue, the Bulletin introduces a new series of articles aiming to better explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN. We will publish practical examples of situations of potential misunderstanding that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are imaginary and used only to improve clarity. John* and his supervisor Pat* have been working together for about four years, during which time they have had several disagreements and a few real explosions. They usually avoid each other for some time after each incident until things calm down again. During a meeting between them concerning objectives, the latent tension between them resulted in a fight during which John told Pat that she was mobbing him. Pat ended the meeting by throwing John out of her office. She said that she was no longer prepared to talk to him alone. John asked the Ombuds to facilitate the situation. When cont...
Susquehanna's program targets all Supervisors, Supervisor Candidates, and Temporary Supervisors that are responsible for in-plant maintenance or maintenance support activities, including: mechanical maintenance; electrical maintenance; maintenance support (labor support, radwaste, etc.); mobile construction support (mechanical and electrical); chemistry; health physics; maintenance planning; and instrument and controls. The program integrates the three major areas of direct Supervisory responsibilities: (1) Leadership and Management - Skills that require interpersonal activities that are typically humanistic and subjective; such as coaching, motivating, communications, etc. (2) Technical and Administrative - Knowledge that is directly related to the job of Supervising from the production, regulatory, accountability perspective. These topics are very objective and include training on topics such as workpackages, plant chemistry parameters, radiological concerns, etc. (3) Technical Skills - Ensure each Supervisor is technically competent in the plant systems, components, or equipment he/she is tasked with maintaining or overseeing. Typical skills found in this area are, circuit breaker maintenance, primary system sampling, or overhauling pumps
McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Soklaridis, Sophie
To determine the association between supervisors' leadership style and autonomy and supervisors' likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS). We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β = .012; 95% CI .009-.016) and autonomy (β = .066; 95% CI .025-.11) were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI -.0026 to .0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability.
Mendonca Costa, Eduardo; Arraes Monteiro, Iara
In order to accomplish its legal assignments CNEN certifies the qualification of radiation protection supervisors. The current certification process is presented and discussed in this paper. This paper discusses the main points of the certification process including: knowledge tests, stake holder's communication, standards, supervisor responsibilities and profiles. The importance of safety certification of nuclear facilities and radiation protection of public individuals and workers are also discussed. Taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian Nuclear program, the future improvements and goals in the certification process is also presented. (author)
The purpose of this study was to explore the leadership frames of supervisor of public schools in .... according to the paper in a bid to counter the factors that were known to have hindered the .... success in their leadership roles. 2. The type of ...
AMIDON, EDMUND; BLUMBERG, ARTHUR
TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF SUPERVISOR-TEACHER INTERACTION WERE ANALYZED TO SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESIS THAT FOUR GROUPS, REPRESENTING DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF SUPERVISORY BEHAVIOR, WOULD DIFFER WITH RESPECT TO TEACHER EVALUATIONS OF CONFERENCE PRODUCTIVITY, CONFERENCE LEARNING, AND THE COMMUNICATIVE ATMOSPHERE. THE 166 GRADUATE INSERVICE TEACHERS AT TEMPLE…
Schreuder, J. A. H.; Groothoff, J. W.; Jongsma, D.; van Zweeden, N. F.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Roelen, C. A. M.
To investigate adaptive leadership in relation to personnel sickness absence (SA). In situational leadership, supervisors are effective if they adapt their leadership style appropriately to a given situation. A managerial reorganization in a Dutch hospital with reassignment of supervisors provided
Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus H.; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork
development, experience, and practice. In this presentation we focus on the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared......There is a lack of data on the influence of the debut as a supervisor on the later career. However, extrapolating data from therapist development, we assume that the first years as novice supervisor are important for the following career as supervisor in particular. The first job as novice......, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least parallel to, the first supervisor tasks, preparing the novice supervisors for the often complicated tasks they are meeting....
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervisor of packaging required. 58.53 Section 58.53... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.53 Supervisor of packaging required. The official....54 through 58.57, shall be done only under the supervision of a supervisor of packaging. The...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...
Full Text Available The relationship between the PhD supervisor and the PhD student is a complex one. When this relationship is neither effective nor efficient, it may yield negative consequences, such as academic failure (1. The intricacy of the supervisor-student relationship may be in part comparable to the one between the physician and his/her patient [see, for example (2]. Both interactions develop over several years and the players involved in each relationship – PhD supervisor-student on the one side and physician-patient on the other side – may at some point of the journey develop different expectations of one another [see, for example (3, 4] and experience emotional distress (5. In both relationships, the perceived satisfaction with the interaction will contribute to the success or failure of the treatment in one case, and in the other, the writing of a thesis. To improve the mentioned satisfaction, not only there is a need to invest time (6, as does the physician to his/ her patients, but also both the supervisor and the PhD student must be willing to negotiate a research path to follow that would be practical and achievable. The communication between the physician and patient is of paramount importance for the provision of health care (7, and so is the communication between the supervisor and PhD student which encourages the progression of both the research and the doctoral study (8. As to a smooth transition to the postgraduate life, supervisors should start thinking about providing the same kind of positive reinforcement that every student is used to experience in the undergraduate course. The recognition for a job well done will mean a lot for a PhD student, as it does for a patient. One good example is the increase in medication compliance by patients with high blood pressure who receive positive reinforcement from their physicians (9. Supervisors can organize regular meetings for (and with PhD students in order to not only discuss their projects
Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Varela, Joao
The Trigger Supervisor is an online software system designed for the CMS experiment at CERN. Its purpose is to provide a framework to set up, test, operate and monitor the trigger components on one hand and to manage their interplay and the information exchange with the run control part of the data acquisition system on the other. The Trigger Supervisor is conceived to provide a simple and homogeneous client interface to the online software infrastructure of the trigger subsystems. This document specifies the functional and non-functional requirements, design and operational details, and the components that will be delivered in order to facilitate a smooth integration of the trigger software in the context of CMS.
Langeland, Synne; Lindahl, Thomas
In three experiments we investigated the relationship between a set of influence tactics and three work outcomes in organizations in which the supervisor rated his/her employees on; (a) competence assessment, (b) salary increase, and (c) job promotion. Results showed that rational persuasion produced better ratings than assertiveness with respect to all three work outcomes. However, using an external source for information produced the highest overall scores in two of the experiments. Further...
This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with maintaining working relations with organized labor. The following topics are discussed in the individual sections: good personal relations (psychological aspects, wages and job security, a good working environment, techniques for…
DiMarco, Nicholas; Whitsitt, Susan E.
This exploratory study compared the life style and interpersonal need orientation, leadership style, and perception of the organization structure of female supervisors in business and government organizations. (Author)
Stark, Margaret M
This research project was performed to assist the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) with the development of a training programme for Principal Forensic Physicians (PFPs) (Since this research was performed the Metropolitan Police Service have dispensed with the services of the Principal Forensic Physicians so currently (as of January 2009) there is no supervision of newly appointed FMEs or the development training of doctors working in London nor any audit or appraisal reviews.) to fulfil their role as educational supervisors. PFPs working in London were surveyed by questionnaire to identify the extent of their knowledge with regard to their role in the development training of all forensic physicians (FPs) in their group, the induction of assistant FPs and their perceptions of their own training needs with regard to their educational role. A focus group was held at the FFLM annual conference to discuss areas of interest that arose from the preliminary results of the questionnaire. There is a clear need for the FFLM to set up a training programme for educational supervisors in clinical forensic medicine, especially with regard to appraisal. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.
Vandervoort, Richard J.
Spacecraft systems of the 1990's and beyond will be substantially more complex than their predecessors. They will have demanding performance requirements and will be expected to operate more autonomously. This underscores the need for innovative approaches to Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR). A hierarchical expert system is presented that provides on-orbit supervision using intelligent FDIR techniques. Each expert system in the hierarchy supervises the operation of a local set of spacecraft functions. Spacecraft operational goals flow top down while responses flow bottom up. The expert system supervisors have a fairly high degree of autonomy. Bureaucratic responsibilities are minimized to conserve bandwidth and maximize response time. Data for FDIR can be acquired local to an expert and from other experts. By using a blackboard architecture for each supervisor, the system provides a great degree of flexibility in implementing the problem solvers for each problem domain. In addition, it provides for a clear separation between facts and knowledge, leading to an efficient system capable of real time response.
Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min
This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…
Foulk, Trevor A; Long, David M
Organizational newcomers are unfamiliar with many aspects of their workplace and look for information to help them reduce uncertainty and better understand their new environment. One aspect critical to newcomers is the disposition of their supervisor-the person who arguably can impact the newcomer's career the most. To form an impression of their new supervisor, newcomers look to social cues from coworkers who have interpersonal contact with the supervisor. In the present research, we investigate the ways newcomers use observed ingratiation-a common impression management strategy whereby coworkers try to appear likable (Schlenker, 1980)-to form impressions of a supervisor's warmth. Research on social influence cannot easily account for how third parties will interpret ingratiation, as the behaviors linked to ingratiation suggest something positive about the target, yet the unsavory aspects of the behavior imply it may not have the same effects as other positive behaviors. Our findings suggest that newcomers are unique in that they are motivated to learn about their new supervisor, and are prone to ignore those unsavory aspects and infer something positive about a supervisor targeted with ingratiation. Our findings also suggest that this effect can be weakened based on the supervisor's response. In other words, newcomers rely less on evidence from a coworker's ingratiation in the presence of direct behaviors from the supervisor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Su, Rong; Thistle, J.G.; Lafortune, S.; Lin, F.; Tilbury, D.
It is well known that space and time complexity is one of the main bottlenecks of supervisor synthesis. The model of a large system is usually too big to be explicitly expressed, owing to composition of local components’ models, making supervisor synthesis difficult, if still possible. In this paper
Nelson, Mary Lee; Barnes, Kristin L.; Evans, Amelia L.; Triggiano, Patrick J.
Eight female and 4 male supervisors identified by professional peers as highly competent were interviewed about experiences of conflict in supervision and their dependable strategies for managing it. Highly competent supervisors were open to conflict and interpersonal processing, willing to acknowledge shortcomings, developmentally oriented, and…
Dehghani, Khadijeh; Nasiriani, Khadijeh; Salimi, Tahere
Supervisors should have certain characteristics and adequate preparation for their roles. Yet, there are no well-educated experts knowing about the supervisor's role and responsibilities and how to train them. So, this research was conducted with the purpose of finding the factors affecting nursing supervisor training. This research is an inductive content analysis. Participants were 25 in number, consisting of nurses and supervisors in Shahid Sadoughi University hospitals. The participants were chosen by a purposive sampling method. Data collection was done by semi-structured interviews and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Findings included two main themes: Firstly, establishment of a supervisory infrastructure that includes "making the appointments and retention of supervisors, clarifying the duties and authority of supervisor, developing supervisory culture, specializing supervision, and conducting practice-based training" and secondly, comprehensive supervisory competencies that include "acquiring scientific, managing, communicative, professional, ethical, pedagogical, and supporting adequacy." Clinical supervisor has a major role in ensuring the quality of nursing care. This leads to improvements in patient care and nurses' personal and professional development. So, it is necessary that for effective supervision in nursing, first an infrastructure is provided for supervision and then the comprehensive competency of a supervisor is enhanced to apply effective supervision.
Roberts, Lynne D.; Seaman, Kristen
There is a paucity of research, training, and material available to support supervisors of undergraduate dissertation students. This article explores what "good" supervision might look like at this level. Interviews were conducted with eight new supervisors and six dissertation coordinators using a critical incident methodology. Thematic…
... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Accounting by County Supervisor. 1962.16 Section 1962... § 1962.16 Accounting by County Supervisor. The Agency will maintain a current record of each borrower's... risk exists. An FO borrower who has been current with the Agency and who has provided chattels as...
This brief presents initial evidence about the reliability and validity of a novice teacher survey and a novice teacher supervisor survey. The novice teacher and novice teacher supervisor surveys assess how well prepared novice teachers are to meet the job requirements of teaching. The surveys are designed to provide educator preparation programs…
The untrained Ph.D. supervisor will copy (or avoid copying) the way that they were supervised themselves. Current literature on Ph.D. supervision focuses either on lists of tasks that the supervisor must undertake or on conceptions of research. There is a need for a conceptual approach to research supervision.
This article describes the elements of caring supervision of doctoral theses. The purpose was to describe the best practices as well as challenges of supervision especially from the supervisor's perspective. The analysis is based on the author's extensive experience as a supervisor and related data obtained for research and developmental purposes.…
The pedagogical work of university supervisors has received little attention in teacher education literature. Based on this concern, this paper provides a conceptual framework for university supervisors, recasting their role as teacher pedagogues focused on responding to the particular contextual needs of student teachers as they learn to teach.…
This paper describes a principal-agent relationship with a supervisor who has information about the agent. The agent and the supervisor have the possibility to collude and misinform the principal. From the literature we know that there exists an optimal contract which excludes collusion in
..., oral pathology, dermatopathology, and ophthalmic pathology because all tests and examinations, must be... supervisor under §§ 493.1449(b) or 493.1449(l) or (2); (3) In ophthalmic pathology, by an individual who is qualified as a technical supervisor under §§ 493.1449(b) or 493.1449(1)(3); and (4) In oral pathology, by an...
Landry, Guylaine; Vandenberghe, Christian
Using survey data from 240 employees working in a variety of organizations, the authors examined the relations among commitment to the supervisor, leader-member exchange, supervisor-based self-esteem (SBSE), and relationship and substantive supervisor-subordinate conflicts. They found affective commitment was negatively related to both types of conflicts; perceived lack of alternatives commitment was positively related to relationship conflicts; and leader-member exchange was negatively related to substantive conflicts. SBSE was negatively associated with both types of conflicts. In addition, when SBSE was low, affective commitment was more strongly related to both types of conflicts, and normative commitment more strongly and positively related to substantive conflicts. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the understanding of employee-supervisor conflicts.
In early July, the Learning and Development group is launching a new learning initiative specifically targeted at supervisors here at CERN. With the assistance of experts on the subject, we have designed an exclusive series of five e-learning modules. These modules will help supervisors to synthesise some of the important processes that influence and impact their daily work and build key competencies as people managers. Each module may take up to a maximum of 60 minutes to complete and covers the following topics: • CERN as an Organisation • People Management (Part 1) • People Management (Part 2) • Financial Management • Administrative Information Tools for Supervisors Supervisors will receive an invitation from the L&D group to access the modules on a dedicated e-learning space created on SharePoint. We recommend that all newly appointed supervisors access and complete the five modules within the first month of taking up their su...
Shi, Junqi; Johnson, Russell E; Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo
In this study, we examined the relations of subordinate political skill with supervisor's dependence on the subordinate and supervisor reward recommendation, as well as mediating (interaction frequency with supervisor) and moderating (supervisor political behavior) variables of these relations. Our theoretical model was tested using data collected from employees in a company that specialized in construction management. Analyses of multisource and lagged data from 53 construction management team supervisors and 296 subordinates indicated that subordinate political skill was positively related to supervisor reward recommendation via subordinate's interaction frequency with supervisor. Although interaction frequency with a supervisor was also positively related to the supervisor's dependence on the subordinate, the indirect effect of subordinate political skill on dependence was not significant. Further, both the relationship between subordinate political skill and interaction frequency with a supervisor and the indirect relationships between subordinate political skill and supervisor reward recommendation were stronger when supervisors exhibited more political behavior.
Gonzalez-Morales, M Gloria; Kernan, Mary C; Becker, Thomas E; Eisenberger, Robert
Although much is known about the antecedents and consequences of abusive supervision, scant attention has been paid to investigating procedures to reduce its frequency. We conducted a quasiexperiment to examine the effects of supervisor support training on subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision and supervisor support. Supervisors (n = 23) in 4 restaurants were trained in 4 supportive supervision strategies (benevolence, sincerity, fairness, and experiential processing) during 4 2-hr sessions over a period of 2 months. We compared perceived supervisor support and abusive supervision before and 9 months after training for 208 employees whose supervisors received support training and 241 employees in 4 similar control restaurants. Compared to employees in the control restaurants, employees whose supervisors received the support training reported higher levels of perceived supervisor support and less abusive supervision. These findings suggest that a relatively brief training program can help managers become more supportive and less abusive. Theoretical and practical implications for effectively managing abusive supervision are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Havermans, Bo M; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Hoek, Rianne J A; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L
Work stress prevention can reduce health risks for individuals, as well as organisational and societal costs. The success of work stress interventions depends on proper implementation. Failure to take into account the needs of employees and supervisors can hinder intervention implementation. This study aimed to explore employee and supervisor needs regarding organisational work stress prevention. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with employees (n = 7) and supervisors (n = 8) from different sectors, such as the finance, health care, and services industry. The interviews focused on respondents' needs regarding the prevention of work stress within an organisational setting. Performing thematic analysis, topics and themes were extracted from the verbatim transcribed interviews using Atlas.ti. Both employees and supervisors reported a need for: 1) communication about work stress, 2) attention for determinants of work stress, 3) supportive circumstances (prerequisites) for work stress prevention, 4) involvement of various stakeholders in work stress prevention, and 5) availability of work stress prevention measures. Both employees and supervisors expressed the need for supervisors to communicate about work stress. Employees and supervisors reported similar psychosocial work factors that should be targeted for prevention (e.g., social support and autonomy). There was greater variety in the sub-themes within communication about work stress and supportive circumstances for work stress prevention in supervisor responses, and greater variety in the sub-themes within availability of work stress prevention measures in employee responses. Both employees and supervisors were explicit about who should take part in communication about work stress, what prerequisites for work stress prevention should exist, and which stakeholders should be involved. These results can inform work stress prevention practice, supporting selection and implementation of
To establish a central institution run by power plant operators to harmonize the training of power plant operating personnel was raised, and put into practice, quite early in the Federal Republic of Germany. A committee devoted to training plant crews, which had been set up by the organizations of German electricity utilities responsible for operating power plants, was changed into a Kraftwerksschule e.V. (Power Plant School) in 1963. This school runs training courses, along standard lines, for operating personnel of thermal power plants, especially for operators and power plant supervisors, in close cooperation with power plant operators. As the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy expanded, also the training of nuclear power plant operators was included in 1969. Since September 1977, the center has had a simulator of a PWR nuclear power plant, since January 1978 also that of a BWR plant available for training purposes. Besides routine operation the trainees also learn to control those incidents which occur only very rarely in real nuclear power plants. (orig./UA) [de
Can, Elif; Richter, Felicitas; Valchanova, Ralitsa; Dewey, Marc
To identify underlying causes for failure of medical thesis projects and the constantly high drop-out rate in Germany from the supervisors' perspective and to compare the results with the students' perspective. Cross-sectional survey. Online questionnaire for survey of medical thesis supervisors among the staff of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Published, earlier longitudinal survey among students for comparison. 1069 thesis supervisors participated. Data are presented using descriptive statistics, and the χ 2 test served to compare the results among supervisors with the earlier data from the longitudinal survey of doctoral students. Not applicable. This survey is an observational study. Of 3653 potential participants, 1069 (29.3%) supervising 3744 doctoral candidates participated in the study. Supervisors considered themselves to be highly motivated and to offer adequate supervision. On the other hand, 87% stated that they did not feel well prepared for thesis supervision. Supervisors gave lack of timeliness of doctoral students and personal differences (p=0.024 and p=0.001) as the main reasons for terminating thesis projects. Doctoral students predominantly mentioned methodological problems and difficult subjects as critical issues (p=0.001 and pthesis supervisors and medical students feel ill prepared for their roles in the process of a medical dissertation. Contradictory reasons for terminating medical thesis projects based on supervisors' and students' self-assessment suggest a lack of communication and true scientific collaboration between supervisors and doctoral students as the major underlying issue that requires resolution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bryan, Leslie A., Jr.
Compares the American and Japanese first-line supervisor: production statistics, supervisory style, company loyalty, management style, and communication. Also suggests what Americans might learn from the Japanese methods. (CT)
Wearne, Susan; Dornan, Tim; Teunissen, Pim W.
Context General practice supervisors are said to serve as the cornerstones of general practice postgraduate education and therefore it is important to clearly define their roles and what makes them effective. The commonly used definition of a supervisor is not primarily based on general practice...... with resident doctors that provided a foundation for learning. Residents needed a balance of challenge, usually provided by patients, and support, provided by supervisors. Supervisors established learning environments, assessed residents' learning needs, facilitated learning, monitored the content and process...... of learning and the well-being of residents, and summarised learning in ways that turned 'know that' into 'know how'. Conclusions General practice must be expert in ensuring patients are well cared for 'by proxy' and in giving residents just the right amount of support they need to face the challenges posed...
Schreuder, J. A. H.; Groothoff, J. W.; Jongsma, D.; van Zweeden, N. F.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Roelen, C. A. M.
Purpose To investigate adaptive leadership in relation to personnel sickness absence (SA). In situational leadership, supervisors are effective if they adapt their leadership style appropriately to a given situation. Methods A managerial reorganization in a Dutch hospital with reassignment of
Nordt, D.P.; Stone, M.S.
This paper reports that because the number of drilling personnel has dropped dramatically over the last decade, many operators now face a shortage of competent rig supervisors. To be effective, the rig supervisor must develop a knowledge of drilling operations, apply optimization techniques to improve drilling performance, demand safe work practices, and protect the environment. Petroleum engineering degree programs and industry training programs can teach the rig supervisor specific technical and management skills; however, traditionally, the supervisor trainee shadows an experienced company man to learn how to direct a drilling operation. The success of this method depends not only on the skills and learning capabilities of the trainee but also on the trainer's time, motivation, knowledge, and ability to teach the skills necessary to direct drilling activities
Tinjung Desy Nursanti
Full Text Available Study aims to determine and obtain a clear picture of supportive supervisor, empowerment, and organizational citizenship behavior; and to determine the impact of supportive supervisor and empowerment towards organizational citizenship behavior of employees in PT Setia Makmur Cemerlang. Research used explanatory survey method, while the sample was taken from employees of the company. Research instrument (questionnaires was used as primary data collection to explain the causal relationship between supportive supervisor and empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior of employees in PT Setia Makmur Cemerlang. Analysis used simple linear regression and multiple linear regression method. Result of this study shows that there is significant influence between supportive supervisor and empowerment towards organizational citizenship behavior.
To estimate the magnitude of the associations between different facets of supervisor behaviour and several health-related outcomes, and to assess whether these associations are mediated by known occupational health factors. Cross-sectional data from the European Working Conditions Survey were analysed by generalised linear mixed models (n = 32,770). Six regression models were estimated. Dependent variables include musculoskeletal (upper body, lower limbs, backache) and psychosomatic symptoms (stress and self-assessed general health). Independent variables correspond to several facets of supervisor behaviours such as supervisor support, feedback on work, ability to solve conflicts, encouragement to participate in decisions, and known occupational risk and protective factors. Even though supervisor behaviour is mediated by several known occupational risk factors, it still accounts for a substantial proportion of explained variance. The order of magnitude of associations was comparable to the strength of associations of known occupational risk factors. Odds ratios vary from 0.79 95% CI [0.73-0.86] to 1.12 95% CI [0.97-1.29] for dichotomous dependent variables. Regression coefficients vary from -0.22 95% CI [-0.28 to -0.17] to 0.07 95% CI [0.04-0.10] for metric dependent variables. Results suggest that good conflict solving skills, supervisor's work-planning ability, and a participative leadership style have the strongest predictive power regarding all health-related outcomes considered. Supervisor behaviour seems to play a non-negligible role from an occupational health perspective concerning the prevalence of musculoskeletal and psychosomatic symptoms. Results suggest that supervisor behaviour should be routinely assessed and monitored, especially among occupational groups reporting a lower quality of supervisor behaviours.
Lebel, R David; Patil, Shefali V
Although considerable research demonstrates that employees are unlikely to be proactive when they view their supervisors as discouraging this type of behavior, we challenge the assumption that this is true for all employees. Drawing on motivated information processing theory, we argue that prosocial motivation can spark employees to be proactive even when supervisors are perceived as discouraging. Specifically, prosocial motivation may weaken the negative relationship between perceived discouraging supervisor behaviors and proactivity by driving employees to bring about change to impact coworkers or the organization. Because they are less focused on self-interest and more focused on benefitting others, prosocially motivated employees are able to maintain their reason-to (felt responsibility for change) and can-do (efficacy to be proactive) motivation even when supervisors do not welcome proactivity. We test our hypotheses across three studies, using multisource data from employees and supervisors in two organizations (Studies 1a and 1b), and lagged data from employees working in a range of industries (Study 2). By identifying the mechanisms driving prosocially motivated employees to be proactive despite having supervisors who are perceived to be discouraging, we offer novel theoretical and practical insights regarding the effects of context on proactivity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Henderson, Emily F.
Building on existing studies that ask doctoral supervisors how they understand their role, and what has influenced this understanding, this article explores invitations that are issued to supervisors to reflect in certain ways about the role of supervisor. The article calls into question the ways in which supervisors are invited to think about and…
The Ministry of Education, Culture and Social Welfare (MOECSW), as part of the Population Education Programs (formal and informal), undertook a series of training programs to upgrade the knowledge and skills of master trainers, supervisors, and resource persons. As part of the Population Education in the Formal School Sector Project (NEP/93/P01), under the Curriculum Development Centre five training courses were organized to train 220 master trainers. Under the "Three Steps Training Strategy," these 220 master trainers would teach 825 secondary school headmasters who would reach 2025 secondary school teachers. The training courses were held in Dhangadi, April 23-27, 1995; in Pokhara, April 2-7; and in Biratnagar, February 20-24. The areas covered included: 1) the pedagogical aspect of population education (content, scope, objectives, nature, teaching methodologies); 2) demography and population dynamics (composition, distribution and density, sources of population data, demographic transition, consequences and determinants of population growth); 3) family life and adolescence and human sexuality education, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education; 4) maternal and child health, and family planning; 5) environment; and 6) population policy and programs. As part of the Population Education Programme (NEP/93/P08), a Master Trainers Training Workshop was held in Makwanpur, March 26-28, 1995. These master trainers would train trainers who would train the facilitators and teachers at learning centers for adult learners under the literacy and post literacy programs. This course focused on the approaches and strategies for integrating population education in development programs, and non-formal education, adult literacy, post literacy, and out-of-school children programs. Dr. D. de Rebello and Mr. S. Hutabarat, CST Advisors on Population Education, organized the training courses and served as resource persons.
Conclusion: Conflicts with supervisors are likely to reduce job resources and in turn to lower job attitudes. Work design in hospitals should, therefore, address interpersonal working conditions and conflict management in leadership development.
Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Gan, Wenqi; Swanberg, Jennifer
Little is known about how psychosocial work factors such as work stress, supervisor fairness, and language barriers affect risk of occupational injury among Latino farmworkers. This study attempts to address these questions. Surveys were administered via interviews to 225 Latino thoroughbred farmworkers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational injury in the past year in relation to occupational characteristics. Work stress (OR 6.70, 95% CI 1.84-24.31), supervisor unfairness (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.73), longer tenure at farm (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.13-6.34), and supervisor inability to speak Spanish (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05-5.00) were significantly associated with increased odds of occupational injury. Due to the associations between work stress, supervisor unfairness, supervisor inability to speak Spanish and injury, supervisor training to improve Spanish language ability and equitable management practices is merited. Future research is needed to understand the antecedents of work stress for Latino farmworkers.
Montani, Francesco; Courcy, François; Giorgi, Gabriele; Boilard, Amélie
This study tests a theoretical model where: (a) nurses' dispositional resistance to change is indirectly negatively related to behavioural empowerment through the mediating role of psychological empowerment; and (b) supervisors' empowering management practices buffer both the negative relationship between dispositional resistance to change and psychological empowerment and the indirect negative relationship between resistance to change and behavioural empowerment via psychological empowerment. Promoting a high level of empowerment among nursing personnel is important to ensure their effectiveness in the context of organizational change. It is thus essential to advance our current understanding of the factors that hamper nurses' psychological and behavioural expressions of empowerment and to clarify supervisor practices that can overcome such barriers. A cross-sectional research design. We collected survey data during 2012 from a sample of 197 nurses from a Canadian hospital undergoing a major organizational change. Results from moderated mediation analyses provided evidence for an indirect negative relationship between dispositional resistance to change and behavioural empowerment through psychological empowerment, and for a moderating (buffering) effect of supervisors' empowering management practices on this mediated relationship. These findings provided support for our hypotheses. Supervisors' empowering management practices represent an important contextual buffer against the negative effects of dispositional resistance to change on nurses' empowerment. Organizations should develop empowering management skills among nurses' supervisors to counteract the detrimental effects of dispositional resistance to change and to sustain an empowered nursing workforce. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available According to the training literature, a supervisor's role in training programs has two major elements: supervisor support and supervisor communication. The ability of supervisors to play effective roles in training programs may increase employees' motivation to learn. The nature of this relationship is interesting, but the role of supervisor's role as a predicting variable is less emphasized in a training program models. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the effect of supervisor's role in training programs on motivation to learn using 152 usable questionnaires gathered from non-academic employees who have worked in a technological based public university, Malaysia. The outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed that the supervisor support and supervisor communication significantly associated with motivation to learn. Statistically, this result demonstrates that supervisor's role in training programs does act as an important predictor of motivation to learn in the organizational sample. In addition, discussion, implication and conclusion are elaborated.
The Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) is the management and operating contractor (MOC) for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP). Managers and supervisors at DOE facilities such as the WIPP are required to complete extensive training. To meet this requirement, WID created a self-paced, self-study program known as Management and Supervisor Training (MAST). All WID managers and supervisors are required to earn certification through the MAST program. Selected employees are permitted to participate in MAST with prior approval from their manager and the Human Resources Manager. Initial MAST certification requires the completion of 31 modules. MAST participants check out modules and read them when convenient. When they are prepared, participants take module examinations. To receive credit for a given module, participants must score at least 80 percent on the examination. Lessons learned from the development, implementation, and administration are presented in this paper
This paper outlines why experienced supervisors at a London healthcare provider received skills training so they could offer safeguarding supervision to front-line colleagues with case management responsibilities for vulnerable children and young people. It examines how supervisors use the main functions of supervision and a cycle of reflection in clinical practice with supervisees. As well as the professional issues encountered by supervisors in relation to the benefits, the challenges of providing supervision and the action required to make safeguarding supervision a part of the organisational culture are also explored. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
van der Wal, Martha A; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Scheele, Fedde; Schripsema, Nienke R; Jaarsma, A Debbie C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Research from outside the medical field shows that leadership behaviours influence job satisfaction. Whether the same is true for the medical training setting needs to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of residents' overall appreciation of their supervisor's leadership and observation of specific supervisor leadership behaviours on job satisfaction. We invited residents (N = 117) to rate how often they observed certain task and relation-oriented leadership behaviours in their supervisor and overall appreciation of their supervisor's leadership. Furthermore, they rated their satisfaction with 13 different aspects of their jobs on a 10-point scale. Using exploratory factor analysis we identified four factors covering different types of job satisfaction aspects: personal growth, autonomy, affective, and instrumental job satisfaction aspects. Influence of overall appreciation for supervisor leadership and observation of certain leadership behaviours on these job satisfaction factors were analysed using multiple regression analyses. The affective aspects of job satisfaction were positively influenced by overall appreciation of leadership (B = 0.792, p = 0.017), observation of specific instructions (B = 0.972, p = 0.008) and two-way communication (B = 1.376, p = 0.008) and negatively by mutual decision-making (B = -1.285, p = 0.007). No effects were found for the other three factors of job satisfaction. We recommend that supervisors become more aware of whether and how their behaviours influence residents' job satisfaction. Especially providing specific instructions and using two-way communication seem important to help residents deal with their insecurities and to offer them support.
Pereira, Diana; Müller, Patrick; Elfering, Achim
Workflow interruptions and social stressors among surgery personnel may cause attention failure at work that may increase rumination about work issues during leisure time. The test of these assumptions should contribute to the understanding of exhaustion in surgery personnel and patient safety. Workflow interruptions and supervisor-related social stressors were tested to predict attention failure that predicts work-related rumination during leisure time. One hundred ninety-four theatre nurses, anaesthetists and surgeons from a Swiss University hospital participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participation rate was 58%. Structural equation modelling confirmed both indirect paths from workflow interruptions and social stressors via attention failure on rumination (both pworkflow interruptions and social stressors on rumination-could not be empirically supported. Workflow interruptions and social stressors at work are likely to trigger attention failure in surgery personnel. Work redesign and team intervention could help surgery personnel to maintain a high level of quality and patient safety and detach from work related issues to recover during leisure time.
Fossøy, Ingrid; Haara, Frode Olav
Completion of a master's degree has changed significantly from being the specific responsibility of the candidate and his/her supervisor to being the responsibility of the whole educational institution. As a consequence, we have initiated an internal training course for professional development related to the supervision of master's theses. In…
in Onitsha Education Zone, specifically, in all the Public Primary Schools in the three Local ... the competencies instruction supervisors require for effective supervision. Mean .... that…. have little to do with actual classroom observation nor improvement ..... Table 2: t-test comparison of the mean ratings of head teachers and.
Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…
Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Éric
The study tests the relationship between supervisors' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership and perceived bullying in the workplace. Transformational and transactional leaders can create conditions that make bullying at work less frequent but laissez-faire leadership may cause conflict that can result in bullying. The participants were 288 adults (122 women, 164 men; M age = 38.9 yr., SD = 11.7; M tenure = 7.2 yr.) employed across several organizations. Of the participants, 53.2% were contacted during an evening class in organizational behavior, and the others were workers from a waterproofing company. Scales measuring perceived leadership of a supervisor and perceived bullying at work were administered. Supervisor's transformational and transactional leadership were negatively related to work-related bullying, person-related bullying, and physically intimidating bullying. Transactional leadership was also negatively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. Supervisor's laissez-faire leadership was positively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. The use of Bass's model of transformational leadership in relation with the three-factor structure of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised is unique in research on leadership and bullying. The relationship between laissez-faire leadership and leadership support results from previous studies: transactional or transformational leadership is likely to provide an environment that makes bullying more rare than under a negative or passive leadership.
With four generations in today's workforce, roles are being redefined to include a growing number of younger supervisor/older subordinate relationships, referred to as the intergenerational dyad. What current and limited literature exists about the intergenerational dyad exclusively addresses the issues of generational workplace differences…
Being a supervisor is an important and lonely occupation. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and opportunities in working conditions for supervisors, being facilitators and implementers of change for meat cutters. Nine supervisors of meat cutters in one large company were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews covered their roles as supervisors, performance of the change process and their own working conditions. Notes were taken and structured in themes. Similarities, differences, plus and minus were identified. There was a nuanced view on the change processes and their effects. The change processes and the decisions were anchored in a democratic process with groups of employees and the union. All were clear on what demands the company had on them. They were secure in a functioning network of peers and their immediate superior. On their own education, most were as a whole satisfied, but in need of more training and talked of lifelong learning. They considered their work demanding and lonely, with a need both to be manager and leader. A shared leadership could mean doing a better job. There is a need for education and training as a manager and leader as well as the opportunity to discuss with peers.
Kayikçi, Kemal; Yilmaz, Ozan; Sahin, Ahmet
Contemporary educational supervision expresses democratic and leadership focused supervisory approach which consists of collaboration, trust, sharing and improving. The aims of the study are to investigate the answer of how current teacher supervision in Turkey is conducted according to the views of educational supervisors, and to unearth what the…
... some general or generic competencies cut through all the phases of research, such as management outcomes, relationship outcomes, and conceptual and professional outcomes. Some skills and knowledge are very important but are not susceptive to training, such as the personality traits of students and supervisors.
The success of a thesis or a dissertation for a graduate student relies upon the roles of their supervisor. The student not only needs to be equipped with the knowledge, but also be able to manage others and external factors at the same time. The journey during the period of conducting research is mixed with various tasks. Five supportive roles of…
The paper established that communication, supervisorstudent relationship, access to literature, plagiarism, and poor writing skills among some students are some of the key challenges facing students and supervisors in writing dissertations/theses at OUT. The paper recommends that communication between students and ...
interview study within the faculty, and an inquiry into the field of cross-cultural supervision with the purpose of enhancing the skills of PhD supervisors. As is often the case with cross-cultural exchange and inquiry, the study ended up by being just as informative on the supervision cultures and settings...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What supervisor requirements apply? 111.13 Section 111.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING...
Minocha, Shailey; Petre, Marian
The goal of this handbook is to assist researchers and their supervisors to adopt and use social media tools in the service of their research, and, in particular, in engaging in the discourse of research. The handbook presents an innovative suite of resources for developing and maintaining a social media strategy for research dialogues.
a) As research supervisor of J. Smith, I confirm that I approve and support the research proposal submitted by the candidate. b) J. Smith has successfully completed the following course(s):. STAT 890: Statistics, Survey Design and Analysis INAF 540: International Affairs Dynamics. ECON 700: Qualitative Research Data.
Griffin, M.A.; Patterson, M.G.; West, M.A.
The link between teamwork and job satisfaction was investigated in a sample of 48 manufacturing companies comprising 4708 employees. Two separate research questions were addressed. First, it was proposed that supervisor support would be a weaker source of job satisfaction in companies with higher
Gevers, J.M.P.; Demerouti, E.
Purpose – This study aims to examine supervisors' temporal reminders and subordinates' pacing style as they relate to employees' absorption in work tasks, and subsequently creativity. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved a weekly diary study among 32 employees of an IT-development
Organisational stability is central to the strength of human development and organizational effectiveness which enables sustainable nation's development amidst global competitiveness. Hence this study examined perceived supervisor's support and job insecurity as predictors of employee anxiety. The study participants ...
Sapp, David Alan; Zhang, Qin
The purpose of this empirical study is to explore expectations of industry insiders and identify how student interns are performing in relation to those expectations as defined by 11 performance areas. The results of a survey of 238 industry supervisors were collected over a 5-year period in the departments of English and communication at a…
competencies supervisors of instruction require for a sustainable Universal Basic Education in primary schools in Anambra State. One research question and one null hypothesis guided the study. The study was carried out in Onitsha Education Zone, specifically, in all the Public Primary Schools in the three Local ...
Arar, Khalid Husny
This paper discusses the characteristics of women discipline supervisors in the Arab education system in Israel, through their professional development to their attainment of senior supervisory posts. It examines how they attain supervision posts and perform various managerial functions in what is considered a male role, in a patriarchal society,…
Çelebi, Nurhayat; Korumaz, Mithat
A number of studies on teachers' organizational commitment based some findings of western context in Turkey. But some of the characteristics prove that organizational issues cannot be resulted with the terms in Western World. One of the new concepts in organizational issues for Eastern culture is loyalty to supervisor (in school context supervisor…
Calcavecchi, Lincoln Todd
Organizational leaders know that training improves worker performance, but training is often initiated without considering employees' work task requirements. This instrumental case study was conducted to understand the perceptions of employees who completed a skills training program and those of supervisors. The conceptual framework was andragogy,…
a) the approval of the candidate's final version of their research proposal (not just the research topic) by the research supervisor; b) the list of courses already completed and still to be completed by the candidate in the master's/PhD program; c) confirmation that all courses will be completed, and, for PhD candidates,.
Schneider, Rob; Colan, Neil
For several decades Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) have been a resource in the workplace to handle troubled employees. The areas of supervisor training and employee motivation provide opportunities for involvement of psychologists in the EAP field. Surveys conducted with EAP directors revealed that many programs are planning to do supervisor…
Pederson, Leonard S.; Dresdow, Sally; Benson, Joy
Purpose: The need for effective training of first-line supervisors is well established. Well-trained supervision is essential to our future as a country. A fundamental step in developing effective training is to develop a jobs needs assessment. In order to develop an effective needs assessment, it is necessary to know what the tasks are of…
Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin
The present study investigates the relation between supervisors' personality traits and employees' experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that - to date - remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors' agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors' extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors' conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors' Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees' experiences of abusive supervision.
Misumi, Jyuji; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Yoshida, Michio; Misumi, Emiko; Tokudome, Eiji
This study examined the relationship between employee`s safety consciousness, morale, and supervisor`s leadership using multiple regression analysis. Respondents were 2152 male employees who were working at nuclear power plants (operation division, maintenance division, and joint companies). Main results were as follows. (1) Individual morale variables, such as `work motivation` and `mental hygine`, were correlated with leadership M behavior rather than with P behavior. On the other hand, group morale variables, such as `teamwork` and `meeting quality`, were correlated with both P and M behavior. These results shows P and M leadership affect the employee`s morale. (2) With regard to safety consciousness variables, `communication` and `work place norm` to ensure safety were strongly correlated to leadership both P and M behavior. However, neither `sense of tension to ensure safety` nor `experiencing cold shiver` were related to leadership P or M behavior. It was suggested that practices for accidents prevention in workplace are related to supervisor`s P and M leadership behavior. (3) `Sense of tension` to ensure safety and `experiencing cold shiver` were negatively correlated with `mental hygine`, but positively correlated with `work motivation`. These results suggest that increase of the work motivation might improve employee`s awareness and ability for detecting human errors. (author)
... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...
Hunt, Kevin; Mitchell, Murray; Maina, Michael; Griffin, Lisa
The purpose of this study was to describe and contrast selected approaches to the supervision of student teachers between Content Specialist and Non-Content Specialist university supervisors. Content Specialist supervisors were identified as trained university supervisors with a background in physical education. Non-Content Specialist supervisors…
Wu, Tsung-Yu; Lee, Shao-Jen; Hu, Changya; Yang, Chun-Chi
Using the trickle-down model as the theoretical foundation, we explored whether subordinates' perceived supervisory non-work support (subordinates' PSNS) mediates the relationship between supervisors' perception of higher-level managers' non-work support (supervisors' PSNS) and subordinates' organizational citizenship behaviors. Using dyadic data collected from 132 employees and their immediate supervisors, we found support for the aforementioned mediation process. Furthermore, supervisors' perceived in-group/out-group membership of subordinates moderated the aforementioned supervisors' PSNS-subordinates' PSNS relationship, such that this relationship is stronger for out-group subordinates. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed.
Rogers, M M
Competition for health care capital dollars has increased as third-party and government reimbursement decreases, patient volume decreases, and alternative services increase. Given this rationing situation, it is more important than ever that the health care supervisor carefully document and present a capital expenditure request. This request should outline skillfully the benefits and costs of undertaking a new service or replacing an old asset. A supervisor who can quantify the costs and benefits of a project and utilize one of the four common capital budgeting techniques: payback period, net present value, profitability index, or internal rate of return, will certainly be taking a step in the right direction for ensuring a serious evaluation of his or her proposal. This article attempts to explain this process using both narrative and quantitative examples.
The paper begins by noting the lack of a comprehensive dictionary of Scandinavian runic inscriptions, as well as the absence of the runic evidence from most dictionaries of the early Scandinavian languages, and considers possible reasons for this. Runic inscriptions may need a different kind of dictionary, because they require a different kind of reading that takes extra-linguistic as well as linguistic contexts into account (a process that has been called “interdisciplinary semantics”). Us...
Hair, Heather J; Fine, Marshall
A phenomenological research process was used to investigate the supervision experience for supervisors and therapists when supervisors use a social constructionist perspective. Participants of the one-to-one interviews were six AAMFT Approved Supervisors and six therapists providing counseling to individuals, couples and families. The findings suggest supervisors were committed to their self-identified supervision philosophy and intentionally sought out congruence between epistemology and practice. The shared experience of therapists indicates they associated desirable supervision experiences with their supervisors' social constructionist perspective. Our findings also indicated that supervisors' and therapists' understanding of social constructionism included the more controversial concepts of agency and extra-discursiveness. This research has taken an empirical step in the direction of understanding what the social constructionist supervision experience is like for supervisors and therapists. Our findings suggest a linkage between epistemology and supervision practice and a satisfaction with the supervision process. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Dowd, S B; Davidhizar, R; Dowd, L P
Rumor and gossip are long-standing means of communication among humans and are prevalent in health care settings in part due to the nature of the organization. Rumor and gossip may be negative or positive, and health care supervisors should monitor the grapevine and consider themselves personally responsible for transmitting accurate information whenever possible to ensure that rumor and gossip do not have a negative effect on the department or institution.
Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth
Digital technology provides opportunities for using mobile learning strategies in healthcare environments. To realise the vision of the National Workforce Development Strategy there needs to be innovation of health professionals to further develop knowledge and skills of clinical supervisors to access and gain an understanding of the value of mobile learning at the workplace. The use of digital technology by clinical supervisors was explored in 2012 as part of a teaching development grant to evaluate the use of Web 2.0 technology to develop a community of practice about clinical supervision. Prior to developing the virtual network of clinical supervisors, feedback about the use of Web 2.0 technology by clinicians was sought via an online survey. Over 90% of respondents used social media, 85% understood what a blog and wiki were and approximately half of the respondents used smart phones. More than one-third indicated they would participate in a virtual community of practice and would like to receive information about clinical facilitation at least once per week. Findings indicate both inhibitors and opportunities for workforce development within healthcare environments that need to be addressed. Support of graduate-ready nurses can be achieved through an integrated outlook that enables health professionals within organisations to undertake mobile learning in situ. A flexible and collaborative approach to continuing professional development within organisations could enhance practice development and could positively impact on workforce development.
Thrasher, Ashley B; Walker, Stacy E; Hankemeier, Dorice A; Mulvihill, Thalia
Many new athletic trainers (ATs) obtain graduate-assistant (GA) positions to gain more experience and professional development while being mentored by a veteran AT; however, GA ATs' perceptions of the supervisor's role in professional development are unknown. To explore the supervisor's role in the professional development of GAs in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. Phone interviews. A total of 19 collegiate GAs (15 women, 4 men; average age = 23 ± 0.15 years; National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I = 13, II = 3, III = 2; National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics = 2; postprofessional athletic training program = 5). Data were collected via phone interviews and transcribed verbatim. Interviews were conducted until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed through phenomenologic reduction. Trustworthiness was established via member checks and peer review. Three themes emerged: (1) GAs' expectations of supervisors, (2) professional development, and (3) mentoring and support. Participants expected their supervisors to provide mentorship, support, and feedback to help them improve their athletic training skills, but they also realized supervisors were busy with patient care responsibilities. Most participants felt their supervisors were available, but others believed their supervisors were too busy to provide support and feedback. Participants felt their supervisors provided professional development by teaching them new skills and socializing them into the profession. Furthermore, they thought their supervisors provided mentorship professionally, personally, and clinically. Supervisors supported the participants by standing behind them in clinical decisions and having open-door policies. The graduate assistantship allows new ATs to gain experience while pursuing professional development, mentorship, and support from a supervisor. The extent of development is highly dependent on the supervisor, but most supervisors mentor GAs. When
Scheepers, Renée A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
Clinician-supervisors often work simultaneously as doctors and teachers. Supervisors who are more engaged for their teacher work are evaluated as better supervisors. Work engagement is affected by the work environment, yet the role of supervisors' personality traits is unclear. This study examined
de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Mainhard, M. Tim; Meijer, Paulien C.; Pilot, Albert; Brekelmans, Mieke
Master's thesis supervision is a complex task given the two-fold goal of the thesis (learning and assessment). An important aspect of supervision is the supervisor-student relationship. This quantitative study (N = 401) investigates how perceptions of the supervisor-student relationship are related to three dependent variables: final grade,…
Sheu, Leslie; Kogan, Jennifer R; Hauer, Karen E
Appropriate trust and supervision facilitate trainees' growth toward unsupervised practice. The authors investigated how supervisor experience influences trust, supervision, and subsequently trainee learning. In a two-phase qualitative inductive content analysis, phase one entailed reviewing 44 internal medicine resident and attending supervisor interviews from two institutions (July 2013 to September 2014) for themes on how supervisor experience influences trust and supervision. Three supervisor exemplars (early, developing, experienced) were developed and shared in phase two focus groups at a single institution, wherein 23 trainees validated the exemplars and discussed how each impacted learning (November 2015). Phase one: Four domains of trust and supervision varying with experience emerged: data, approach, perspective, clinical. Early supervisors were detail oriented and determined trust depending on task completion (data), were rule based (approach), drew on their experiences as trainees to guide supervision (perspective), and felt less confident clinically compared with more experienced supervisors (clinical). Experienced supervisors determined trust holistically (data), checked key aspects of patient care selectively and covertly (approach), reflected on individual experiences supervising (perspective), and felt comfortable managing clinical problems and gauging trainee abilities (clinical). Phase two: Trainees felt the exemplars reflected their experiences, described their preferences and learning needs shifting over time, and emphasized the importance of supervisor flexibility to match their learning needs. With experience, supervisors differ in their approach to trust and supervision. Supervisors need to trust themselves before being able to trust others. Trainees perceive these differences and seek supervision approaches that align with their learning needs.
In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Perrin, Nancy A; Yragui, Nanette L; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or job loss. We conducted interviews in Spanish or English with adult women working in low-income jobs who had been physically or sexually abused by an intimate partner/ ex-partner in the past year ( N = 133). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct clusters that form a hierarchy of type of support wanted: those who desired limited support; those who desired confidential, time-off, and emotional support; and those who desired support in wide variety of ways from their supervisor. The clusters appeared to reflect stages of behavior change in an abusive relationship. Specifically, the limited-support cluster may represent an early precontemplation stage, with women reporting the least interference with work. The support-in-every-way cluster may represent later stages of change, in which women are breaking away from the abusive partner and report the greatest interference with work. Women in the confidential-, time-off-, and emotional-support cluster are in a transition stage in which they are considering change and are exploring options in their abusive relationship. Understanding the hierarchy of the type of support desired, and its relationship to stages of change in the abusive relationship and work interference, may provide a strong foundation for developing appropriate and effective workplace interventions to guide supervisors in providing support to women experiencing IPV.
Ingham, Gerard; O'Meara, Peter; Fry, Jennifer; Crothers, Natalie
There is little empirical information on how general practitioner (GP) supervisors teach and the reasons for the variation in their teaching methods. Could the variation be due to differing motivations to teach? Supervisors from one regional training provider who attended educational workshops in 2013 were surveyed, seeking infor-mation on their motivation to become and remain a supervisor, and the frequency of use of selected teaching activities. The majority of respondents cited intrinsic motivators, including enjoying teaching (84%), contribution to the profession and community (82%), adding variety (78%) and workforce/succession planning (69%), as reasons for becoming GP supervisors. The expected relationships between motivations and teaching activities were not found. Variation in teaching activities used by supervisors does not appear to be associated with differing motivations. Measuring the use of teaching activities is not a mechanism to determine a supervisor's commitment to teaching.
Radiation safety training courses in School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, were introduced. The number of radiation workers and the usage of radiation and radioisotopes have been surveyed for past 14 years. The number of radiation workers in School of Engineering has increased due to the treatment of X-ray analysis of materials, recently. It is important for workers to understand the present situation of School of Engineering before the treatment of radiation and radioisotopes. What the supervisor should tell to radiation workers were presented herewith. The basic questionnaires after the lecture are effective for radiation safety trainings. (author)
Garcia Montoro, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration
The EventIndex project consists in the development and deployment of a complete catalogue of events for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN. In 2015 the ATLAS experiment has produced 12 billion real events in 1 million files, and 5 billion simulated events in 8 million files. The ATLAS EventIndex is running in production since mid- 2015, reliably collecting information worldwide about all produced events and storing them in a central Hadoop infrastructure. A subset of this information is copied to an Oracle relational database. These slides present two components of the ATLAS EventIndex: its data collection supervisor and its web interface partner.
Thomas G. Ryan
Full Text Available Evidence has emerged which suggests that as a supervisor, the importance of knowing oneself, and knowing those that he or she is supervising, is vital to the success of the group. We argue that when conflicting values, attitudes, and beliefs are present amongst the members of the group over an issue (inclusion, or over the behaviours of a member (non-inclusive, the entire group can break down. Therefore, to successfully implement a program, such as inclusion, knowing the attitudes of the staff is vital as a program such as this cannot be successful without positive support.
sessions. Brief (2-3 hour) training "work sessions" could be developed to help lower level supervisors 4 solve specific problema . These sessions...34 In D. Cartwright (ed.), Studies in Social Power. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1959. Gardner, B.B. & Whyte, W.F. "The man in the...line supervisory problem redefined." Personnel Journal, 1975, 54(12), 620-623+. Stouffer, S.A. "An analysis of conflicting social norms." American
MARÍA ANDREA NICOLETTI
Nos proponemos analizar en este trabajo de qué manera la identidad entre las escuelas confesionales y los Salesianos, construida desde la época del territorio patagónico, ha marcado fuertemente el discurso de los supervisores escolares que las visitaban. Estos han proyectado una clara representación social sobre la «escuela salesiana», no sólo referencial, sino también prospectiva, en cuanto a que se manifiesta como una construcción inducida. Dentro del sistema educativo patagónico, l...
Rofcanin, Yasin; Heras , Mireia Las; Bakker, Arnold B
Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico ...
Hall, Debra S
Workplace social support is a major characteristic related to the Job Demand-Control model of job stress. Organizational and managerial support have an effect on nurse satisfaction and burnout. The relationships between perceived supervisor support and measures of nurse occupation-related outcomes were investigated in 3 nursing units within an academic medical center. Nurses with greater levels of perceived supervisor support experienced more positive job outcomes and less negative outcomes, including less occupational stress, than nurses with less perceived supervisor support. Implications for refocusing the role of the nurse supervisor and its effect on multiple nursing occupation-related outcomes are discussed.
Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling
Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.
Watkins, C Edward
The psychotherapy supervisor's development (i.e., the unfolding process of growth in being and becoming a supervisor) has long been considered a substantive issue in clinical supervision. Theory and clinical wisdom suggest that supervisors' level of development can have a significant and far-reaching impact on the supervision experience, potentially affecting supervisory alliance formation, in-session conceptualization and strategy utilization, and even the outcomes experienced by both supervisees and patients. Consensus seems to be that there is a critical need for empirical study of psychotherapy supervisor development. But with a generation of theory and research on psychotherapy supervisor development behind us, what do we know (or not know); where does this area of inquiry stand today, and what do we need to know about supervisor development going forward? In this paper, I attempt to address those questions. I examine the last 30-year period (approximately) of supervisor development theory, measurement, and quantitative and qualitative study; provide a contemporary status report of sorts on this subject; and identify some important matters for research and practical consideration. Despite a generation of inquiry, the psychotherapy supervisor still remains the largely unknown party in the supervision experience. But that long-standing reality can be changed, some possibilities for doing so are presented, and the promise of supervisor development study is seen to be an ever-inviting hope that awaits realization.
Full Text Available This is a story about the creation of a co-authored research article. The purpose is to emphasize co-writing as a significant pedagogic practice within doctoral supervision. Regarding apprenticeship as a pedagogical methodology as well as a theoretical framework makes co-writing more than an output-driven technique for increasing productivity. Becoming a researcher requires intense involvement in real research, and it is difficult to teach somebody how to do it. It entails practice. This practice is presented by means of an e-mail correspondence between a doctoral student and her supervisor during the article production. These real-time reflections show that effective apprenticeship in this context is a matter of giving access to the practice of doing research, opening up the field and thereby providing direction. However, it is also a theoretical perspective concerned with adding materiality and real tasks to the relational space between supervisor and the novice researcher. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303149
Maume, David J; Ruppanner, Leah
Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women's representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates' pay, and to what degree the state's commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women's share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manninen, Katri; Henriksson, Elisabet Welin; Scheja, Max; Silén, Charlotte
Clinical practice is essential for health care students. The supervisor's role and how supervision should be organized are challenging issues for educators and clinicians. Clinical education wards have been established to meet these challenges and they are units with a pedagogical framework facilitating students' training in real clinical settings. Supervisors support students to link together theoretical and practical knowledge and skills. From students' perspectives, clinical education wards have shown potential to enhance students' learning. Thus there is a need for deeper understanding of supervisors' pedagogical role in this context. We explored supervisors' approaches to students' learning at a clinical education ward where students are encouraged to independently take care of patients. An ethnographic approach was used to study encounters between patients, students and supervisors. The setting was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital. Ten observations with ten patients, 11 students and five supervisors were included in the study. After each observation, individual follow-up interviews with all participants and a group interview with supervisors were conducted. Data were analysed using an ethnographic approach. Supervisors' pedagogical role has to do with balancing patient care and student learning. The students were given independence, which created pedagogical challenges for the supervisors. They handled these challenges by collaborating as a supervisory team and taking different acts of supervision such as allowing students their independence, being there for students and by applying patient-centredness. The supervisors' pedagogical role was perceived as to facilitate students' learning as a team. Supervisors were both patient- and student-centred by making a nursing care plan for the patients and a learning plan for the students. The plans were guided by clinical and pedagogical guidelines, individually adjusted and
Buys, Nicholas J; Selander, John; Sun, Jing
Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence. Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support. Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors. Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process. Implications for Rehabilitation Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence. Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence. Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment. Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and
Mikkelson, Alan C.; York, Joy A.; Arritola, Joshua
Supervisor communication competence and leadership style were used to predict specific employee outcomes. In the study, 276 participants working in various industries completed measures of communication competence and leadership styles about their direct supervisor along with measures of their job satisfaction, motivation, and organizational…
de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert
To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the school supervisor responsible for? 47.5 Section 47.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.5 What is the school supervisor responsible for? Each...
Kirsh, Bonnie; Krupa, Terry; Luong, Dorothy
Organizations have become increasingly concerned about mental health issues in the workplace as the economic and social costs of the problem continue to grow. Addressing employees' mental health problems and the stigma that accompanies them often falls to supervisors, key people in influencing employment pathways and the social climate of the workplace. This study examines how supervisors experience and perceive mental illness and stigma in their workplaces. It was conducted under the mandate of the Mental Health Commission of Canada's Opening Minds initiative. The study was informed by a theoretical framework of stigma in the workplace and employed a qualitative approach. Eleven supervisors were interviewed and data were analyzed for major themes using established procedures for conventional content analysis. Themes relate to: perceptions of the supervisory role relative to managing mental health problems at the workplace; supervisors' perceptions of mental health issues at the workplace; and supervisors' experiences of managing mental health issues at work. The research reveals the tensions supervisors experience as they carry out responsibilities that are meant to benefit both the individual and workplace, and protect their own well-being as well. This study emphasizes the salience of stigma and mental health issues for the supervisor's role and illustrates the ways in which these issues intersect with the work of supervisors. It points to the need for future research and training in areas such as balancing privacy and supports, tailoring disclosure processes to suit individuals and workplaces, and managing self-care in the workplace.
A questionnaire survey among 170 employees of a Dutch company showed that supervisor supportiveness moderated the relationship between employees' perceived influence in the workplace and their levels of innovative behaviour. As hypothesized, the results suggest that when supervisors are perceived as
de Waal, Melanie; Rink, Floor; Stoker, Janka
The current investigation examined the effects of internal and external supervisors (i.e., formally installed institutions that hold employees accountable for their actions) on employees’ self-serving decisions. In two studies, it was found that internal supervisors reduced self-serving decisions
Baglin, James; Hart, Claire; Stow, Sarah
This study sought to gain an understanding of the current statistical training and support needs for Australian Higher Degree by Research (HDR) students and their supervisors. The data reported herein are based on the survey responses of 191 (18.7%) eligible supervisors from a single Australian institution. The survey was composed of both…
Tapia Carlín, Rebeca Elena
Trainee beliefs about the roles of thesis supervisors can exert an important influence on timely and successful completion of theses. This research article explores pre-service teacher beliefs about the roles of thesis supervisors through the analysis of their learning diaries. The aim of this study is to identify ways to improve supervisory…
Knight, Andrew J
The purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of professional competency between preinternship music therapy students and internship supervisors. Preinternship music therapy students and internship supervisors were asked to fill out the Internship Concerns Questionnaire (ICQ-ST, student; ICQ-SU, supervisor). Participants (N = 106) included 85 students at 16 AMTA-approved universities (n = 85), and 21 internship supervisors at active AMTA national roster internship sites (n = 21). Twenty items on the ICQ were rated on a Likert-type scale, and 1 item (Part B) asked the participant to indicate any other concerns not addressed in the ICQ. Music therapy interns and supervisors differed significantly in their mean ratings on 2 of the 20 items: "Communicating with facility staff" (p = .025) and "Maintaining client confidence" (p = .016). In both cases the student interns reported a significantly lower mean level of concern about getting assistance in these areas than did their supervisors. The present study suggests that music therapy educators may better prepare music therapy students for a successful internship by evaluating the perceptual gaps in professional training expectations between students and supervisors prior to the internship. Internship supervisors may also benefit from student's own perceptions of their knowledge and skills upon beginning the internship. Ultimately, the student is responsible for being prepared to begin the process from intern to beginning professional at the start of the internship, and to commit to gaining as much as possible from the combination of academic and clinical experiences available to them.
Wasti, S. Arzu; Can, Ozge
Employees' commitment to their organization is increasingly recognized as comprising of different bases (affect-, obligation-, or cost-based) and different foci (e.g., supervisor, coworkers). Two studies investigated affective and normative commitment to the organization, supervisor and coworkers in the Turkish context. The results of Study 1…
This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…
Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of research in PhD programs increases if supervisors become aware of students' expectations from them. This qualitative study aimed to explore expectations of PhD students from their supervisors was done. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted on 22 graduated PhD students of Iran University of Medical Sciences, in 2014. The samples were purposefully selected and interviewed. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results: After analyzing and coding data, it was found that PhD students have four main expectations from their supervisors. These expectations consist of scientific support including help with selection of subject, preparation and registration of proposal, data collection and support for writing and examination of the thesis. Developing scientific skills and help with preparing manuscripts were other expectations. Emotional-social support with five categories including relationship between supervisor-student, general expectations of supervisor, supervisor personality characteristics, needed emotional skills and social activities related to thesis and finally providing adequate resources including financial support and access to facilities inside and outside the university were among the other expectations. Conclusion: PhD students need to scientific, emotional, social and material supports from their supervisors in the process of performing thesis. These expectations should be told to supervisors.
Brinson, Jesse A.
This article encourages supervisors, in general, and counsellor supervisors, in particular, to engage in reflective learning as a way to identify their cultural biases. Awareness of counsellor bias has been addressed by ethical standards outlined for professional helpers. This article presents reflective learning as a potentially useful strategy…
The relationship between teacher and supervisor can be compared to that of husband and wife. Both relationships require care, commitment, communication, respect, truthfulness, and trust. Certain characteristics must exist between the supervisor and teacher for the process to be successful and, ultimately, lead to improved instruction. This paper…
Howells, Kerry; Stafford, Karen; Guijt, Rosanne; Breadmore, Michael
While increasing attention is being placed on the crucial importance of a positive supervisor-student relationship, few studies have investigated how to enhance this. Our paper investigates the effect of gratitude practices, proposing it brings both focus and intentionality to the student-supervisor relationship resulting in better research…
Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.
This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to perform purchasing and accounting tasks efficiently and effectively. The first section is an introduction to the module. The next three…
Paulins, V. Ann
Senior retail merchandising students (n=37) and their internship supervisors (n=25) were surveyed about ethical practices. Perceptions of ethics did not vary by internship location. Supervisors perceived their organizations to be more ethical than students did on two of five questions. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)
Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.
This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to use plant and industry experience to improve plant safety and reliability. The following topics are covered in the module's individual…
Nielsen, Geir Høstmark; Skjerve, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard
In the two preceding papers of this issue of Nordic Psychology the authors report findings from a study of nondisclosure among student therapists and clinical supervisors. The findings were reported separately for each group. In this article, the two sets of findings are held together and compared......, so as to draw a picture of mutual assumptions and facts about nondisclosure among students and supervisors....
Kahyalar, Eda; Yazici, lkay Çelik
This article reports on the findings from a study which investigated supervision in language teaching from a supervisor's and her three trainee teachers' perspectives. The data in the study were from three sources: 1) audio recordings of the supervisor's feedback sessions with each trainee teacher, 2) audio recording of an interview between the…
Schneider, Robert J.; Colan, Neil B.
A total of 291 supervisors were assigned to 3 groups (in-house training, external training, no training) for training in management of troubled employees. Both forms of training were effective in improving supervisors' knowledge of employee assistance programs. Supervisory training was best viewed as a process, not a single event. (SK)
The focus of this article is on the written feedback that supervisors say they often give their second language (L2) doctoral students. Little is known about the focus of this feedback and about what supervisors consider as priorities in the early draft writing of dissertation chapters. Given the potentially different priorities and foci of…
Sagasser, Margaretha H.; Kramer, Anneke W. M.; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.
Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in received supervisor support. This study aims at…
Garcia Montoro, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration; Sanchez, Javier
The EventIndex project consists in the development and deployment of a complete catalogue of events for the ATLAS experiment  at the LHC accelerator at CERN. In 2015 the ATLAS experiment has produced 12 billion real events in 1 million files, and 5 billion simulated events in 8 million files. The ATLAS EventIndex is running in production since mid-2015, reliably collecting information worldwide about all produced events and storing them in a central Hadoop infrastructure. A subset of this information is copied to an Oracle relational database. This paper presents two components of the ATLAS EventIndex : its data collection supervisor and its web interface partner.
The literature suggests that failure to establish a good relationship in communicating expectations of research supervision is one of the factors contributing to the slow pace of research progress. Moreover, it is not fully understood how students and a supervisor ‘pre-define’ their styles and communicate their expectations through a successful relationship. As a result, the students might lose motivation to do their research during the study period and are not able to complete their research on time. This will subsequently entail an extension of the study period. Without a good relationship between students and the supervisor, miscommunication occurs, leading to mismatched expectations from both parties. This research attempts to explore the establishment of a good supervisor-students’ relationship from supervisor point of views, so that supervision expectations can be clearly delivered and effectively communicated; guidelines will be drawn up for forging the supervisor-students’ relationship basing on mutual expectations of both parties.
Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.
In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a
The article demonstrates how the supervisor can facilitate development of competencies as an implicit part of supervising study projects.......The article demonstrates how the supervisor can facilitate development of competencies as an implicit part of supervising study projects....
Scheepers, Renée A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H
Clinician-supervisors often work simultaneously as doctors and teachers. Supervisors who are more engaged for their teacher work are evaluated as better supervisors. Work engagement is affected by the work environment, yet the role of supervisors' personality traits is unclear. This study examined (i) the impact of supervisors' personality traits on work engagement in their doctors' and teachers' roles and (ii) how work engagement in both roles affects their teaching performance. Residents evaluated supervisors' teaching performance, using the validated System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities. Supervisors' reported work engagement in doctor and teacher roles separately using the validated Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Supervisors' personality traits were measured using the Big Five Inventory's five factor model covering conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability and openness. Overall, 549 (68%) residents and 636 (78%) supervisors participated. Conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness were positively associated with supervisors' engagement in their teacher work, which was subsequently positively associated with teaching performance. Conscientious, extraverted, and agreeable supervisors showed more engagement with their teacher work, which made them more likely to deliver adequate residency training. In addition to optimizing the work environment, faculty development and career planning could be tailor-made to fit supervisors' personality traits.
Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.
Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and postintervention…
Pohl, Sabine; Galletta, Maura
Supervisor emotional support is a strong determinant of job satisfaction. There is no study examining the effect of supervisor emotional support at the group level on job satisfaction. Multilevel statistical techniques can help disentangle the effects of subjective assessments from those of group factors. The study's aim was to examine the moderating role of supervisor emotional support (group-level variable) on the relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction (individual-level variables). A cross-sectional study was performed in 39units from three Belgian hospitals. A total of 323 nurses completed a self-reported questionnaire. We carried out a multilevel analysis by using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. The results showed that the cross-level interaction was significant. Hence, at individual-level, the nurses with high levels of work engagement showed high levels of job satisfaction and this relationship was stronger when supervisor emotional support at group-level was high. Contextual differences among groups had an impact on the form of the work engagement-job satisfaction relationship. This relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction is an individual and group level phenomenon. Ways to enhance emotional supervisor support include training supervisors in providing support and enhancing communication between nurses and supervisors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weaver, Susan H; Lindgren, Teri G
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the administrative supervisors' perspective of their managerial practices and how these practices contribute to nurse and patient safety. The position of administrative supervisor, often referred to as house supervisor on the evening and night shifts, lacks empirical data supporting efficacy. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with 30 administrative supervisors from acute care hospitals, using in-depth interviews and job descriptions. Regardless of the size, location or type of hospital, the interviews revealed the administrative supervisor as the hospital shift leader, who achieves nurse and patient safety when performing his/her role responsibilities, despite being disconnected from the nursing management team. To support patient care quality and safety, the administrative supervisor competencies need to be developed along with role-specific education programmes. Additionally, there is a need to recognise these off-shift leaders as a key stakeholder on the nursing leadership team. Although nurse leaders in many countries may believe they understand this role, this is among the first empirical studies. These results can lead discussions on enhancing nurse and patient safety with additional support for administrative supervisors, along with the discussion of a best practice model for off-shift leadership. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available This study empirically examines the antecedents and consequences of organization justice consisting of distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. The hypothesis of this study are mentoring function positive effect on organization justice, organizational justice positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship, mentoring function positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. In additional, this study also hypothesized that organization justice as mediation between mentoring functions and quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. This study is a survey of 228 government internal auditors of Financial and Development Supervisory Agency-Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan (BPKP in Java-Bali Indonesia. The technique of collecting data using questionnaires. Test hypotheses using path analysis with SEM-AMOS. The results showed that mentoring function positive effect on organization justice, organizational justice positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship, mentoring function positive effect on quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. The study also provide an empirical finding that organization justice as mediation between mentoring functions and quality of supervisor-auditor relationship. The study provides recommendations to the BPKP in solving the problems faced by the government in realizing good and clean governance. This study is the first empirically examines the potential benefit of organization justice as a mediation between mentoring function and quality of supervisor-auditor relationship.
Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A; Larson, Mary Jo
Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001 ; Roman and Johnson, 2002 ; Willenbring et al., 2004 ). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported practice (ESP) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors' perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors was also difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified.
Busse, Jason W; Dolinschi, Roman; Clarke, Andrew; Scott, Liz; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Amick, Benjamin C; Rivilis, Irina; Cole, Donald
Return to work after a leave on disability is a common phenomenon, but little is known about the attitudes of employees or their supervisors towards the disability management process. We report on employee and supervisor feedback from one disability management experience. 389 consecutive employees from the Ontario offices of a single private Canadian insurance company returning to work from short-term disability, and their supervisors. We surveyed employees and their supervisors about their experience with, and attitudes towards, the disability management process. Of those surveyed, 88 employees and 75 supervisors provided data (response rates of 22.6% and 19.3% respectively). The majority of respondents (79.1% of employees and supervisors) endorsed positive attitudes towards their disability management experience. More than 25% of employees disagreed with the following three items: case managers contributed to recovery, case managers removed barriers to recovery, and sufficient support was provided in the return to work process. More than 25% of employees and managers reported that a commitment to modify an unhelpful work situation was not followed through. The majority of participating employees returning to work from short-term disability, and their supervisors, reported a high level of satisfaction with the disability management process. Areas that may benefit from attention include some aspects of case manager-employee interaction and ensuring that support during the return to work process is provided, including modification to work situations when appropriate.
Williart, A.; Shaw, M.; Tellez, M.
The professionals who work as Nuclear Medicine Installations Supervisors need a suitable training. This training must be based on the guidelines of the C.S.N. (the Spanish Agency for Nuclear Safety). The traditional training courses must comply with a set of requirements, that not always is possible to get: They are given in a settled place. They are developed during a time, more or less lengthy. This time is pre-established. However, the persons willing to follow these courses have some difficulties with the place and the time. Many of them do not live near the places where the courses are given, in general in big cities, while there are Nuclear Medicine Installations scattered through all Spain. Moreover in some occasions they have not available time to attend the courses. Many times, faced with so many obstacles, the option is not to do the suitable training course. In order to solve this kind of problems we offer an Interactive Training Course (supported by CD-ROM). The course contents are based on Spanish Regulations and on the Safety Guide, established by C.S.N., for approval Radioactive Installations Supervisors Training Courses. This guide includes General Topics for Radioactive Installations and Specific Subjects for Nuclear Medicine. (General topics) Basic knowledge on the fundamental concepts on the action and nature of Ionizing Radiations, their risks and preventions. The ionizing radiations. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological protection. Legislation on radioactive installations. (Specific Subjects) Knowledge on the radiological risks associated to the proper techniques in the specific field of application. In our case the specific field is Nuclear Medicine Installations, where the radioactive sources are used for diagnostic or for therapy. Specific legal and administrative aspects. Non-encapsulated radioactive sources. Associated radiological risks to the use of non-encapsulated sources. Installations design. Operative procedures
Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula
Purpose To explore supervisors' perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. Methods Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. Results The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative "trial and error" decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor's attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort, and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. Conclusion A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: (a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; (b) decision resources necessary
Jippes, Erik; Steinert, Yvonne; Pols, Jan; Achterkamp, Marjolein C; van Engelen, Jo M L; Brand, Paul L P
To examine the impact of social networks and a two-day faculty development course on clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation. During 2007-2010, 571 residents and 613 clinical supervisors in four specialties in the Netherlands were invited to complete a Web-based questionnaire. Residents rated their clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation, the use of structured and constructive (S&C) feedback. Clinical supervisors self-assessed their adoption of this innovation and rated their communication intensity with other clinical supervisors in their department. For each supervisor, a centrality score was calculated, representing the extent to which the supervisor was connected to departmental colleagues. The authors analyzed the effects of supervisor centrality and participation in a two-day Teach-the-Teacher course on the degree of innovation adoption using hierarchical linear modeling, adjusting for age, gender, and attitude toward the S&C feedback innovation. Respondents included 370 (60%) supervisors and 357 (63%) residents. Although Teach-the-Teacher course participation (n=172; 46.5%) was significantly related to supervisors' self-assessments of adoption (P=.001), it had no effect on residents' assessments of supervisors' adoption (P=.371). Supervisor centrality was significantly related to innovation adoption in both residents' assessments (P=.023) and supervisors' self-assessments (P=.024). A clinical supervisor's social network may be as important as faculty development course participation in determining whether the supervisor adopts an educational innovation. Faculty development initiatives should use faculty members' social networks to improve the adoption of educational innovations and help build and maintain communities of practice.
Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke
Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.
It can often be an enlightening affair to be made aware of the limitations of one's knowledge on a subject in which one is gainfully employed - having read this book, I am grateful for such a salutary experience. As a doctoral supervisor, I feel justified in considering myself better informed and equipped to perform a role for which, there is very little contemporary literature available. The manner in which Taylor and Beasley have comprehensively tackled this omission, going beyond the usual checklist for supervisors, is a huge strength of the book, bringing to life the real world of doctoral supervision. This text is a timely publication given the momentous changes of the past decade in terms of the doctorate, modes and methods of study, the candidate population and new demands upon supervisors. Although the book appears to be primarily written for a UK audience it is relevant to all those involved in helping the doctoral candidate achieve their goal.
Report #2005-P-00027, September 27, 2005. Managers did not sufficiently hold supervisors and project officers accountable for grants management because there is no process to measure most grants management activity.
The effect of personality traits of managers/supervisor on job satisfaction of medical ... of their time life in their workplace therefore investigation for job satisfaction related ... Keywords: Employees, Job satisfaction, Managers, Personality trait ...
Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.
A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment
Supervision is an essential part of psychoanalytic education. Although not taken for granted, it is not studied with the same critical eye as is the analytic process. This paper examines the supervision specifically with a focus on the supervisor's transference towards the supervisee. The point is made, in the context of clinical examples, that one of the ways these transference reactions may be rationalised is within the setting of the parallel process so often encountered in supervision. Parallel process, a very familiar term, is used frequently and easily when discussing supervision. It may be used also as a resistance to awareness of transference phenomena within the supervisor in relation to the supervisee, particularly because of its clinical presentation. It is an enactment between supervisor and supervisee, thus ripe with possibilities for disguise, displacement and gratification. While transference reactions of the supervisee are often discussed, those of the supervisor are notably missing in our literature.
Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall; Mayer, David M
Supervisors' perceptions of how fairly they are treated by their own supervisors can influence their subordinates' perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. We present a moderated mediation model that demonstrates how work group structure can enhance or constrain these effects. Results show supervisors' perceptions of the fairness of the interactional treatment they receive relate to their subordinates' perceptions of interactional justice climate, and this relationship is stronger in work groups with more organic structures. Furthermore, consistent with the moderated mediation prediction, interactional justice climate mediates the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of interactional justice and outcomes when work group structures are more organic. We discuss the implications of the findings for research on justice and trickle-down effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Gilkes, Lucy A; Liira, Helena; Emery, Jon
Medical students benefit from their contact with clinicians and patients in the clinical setting. However, little is known about whether patients and clinicians also benefit from medical students. We developed an audit and feedback intervention activity to be delivered by medical students to their general practice supervisors. We tested whether the repeated cycle of audit had an effect on the preventive care practices of general practitioners (GPs). The students performed an audit on topics of preventive medicine and gave feedback to their supervisors. Each supervisor in the study had more than one student performing the audit over the academic year. After repetitive cycles of audit and feedback, the recording of social history items by GPs improved. For example, recording alcohol history increased from 24% to 36%. This study shows that medical students can be effective auditors, and their repeated audits may improve their general practice supervisors' recording of some aspects of social history.
This monograph presents a systematic top-down approach to distributed control synthesis of discrete-event systems (DES). The approach is called supervisor localization; its essence is the allocation of external supervisory control action to individual component agents as their internal control strategies. The procedure is: first synthesize a monolithic supervisor, to achieve globally optimal and nonblocking controlled behavior, then decompose the monolithic supervisor into local controllers, one for each agent. The collective behavior of the resulting local controllers is identical to that achieved by the monolithic supervisor. The basic localization theory is first presented in the Ramadge–Wonham language-based supervisory control framework, then demonstrated with distributed control examples of multi-robot formations, manufacturing systems, and distributed algorithms. An architectural approach is adopted to apply localization to large-scale DES; this yields a heterarchical localization procedure, which is...
Adams, Fred P.
A case study to determine whether the recognition of being selected for a training program and the satisfactory completion of it result in increased job satisfaction using 56 first-line supervisors from a textile company. (WL)
Rofcanin, Yasin; Las Heras, Mireia; Bakker, Arnold B
Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico (654 subordinates; 134 supervisors) showed that FSSBs influenced work performance through subordinate work engagement. Moreover, the positive association between subordinates' perceptions of FSSBs and work engagement was moderated by family supportive organizational culture. Our results contribute to emerging theories on flexible work arrangements, particularly on family supportive work policies. Moreover, our findings carry practical implications for improving employee work engagement and work performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hauer, K.E.; Oza, S.K.; Kogan, J.R.; Stankiewicz, C.A.; Stenfors-Hayes, T.; ten Cate, TJ; Batt, Joanne; O’Sullivan, P.S.
Context Clinical supervisors oversee trainees’ performance while granting them increasing opportunities to work independently. Although the factors contributing to supervisors’ trust in their trainees to conduct clinical work have been identified, how the development of trust is shaped by these
To investigate if there was an agreement between the students and supervisors on the quality of clinical teaching in Restorative Dentistry in the Dublin Dental School and Hospital and to identify differences on how effective clinical teaching is perceived between three academic years. In addition it aimed to identify the existence of any similarities between students\\' and supervisors\\' perceptions of specific teaching behaviours that are most and least helpful in learning.
Hasnu, Muhammed WASEEM SAF
This paper presents the relative impact of supervisor support, pay level satisfaction & career growth opportunities on the development of perceived organizational support (POS) of employees. Survey data were collected from banking sector professionals working in the branches of four major private commercial banks of Pakistan in Hazara Division. The findings of this study highlighted that “career growth opportunities” is a stronger predictor of POS than supervisor support and pay level...
Conclusion: CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA.
For organisations in South Africa to preserve talented and skilled employees it is important that these organisations consider the psychological needs of their employees. This is particularly true for supervisors and their relationships with their subordinates. South Africans are daily engaged in working and influencing people within their workplaces. Although supervisors are not capable of addressing or changing all the problems and concerns of employees, they can intervene in order to impro...
Skarpaas, Lisebet Skeie; Ramvi, Ellen; Løvereide, Lise; Aas, Randi Wågø
Many people confronting mental health problems are excluded from participation in paid work. Supervisor engagement is essential for successful job placement. To elicit supervisor perspectives on the challenges involved in fostering integration to support individuals with mental health problems (trainees) in their job placement at ordinary companies. Explorative, qualitative designed study with a phenomenological approach, based on semi-structured interviews with 15 supervisors involved in job placements for a total of 105 trainees (mean 7, min-max. 1-30, SD 8). Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Superviors experience two interrelated dilemmas concerning knowledge of the trainee and degree of preferential treatment. Challenges to obtaining successful integration were; motivational: 1) Supervisors previous experience with trainees encourages future engagement, 2) Developing a realistic picture of the situation, and 3) Disclosure and knowledge of mental health problems, and continuity challenges: 4) Sustaining trainee cooperation throughout the placement process, 5) Building and maintaining a good relationship between supervisor and trainee, and 6) Ensuring continuous cooperation with the social security system and other stakeholders. Supervisors experience relational dilemmas regarding pre-judgment, privacy and equality. Job placement seem to be maximized when the stakeholders are motivated and recognize that cooperation must be a continuous process.
Langlet, Jean; Piferrer, Jean-Paul; Morin, Catherine; Lefaure, Christian; Tourneux, Christophe; CONAN, Nadine; MARC, Benoit; Etard, Cecile; Rehel, J.L.; Aubert, B.; Ranouil, Julien
Organised by the Association for radioprotection Techniques and Sciences (ATSR) and sponsored by the Commission of external radiation protection supervisors, this radiation protection supervisors' day was the occasion to take stock of the regulation, of the recurrent problems and advances in radiation protection. The conference brought together 9 presentations dealing with: 1 - Works of the Commission of external radiation protection supervisors (J.P. Piferrer); 2 - National and European regulation updates (T. Lahaye); 3 - Problems relating to control equipments (J. Langlet); 4 - Problems relating to the professional insurance for external radiation protection supervisors: national consultation by the ATSR (key points for the development of a national multidisciplinary consultative meeting by the ATSR, C. Morin); 5 - Situation of radiation protection supervisor networks (C. Lefaure, C. Tourneux); 6 - RPE-RPA-RSSO functions at CERN: creation and experience feedback (Experience feedback of the implementation of the RPE/RPO(A) European regulation at CERN, N. Conan); 7 - Industry: PCR n + Σ TQRP = SRP* (B. Marc); 8 - Interventional radiology: lessons to be learnt from recent overexposure incidents? (Medicine: protection supervisor and interventional radiology, C. Etard, J.L. Rehel, B. Aubert); 9 - GEDOC: research group on eye lens dosimetry (Eye lens exposure to ionizing radiations, J. Ranouil). This document brings together the presentations (slides) presented during the conference
Lundgren, Solveig M; Halvarsson, Maud; Robertsson, Barbro
This study compares supervisors' and examiners' grading of quality of theses at Bachelor level in nursing. An instrument developed to asses the quality of theses was used. Eight aspects of quality were rated. One hundred and fifteen theses were rated by both examiner and supervisor. Significant correlations were found between examiners' and supervisors' ratings of all aspects of quality. Good agreement was found in 89-96% of the ratings on individual aspects of quality. The means of differences between ratings were small but significantly differed from zero in four out of eight aspects. In theses rated low for quality of language and formality, differences between examiners' and supervisors' ratings on all aspects of quality were significantly larger than in theses rated high for quality of language and formality. The general conclusion is that the evaluations made by examiners and by supervisors corresponded well. Differences found indicates that examiners in general give lower scores than supervisors especially on quality aspects that are most closely related to research methods and experiences. This study is part of a larger project that is investigating quality of theses and the student's attitudes and learning experiences of writing theses.
Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Kent Anger, W.
Background Effective policy implementation is essential for a healthy workplace. The Ryan-Kossek 2008 model for work-life policy adoption suggests that supervisors as gatekeepers between employer and employee need to know how to support and communicate benefit regulations. This article describes a workplace intervention on a national employee benefit, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and evaluates the effectiveness of the intervention on supervisor knowledge, awareness, and experience with FMLA. Methods The intervention consisted of computer-based training (CBT) and a survey measuring awareness and experience with FMLA. The training was administered to 793 county government supervisors in the state of Oregon, USA. Results More than 35% of supervisors reported no previous training on FMLA and the training pre-test revealed a lack of knowledge regarding benefit coverage and employer responsibilities. The CBT achieved: (1) a significant learning effect and large effect size of d = 2.0, (2) a positive reaction to the training and its design, and (3) evidence of increased knowledge and awareness regarding FMLA. Conclusion CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA. PMID:24106648
Finley, Sabra Ledare; Veach, Pat McCarthy; MacFarlane, Ian M; LeRoy, Bonnie S; Callanan, Nancy
Supervision is a primary instructional vehicle for genetic counseling student clinical training. Approximately two-thirds of genetic counselors report teaching and education roles, which include supervisory roles. Recently, Eubanks Higgins and colleagues published the first comprehensive list of empirically-derived genetic counseling supervisor competencies. Studies have yet to evaluate whether supervisors possess these competencies and whether their competencies differ as a function of experience. This study investigated three research questions: (1) What are genetic counselor supervisors' perceptions of their capabilities (self-efficacy) for a select group of supervisor competencies?, (2) Are there differences in self-efficacy as a function of their supervision experience or their genetic counseling experience, and 3) What training methods do they use and prefer to develop supervision skills? One-hundred thirty-one genetic counselor supervisors completed an anonymous online survey assessing demographics, self-efficacy (self-perceived capability) for 12 goal setting and 16 feedback competencies (Scale: 0-100), competencies that are personally challenging, and supervision training experiences and preferences (open-ended). A MANOVA revealed significant positive effects of supervision experience but not genetic counseling experience on participants' self-efficacy. Although mean self-efficacy ratings were high (>83.7), participant comments revealed several challenging competencies (e.g., incorporating student's report of feedback from previous supervisors into goal setting, and providing feedback about student behavior rather than personal traits). Commonly preferred supervision training methods included consultation with colleagues, peer discussion, and workshops/seminars.
Full Text Available Introduction: The educational supervisors should attempt to plan and implement nurses’ development programs according to the principles of educational process. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of educational supervisors from the viewpoints of clinical nurses and nurse managers in 2007. Methods : 97 clinical nurses and 33 nurse managers in educational hospitals of Yazd participated in this cross sectional study. The questionnaire including 56 items related to expected professional competencies of educational supervisor was prepared and its validity and reliability was confirmed. Overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.97 ranging from 0.77 to 0.96 for different dimensions which indicated internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results: The results showed 42.3% of nurses considered the function of their hospital as effective, 52.6% as ineffective, and 5.2% as relatively effective. One hundred percent of metrons considered the function of educational supervisors as effective. All the educational supervisors considered their function effective. The study samples reported that all the listed criteria were important in the effectiveness of educational supervisors’ function. Conclusion: In order to improve the effectiveness of educational supervisors’ function their management and leadership competencies should be developed. Competency-based approach is suggested in preparing educational supervisors for implementing the educational process from the problem solving skills. This will help nurse managers to make their work environments a learning and educational institute.
Prasko, Jan; Vyskocilová, Jana; Mozny, Petr; Novotny, Miroslav; Slepecky, Milos
For cognitive behavioural therapy, acquisition and maintenance of psychotherapeutic and supervisory competencies is crucial. The PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the following keywords: cognitive-behavioural therapy, competencies, therapeutic relationship, intervention, technique, training, supervision, self-reflection, empirically supported, transference, countertransference, scheme of therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy. The search was performed by repeating the words in different combinations with no language or time limitations. The articles were sorted and key articles listed in reference lists were searched. In addition, original texts by A.T. Beck, J. Beck, C. Padesky, M. Linehan, R. Leahy, J. Young, W. Kuyken and others were used. The resources were confronted with our own psychotherapeutic and supervisory experiences and only most relevant information was included in the text. Thus, the article is a review with conclusions concerned with competencies in cognitive behavioural therapy. For cognitive behavioural therapy, four domains of competencies in psychotherapy are crucial - relationship, case assessment and conceptualization, self-reflection and intervention. These may be divided into foundational, specific and supervisory. The foundational competencies include recognition of empirical basis for a clinical approach, good interpersonal skills, ability to establish and maintain the therapeutic relationship, self-reflection, sensitivity to a difference and ethical behaviour. The specific competencies involve the skill of case conceptualization in terms of maladaptive beliefs and patterns of behaviour, ability to think scientifically and teach this to the patient, structure therapy and sessions, assign and check homework, etc. The supervisor's competencies include multiple responsibilities in supporting the supervisee, identification and processing of the therapist's problems with the patient, continuous
Simpkin, P.; Nelis, P.; Christie, K.
Baker Hughes Incorporated is a service company providing drilling, formation evaluation and production technology to the oil and gas industry. The corporation is the combination of many innovative companies, some dating back to the early 1900s, that have developed and introduced technology to serve the global petrochemical industry. Every day in oil fields around the world, Baker Hughes engineers, geo-scientists and field service personnel apply the latest technology to find reserves, develop fields and produce oil and gas. Baker Hughes INTEQ, a division of Baker Hughes Inc., provides a range of services associated with drilling operations. A major product line utilises sealed radioactive sources to obtain real-time information on the formation being drilled. This is done by use of a technique called measurement while drilling (MWD). A nuclear MWD operation on a drilling rig involves the use of a 185 GBq Am-241/Be neutron source and a 74 GBq Cs-137 gamma ray source. INTEQ's Eastern Hemisphere operations have provided MWD services in more than 50 countries in the last 10 years, from its major support bases in the UK, Norway, Nigeria, Dubai and Singapore. Baker Hughes INTEQ takes the safety of its work with radioactive sources extremely seriously and, when developing these services, put a lot of thought into how this could be ensured. An essential factor was deemed to be the competence of the personnel providing the services at the rig site, most importantly, the radiation protection supervisor (RPS). The RPS is responsible for ensuring that the specified working procedures are observed at all times. In doing so, the RPS will ensure that the work being done with the radioactive sources proceeds in a manner which is fully compliant with the regulations for radiation protection in the country in which the work is being undertaken
The Professional Needs of Clinical Practice Supervisors Necesidades de desarrollo profesional de supervisores de prácticas clínicas Necessidades de desenvolvimento profissional de supervisores de prática clínica
Full Text Available This article outlines the principal findings of a study intended fundamentally to research the needs of clinical practice supervisors in terms of their professional development. An online survey was designed and sent to more than 400 supervisors who were asked to supply information on the type of support provided to candidates. The initial results of the study suggest there are three fundamental types of effective support: 1 classroom management; 2 design of classes; and 3 individualized study programs for students with disabilities. Three challenges were identified: 1 gathering comments and observations from school supervisors; 2 not enough time for comments and observations; and 3 insufficient time for conversing with the candidate. The findings of this study suggest the need to develop a systematic approach to counseling and guidance, in addition to having support teams with different functions.Se presentan los principales hallazgos de una investigación cuyo objetivo central fue investigar las necesidades de desarrollo profesional de los supervisores de prácticas clínicas. Se diseñó una encuesta en línea, que se envío a más de 400 supervisores, en la cual se proporcionaba información sobre el tipo de apoyo que brindan a los candidatos. Los resultados iniciales sugieren que hay tres tipos fundamentales de apoyo efectivo: 1. Manejo del salón de clase; 2. Diseño de clases, y 3. Programa individualizado de educación para estudiantes con discapacidades. Se identifican tres desafíos: 1. Recolección de observaciones de supervisores de escuelas; 2. Escasez de tiempo para las observaciones, y 3. Escasez de tiempo para conversar con el candidato. Los hallazgos del estudio señalan la necesidad de desarrollar un enfoque sistémico para proporcionar la asesoría, al igual que contar con equipos de apoyo que tengan funciones diferenciadas.Este artigo apresenta os principáis resultados de um estudo cujo principal objetivo foi pesquisar as
Full Text Available This paper explored what factors Gen-Y undergraduates deem important, and how they are ranked in selecting a research supervisor. Focus group was used at the first stage to elicit factors that were important to the respondents. The second step included ranking those factors through qualitative survey. The 12 identified factors ranked in descending order of importance are: Educational qualification, experience in the field, previous encounter with the supervisor, previous projects supervised by the supervisor, word-of-mouth related to the supervisor, referral by other faculty members, research methodology used by the supervisor, age, gender, nationality/ethnicity, religion, and profile picture of the supervisor. Being an exploratory study, the data is collected from a small sample from one university only, hence raising generalization issues. For future research, these dimensions can be validated via a large sample study. This research sheds light on what attracts millennials when selecting their research supervisor; from which academics and higher education institutions can identify potential areas of weaknesses and introduce subsequent improvements. The existing literature focusses on postgraduate researchers, after they have chosen a supervisor; whereas this research explores how undergraduates choose a research supervisor. The model formulated in this study could also be applied to postgraduate students as to what attracts them when selecting their supervisor.
van der Wal, Martha A; Scheele, Fedde; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Jaarsma, A Debbie C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Within the current health care system, leadership is considered important for physicians. leadership is mostly self-taught, through observing and practicing. Does the practice environment offer residents enough opportunities to observe the supervisor leadership behaviours they have to learn? In the current study we investigate which leadership behaviours residents observe throughout their training, which behaviours supervisors report to display and whether residents and supervisors have a need for more formal training. We performed two questionnaire studies. Study 1: Residents (n = 117) answered questions about the extent to which they observed four basic and observable Situational Leadership behaviours in their supervisors. Study 2: Supervisors (n = 201) answered questions about the extent to which they perceived to display these Situational Leadership behaviours in medical practice. We asked both groups of participants whether they experienced a need for formal leadership training. One-third of the residents did not observe the four basic Situational Leadership behaviours. The same pattern was found among starting, intermediate and experienced residents. Moreover, not all supervisors showed these 4 leadership behaviours. Both supervisors and residents expressed a need for formal leadership training. Both findings together suggest that current practice does not offer residents enough opportunities to acquire these leadership behaviours by solely observing their supervisors. Moreover, residents and supervisors both express a need for more formal leadership training. More explicit attention should be paid to leadership development, for example by providing formal leadership training for supervisors and residents.
Roebbelen, Erica; Dorman, Katie; Hunter, Andrea; Kraeker, Christian; O'Shea, Tim; Bozinoff, Nikki
Phenomenon: Increasing numbers of medical students from high-income countries are undertaking international medical electives (IMEs) during their training. Much has been written about the benefits of these experiences for the student, and concerns have been raised regarding the burden of IMEs on host communities. The voices of physicians from low- and middle-income countries who supervise IMEs have not been explored in depth. The current study sought to investigate host-physician perspectives on IMEs. Host supervisors were recruited by convenience sampling through students travelling abroad for IMEs during the summer of 2012. From 2012 through 2014, 11 semistructured interviews were conducted by telephone with host supervisors from Nepal, Uganda, Ghana, Guyana, and Kenya. Participants were invited to describe their motivations for hosting IMEs and their experiences of the benefits and harms of IMEs. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy. An initial coding framework was developed and underwent multiple revisions, after which analytic categories were derived using conventional qualitative content analysis. For host supervisors, visits from international medical students provided a window into the resource-rich medical practice of high-income countries, and supervisors positioned themselves, their education, and clinical expertise against perceived standards of the international students' context. Hosting IMEs also contributed to supervisors' identities as educators connected to a global community. Supervisors described the challenge of helping students navigate their distress when confronting global health inequity. Finally, the desire for increasingly reciprocal relationships was expressed as a hope for the future. Insights: IMEs can be formative for host supervisors' identities and are used to benchmark host institutions compared with international medical standards. Reciprocity was articulated as essential for IMEs moving forward.
Mineyama, Sachiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takao, Soshi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Kawakami, Norito
We investigated whether supervisors' listening attitudes and skills were related to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among their subordinates. The subjects included 41 male supervisors and their immediate subordinates (n=203). The supervisors completed a short version of the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS) consisting of two subscales: Listening Attitude and Listening Skill for Active Listening. The subordinates rated working conditions and their psychological stress reactions using selected scales of the Job Content Questionnaire and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill reported a more favorable psychological stress reaction than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Skill reported higher worksite support than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude reported higher job control than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude. A supervisor's listening attitude and skill appeared to affect psychological stress reactions predominantly among male subordinates than among female subordinates. Psychological stress reactions were lower among younger subordinates who worked under supervisors with high listening skill, while no statistically difference was observed among older subordinates. These findings suggest that a supervisor's listening attitude and skill have an effect on working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinates and that the effects vary according to the subordinates' sex and age.
Hogan, Tierney D
A positive relationship between staff RN case managers and their case management supervisor significantly impacts job satisfaction and retention in case managers. Literature review supports the premise that staff need to trust their supervisor and that there is a connection between this trust and job satisfaction. Staff case managers need to have a voice at work and feel empowered, and a supervisor's leadership style can influence job satisfaction and retention in their staff.
van der Wal, Martha A.; Scheele, Fedde; Sch?nrock-Adema, Johanna; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Background: Within the current health care system, leadership is considered important for physicians. leadership is mostly self-taught, through observing and practicing. Does the practice environment offer residents enough opportunities to observe the supervisor leadership behaviours they have to learn? In the current study we investigate which leadership behaviours residents observe throughout their training, which behaviours supervisors report to display and whether residents and supervisor...
Aoki, Jon Michael
The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of inquiry held by responding greater Houston area science supervisors. Leading science organizations proposed that students might be better served if students are mentally and physically engaged in the process of finding out about natural phenomena rather than by didactic modes of teaching and learning. During the past fifty years, inquiry-based instruction has become a significant theme of new science programs. Students are more likely to make connections between classroom exercises and their personal lives through the use of inquiry-based instruction. Learning becomes relevant to students. Conversely, traditional science instruction often has little or no connection to students' everyday lives (Papert, 1980). In short, inquiry-based instruction empowers students to become independent thinkers. The utilization of inquiry-based instruction is essential to a successful reform in science education. However, a reform's success is partly determined by the extent to which science supervisors know and understand inquiry and consequently promote its integration in the district's science curricula. Science supervisors have the role of providing curriculum and instructional support to science teachers and for implementing science programs. There is a fundamental need to assess the perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors. Science supervisor refers to a class of job titles that include department chairperson, science specialist, science consultant, and science coordinator. The target population was greater Houston area science supervisors in Texas. This study suggests that there are three major implications for educational practice. First, there is the implication that responding greater Houston area science supervisors need an inclusive perception of inquiry. Second, responding greater Houston area science supervisors' perception of inquiry may affect the perceptions and understandings
Muhammad Ali Asadullah
Full Text Available Purpose: This research intends to investigate the mediating role of helping behavior in relationship between employee ingratiation and supervisor satisfaction across high and low levels of ingratiation behavior, and answers the questions: how, when and why ingratiation is effective. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in hotel industry, and structural equation modelling was applied to analyze these data by using hypothetical-deductive approach. Findings: The results indicate that helping behavior is an important mediator of the relationship between ingratiation and supervisor satisfaction. Moreover, ingratiation is also a strong moderator of the relationship between helping behavior and supervisor satisfaction. This research concludes that employee ingratiation positively predicts helping behaviors, and consequently the supervisor satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: This study is not experimental in nature, but a cross-sectional design has been followed. Future research can focus on an experimental design by incorporating a time element, and the design and analysis should be nested since this study did not use multilevel analysis. Moreover, this study used only two forms of ingratiation for measuring employee ingratiation behavior. We suggest researchers to consider all four dimensions of ingratiation by using some distinct scales. Practical implications: This research explains mechanisms underlying supervisor-subordinate relationship, and contributes to organizational behavior research by answering the question; 'when and how ingratiation could be effective?' The findings of this study have important managerial implications, and provide future lines of research. Social implications: The findings of this research demonstrate that ingratiation is an important tool for satisfying superiors if employees exhibit helping behaviors towards coworkers and supervisors. Particularly, new employees
Full Text Available A key aspect of the effective supervision of PhD research is the supervisor-student relationship. This interaction is affected by the characteristics and needs of students and institutional conditions, as well as the skills, attitudes, and roles of supervisors and their supervisory styles. When supervision is carried out at a distance, it entails an additional challenge, mainly concerning interaction. The purpose of this study is to improve the research process, supervision, and design of virtual environments in order to support this supervision. The study identifies the supervisory relationships that affect doctoral research conducted at a distance from the student’s academic institution. It also describes how students and their supervisors perceived the characteristics of supervision and the skills and attitudes students perceived in and expected from their supervisors. For data collection, semistructured interviews were used. The results indicate important differences between supervisors’ perceptions concerning their own role and students’ needs regarding supervision, and they demonstrate the importance of attending to student needs and, on the part of supervisors, exercising responsibility in the development of research competencies in students, as is the case of independence of criteria and autonomy.
Perron, N Junod; Sommer, J; Hudelson, P; Demaurex, F; Luthy, C; Louis-Simonet, M; Nendaz, M; De Grave, W; Dolmans, D; van der Vleuten, C P M
Lack of faculty training is often cited as the main obstacle to post-graduate teaching in communication skills. To explore clinical supervisors' needs and perceptions regarding their role as communication skills trainers. Four focus group discussions were conducted with clinical supervisors from two in-patient and one out-patient medical services from the Geneva University Hospitals. Focus groups were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed in a thematic way using Maxqda software for qualitative data analysis. Clinical supervisors said that they frequently addressed communication issues with residents but tended to intervene as rescuers, clinicians or coaches rather than as formal instructors. They felt their own training did not prepare them to teach communication skills. Other barriers to teach communication skills include lack of time, competing demands, lack of interest and experience on the part of residents, and lack of institutional priority given to communication issues. Respondents expressed a desire for experiential and reflective training in a work-based setting and emphasised the need for a non-judgmental learning atmosphere. Results suggest that organisational priorities, culture and climate strongly influence the degree to which clinical supervisors may feel comfortable to teach communication skills to residents. Attention must be given to these contextual factors in the development of an effective communication skills teaching program for clinical supervisors.
Huang, Jason L; Cropanzano, Russell; Li, Andrew; Shao, Ping; Zhang, Xin-An; Li, Yuhui
Researchers have paid limited attention to what makes organizational authority figures decide to treat their employees either justly or unjustly. Drawing from the actor-focused model of justice, as well as the stereotype content model, we argue that employee conscientiousness and agreeableness can impact the extent to which supervisors adhere to normative rules for distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice, as a result of supervisors' evaluations of their employees' effort and their liking of the employees. Supervisory compliance with justice rules may, in turn, impact the extent to which employees judge themselves to be treated either justly or unjustly. We tested these possibilities in 3 studies. In Study 1, we utilized a meta-analysis to demonstrate positive relationships between employees' conscientiousness, agreeableness, and their justice perceptions. In Study 2, we conducted 3 experiments to test the causal relationship between employee personality and supervisor intentions to comply with justice rules. In Study 3, we conducted an employee-supervisor dyadic field survey to examine the entire mediation model. Results are discussed in terms of the potential roles that both employees and supervisors may play in shaping employees' justice perceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Davis, Stephanie; O'Ferrall, Ilse; Hoare, Samuel; Caroline, Bulsara; Mak, Donna B
This study explores how medical graduates and their workplace supervisors perceive the value of a structured clinical audit program (CAP) undertaken during medical school. Medical students at the University of Notre Dame Fremantle complete a structured clinical audit program in their final year of medical school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Notre Dame graduates (who had all completed the CAP), and seven workplace supervisors (quality and safety staff and clinical supervisors). Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Both graduates and workplace supervisors perceived the CAP to be valuable. A major theme was that the CAP made a contribution to individual graduate's medical practice, including improved knowledge in some areas of patient care as well as awareness of healthcare systems issues and preparedness to undertake scientifically rigorous quality improvement activities. Graduates perceived that as a result of the CAP, they were confident in undertaking a clinical audit after graduation. Workplace supervisors perceived the value of the CAP beyond an educational experience and felt that the audits undertaken by students improved quality and safety of patient care. It is vital that health professionals, including medical graduates, be able to carry out quality and safety activities in the workplace. This study provides evidence that completing a structured clinical audit during medical school prepares graduates to undertake quality and safety activities upon workplace entry. Other health professional faculties may be interested in incorporating a similar program in their curricula.
Hurtado, David A; Kim, Seung-Sup; Subramanian, S V; Dennerlein, Jack T; Christiani, David C; Hashimoto, Dean M; Sorensen, Glorian
To test the associations of safety practices as reported by nurses and their respective unit supervisors with job satisfaction. Psychosocial workplace factors are associated with job satisfaction; however, it is unknown whether nurses and supervisors accounts of safety practices are differentially linked to this outcome. Cross-sectional study design including nurses (n = 1052) nested in 94 units in two hospitals in Boston (MA, USA). Safety practices refer to the identification and control of occupational hazards at the unit. Safety practices were measured aggregating nurses' responses per unit, and supervisory levels. Individual's job satisfaction for each nurse was the response variable. Supervisors assessed safety practices more favourably than their unit nursing staff. Adjusted random intercept logistic regressions showed that the odds of higher job satisfaction were higher for nurses at units with better safety practices (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.68) compared with nurses at units that averaged lower safety practices. Supervisors' reports of safety practices were not correlated with the job satisfaction of their staff. Adequate safety practices might be a relevant managerial role that enhances job satisfaction among nurses. Nursing supervisors should calibrate their safety assessments with their nursing staff to improve nurses' job satisfaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berggren, Ingela; Severinsson, Elisabeth
The aim of the study was to explore the decision-making style and ethical approach of nurse supervisors by focusing on their priorities and interventions in the supervision process. Clinical supervision promotes ethical awareness and behaviour in the nursing profession. A focus group comprised of four clinical nurse supervisors with considerable experience was studied using qualitative hermeneutic content analysis. The essence of the nurse supervisors' decision-making style is deliberations and priorities. The nurse supervisors' willingness, preparedness, knowledge and awareness constitute and form their way of creating a relationship. The nurse supervisors' ethical approach focused on patient situations and ethical principles. The core components of nursing supervision interventions, as demonstrated in supervision sessions, are: guilt, reconciliation, integrity, responsibility, conscience and challenge. The nurse supervisors' interventions involved sharing knowledge and values with the supervisees and recognizing them as nurses and human beings. Nurse supervisors frequently reflected upon the ethical principle of autonomy and the concept and substance of integrity. The nurse supervisors used an ethical approach that focused on caring situations in order to enhance the provision of patient care. They acted as role models, shared nursing knowledge and ethical codes, and focused on patient related situations. This type of decision-making can strengthen the supervisees' professional identity. The clinical nurse supervisors in the study were experienced and used evaluation decisions as their form of clinical decision-making activity. The findings underline the need for further research and greater knowledge in order to improve the understanding of the ethical approach to supervision.
Bennett, Joel B; Lehman, Wayne E K
Supervisor tolerance-responsiveness, referring to the attitudes and behaviors associated with either ignoring or taking proactive steps with troubled employees, was investigated in two studies. The studies were conducted to help examine, understand and improve supervisor responsiveness to employee substance abuse. Study 1 examined supervisor response to and tolerance of coworker substance use and ways of interfacing with the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) in two workplaces (n = 244 and 107). These surveys suggested that engaging supervisors in a dialogue about tolerance might improve their willingness to use the EAP. Study 2 was a randomized control field experiment that assessed a team-oriented training. This training adopted a cognitive mapping technique to help improve supervisor responsiveness. Supervisors receiving this training (n = 29) were more likely to improve on several dimensions of responsiveness (e.g. likely to contact the EAP) than were supervisors who received a more didactic, informational training (n = 23) or a no-training control group (n = 17). Trained supervisors also showed increases in their own help-seeking behavior. Procedures and maps from the mapping activity (two-stage conversational mapping) are described. Overall, results indicate that while supervisor tolerance of coworker substance use inhibits EAP utilization, it may be possible to address this tolerance using team-oriented prevention training in the work-site.
This Department of Energy (DOE) handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and their contractors. The Handbook incorporates editorial changes to DOE-STD-1061-93, ''Guide to Good Practices for the Selection, Training, and Qualification of shift Supervisors,'' and supersedes DOE-STD-1061-93. Technical content of this Handbook has not changed from the original technical standard. Changes are primarily editorial improvements, redesignation of the standard to a Handbook, and format changes to conform with current Technical Standards Program procedures. This guide, used in conjunction with a facility-specific job analysis, provides a framework for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of reactor facility and non-reactor nuclear facility shift supervisors. Training and qualification programs based on this guide should provide assurance that shift supervisors perform their jobs safely and competently
Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.
This Department of Energy (DOE) handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and their contractors. The Handbook incorporates editorial changes to DOE-STD-1061-93, ``Guide to Good Practices for the Selection, Training, and Qualification of shift Supervisors,`` and supersedes DOE-STD-1061-93. Technical content of this Handbook has not changed from the original technical standard. Changes are primarily editorial improvements, redesignation of the standard to a Handbook, and format changes to conform with current Technical Standards Program procedures. This guide, used in conjunction with a facility-specific job analysis, provides a framework for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of reactor facility and non-reactor nuclear facility shift supervisors. Training and qualification programs based on this guide should provide assurance that shift supervisors perform their jobs safely and competently.
Zhang, Jian; Gong, Zhenxing; Zhang, Shuangyu; Zhao, Yujia
Studies on the relationship between feedback and creative performance have only focused on the feedback-self and have underestimated the value of the feedback environment. Building on Self Determined Theory, the purpose of this article is to examine the relationship among feedback environment, creative personality, goal self-concordance and creative performance. Hierarchical regression analysis of a sample of 162 supervisor-employee dyads from nine industry firms. The results indicate that supervisor feedback environment is positively related to creative performance, the relationship between the supervisor feedback environment and creative performance is mediated by goal self-concordance perfectly and moderated by creative personality significantly. The mediation effort of goal self-concordance is significantly influenced by creative personality. The implication of improving employees' creative performance is further discussed. The present study advances several perspectives of previous studies, echoes recent suggestions that organizations interested in stimulating employee creativity might profitably focus on developing work contexts that support it.
Xiong, Kehan; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jenny C; Wang, Lei
Although previous research has examined the main/direct effects of subordinates' trust in their supervisors on the levels of subordinates' affective commitment towards the organizations, little attention has been paid to explore the boundary conditions of this relationship. Two studies were conducted to examine the moderating effect of authentic leadership on the relationship between subordinates' trust in supervisor and their levels of affective commitment towards the organization. In line with the hypothesized model, both Study 1 (cross-sectional design, n = 138) and Study 2 (lagged design, n = 154) demonstrated that authentic leadership moderated the relationship between employees' trust in supervisor and their levels of affective commitment towards their organizations. Specifically, the positive relationship was stronger for employees under higher levels of authentic leadership. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gondal, Khalid Masood; Iqbal, Uzma; Ahmed, Arslan; Khan, Junaid Sarfraz
To find out the perspective of the supervisors about the role of electronic logbook (E-Logbook) of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan (CPSP) in monitoring the training of postgraduate medical residents of CPSP. Descriptive cross-sectional study. College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP), Karachi, from May to October 2015. An electronic computer-based questionnaire designed in Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) language was distributed to the registered CPSPsupervisors through the e-log system. The questionnaire comprised of seven close ended questions. The data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics were determined. Atotal of 1,825 supervisors responded to the questionnaire. Fifteen hundred and ninety-eight (87.6%) supervisors gave regular feedback for their trainees, 88.2% considered it a better monitoring tool than conventional logbook, 92.5% responded that e-logbook helped in the regular assessment of the trainees, 87.8% believe that quality of training will improve after introduction of e-logbook, 89.2% found e-logbook useful in implementation of outcome-based learning and 88.4% considered e-logbook user-friendly. The main reasons for not providing regular feedback included the supervisors not familiar to e-logbook interface, internet access problems, and busy schedules of supervisors. There was a wide acceptability of the e-log system among the supervisors with positive perception about its usefulness. The common reasons that hinder the provision of regular feedback include not being familiar to e-log interface, internet access problem, busy schedule and some consider using e-logbook a cumbersome task. These reasons can be alleviated to provide a better training monitoring system for the residents.
Kang, Shin Uk; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kim, ByoungGwon; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Woo
In modern society, many workers are stressed. Supervisors' support or behavior can affect the emotional or psychological part of the worker. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of supervisor's behavior on worker's stress. The study included 19,272 subjects following the assignment of weighted values to workers other than soldiers using data from the Fourth Korean Working Condition Survey. Supervisors' behavior was measured using 5 items: "supervisor feedback regarding work," "respectful attitude," "good conflict-resolution ability," "good work-related planning and organizational ability," and the encouragement of participation in important decision making. Job stress was measured using 1 item: "I experience stress at work." Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of supervisors' behavioral, general, occupational, and psychosocial characteristics on job stress in workers. Organizational characteristics associated with supervisors' behavior were also analyzed. The results showed that supervisors' provision of feedback regarding work increased workers' job stress (OR = 1.329, 95% CI = 1.203 ~ 1.468). When a supervisor respect workers (OR = 0.812, 95% CI = 0.722 ~ 0.913) or good at planning and organizing works (OR = 0.816, 95% CI: 0.732 ~ 0.910), workers' job stress decreased. In particular, the two types of supervisor behaviors, other than feedback regarding work, were high in private-sector organizations employing less than 300 employees. Supervisors' behavior influenced job stress levels in workers. Therefore, it is necessary to increase education regarding the effects of supervisors' behavior on job stress, which should initially be provided in private-sector organizations with up to 300 employees.
Dee H. Andrews
Full Text Available Cyber insider threat is intentional theft from, or sabotage of, a cyber system by someone within the organization. This article explores the use of advanced cognitive and instructional principles to accelerate learning in organizational supervisors to mitigate the cyber threat. It examines the potential advantage of using serious games to engage supervisors. It also posits two systematic instructional approaches for this training challenge – optimal path modelling and a competency-based approach. The paper concludes by discussing challenges of evaluating training for seldom occurring real world phenomena, like detecting a cyber-insider threat.
Butcher, A H
A study was conducted in a medical center among a diverse sample of employees to examine whether components of organizational climate related to workers' knowledge of the organization's mission and mission-centered values. Findings supported a mediated relationship between supervisor behaviors, mission knowledge, and customer service orientation (the organization's key mission value). Employee perceptions of coworker and organizational support and knowledge of their own performance expectations also related positively to customer service orientation. Results suggest that supervisors are in an ideal position to disseminate a mission-centered climate. Practical applications of these findings for management wishing to develop mission-centered climates in health care organizations are discussed.
Cai, K.; Wonham, W. M.
A purely distributed control paradigm is proposed for discrete-event systems (DES). In contrast to control by one or more external supervisors, distributed control aims to design built-in strategies for individual agents. First a distributed optimal nonblocking control problem is formulated. To solve it, a top-down localization procedure is developed which systematically decomposes an external supervisor into local controllers while preserving optimality and nonblockingness. An efficient localization algorithm is provided to carry out the computation, and an automated guided vehicles (AGV) example presented for illustration. Finally, the 'easiest' and 'hardest' boundary cases of localization are discussed.
Carter, Min Z; Mossholder, Kevin W
Taking a multiple-stakeholder perspective, we examined the effects of supervisor-work group trust congruence on groups' task and contextual performance using a polynomial regression and response surface analytical framework. We expected motivation experienced by work groups to mediate the positive influence of trust congruence on performance. Although hypothesized congruence effects on performance were more strongly supported for affective rather than for cognitive trust, we found significant indirect effects on performance (via work group motivation) for both types of trust. We discuss the performance effects of trust congruence and incongruence between supervisors and work groups, as well as implications for practice and future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sabbah, Suhair Sulaiman Mohammed; Naser, Inas Aref Saleh; Awajneh, Ahlam Mustafa Hasan
This study aims at identifying the teacher's roles in light of knowledge economy from the perspective of the educational supervisors in Palestine. To achieve the study's objective, a questionnaire consisted of 35 items was developed and applied on 50 male and female supervisors in the Directorate of Education in governorate of Ramallah, al-Bireh…
Giroldi, Esther; Veldhuijzen, Wemke; Geelen, Kristel; Muris, Jean; Bareman, Frits; Bueving, Herman; van der Weijden, Trudy; van der Vleuten, Cees
To inform the development of recommendations to facilitate learning of skilled doctor-patient communication in the workplace, this qualitative study explores experiences of trainees and supervisors regarding how trainees learn communication and how supervisors support trainees' learning in the workplace. We conducted a qualitative study in a…
McGill, D.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Clarke, M.J.
Supervisor assessments are critical for both formative and summative assessment in the workplace. Supervisor ratings remain an important source of such assessment in many educational jurisdictions even though there is ambiguity about their validity and reliability. The aims of this evaluation is to
Mascioli, Kelly J; Robertson, Catharine J; Douglass, Alan B
Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors. The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests. When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes. The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction.
Conclusion: Teachers and supervisors did not plan the training in OHS in accordance with the provisions of systematic work environment management. Instead, the teachers based the training on their own experiences. Most of the supervisors did not receive information from the schools as to what should be included when introducing OHS issues in WPL.
Stoverink, Adam C; Umphress, Elizabeth E; Gardner, Richard G; Miner, Kathi N
The organizational justice literature has examined the effects of supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate, or a team's shared perception of the dignity and respect it receives from its supervisor, on a number of important outcomes directed at organizational authorities. Considerably less is known about the potential influence of these shared perceptions on coworker-directed outcomes. In 2 experiments, we predict that a low (unfair) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate generates greater team cohesiveness than a high (fair) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate. We further examine the process through which this effect occurs. Drawing from cognitive dissonance theory, we predict that low (vs. high) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate generates greater team dissonance, or shared psychological discomfort, for team members and that this dissonance serves as an underlying mechanism through which supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate influences a team's cohesiveness. Our results demonstrate support for these predictions in that low supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate led to higher levels of both team dissonance and team cohesiveness than did high supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate, and team dissonance mediated this relationship. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Gedamu, Abate Demissie
Thesis supervisor supervisory styles play central roles in enhancing timely and quality completion of thesis works. To this effect, this study aimed at exploring TEFL graduate supervisees' perception of their thesis supervisors' supervisory style(s), the supervisees' level of satisfaction with thesis supervision, and the association between…
The author examined supervisor self-disclosure and the supervisory working alliance with the hope of adding to research-supported techniques in field work supervision. Students enrolled in an MSW program at a large urban university were asked to complete a survey on the frequency and content of their supervisor's self-disclosures and on their…
Shazada Muhammad Umair Khan
Full Text Available In human machine systems, a user display should contain sufficient information to encapsulate expressive and normative human operator behavior. Failure in such system that is commanded by supervisor can be difficult to anticipate because of unexpected interactions between the different users and machines. Currently, most interfaces have non-deterministic choices at state of machine. Inspired by the theories of single user of an interface established on discrete event system, we present a formal model of multiple users, multiple machines, a supervisor and a supervisor machine. The syntax and semantics of these models are based on the system specification using timed automata that adheres to desirable specification properties conducive to solving the non-deterministic choices for usability properties of the supervisor and user interface. Further, the succinct interface developed by applying the weak bi-simulation relation, where large classes of potentially equivalent states are refined into a smaller one, enables the supervisor and user to perform specified task correctly. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to a model of a manufacturing system with several users interacting with their machines, a supervisor with several users and a supervisor with a supervisor machine to illustrate the design procedure of human–machine systems. The formal specification is validated by z-eves toolset.
Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Shea, Lauren M.
The implementation of teaching performance assessments has prompted a range of concerns. Some educators question whether these assessments provide information beyond what university supervisors gain through their formative evaluations and classroom observations of candidates. This research examines the relationship between supervisors' predictions…
Nichols, Helen M; Swanberg, Jennifer E; Bright, Charlotte Lyn
Turnover among frontline hospital service workers can disrupt organizational effectiveness, reduce profitability, and limit the ability to provide high-quality, patient-centered care. This concern is compounded by the increasing reliance on frontline supervisors to manage this workforce, often without necessary training and support. However, research addressing the relationship between frontline supervisor support and intent to turnover among service workers and the process by which these variables are related is limited. By surveying 270 housekeeping and dietary service workers employed at 2 US hospitals, this study examined the relationship between supervisor support and turnover intent and assessed the mediating role of affective commitment between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Turnover intentions were lower for workers who reported greater levels of supervisor support and affective commitment; both supervisor support and affective commitment were significant predictors of turnover intent when tested individually. However, when controlling for affective commitment, supervisor support no longer predicted turnover intent, indicating that affective commitment fully mediated the relationship between supervisor support and intent to turnover. Implications for further research and organizational practice are discussed.
Hansma, L.; Elving, W.J.L.; Podnar, K.; Jancic, Z.
In this paper two studies on the role of top management and direct supervisors on communicating organizational change are presented. The importance of leadership at all organizational levels is demonstrated and published in numerous studies, but empirically hardly tested. In this paper we will
The credibility of short-term undergraduate research as a paradigm for effective learning within Medicine has been recognized. With a view to strengthening this paradigm and enhancing research-teaching linkages, this study explores whether particular types of research supervisor are pre-disposed to providing supportive learning environments.…
Full Text Available Advanced function of the computer-based river traffic management system should automatically predict and prevent possible conflict and deadlock states between vessels by using adequate control policy (supervisor. This paper proposes a formal method for calculating maximally permissive deadlock prevention supervisor. To model the river system, the authors use a class of Petri net suitable for describing multiple re-entrant flowlines with disjoint sets of resources, jobs and control places, and matrix-based formal method to analyze the system. By using matrix algebra, the structural characteristics of the Petri net (circular waits, P-invariants, critical siphons and subsystem, key resource have been analyzed and the steps for supervisor design proposed. The first and the second level deadlocks can be avoided by maintaining the number of tokens in the critical subsystems and ensuring that the key resource would not be the last available resource in the system. The derived supervisor has been verified by a computer simulation using MATLAB environment. KEYWORDS: traffic management system, deadlock avoidance, discrete event system, Petri net
Nelson, Thorana S.; Graves, Todd
In an attempt to identify needed mental health skills, many professional organizations have or are in the process of establishing core competency standards for their professions. The AAMFT identified 128 core competencies for the independent practice of MFT. The aim of this study was to learn the opinions of AAMFT Approved Supervisors as to how…
Sara Stephanie Cisterna-Hidalgo
Conclusions: Developing professional practice in the adult Internal Medicine Service is a positive experience for students since it allows them to develop self-learning skills, acquire other kinds of skills and achieve the objectives of medical internship. Human resources in hospitals are a favoring factor, and the absence and scarce communication with the university supervisor is an impeding factor.
de Kleijn, Renske A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323054080; Meijer, Paulien C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176063765; Pilot, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068350880; Brekelmans, Mieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074625411
Research supervision can be investigated from social-emotional and cognitive perspectives, but most studies include only one perspective. This study aims to understand the interplay between a social-emotional (supervisor-student relationship) and cognitive (feedback) perspective on the outcomes of
Augustsson, Gunnar; Jaldemark, Jimmy
Online supervision mainly focuses on written communication and electronic drafts, while offline supervision comprises physical and social clues, verbal communication, and drafts of texts. This article focuses on supervisors' written online communication about drafts of undergraduate student dissertations. Theoretically, these utterances form…
Bennett, Kyle; Frain, Michael; Brady, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Howard; Surinak, Tricia
Assessment systems are needed that are sensitive to employees' work performance as well as their need for support, while incorporating the input from both employees and their supervisors. This study examined the correspondence of one such evaluation system, the Job Observation and Behavior Scale (JOBS) and the JOBS: Opportunity for…
Donovan, Martha K.; Cannon, Susan O.
As university supervisors at a large, urban university in the southern US, we examined the ways that the Education Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) shaped the pedagogic relationships and decision-making processes of our students and ourselves during the spring of 2016. We situated this study of edTPA within the framework of critical policy…
Renting, Nienke; Dornan, Tim; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.
The CanMEDS framework has been widely adopted in residency education and feedback processes are guided by it. It is, however, only one of many influences on what is actually discussed in feedback. The sociohistorical culture of medicine and individual supervisors' contexts, experiences and beliefs
Dangel, Julie Rainer; Tanguay, Carla
Professional development that scaffolds and supports supervisors is critical for quality field experiences and is our responsibility as teacher educators. The literature supports this statement and two ideas that conceptually frame our work: (1) quality field experiences are a critical component of preservice programs and (2) training and support…
Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Tabachnick, B. Robert
A study was conducted to determine the range of supervisory belief systems that existed among nine university supervisors of elementary education student teachers. In interviews, three distinct belief systems emerged: (1) technical/instrumental; (2) personal growth centered; and (3) critical. (FG)
This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is based on the view that problems in staff recruitment and retention are directly linked to the level of job satisfaction. The document begins with an introduction and advice on how to use the unit. Five sections cover the following topics: (1)…
Family supportive supervision has emerged as an important prerequisite for effective work-family integration and employees' well-being. Scholars are addressing the need to develop family supportive managers and have introduced a new construct and measure, 'family supportive supervisor behavior'. So
Does one need really need boundaries between doctoral supervisor and supervisee when talking about mature learners? Drawing on reflection from her extensive experience, the author believes it is critical to maintain this divide. There is an increase in doctoral students, proliferation of doctoral programmes globally and practices which vary from…
de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Pilot, Albert; Brekelmans, Mieke
Research supervision can be investigated from social-emotional and cognitive perspectives, but most studies include only one perspective. This study aims to understand the interplay between a social-emotional (supervisor-student relationship) and cognitive (feedback) perspective on the outcomes of master's thesis supervision in specific, by…
Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.
The on-the-job training guide was developed to assist food service supervisors in preparing, presenting, and evaluating a Job Instruction Training (JIT) lesson, a method which employs step-by-step learning of job-related tasks. Part 1, preparing for a JIT lesson, discusses the checklist of duties, the job description, the skills inventory, the…
Basit, Ameer A
In the social context of job engagement, the role of trust in supervisor in predicting engagement of employees has received attention in research. Very limited research, however, has investigated the mechanisms mediating this dynamic relationship. To address this important gap in knowledge, the aim of this study was to examine psychological safety and felt obligation as two psychological mechanisms mediating the effect of trust in supervisor on job engagement. Drawing from job engagement and social exchange theories, the mediating roles of psychological safety and felt obligation in the trust-engagement relationship were empirically investigated in the Malaysian context. Using self-report questionnaires, data were collected from 337 nurses employed in a public hospital located near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results fully supported the proposed serial multiple mediator model. Trust in supervisor was indirectly related to job engagement via psychological safety followed by felt obligation. This study provides empirical evidence that trust in supervisor makes employees feel psychologically safe to employ and express their selves in their job roles. This satisfaction of the psychological safety need is interpreted by employees as an important socioemotional benefit that, in turn, makes them feel obligated to pay back to their organization through their enhanced level of job engagement. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.
Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Beidas, Rinad S; Farahnak, Lauren R; Finn, Natalie K; Aarons, Gregory A
Although often discussed, there is a lack of empirical research on the role of leadership in the management and delivery of health services. The implementation leadership scale (ILS) assesses the degree to which leaders are knowledgeable, proactive, perseverant, and supportive during evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ILS for leaders' self-ratings using a sample of mental health clinic supervisors (N = 119). Supervisors (i.e., leaders) completed surveys including self-ratings of their implementation leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, and validity of the ILS were evaluated. The ILS factor structure was supported in the sample of supervisors. Results demonstrated internal consistency reliability and validity. Cronbach alpha's ranged from 0.92 to 0.96 for the ILS subscales and 0.95 for the ILS overall scale. The factor structure replication and reliability of the ILS in a sample of supervisors demonstrates its applicability with employees across organizational levels.
Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Jensen, Karen Boelt; Madsen, Ninna Skov
Aim: Despite the current relatively widespread use of video as a supervisory tool, there are few empirical studies on how recordings influence the relationship between client and supervisor. This paper presents a qualitative, explorative study of clients’ experience of having their psychotherapy...
In this paper, boundary management illuminates understanding of the doctoral supervisory relationship. Boundary management is presented as a theoretical vehicle that helps to define and explain roles that supervisors employ at different junctures along the doctoral journey and how transitions between these are negotiated. The paper draws on the…
Renting, Nienke; Dornan, Tim; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.
The CanMEDS framework has been widely adopted in residency education and feedback processes are guided by it. It is, however, only one of many influences on what is actually discussed in feedback. The sociohistorical culture of medicine and individual supervisors' contexts, experiences and beliefs are also influential. Our aim was to find how…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact frontline supervisors have on workplace safety culture and to argue for increased formal supervisory training. Two studies conducted in 2006-08 and 2011 are examined and compared in which 28 Managers and Occupational Health and Safety Managers in the construction industry in Western Australia…
Sagasser, M.H.; Kramer, A.W.M.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in
Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.
This packet contains eight learning modules developed for use in Fieldcrest Cannon workplace literacy classes for supervisors. The modules cover the following topics: (1) coaching/communication; (2) coaching/communication and motivation; (3) communication skills; (4) training/coaching; (5) time management; (6) policy and procedures; (7) safety;…
Sparr, J.L.; Sonnentag, S.E.
In a field study we examined employees' fairness perceptions of supervisor feedback and their relationships with employee well-being (job depression, job anxiety, job satisfaction, turnover intentions) and perceived control at work. We hypothesized quality of leader - member exchange (LMX) to
Montes de Oca, Jesús H.
The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" on assertive communication and teamwork competences. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pretest - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors from a private company, 13 in the experimental…
This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is designed to consolidate the work covered in a 1-day course. The document begins with an introduction and advice on how to use the unit. The following topics are covered: (1) the law and personnel procedures; (2) consultation and negotiation; (3)…
Cakmak-Otluoglu, K. Ovgu
Despite the traditional sentiment that protean and boundaryless career attitudes indicate a decline in organizational commitment, little empirical evidence is available. The present study examined the relation of protean and boundaryless career attitudes to organizational commitment and whether the perceived supervisor support moderated these…
Cuenca, Alexander; Schmeichel, Mardi; Butler, Brandon M.; Dinkelman, Todd; Nichols, Joseph R., Jr.
The work of teacher education during student teaching typically takes place in two distinct "spaces": placement sites and college/university settings. The program featured in this article is structured in ways that clearly mark out those two spaces. Yet this configuration led our university supervisors, whose work primarily took place in the…
Sibongile R. Mahlangu (Kubheka
Full Text Available Orientation: Technicians are frequently promoted to supervisory positions based on their technical abilities, with scant attention focused on developing management competencies. This oversight often poses significant challenges. The effective transition from technician to supervisor is important in any organisation. Research objective: The primary objective is to identify and verify the competencies that are required for a technician and a supervisory position; the secondary objective is to identify the gap that must be filled with relevant training interventions to enable technicians to make an effective transition to a supervisory position. Motivation for this study: The identification of the management competencies required for a technician who makes a career change to a supervisor position. Research method: The sequential mixed method approach was used to enable the twophase data collection process: phase one was the quantitative phase and phase two was the qualitative phase. Main findings: The overall findings confirm that there are indeed management competencies that technicians require training and development on before being promoted to a supervisory position. Implication: Organisations need to identify the key competencies for a technician and a supervisor and implement development or training interventions that are essential to successfully transition an employee from the level of a technician to the level of a supervisor. Contribution: Organisations need to implement essential development or training interventions focused on developing management competencies and put in place support interventions such as coaching, job shadowing, mentoring and networking.
Vereijken, Mayke W. C.; van der Rijst, Roeland M.; van Driel, Jan H.; Dekker, Friedo W.
Growing interest in student research projects in higher education has led to an emphasis on research supervision. We focus in this study on novice supervisors' approaches to research supervision as they explore their practices and experience difficulties supervising medical-students. Teacher noticing was used as a sensitising concept and relations…
Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori
Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803
Özyildirim, Gülnar; Kayikçi, Kemal
Conflict is everywhere as there are conflicts at educational organizations. One of the most affected groups from conflicts is administrators who are bridges between teachers and parents, supervisors. The aims of this study are to determine which strategies the school administrators use and how often they use these strategies and whether their…
The author conducted a qualitative case study. The population of the study consisted of 8 randomly selected school principals in the area of primary education supervisors working in Konya, a province of the Turkish Republic. Face-to-face and semistructured interviews were held with the school principals within the population for 90 min. The…
Poulsen, Michael G; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Poulsen, Emma E; Khan, Shanchita R; Poulsen, Anne A
Co-worker and supervisor support can provide knowledge, advice and expertise which may improve motivation, confidence and skills. This exploratory study aimed to examine the association of co-worker and supervisor support, and other socio-demographic and practice variables with work engagement for cancer workers. The study surveyed 573 cancer workers in Queensland (response rate 56%). Study participants completed surveys containing demographics and psychosocial questionnaires measuring work engagement, co-worker and supervisor support. Of these respondents, a total of 553 responded to the items measuring work engagement and this forms the basis for the present analyses. Oncology nurses represented the largest professional group (37%) followed by radiation therapists (22%). About 54% of the workforce was aged >35 years and 81% were female. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify explanatory variables independently associated with work engagement for cancer workers. After adjusting for the effects of other factors, co-worker and supervisor support were both significantly associated with work engagement. Having 16 years or more experience, being directly involved in patient care, having children and not being a shift worker were positively associated with work engagement. Annual absenteeism of six days or more was associated with low work engagement. The fitted model explained 23% of the total variability in work engagement. This study emphasises that health care managers need to promote co-worker and supervisor support in order to optimise work engagement with special attention to those who are not directly involved in patient care. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graham, Katrina A; Dust, Scott B; Ziegert, Jonathan C
According to interpersonal interaction theory, relational harmony surfaces when two individuals have compatible interaction styles. Building from this theory, we propose that supervisor-employee power distance orientation incompatibility will be related to employees' experience of higher levels of relationship conflict with their supervisors. Additionally, we propose an asymmetrical incongruence effect such that relationship conflict will be highest when supervisors are high in power distance and employees are low in power distance. Furthermore, we address calls in interpersonal interaction research for more direct attention to the social context of the dyadic interaction and explore the moderating effects of supervisor-employee gender (dis)similarity on the relationship between this incompatibility and conflict. We propose that supervisor-employee gender dissimilarity (e.g., male-female or female-male pairs) acts as a conditional moderator, neutralizing the power distance incongruence effect and the asymmetrical incongruence effect. Using 259 supervisor-employee dyads in the physical therapy industry, the hypotheses were generally supported. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the unique benefits of power distance compatibility and gender diversity in supervisor-employee dyads are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Hammer, Leslie B; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd E
Training supervisors to increase their family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) has demonstrated significant benefits for employee physical health, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions among employees with high levels of family-to-work conflict in prior research in a grocery store context. We replicate and extend these results in a health care setting with additional important employee outcomes (i.e., employee engagement, organizational commitment, and supervisor ratings of job performance), and consider the role of the 4 dimensions underlying the FSSB. Using a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 143 health care employees completed surveys at 2 time periods approximately 10 months apart, along with their supervisors who provided ratings of employees' job performance. Between these surveys, we offered their supervisors FSSB training; 86 (71%) of these supervisors participated. Results demonstrated significant and beneficial indirect effects of FSSB training on changes in employee job performance, organizational commitment, engagement, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions through changes in employee perceptions of their supervisor's overall FSSBs. Further analyses suggest that these indirect effects are due primarily to changes in the creative work-family management dimension of FSSB. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: According to previous researches, workers' participation in issues affecting their working condition is the key to success in ergonomics interventions in working environments. Therefore, the present study was performed to increase active particapitation of supervisors in production line and also to identify and assess ergonomics risks and presenting modification actions (Kaizen by themselves in Pars Khodro automobile manufacturing company. Methods: A manual regarding lifting objects and body postures, according to the Finish evaluation method, was provided for supervisors in production line and related trainings were presented to them. Then, they were asked to insert the results of their assessments and suggestions in special forms during one year. The presented assessments and suggestions were examined by ergonomics experts. Results: According to the assessments conducted by supervisors, 26 work stations had high ergonomics risks, 51 had ergonomics risks with an average level, and 45 had low ergonomics risks. Moreover, the number of required Kaizens presented by supervisors was increased from 18 cases in the first year to 42 cases in the second year, after implementation of ergonomics training and identifying and assessing ergonomic risks by supervisors. Conclusion: Empowering and training supervisors increased workers' participation. In case of adequate training, supervisors can present practical solutions to reduce ergonomics risks in their workstations.
Fabiana Vieira Gauy
Full Text Available Perfil dos supervisores de psicologia em Serviços-Escola Brasileiros (treino/atendimento Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever o perfil demográfico dos supervisores dos cursos de graduação em Psicologia, obtidos pelo projeto de pesquisa intitulado "Serviços-Escola de Psicologia no Brasil", que tinha entre seus objetivos a caracterização dos serviços-escola de psicologia brasileiros. A pesquisa foi disponibilizada on-line em umsite da internet específico para a pesquisa, divulgado através de vários meios de comunicação, no qual, o participante em potencial da pesquisa (supervisor, estagiário ou gestor de uma das clinica escolas de Psicologia do Brasil, depois de acessar a pagina e o seu campo específico, informava dados pessoais (sexo e idade, dados institucionais (vínculo de trabalho, tipo de instituição e localização e dados profissionais (abordagem teórica e tempo de experiência/área. Do total de 846 participantes potenciais apenas 147 eram supervisores de cursos de Psicologia que haviam completado totalmente o questionário e foram, por isso, considerados para presente análise. Os dados coletados, no período de 2008 a 2010, apontaram que a maioria dos respondentes era do sexo feminino (77,6%, tinha idade entre 38 a 45 anos (45,5%, possuía vínculo formal de trabalho (90% com instituições de ensino privado (56%, localizadas nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste (78%. A Psicanálise figurou como abordagem mais referida (24% e aqueles que referiam ter mais de 10 anos de experiência em Psicodiagnóstico/Psicoterapia (64,4%. Apesar do tamanho da amostra não ser representativa do perfil dos supervisores brasileiros, os dados obtidos forneceram informações importantes sobre o perfil dos supervisores, peça chave na formação do aluno de graduação.
Ingham, Gerard; Fry, Jennifer; O'Meara, Peter; Tourle, Vianne
In medical education, a learner-centred approach is recommended. There is also a trend towards workplace-based learning outside of the hospital setting. In Australia, this has resulted in an increased need for General Practitioner (GP) supervisors who are receptive to using adult learning principles in their teaching. Little is known about what motivates Australian GP supervisors and how they currently teach. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 20 rural GP supervisors who work within one Regional Training Provider region in Australia explored their reasons for being a supervisor and how they performed their role. Data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. GP supervisors identified both personal and professional benefits in being a supervisor, as well as some benefits for their practice. Supervision fulfilled a perceived broader responsibility to the profession and community, though they felt it had little impact on rural retention of doctors. While financial issues did not provide significant motivation to teach, the increasing financial inequity compared with providing direct patient care might impact negatively on the decision to be or to remain a supervisor in the future. The principal challenge for supervisors was finding time for teaching. Despite this, there was little evidence of supervisors adopting strategies to reduce teaching load. Teaching methods were reported in the majority to be case-based with styles extending from didactic to coach/facilitator. The two-way collegiate relationship with a registrar was valued, with supervisors taking an interest in the registrars beyond their development as a clinician. Supervisors report positively on their teaching and mentoring roles. Recruitment strategies that highlight the personal and professional benefits that supervision offers are needed. Practices need assistance to adopt models of supervision and teaching that will help supervisors productively manage the increasing
Bartter, W.D.; Siegel, A.I.; Federman, P.J.
The present report presents the results of an analysis of the jobs of maintenance mechanic supervisors and instrument and control technician supervisors in nuclear power plants. Such an analysis was considered to be a necessary step in defining the scope and focus of a model for predicting and analyzing nuclear power maintenance reliability. The model will focus upon tasks and subtasks performed by various job positions. The results of this job analysis, along with the results of a survey of user needs vis-a-vis such a model and the results of parallel analyses of the job of maintenance mechanics and of instrument and control technicians provide the sound foundation on which such a model may be built. Job analysis possesses implications for a number of purposes. It provides insight into selection standards, job structuring and organization, performance analysis, training objective establishment, and training content derivation. Accordingly, the results of the present work possess implications for a variety of interest areas relative to safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants
Lorena Pradenas Rojas
Full Text Available En este estudio se presenta un modelo matemático para un problema genérico de asignación de personal. Se implementa y evalúa un procedimiento de solución mediante la metaheurística Tabu Search. El algoritmo propuesto es usado para resolver un caso real de asignación de supervisores forestales. Los resultados muestran que el algoritmo desarrollado es eficiente en la resolución de este tipo de problema y tiene un amplio rango de aplicación para otras situaciones reales.This study presents a mathematical model for a generic problem of staff allocation. A solution is implemented and evaluated by means of the Tabu Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is used to solve a real case of forestry supervisors' allocation. The results show that the developed algorithm is efficient solving this kind of problems and that it has a wide range of application for other real situations.
Apart from theoretical knowledge, effective day-to-day radiation protection operations also require a certain measure of practical experience. Therefore, the professional degree of 'Certified Radiation Worker', issued by the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (CIC) Aachen, Germany, established at an early stage. In order to provide experienced radiation protection specialists with an attractive career path, POWERTECH TRAINING CENTER e.V., in co-operation with VGB PowerTech. e.V., the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) and the Swiss Atomic Energy Agency (ENSI), has devised a new power plant shift supervisor training course specialising in radiation protection. The vocational training degree called 'Certified Power Plant Shift Supervisor - Radiation Protection' is awarded after successful completion of the advanced training examination conducted by the CIC in Essen, Germany. (orig.)
Renner, Lynette M; Porter, Rebecca L; Preister, Steven
Increasingly, effective supervision has been found to be critical in the retention of child welfare workers. In 2006 the State of Missouri Children's Division implemented a supervisory strategic plan to concentrate on supervisory training and effectiveness, with the expectation that emphasis on supervision would improve the retention of frontline workers. Using annual responses to the survey of organizational excellence and retention data, this study examines perceptions of child welfare workers and supervisors on three workplace constructs. Analyses support hypotheses that retention of workers improved in the year following the implementation of the supervisory plan, and measures of supervisor effectiveness, team effectiveness, and job satisfaction also increased. Explanations of primary findings are provided and implications for practice and policy are discussed.
Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Saiani, Luisa
The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that are related to person-environment fit in Italian nurses, highlighting the role of supervisor support and organizational support in the relationship between nurses' perceptions of care adequacy, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Therefore, 1240 nurses from three hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that supervisor support and organizational support act differently as moderators of the care adequacy-job satisfaction-turnover intention relationship. Finally, job satisfaction was a mediating variable between care adequacy and turnover intention. These findings have important implications for hospitals because they help to promote effective work environments and to reduce turnover intention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Wilk, Steffanie L; Moynihan, Lisa M
This field study examined the effect of supervisory regulation of display rules--the rules about what kind of emotion to express on the job (R. Ekman, 1992; A. Rafaeli & R. I. Sutton, 1987)--on the emotional exhaustion of subordinates. On the basis of a sample of 940 call center employees, the authors found that worker emotional exhaustion varied across supervisors within jobs, suggesting that emotion work is influenced at the supervisory, rather than job, level. Moreover, the authors found that the importance supervisors place on interpersonal job demands of their workers was positively related to worker emotional exhaustion. Worker career identity moderated the interpersonal-job-demands--emotional-exhaustion relationship, but self-efficacy did not. Study conclusions and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Biron, Michal; Bamberger, Peter
Past research reveals inconsistent findings regarding the association between aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism, suggesting that other, contextual factors may play a role in this association. Extending contemporary models of absence, we draw from the social identity theory of attitude-behavior relations to examine how peer absence-related norms and leader support combine to explain the effect of aversive workplace conditions on absenteeism. Using a prospective design and a random sample of transit workers, we obtained results indicating that perceived job hazards and exposure to critical incidents are positively related to subsequent absenteeism, but only under conditions of more permissive peer absence norms. Moreover, this positive impact of peer norms on absenteeism is amplified among employees perceiving their supervisor to be less supportive and is attenuated to the point of nonsignificance among those viewing their supervisor as more supportive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
employees to other specialized professionals. Other types of personal issues which may adversely impact employee performance and/or conduct that would...encourages employees to live healthy lives and maintain balance in their family and worklife . It is DON policy to provide safe and comfortable work...relations practitioners also provide advice and guidance to supervisors on how to address poor performance and employee misconduct. Due to the
Olga Hadzic; Nebojsa Majstorovic; Milena Nedeljkovic
The planned downsizing in many organizations which are under the state ownership in Serbia produce a high level of uncertainty and a very specific organi-zational environment. Investigation of the satisfaction with work-related facets of the employees at the beginning of organizational changes is a very important step toward the building of an appropriate strategy for human resource management. We investigate the moderating effect of the variable “supervisor support“ on the correla-tions betw...
Full Text Available Background. Fieldwork practice forms a vital part of occupational therapy (OT education and contributes significantly to competent practice and studentsâ€™ clinical reasoning. Studentsâ€™ learning is positively or negatively influenced by their fieldwork experience. Objective. To explore the views and experiences of final-year OT students, site-based clinicians and university-based academic supervisors to identify strategies that influenced studentsâ€™ learning during fieldwork practice. Methods. This descriptive qualitative study used a purposeful sampling technique. Data collection strategies included focus group discussions with clinical and academic supervisors and semistructured interviews with final-year students. Each set of data was analysed according to the research questions. The researcher analysed the data into themes, which were corroborated by a supervisor. Data source and analyst triangulation ensured trustworthiness of the study. Results. Two themes, i.e. difficulties experienced by students during fieldwork and supervision strategies that they found beneficial for learning, are described. Guidance and mentoring from experienced therapists helped students to link observations from assessments and intervention plans. Observations of treatment sessions, peer learning and practice in the skills laboratories were beneficial for learning, competence and confidence. Guided questions from supervisors to enhance reflexive practice and peer learning strengthened the studentsâ€™ confidence and ability to give feedback to their peers. The students also benefited from sessions that allowed them the freedom and space to work autonomously. Conclusion. This study provides insight into the difficulties that students experienced when engaging with fieldwork and offers some strategies that have been found to advance their learning.
van Gijn, Jan
Most medical schools in the Netherlands have replaced 'old-fashioned' lectures by teaching in small groups. This system requires so many teachers that it largely depends on junior staff, who have no specialised knowledge of the subjects at hand but act as a supervisor while students teach each other. Oddly enough some regard this as an advantage. In general it is a shoddy substitute because teaching is an art, because students cherish proper explanations and because the students are deprived of.
Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M.; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis
Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2–4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva sa...
Ladany, Nicholas; Walker, Jessica A
The purpose of this article is to provide supervisors with a framework to determine the effectiveness of self-disclosure in supervision. We posit how self-disclosures can be both memorable to the trainee and facilitative of supervision process and outcome, specifically the supervisory working alliance, trainee disclosure, and trainee edification. Case examples based on the literature and our own personal experiences are offered to illustrate the models' applicability. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moxham, Lorna; Dwyer, Trudy; Reid-Searl, Kerry
The journey towards completion of a PhD is a bumpy one for many. One of the major factors that influence successful and on-time thesis completion is the relationship that the PhD candidate has with her or his supervisor. This paper presents results from research undertaken using a 12-item survey to collect data from a purposive sample: PhD…
Full Text Available This study aims to explore whether and in what way social support from different sources and domains makes an additional or different and independent contribution to various health and work-related outcomes. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four service companies from different industries in Switzerland. The study sample covered 5,877 employees of working age. The lack of social support from a spouse, relatives, friends, direct supervisors, closest colleagues at work and other co-workers in case of problems at work and at home were assessed and studied individually and jointly as risk factors with respect to a total number of eight outcomes. Health-related outcomes covered poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal disorders, stress feelings and burnout symptoms. Work-related outcomes included feeling overwhelmed at work, difficulty with switching off after work, job dissatisfaction and intention to turnover. Social support from multiple sources in contrast to only individual sources in both life domains was found to be more frequent in women than in men and proved to be most protective and beneficial with regard to health and well-being at work. However, after mutual adjustment of all single sources of social support from both domains, a lack of supervisor support turned out to be the only or the strongest of the few remaining support measures and statistically significant risk factors for the studied outcomes throughout and by far. Being unable to count on the support of a direct supervisor in case of problems at work and even at home was shown to involve a substantially increased risk of poor health and work-related outcomes (aOR = up to 3.8. Multiple sources of social support, and particularly supervisor support, seem to be important resources of health and well-being at work and need to be considered as key factors in workplace health promotion.
Sparr, Jennifer Linda; Sonnentag, Sabine
In a field study we examined employees fairness perceptions of supervisor feedback and their relationships with employee well-being (job depression, job anxiety, job satisfaction, turnover intentions) and perceived control at work. We hypothesized quality of leader member exchange (LMX) to partially mediate these relationships. We measured the above constructs in two different industries at two separate times over an interval of 6 months. Results from hierarchical regression analyses based...
Ding, Hao; Wang, Yong; Guo, Sini; Xu, Xiaofeng; Che, Cheng
International projects are different from general domestic ones. In order to analyse the differences, a tripartite game model is built up to describe the relationship among owner, supervisor and general contractor, and some measures are given for the owner to more effectively complete the project. In addition, a project schedule selection model is formulated and a new benefit allocation method is proposed by introducing a new modified Shapley value with weighted factor.
This study aims to explore whether and in what way social support from different sources and domains makes an additional or different and independent contribution to various health and work-related outcomes. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four service companies from different industries in Switzerland. The study sample covered 5,877 employees of working age. The lack of social support from a spouse, relatives, friends, direct supervisors, closest colleagues at work and other co-workers in case of problems at work and at home were assessed and studied individually and jointly as risk factors with respect to a total number of eight outcomes. Health-related outcomes covered poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal disorders, stress feelings and burnout symptoms. Work-related outcomes included feeling overwhelmed at work, difficulty with switching off after work, job dissatisfaction and intention to turnover. Social support from multiple sources in contrast to only individual sources in both life domains was found to be more frequent in women than in men and proved to be most protective and beneficial with regard to health and well-being at work. However, after mutual adjustment of all single sources of social support from both domains, a lack of supervisor support turned out to be the only or the strongest of the few remaining support measures and statistically significant risk factors for the studied outcomes throughout and by far. Being unable to count on the support of a direct supervisor in case of problems at work and even at home was shown to involve a substantially increased risk of poor health and work-related outcomes (aOR = up to 3.8). Multiple sources of social support, and particularly supervisor support, seem to be important resources of health and well-being at work and need to be considered as key factors in workplace health promotion.
Asadullah, Muhammad Ali; Haider, Sajid; Pablos Heredero, Carmen de; Musaddiq, Mariam
Purpose: This research intends to investigate the mediating role of helping behavior in relationship between employee ingratiation and supervisor satisfaction across high and low levels of ingratiation behavior, and answers the questions: how, when and why ingratiation is effective. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in hotel industry, and structural equation modelling was applied to analyze these data by using hypothetical-deductive approach. ...
Mackay, S.J.; Anderson, A.C.; Hogg, P.
Purpose: The standards of performance of healthcare professionals are now well defined and used to determine health professional curricula. Empirical research evidence exists in medicine and nursing which explores how well these curricula prepare their students for clinical practice but not in the radiography profession. This research aims to determine how well prepared newly qualified radiographers were for clinical practice and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their preparedness to inform curriculum development. Methods: A postal questionnaire and semi-structured interview were used to obtain data from newly qualified diagnostic radiographers and their work-based supervisors. The questionnaire assessed graduate preparedness against a number of items drawn from published documents which define UK radiographic practice. Statistical analysis, using ANOVA and Wilcoxon, examined differences between the groups' perception of preparedness. A sample of graduates and their work supervisors were interviewed to explore preparedness. Results: There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between; the preparedness scores of the graduates and supervisors, with supervisors rating the graduates higher than the graduates themselves; subscales of teamwork (p ≤ 0.05), personal attributes (p ≤ 0.05) and digital skills (p ≤ 0.01). No significant differences were found between graduates employed in their training hospital and those employed elsewhere. Interview data revealed perceived areas of graduate strength, weaknesses and areas for curriculum development. Suggestions for improvement to the methodology were identified for exploring preparedness in other health professional programmes. Conclusion: The graduates were well prepared for their role as a diagnostic radiographer. Some curriculum development is needed in specific areas and advice on methodological improvement is offered
The required training consists of 2 parts : This presentation explaining “CERN’s merit recognition system”, followed by a session of questions/answers – duration : 2 hours A training session on “How to get, as a supervisor, the most out of the annual interview” – duration : 1 day. This hands-on training focuses on how to set smart work and development objectives, how to give feedback and how to run the annual interview in a constructive way.
Norman, E J
This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.
McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie
PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332
Dupuy, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Vaujours (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [French] Le superviseur d'entree-sortie est le programme charge de gerer les echanges d'information entre la memoire rapide et les organes peripheriques d'un ordinateur. Ce travail se compose de trois parties: 1 - Etude d'un systeme d'entree-sortie general et theorique qui, en faisant un certain nombre d'hypotheses simplificatrices, permet de retrouver la plupart des superviseurs d'entree-sortie actuels. 2 - Expose d'une realisation concrete, gestion d'un tambour magnetique. 3 - Suggestions hardware en vue de faciliter le timesharing. (auteur)
Probst, Tahira M
According to national surveillance statistics, over 3 million employees are injured each year; yet, research indicates that these may be substantial underestimates of the true prevalence. The purpose of the current project was to empirically test the hypothesis that organizational safety climate and transactional supervisor safety leadership would predict the extent to which accidents go unreported by employees. Using hierarchical linear modeling and survey data collected from 1,238 employees in 33 organizations, employee-level supervisor safety enforcement behaviors (and to a less consistent extent, organizational-level safety climate) predicted employee accident underreporting. There was also a significant cross-level interaction, such that the effect of supervisor enforcement on underreporting was attenuated in organizations with a positive safety climate. These results may benefit human resources and safety professionals by pinpointing methods of increasing the accuracy of accident reporting, reducing actual safety incidents, and reducing the costs to individuals and organizations that result from underreporting. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina; Kenny, Amanda; O'Meara, Peter
We present our findings from a scoping review that sought to identify what is known about nursing and paramedic clinical supervisors' experiences of their supervision practices in rural settings. Our interest in these two groups is based on the central role that nurses and paramedics play in rural health care. Scoping reviews support identification of a broad range of literature, including all types of study designs. We adopted Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage approach: identifying the research question; identifying relevant studies; study selection; charting the data; and collating, summarising and reporting results. Databases searched included Academic Search Complete, Springer, Factiva, ProQuest, Ebsco, Informit, VOCEDplus and Scopus. Based on our research question and inclusion and exclusion criteria we selected relevant literature and summarised and reported it using Arksey and O'Malley's framework. The review yielded five articles from four countries: Sweden, Belgium, Malaysia and Australia. From this scoping review, we identified key themes related to supervisors' experiences, including clarification of expectations, support from managers and colleagues, the need for shared understanding between university, students and supervisors and required skills and competence in supervising students. © 2013.
Yarwood-Ross, Lee; Haigh, Carol
To explore the attitudes that doctoral students share with each other in an online postgraduate discussion forum. The supervisory role is pivotal to the successful completion of a PhD. Student satisfaction surveys are implemented by some universities, but there is currently no research that has investigated PhD students' experiences of supervision in the less formal environment of an online postgraduate discussion forum. Data were collected between September and December 2012 from the Postgraduate Forum, which receives posts from the global student community. The keywords used in the search were 'supervisor(s)' and 'supervision'. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. All relevant titles and posts from between January 2002 and the end of December 2012 were searched. The authors discovered five major themes: communication difficulties, control and engagement, academic bullying, lack of trust, and desertion. The relationship between students and supervisors is vital to successful PhD completion, and this study has provided some of the experiences students share with each other in an online postgraduate discussion forum. The online discussion forum provided an insight into students' perspectives of supervision but as it is asynchronous, there is limited analysis. Further research incorporating synchronous data collection methods would be helpful to examine students' experiences in greater detail. This study shows how an online postgraduate forum can be used as a source of data to gain an insight into PhD students' perspectives of supervision.
Berglund, Mia; Sjögren, Reet; Ekebergh, Margaretha
To describe the importance of supervisors working together in supporting the learning process of nurse students through reflective caring science supervision. A supervision model has been developed in order to meet the need for interweaving theory and practice. The model is characterized by learning reflection in caring science. A unique aspect of the present project was that the student groups were led by a teacher and a nurse. Data were collected through interviews with the supervisors. The analysis was performed with a phenomenological approach. The results showed that theory and practice can be made more tangible and interwoven by using two supervisors in a dual supervision. The essential structure is built on the constituents 'Reflection as Learning Support', 'Interweaving Caring Science with the Patient's Narrative', 'The Student as a Learning Subject' and 'The Learning Environment of Supervision'. The study concludes that supervision in pairs provides unique possibilities for interweaving and developing theory and practice. The supervision model offers unique opportunities for cooperation, for the development of theory and practice and for the development of the professional roll of nurses and teachers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dupuy, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Vaujours (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [French] Le superviseur d'entree-sortie est le programme charge de gerer les echanges d'information entre la memoire rapide et les organes peripheriques d'un ordinateur. Ce travail se compose de trois parties: 1 - Etude d'un systeme d'entree-sortie general et theorique qui, en faisant un certain nombre d'hypotheses simplificatrices, permet de retrouver la plupart des superviseurs d'entree-sortie actuels. 2 - Expose d'une realisation concrete, gestion d'un tambour magnetique. 3 - Suggestions hardware en vue de faciliter le timesharing. (auteur)
Full Text Available Background/Aim. The provision of safe healthcare is considered a priority in European Union (EU member states. Along with other preventative measures in healthcare, the EU also strives to eliminate the “causes of harm to human health”. The aim of this survey was to determine whether safety culture, supervisors and communication between co-workers influence the number of adverse event reports submitted to the heads of clinical departments and to the management of an institution. Methods. This survey is based on cross-sectional analysis. It was carried out in the largest Slovenian university hospital. We received 235 completed questionnaires. Respondents included professionals in the fields of nursingcare, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and radiological technology. Results. Safety culture influences the number of adverse event reports submitted to the head of a clinical department from the organizational point of view. Supervisors and communication between co-workers do not influence the number of adverse event reports. Conclusion. It can be concluded that neither supervisors nor the level of communication between co-workers influence the frequency of adverse event reporting, while safety culture does influence it from an organizational point of view. The presumed factors only partly influence the number of submitted adverse event reports, thus other causes of under-reporting must be sought elsewhere.
Bauer, Dale M.
Asserts that "Roman Fever" responds to a reactionary political climate, demonstrating an anti-reactionary thrust to Edith Wharton's fiction. Argues that Wharton deserves credit for articulating the destructive character of a cultural misogyny that led quickly to what she saw in 1933 as "a world whizzing ... crazily to the…
In this Phase I STTR, SMI and ARL have developed a Real Time Supervisor for fault detection and system reconfiguration in a team of micro UAVs, that are tasked to perform a team mission like surveillance or rendezvous...
van der Wal, M.A.; Scheele, F.; Schonrock-Adema, J.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.
Background: Within the current health care system, leadership is considered important for physicians. leadership is mostly self-taught, through observing and practicing. Does the practice environment offer residents enough opportunities to observe the supervisor leadership behaviours they have to
Berkovich, Izhak; Eyal, Ori
Social support at work is considered useful in treating job-related stress, and supervisors' emotional support has been found to be the most effective source of support at work. But an understanding of what elements make employees use supervisors as a source of emotional support is lacking. The present qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 24 teachers and 12 principals and a focus group with 12 school counsellors. The findings pointed at 2 groups of determinants of subordinates' intentions of asking socioemotional help from supervisors. The structural-organizational factors included low formalization structure, supportive and open work climate, shared goals, and manager's professional expertise; the dyadic factors included quality of relationship and demographic similarity. The determinants reflected different dimensions of psychological distance forming a close construal level that played a central part in employees' viewing the supervisor as an accessible socioemotional resource. The role of construal fit is discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The present study tested the hypothesis that participation in decision-making (PDM) and perceived effectiveness of subordinate feedback to the supervisor would contribute unique variance in the prediction of perceptions of organizational support. In ...
van der Wal, Martha A.; Scheele, Fedde; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Background: Within the current health care system, leadership is considered important for physicians. leadership is mostly self-taught, through observing and practicing. Does the practice environment offer residents enough opportunities to observe the supervisor leadership behaviours they have to
Akintola, Olagoke; Chikoko, Gamuchirai
Background Management and supervision of community health workers are factors that are?critical to the success of community health worker programmes. Yet few studies have explored the perspectives of supervisors in these programmes. This study explored factors influencing motivations of supervisors in community health worker programmes. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 programme staff providing supervision to community health workers in eight community-based organizations i...
Full Text Available Kelly J Mascioli,1 Catharine J Robertson,1,2 Alan B Douglass1,31Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry.Methods: A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests.Results: When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes.Conclusion: The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction.Keywords: medical students, clerkship, child psychiatry
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether managerial self-awareness (defined as degree of agreement between self and subordinate ratings of leaders’ behaviors mediates the relationship between supervisor burnout and supervised workgroup climate. Using an HLM approach, supervisor emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment exhibited significant indirect relationships with workplace Civility and Psychological Safety, via managerial self-awareness. No direct relationships between supervisor burnout and workgroup climate were found, suggesting that self-awareness may be an important mediator for individual characteristics of leaders previously thought to be non-significant. Additional post hoc comparisons indicated that workgroups with supervisors who over-rated their own performance behaviors reported the lowest levels of Civility and Psychological Safety compared to workgroups with supervisors who accurately rated or under-rated their own performance behaviors. However, supervisors that under-rated their own performance reported the highest levels of burnout, highlighting the importance of self-awareness (accurately rating oneself in relation to individual and group outcomes. The relationships between supervisor burnout, managerial self-awareness, and workgroup perceptions of Civility and Psychological Safety differed when considering the directionality of self-other rating agreement, with the negative impact of burnout at the supervisor level having a more direct impact on the workgroup level perceptions of Civility and Psychological Safety when the workgroup is managed by an under-rater, as opposed to an accurate- or over-rater. Practically, organizations should consider the role of managerial self-awareness in influencing subordinate performance and creating desirable work climates. Also, this study suggests the effects of burnout extend beyond the individual and have significant implications for the performance
Ali Shafiq; Anbareen Jan
This paper explored what factors Gen-Y undergraduates deem important, and how they are ranked in selecting a research supervisor. Focus group was used at the first stage to elicit factors that were important to the respondents. The second step included ranking those factors through qualitative survey. The 12 identified factors ranked in descending order of importance are: Educational qualification, experience in the field, previous encounter with the supervisor, previous projects supervised b...
Riley Simon C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been written in the educational literature on the value of communities of practise in enhancing student learning. Here, we take the experience of senior undergraduate medical students involved in short-term research as a member of a team as a paradigm for learning in a community of practise. Based on feedback from experienced supervisors, we offer recommendations for initiating students into the research culture of their team. In so doing, we endeavour to create a bridge between theory and practise through disseminating advice on good supervisory practise, where the supervisor is perceived as an educator responsible for designing the research process to optimize student learning. Methods Using the questionnaire design tool SurveyMonkey and comprehensive lists of contact details of staff who had supervised research projects at the University of Edinburgh during 1995 - 2008, current and previous supervisors were invited to recommend procedures which they had found successful in initiating students into the research culture of a team. Text responses were then coded in the form of derivative recommendations and categorized under general themes and sub-themes. Results Using the chi-square tests of linear trend and association, evidence was found for a positive trend towards more experienced supervisors offering responses (χ2 = 16.833, p 2 = 0.482, p = 0.487, n = 203, respectively. A total of 126 codes were extracted from the text responses of 65 respondents. These codes were simplified to form a complete list of 52 recommendations, which were in turn categorized under seven derivative overarching themes, the most highly represented themes being Connecting the student with others and Cultivating self-efficacy in research competence. Conclusions Through the design of a coding frame for supervisor responses, a wealth of ideas has been captured to make communities of research practise effective mediums for undergraduate
Cheung, Warren J; Dudek, Nancy L; Wood, Timothy J; Frank, Jason R
Work-based assessments (WBAs) represent an increasingly important means of reporting expert judgements of trainee competence in clinical practice. However, the quality of WBAs completed by clinical supervisors is of concern. The episodic and fragmented interaction that often occurs between supervisors and trainees has been proposed as a barrier to the completion of high-quality WBAs. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supervisor-trainee continuity on the quality of assessments documented on daily encounter cards (DECs), a common form of WBA. The relationship between trainee performance and DEC quality was also examined. Daily encounter cards representing three differing degrees of supervisor-trainee continuity (low, intermediate, high) were scored by two raters using the Completed Clinical Evaluation Report Rating (CCERR), a previously published nine-item quantitative measure of DEC quality. An analysis of variance (anova) was performed to compare mean CCERR scores among the three groups. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between resident performance and DEC quality. Differences in mean CCERR scores were observed between the three continuity groups (p = 0.02); however, the magnitude of the absolute differences was small (partial eta-squared = 0.03) and not educationally meaningful. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between resident performance and CCERR score (p < 0.001, r 2 = 0.18). This inverse relationship was observed in both groups representing on-service residents (p = 0.001, r 2 = 0.25; p = 0.04, r 2 = 0.19), but not in the Off-service group (p = 0.62, r 2 = 0.05). Supervisor-trainee continuity did not have an educationally meaningful influence on the quality of assessments documented on DECs. However, resident performance was found to affect assessor behaviours in the On-service group, whereas DEC quality remained poor regardless
Noh, Yoon Goo; Jung, Myun Sook
The purpose of this study was to analyze the paths of influence that a hospital's ethical climate exerts on nurses' organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior, with supervisor trust as the mediating factor, and verify compatibility of the models in hospital nurses. The sample consisted of 374 nurses recruited from four hospitals in 3 cities in Korea. The measurements included the Ethical Climate Questionnaire, Supervisor Trust Questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire. Ethical Climate Questionnaire consisted of 6 factors; benevolence, personal morality, company rules and procedures, laws and professional codes, self-interest and efficiency. Data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Supervisor trust was explained by benevolence and self-interest (29.8%). Organizational commitment was explained by benevolence, supervisor trust, personal morality, and rules and procedures (40.4%). Organizational citizenship behavior was explained by supervisor trust, laws and codes, and benevolence (21.8%). Findings indicate that managers need to develop a positive hospital ethical climate in order to improve nurses' trust in supervisors, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior.
Full Text Available Orientation: High turnover of information technology (IT personnel is a major problem facing many global and local organisations. An increasingly important area of turnover research of IT personnel experiencing role stress involves examining their perceptions of supervisor support. Research purpose: This study aimed to examine the effects of role-related stress and supervisor support on job satisfaction, job performance and IT turnover intentions. Motivations for the study: It is important to assess from both a theoretical and a practical perspective the extent to which turnover can be explained by relational factors such as supervisor support. Research design, approach and method: An online voluntary survey yielded a sample of 163 respondents. Six constructs were measured: turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, supervisor support, role ambiguity and role conflict. A total of 158 usable responses were subjected to descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Mediation and moderation effects were assessed using a multiple regression bootstrapping procedure. Main findings: Role ambiguity has a greater impact on job satisfaction than role conflict. Job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between role stress and turnover intention. Supervisor support mediated the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction and role stressors and job performance. There was no evidence in favour of a moderating role of supervisor support. Practical and managerial implications: Higher priority should be given to tackling role ambiguity. Supervisor support can increase job satisfaction, improve job performance and ultimately reduce turnover intentions, despite the presence of role stress. Contribution or value-add: Human resource managers and IT managers could use these results to improve job performance and staff retention.
Farr-Wharton, Rod; Brunetto, Yvonne; Shacklock, Kate
This article reports a generational cohort and leader-member exchange theoretical frameworks-guided study of the influence of the supervisor-subordinate relationship on three generational nurse cohorts' use of intuition, perceptions of empowerment and affective commitment. Within a global context of nurse shortages, knowledge about factors influencing nurse retention is urgently sought. We postulated that nurses' use of intuition is the key to their empowerment and consequent commitment to the organization, and that impact would vary among the three large nurse generations. A self-report survey was used to gather data in 2008, which were then analysed using correlations, regression analysis, manova and path analysis. Data were obtained from 900 Baby Boomer and Generations X and Y nurses, randomly chosen from seven private hospitals across Australia. The findings confirm the important impact of supervisor-nurse relationships upon all three generations' use of intuition. The findings add new knowledge about the differing importance of using intuition for Generation X, Generation Y and Baby Boomer nurses' perceptions of empowerment, suggesting it is more important to Baby Boomers and Generation X than to Generation Y. Further, the impact of using intuition differs significantly among the generational cohorts. The findings suggest the need for a more differentiated tailored style - sensitive to varying needs of the generations. Improving supervisor-nurse relationships is also critical, because of their impact upon nurses' use of intuition, perceptions of empowerment and affective commitment. Poor relationships lead to increased nurse replacement costs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
how supervision is different or similar to research. Møller Madsen and Winsløw (2009) have investigated researchers' understanding of relations between research and teaching in two disciplines: Mathematics and Physical Geography using Chevallard's anthropological theory of didactics (Chevallard 2006...... are short of empirical studies that can shed light on the relations between supervisors' conceptions of research and their approaches to supervision. This work which lies in the research-teaching nexus arena of doctoral supervision has the potential to provide new insights into supervision by identifying...
Pınar Çelik; Cengiz Gök
In recent years there has been a great increase in the number of researches dealing with trust in different disciplines. The reason of this increase is as modern societies become more and more complicated and disciplines pay more attention to reasons of human behaviour. One of the sectors that human behaviour has a vital and important role is tourism industry. Knowing the level of trust that employees have for their supervisors in tourism industry will help the enterprises to increase the l...
Cuenca, Alexander; Schmeichel, Mardi; Butler, Brandon; Dinkelman, Todd; Nichols, Joseph R,
The work of teacher education during student teaching typically takes place in two distinct “spaces”: placement sites and college/university settings. The program featured in this article is structured in ways that clearly mark out those two spaces. Yet this configuration led our university supervisors, whose work primarily took place in the field, to feel like “outsiders.” To redress this concern, a third learning space was incorporated into our student teaching seminar. We suggest that “thi...
Wisse, B.; Sleebos, E.
Previous work has focused on the potential maladaptive consequences of the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) in organizational contexts. This research builds upon this work, examining the influence of supervisor position power on the relationship between supervisor Dark Triad traits and abusive supervision in teams. Regression analysis on the data of 225 teams revealed that supervisor Machiavellianism is positively related to abusive supervisi...
Greaves, Claire E; Parker, Stacey L; Zacher, Hannes; Jimmieson, Nerina L
As longevity increases, so does the need for care of older relatives by working family members. This research examined the interactive effect of core self-evaluations and supervisor support on turnover intentions in two samples of employees with informal caregiving responsibilities. Data were obtained from 57 employees from Australia (Study 1) and 66 employees from the United States and India (Study 2). Results of Study 1 revealed a resource compensation effect, that is, an inverse relationship between core self-evaluations and turnover intentions when supervisor care support was low. Results of Study 2 extended these findings by demonstrating resource boosting effects. Specifically, there was an inverse relationship between core self-evaluations and subsequent turnover intentions for those with high supervisor work and care support. In addition, employees' satisfaction and emotional exhaustion from their work mediated the inverse relationship between core self-evaluations and subsequent turnover intentions when supervisor work support and care support were high. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of employee- and supervisor-focused intervention strategies in organizations to support informal caregivers. © The Author(s) 2016.
Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J
Many studies have found management commitment to safety to be an important construct of safety climate. This study examined the association between supervisor and employee (shared and individual) perceptions of management commitment to safety and the rate of future injuries in limited-service restaurant workers. A total of 453 participants (34 supervisors/managers and 419 employees) from 34 limited-service restaurants participated in a prospective cohort study. Employees' and managers' perceptions of management commitment to safety and demographic variables were collected at the baseline. The survey questions were made available in three languages: English, Spanish, and Portuguese. For the following 12 weeks, participants reported their injury experience and weekly work hours. A multivariate negative binomial generalized estimating equation model with compound symmetry covariance structure was used to assess the association between the rate of self-reported injuries and measures of safety perceptions. There were no significant relationships between supervisor and either individual or shared employee perceptions of management commitment to safety. Only individual employee perceptions were significantly associated with future employee injury experience but not supervisor safety perceptions or shared employee perceptions. Individual employee perception of management commitment to safety is a significant predictor for future injuries in restaurant environments. A study focusing on employee perceptions would be more predictive of injury outcomes than supervisor/manager perceptions. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koch, Anna R; Binnewies, Carmen
This multisource, multilevel study examined the importance of supervisors as work-life-friendly role models for employees' boundary management. Particularly, we tested whether supervisors' work-home segmentation behavior represents work-life-friendly role modeling for their employees. Furthermore, we tested whether work-life-friendly role modeling is positively related to employees' work-home segmentation behavior. Also, we examined whether work-life-friendly role modeling is positively related to employees' well-being in terms of feeling less exhausted and disengaged. In total, 237 employees and their 75 supervisors participated in our study. Results from hierarchical linear models revealed that supervisors who showed more segmentation behavior to separate work and home were more likely perceived as work-life-friendly role models. Employees with work-life-friendly role models were more likely to segment between work and home, and they felt less exhausted and disengaged. One may conclude that supervisors as work-life-friendly role models are highly important for employees' work-home segmentation behavior and gatekeepers to implement a work-life-friendly organizational culture. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
This document provides instructional materials for an eight-hour training course for managers and supervisors of hazardous waste sites. It is one of three volumes of course materials TRADE is preparing to help DOE contractor training staff comply with 29 CFR 1910.120, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) rule that implements Title I of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. OSHA`s final rule for hazardous waste operators was published in the Federal Register of March 6, 1989 (54 FR 9294). Combined with the materials in Volumes I and III and with appropriate site-specific information, these materials will help DOE contractors to meet the requirements of 1910.120 (e) that ``on-site management and supervisors directly responsible for, or who supervise employees engaged in, hazardous waste operations`` receive the same initial training as that of the employees they supervise and at least eight additional hours of specialized training in managing hazardous waste operations.
Full Text Available Limited adoption of mobile technology for informal learning and continuing professional development within Australian healthcare environments has been explained primarily as an issue of insufficient digital and ehealth literacy of healthcare professionals. This study explores nurse supervisors’ use of mobile technology for informal learning and continuing professional development both for their own professional practice, and in their role in modelling digital knowledge transfer, by facilitating the learning and teaching of nursing students in the workplace. A convenience sample of 27 nurse supervisors involved with guiding and supporting undergraduate nurses participated in one of six focus groups held in two states of Australia. Expanding knowledge emerged as the key theme of importance to this group of clinicians. Although nurse supervisors regularly browsed Internet sources for learning and teaching purposes, a mixed understanding of the mobile learning activities that could be included as informal learning or part of formal continuing professional development was detected. Participants need educational preparation and access to mobile learning opportunities to improve and maintain their digital and ehealth literacy to appropriately model digital professionalism with students. Implementation of mobile learning at point of care to enable digital knowledge transfer, augment informal learning for students and patients, and support continuing professional development opportunities is necessary. Embedding digital and ehealth literacy within nursing curricula will promote mobile learning as a legitimate nursing function and advance nursing practice.
Schell, Stacey L; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Pogrebtsova, Ekaterina
This study evaluated a new online training program, Safe Sibs, aimed at improving supervision knowledge and behaviors of sibling supervisors. Participants included older children (7-11 years) and their younger siblings (2-5 years). A randomized controlled trial design was used, with older siblings randomly assigned to either an intervention or wait-list control group. Before and after either the intervention or wait-list period, older siblings completed measures of supervision knowledge and their supervision behaviors were unobtrusively observed when with their younger sibling. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvements in supervision knowledge (child development, knowledge of effective supervision practices, injury beliefs, intervention-specific knowledge) and in some aspects of supervision behavior (frequency of proactive safety behaviors to prevent supervisee access to injury hazards). Although adult supervision is ideal, this new program can support older children to become more knowledgeable and improved supervisors of younger ones. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Carmem Cemires Cavalcante Costa
Full Text Available Estudio de carácter cualitativo, cuyo objetivo fue analizar desde la óptica de los enfermeros supervisores, el Curso Técnico de Enfermería de la Escuela de Salud Pública de Ceará, realizado en el ámbito del Proyecto de Profesionalización de los Trabajadores del Área de Enfermería, para conocer los puntos fuertes y las dificultades enfrentadas. Se organizó un grupo focal con 10 supervisores del curso, en febrero de 2007. El análisis de contenido de las declaraciones evidenció que el curso posibilitó el desarrollo de competencias para el técnico de enfermería. Entre los puntos positivos, se destacaron: la utilización de la metodología de la Problematización y la calidad del material didáctico. Las dificultades indicadas se refieren a la logística del curso, resaltando el escaso apoyo de la gestión municipal y la limitación de los campos de prácticas. Se concluye, por lo tanto, que esta estrategia educacional debe ser colocada en la pauta de la educación permanente, como forma efectiva de propiciar la reflexión y cambios significativos en los procesos de trabajo en salud.
Misumi, Jyuji; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Michio; Misumi, Emiko; Tokudome, Eiji.
This study examined the relationship between employee's safety consciousness, morale, and supervisor's leadership using multiple regression analysis. Respondents were 2152 male employees who were working at nuclear power plants (operation division, maintenance division, and joint companies). Main results were as follows. (1) Individual morale variables, such as 'work motivation' and 'mental hygine', were correlated with leadership M behavior rather than with P behavior. On the other hand, group morale variables, such as 'teamwork' and 'meeting quality', were correlated with both P and M behavior. These results shows P and M leadership affect the employee's morale. (2) With regard to safety consciousness variables, 'communication' and 'work place norm' to ensure safety were strongly correlated to leadership both P and M behavior. However, neither 'sense of tension to ensure safety' nor 'experiencing cold shiver' were related to leadership P or M behavior. It was suggested that practices for accidents prevention in workplace are related to supervisor's P and M leadership behavior. (3) 'Sense of tension' to ensure safety and 'experiencing cold shiver' were negatively correlated with 'mental hygine', but positively correlated with 'work motivation'. These results suggest that increase of the work motivation might improve employee's awareness and ability for detecting human errors. (author)
Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis
Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2-4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva samples throughout the day that were assayed for cortisol. Results indicated a high degree of day-to-day fluctuation in work-to-family conflict, with employed parents having greater negative affect and poorer cortisol regulation on days with higher work-to-family conflict compared to days when they experience lower work-to-family conflict. These associations were buffered, however, when individuals had supervisors who offered support. Discussion centers on the use of dynamic assessments of work-to-family conflict and employee well-being.
Haring, Catharina M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Postma, Cornelis T
Performance of a focused physical examination will induce a high cognitive load for medical students in the early phase of the clinical clerkships. To come to a workable and clinically applicable standard physical examination for medical students to be used in every new patient in the daily clinical practice of internal medicine. A questionnaire held among physicians that supervise students during the clerkship of internal medicine in one Dutch training region. Of the complete list of physical examination 55 items were considered to be an integral part of the standard general physical examination for medical students. Most emphasized were elements of the physical examination aimed at general parameters, thorax and abdomen, vascular status, lymph nodes, spinal column, skin and some parts of the neurological examination. The standard physical examinations performed by supervisors themselves contain fewer items than they expected from the students. The expectations a supervisor has towards the student correlates with the frequency with which they apply the various components in their own physical examination. This study provides us with a 'core' physical examination for medical students that can be applied in the early phase of the clinical clerkships.
del Barrio-Linares, M; Pumar-Méndez, M J
With the aim of contributing to the development of a more specific professional regulation, the present study was to identify differences and similarities between the competencies of the nursing supervisor and clinical nurse specialist in an intensive care unit. A critical analysis of the literature published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted, identified through systematic searches in electronic databases, health management and practitioner journals and reference lists of the 17 items included. «Management and administration» and «direct clinical practice» were identified as specific competencies of nursing supervisor and clinical nurse specialist respectively. «Collaboration», «leadership» and «research» emerged as competencies shared by both profiles, but with different a operationalization way of conducting it. These findings imply that regulation, education and implementation of these profiles must address their specific skills as the distinctive approach taken in operationalizing shared. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Pflanz, Steven E; Ogle, Alan D
Recent studies have identified high levels of job stress in military personnel. This study examined the relationship among job stress, depression, work performance, types of stressors, and perceptions about supervisors in military personnel. Eight hundred nine military personnel answered a 43-item survey on work stress, physical and emotional health, work performance, perceptions about leadership, job stressors, and demographics. More than one- quarter (27.4%) of this military population reported suffering from significant job stress. Both the report of work stress and depression were significantly related to impaired work performance, more days of missed work, poorer physical health, and negative perceptions about the abilities of supervisors and commanders. Depression and job stress were significantly and positively related to each other. These results support accumulating data indicating that work stress is a significant occupational health hazard in the routine military work environment. Targeting and eliminating sources of job stress should be a priority for the U.S. military to preserve and protect the mental health of military personnel.
Full Text Available The planned downsizing in many organizations which are under the state ownership in Serbia produce a high level of uncertainty and a very specific organi-zational environment. Investigation of the satisfaction with work-related facets of the employees at the beginning of organizational changes is a very important step toward the building of an appropriate strategy for human resource management. We investigate the moderating effect of the variable “supervisor support“ on the correla-tions between variables “Big Five personality traits of employees” and “satisfaction with work-related facets”.Sample consists of 117 employees from a big state owned organization during an important organizational change. The following instruments are used: Big Five Locator - BFL, Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire - CSQ and Job Satisfac-tion Questionnaire - JS.Our results prove that the variable “supervisor support” moderate the correlati-ons between variable “personality trait conscientiousness” and variables “satisfacti-on with pay” and “satisfaction with benefit”; the correlation between variable “personality trait openness” and variable “satisfaction with pay”; the correlations between variable “personality trait negative affectivity” and variables ”satisfaction with pay”, “satisfaction with benefit”, and “satisfaction with recognition”.
Wu, Hao; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E
The aim of this study was to study the effects of overall well-being and well-being change on six supervisor-rated indicators of employee performance valued by organizations: overall performance, accountability, customer service, innovation, prosocial behavior, and self-development. The current study used two waves of well-being survey data collected over 2 years and supervisor performance ratings for 5691 employees. Ordinary least squares regression was conducted. Both well-being at baseline and two-year change in well-being were related to all six supervisor-rated performance dimensions, controlling for other employee characteristics. Overall well-being likely functioned as a resource enabling people to successfully perform across the specific areas highly valued by their company. Given this connection, well-being interventions could be used as a means to accomplish improved performance in dimensions that contribute to organizational performance.
Giroldi, Esther; Veldhuijzen, Wemke; Geelen, Kristel; Muris, Jean; Bareman, Frits; Bueving, Herman; van der Weijden, Trudy; van der Vleuten, Cees
To inform the development of recommendations to facilitate learning of skilled doctor-patient communication in the workplace, this qualitative study explores experiences of trainees and supervisors regarding how trainees learn communication and how supervisors support trainees' learning in the workplace. We conducted a qualitative study in a general practice training setting, triangulating various sources of data to obtain a rich understanding of trainees and supervisors' experiences: three focus group discussions, five discussions during training sessions and five individual interviews. Thematic network analysis was performed during an iterative process of data collection and analysis. We identified a communication learning cycle consisting of six phases: impactful experience, change in frame of reference, identification of communication strategies, experimentation with strategies, evaluation of strategies and incorporation into personal repertoire. Supervisors supported trainees throughout this process by creating challenges, confronting trainees with their behaviour and helping them reflect on its underlying mechanisms, exploring and demonstrating communication strategies, giving concrete practice assignments, creating safety, exploring the effect of strategies and facilitating repeated practice and reflection. Based on the experiences of trainees and supervisors, we conclude that skilled communication involves the development of a personal communication repertoire from which learners are able to apply strategies that fit the context and their personal style. After further validation of our findings, it may be recommended to give learners concrete examples, opportunities for repeated practise and reflection on personal frames of reference and the effect of strategies, as well as space for authenticity and flexibility. In the workplace, the clinical supervisor is able to facilitate all these essential conditions to support his/her trainee in becoming a skilled
Milne, Lisa; Caldicott, Julia
Assessment in work integrated learning (WIL) programs typically involves workplace supervisors rating student performance against criteria based on employability skills. Yet investigations of differences in employer ratings that may impact on student outcomes are rare. This paper reports on a pilot study that examined supervisor evaluations of the…
Crockett, Stephanie; Hays, Danica G.
We developed and tested a mediation model depicting relationships among supervisor multicultural competence, the supervisory working alliance, supervisee counseling self-efficacy, and supervisee satisfaction with supervision. Results of structural equation modeling showed that supervisor multicultural competence was related to the supervisory…
Ketelaar, S. M.; Schaafsma, F. G.; Geldof, M. F.; Kraaijeveld, R. A.; Boot, C. R. L.; Shaw, W. S.; Bultmann, U.; Anema, J. R.
Purpose To study the effectiveness of a multifaceted strategy to implement the participatory approach (PA) for supervisors to increase their self-efficacy in addressing risk of sick leave of employees. Methods Supervisors from three organizations were invited to participate. Randomization was
Van Winkle, Barbara; Allen, Stuart; DeVore, Douglas; Winston, Bruce
The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship between followers' perceptions of the servant leadership of their immediate supervisor and followers' sense of empowerment in the context of small businesses. A quantitative survey was completed by 116 employees of small businesses, including measures of supervisors' servant leadership…
Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh
This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…
Delman, Jonathan; Klodnick, Vanessa V
Peer providers are a promising practice for transition-age youth community mental health treatment engagement and support, yet little is known about the experience of being a young adult peer provider or what helps to make an individual in this role successful. Utilizing a capital theory lens, this study uses data from focus groups (two with young adult peer providers and two with their supervisors) to examine facilitators of young adult peer provider success in community mental health treatment settings. Eight factors were identified as critical to young adult peer provider on-the-job success: persistence, job confidence, resilience, job training, skilled communications with colleagues, regular and individualized supervision, support from colleagues, and family support. Findings suggest that young adult peer providers may benefit immensely from an agency level focus on fostering social organizational capital as well as more individualized efforts to increase cultural, social, and psychological capital through training and supervision.
Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue determinar la función del supervisor educativo en la seguridad social del docente en las Escuelas Básicas del Municipio Jesús Enrique Lossada y San Francisco del estado Zulia. Las teorías fueron: Genio (2000, Pozner (2000 y Lares (2005 entre otros. La investigación fue descriptiva, de campo, no experimental y transeccional-descriptiva. La población fue de1.975 sujetos. Recolectándoselos datos mediante la encuesta, analizándose los datos por la estadística descriptiva. Concluyéndose, que las variables pueden mejorarse para lograr la calidad educativa, de vida y estabilidad de los docentes, recomendándose implementar estrategias de control y seguimiento dentro de la función supervisora.
Sordi, G.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/C Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sahyun, A., E-mail: email@example.com [ABENDI - Associacao Brasileira de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos e Inspecao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andreucci, R., E-mail: zzricardo.zzandreucci@Voith.co [Voith Hydro Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, P.G. [Multiend Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
The authors of this paper, has introduced an industrial training program for the R.P.E - Radiation Protection Expert to comply with contents of CNEN Standard NN 3.01 'Basic Guideline of Radiation Protection'. The 'training program' has been divided in four steps, based on: professional R.P.E work, knowledge level to perform his activities, education program and detailed basic bibliography. In the last congress we have presented a paper about the content of radiation protection training program. In this paper we will discuss the abilities that the supervisor need to obtain to perform the radiation protection report. We discuss the number of abilities for each one of the disciplines mentioned in the last paper and we provide some particular abilities. (author)
Khosravi, Yahya; Asilian-Mahabadi, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hassanzadeh-Rangi, Narmin; Bastani, Hamid; Khavanin, Ali; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher
There can be little doubt that the construction is the most hazardous industry in the worldwide. This study was designed to modeling the factors affecting unsafe behavior from the perspective of safety supervisors. The qualitative research was conducted to extract a conceptual model. A structural model was then developed based on a questionnaire survey (n=266) by two stage Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach. An excellent confirmed 12-factors structure explained about 62% of variances unsafe behavior in the construction industry. A good fit structural model indicated that safety climate factors were positively correlated with safety individual factors (Pconstruction workers' engagement in safe or unsafe behavior. In order to improve construction safety performance, more focus on the workplace condition is required.
Thomson, Jennifer S; Anderson, Katrina J; Mara, Paul R; Stevenson, Alexander D
This article explores various models and ideas for future sustainable general practice vocational training supervision in Australia. The general practitioner supervisor in the clinical practice setting is currently central to training the future general practice workforce. Finding ways to recruit, retain and motivate both new and experienced GP teachers is discussed, as is the creation of career paths for such teachers. Some of the newer methods of practice-based teaching are considered for further development, including vertically integrated teaching, e-learning, wave consulting and teaching on the run, teaching teams and remote teaching. Approaches to supporting and resourcing teaching and the required infrastructure are also considered. Further research into sustaining the practice-based general practice supervision model will be required.
Full Text Available Orientation: Currently there is much debate whether modifying traditional reward packages to focus on the preferences of multi-generations would be essential in attracting, motivating and retaining talent. Total reward factors, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support are distinct but related concepts, all of which appear to influence an employee’s decision to stay at an organisation. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the different total reward components that multi-generations prefer as most important for retention. In essence, the study aims to establish possible relationships between multi-generations’ total reward components, perceived organisational support, and perceived supervisor support. Motivation for the study: This study is useful as it conducts a contemporary retention exploration that considers both the emerging demographic workforce shift and the new paradigm shift towards talent management. Research methodology: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was applied to gather data from employees (N = 303 from different industry sectors in South African organisations. Main findings: The results showed that performance management and remuneration are considered to be the most important retention factors amongst multi-generation groups. Differences between total reward preferences and demographical variables, which include age, gender, race, industry and job level, were found. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should design their reward packages by taking employees preferences into account. More specifically, organisations should focus on remuneration, performance management and development opportunities in order to retain scarce skills. Contribution/value additions: The results of the study can assist managers to design effective retention strategies, whilst also providing crucial information for the retention and motivation of employees.
Lord, Ramo J.
This study focused on front-line supervisors in a union shop, steel-production plant and how they learn to successfully negotiate their role with in the corporation's division of labor. Negotiating their role means continued practice in how issues of standpoint, agency, power, oppression, habits, knowledge, related business concerns, mediating…
Wouda, Jan C.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.
Objectives: To determine the effects of residents' communication self-assessment and supervisor feedback on residents' communication-competency awareness, on their patient-education competency, and on their patients' opinion. Methods: The program consisted of the implementation of a communication
Kissil, Karni; Davey, Maureen; Davey, Adam
The authors examined the associations between acculturation, supervisors' multicultural competence, and clinicians' self-efficacy in a sample of 153 immigrant therapists currently practicing in the United States. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and 3 additional questionnaires that examined their levels of…
Publishing English papers in journals listed in Science Citation Index (SCI) has become a requirement for degree conferment for doctoral science students at many universities in China. The publication requirement engenders high pressure for doctoral students and their supervisors and shapes the politics of the relationship between the two parties.…
Schwartz, Catherine; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Poling, Lisa; Richardson, Kerri; Polly, Drew
This research explores the frequency and nature of mathematics-specific feedback given to elementary student teachers by university supervisors across a collection of post-lesson observation forms. Approximately one-third of the forms (n = 250) analysed from five large universities had no comments related to mathematics. Forms that did have…
Wheeless, Lawrence R.; Reichel, Lisa S.
Investigates the relationship between general styles of communicating and more situation-specific conflict management styles. Finds substantial relationships between general communication styles and conflict management styles, as well as very substantial relationships between the style constructs and task attraction of supervisors. (SR)
Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A
In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance.
Uzun, Tevfik; Ozdem, Güven
The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' perceptions of supervisor support and job performances and the mediating role of job satisfaction in this relationship. The study group consists of 206 teachers working in the public high schools in the Giresun province centre during the 2016-2017 academic year. The…
This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is designed to prepare them for the more detailed units in this series, including those on food and beverage control, production, and provision. The document begins with advice on how to use the unit. Three sections cover the following topics: (1)…
This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is intended to consolidate work covered in a 1-day course. The document begins with an introduction and advice on how to use the unit. The following topics are covered in the unit: (1) planning the menu; (2) food production systems; (3) kitchen…
This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is intended to consolidate work covered in a 1-day course. The unit covers the essential elements in the final stage of supplying food and drink--the point at which these items are served and sold to the customer. The document begins with an…
This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is intended to consolidate work covered in a 1-day course. The unit covers the key management functions needed to implement an effective purchasing and supply policy. The document begins with an introduction and advice on how to use the unit. The…
Miao, Qing; Newman, Alexander; Schwarz, Gary; Xu, Lin
The present study examines whether participative leadership engenders organizational commitment among Chinese civil servants, and analyzes the mechanisms by which it transmits its effects. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling revealed that there was a significant relationship between supervisor-level participative leadership and the affective and normative commitment of subordinates, but no relationship with continuance commitment. Affective trust was identified as th...
Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.
Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943
Mosher, G A; Keren, N; Freeman, S A; Hurburgh, C R
The safety climate of an agricultural workplace may be affected by several things, including the level of trust that workers have in their work group supervisor and organizational management. Safety climate has been used by previous safety researchers as a measure of worker perceptions of the relative importance of safety as compared with other operational goals. Trust has been linked to several positive safety outcomes, particularly in hazardous work environments, but has not been examined relative to safety climate in the perennially hazardous work environment of a commercial grain elevator. In this study, 177 workers at three Midwest grain elevator companies completed online surveys measuring their perceptions of trust and safety at two administrative levels: organizational management and work group supervisors. Positive and significant relationships were noted between trust and safety climate perceptions for organizational managers and for work group supervisors. Results from this research suggest that worker trust in organizational management and work group supervisors has a positive influence on the employees' perceptions of safety climate at the organizational and work group levels in an agricultural workplace.
PhD supervision is crucial for higher degree research students in western academic contexts. Despite an increasing body of literature regarding the international student-supervisor relationship, Thai students in Australian higher education are under-represented. This qualitative study aims to explore discursive practices that impact on Thai…
Full Text Available Nonnative English-speaking scholars and trainees are increasingly submitting their work to English journals. The study’s aim was to describe their experiences regarding scientific writing in English using a qualitative phenomenographic approach. Two focus groups (5 doctoral supervisors and 13 students were conducted. Participants were nonnative English-speakers in a Swedish health sciences faculty. Group discussion focused on scientific writing in English, specifically, rewards, challenges, facilitators, and barriers. Participants were asked about their needs for related educational supports. Inductive phenomenographic analysis included extraction of referential (phenomenon as a whole and structural (phenomenon parts aspects of the transcription data. Doctoral supervisors and students viewed English scientific writing as challenging but worthwhile. Both groups viewed mastering English scientific writing as necessary but each struggles with the process differently. Supervisors viewed it as a long-term professional responsibility (generating knowledge, networking, and promotion eligibility. Alternatively, doctoral students viewed its importance in the short term (learning publication skills. Both groups acknowledged they would benefit from personalized feedback on writing style/format, but in distinct ways. Nonnative English-speaking doctoral supervisors and students in Sweden may benefit from on-going writing educational supports. Editors/reviewers need to increase awareness of the challenges of international contributors and maximize the formative constructiveness of their reviews.
Presentation of subjects taught, curricula, educational objectives of training courses for shift supervisors in nuclear power plants. The curricula for nuclear engineering fundamentals include subjects such as nuclear physics, reactor physics, reactor safety, radiation protection, legal provisions, job safety, reactor technology, applied thermohydraulics and thermodynamics, materials. (HAG) [de
Akintola, Olagoke; Chikoko, Gamuchirai
Management and supervision of community health workers are factors that are critical to the success of community health worker programmes. Yet few studies have explored the perspectives of supervisors in these programmes. This study explored factors influencing motivations of supervisors in community health worker programmes. We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 programme staff providing supervision to community health workers in eight community-based organizations in marginalized communities in the greater Durban area of South Africa from July 2010 to September 2011. Findings show that all the supervisors had previous experience working in the health or social services sectors and most started out as unpaid community health workers. Most of the participants were poor women from marginalized communities. Supervisors' activities include the management and supply of material resources, mentoring and training of community health workers, record keeping and report writing. Supervisors were motivated by intrinsic factors like making a difference and community appreciation and non-monetary incentives such as promotion to supervisory positions; acquisition of management skills; participation in capacity building and the development of programmes; and support for educational advancement like salary, bonuses and medical benefits. Hygiene factors that serve to prevent dissatisfaction are salaries and financial, medical and educational benefits attached to the supervisory position. Demotivating factors identified are patients' non-adherence to health advice and alienation from decision-making. Dissatisfiers include working in crime-prevalent communities, remuneration for community health workers (CHWs), problems with material and logistical resources, job insecurity, work-related stressors and navigating the interface between CHWs and management. While participants were dissatisfied with their low remuneration, they were not demotivated but continued to be motivated
Fröberg, Maria; Leanderson, Charlotte; Fläckman, Birgitta; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Björklund, Karin; Nilsson, Gunnar H.; Stenfors, Terese
Objective To explore how a student-run clinic (SRC) in primary health care (PHC) was perceived by students, patients and supervisors. Design A mixed methods study. Clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES + T) assessed student satisfaction. Client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) assessed patient satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with supervisors. Setting Gustavsberg PHC Center, Stockholm County, Sweden. Subjects Students in medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology and their patients filled in questionnaires. Supervisors in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy were interviewed. Main outcome measures Mean values and medians of CLES + T and CSQ-8 were calculated. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Results A majority of 199 out of 227 student respondents reported satisfaction with the pedagogical atmosphere and the supervisory relationship. Most of the 938 patient respondents reported satisfaction with the care given. Interviews with 35 supervisors showed that the organization of the SRC provided time and support to focus on the tutorial assignment. Also, the pedagogical role became more visible and targeted toward the student’s individual needs. However, balancing the student’s level of autonomy and the own control over care was described as a challenge. Many expressed the need for further pedagogical education. Conclusions High student and patient satisfaction reported from five disciplines indicate that a SRC in PHC can be adapted for heterogeneous student groups. Supervisors experienced that the SRC facilitated and clarified their pedagogical role. Simultaneously their need for continuous pedagogical education was highlighted. The SRC model has the potential to enhance student-centered tuition in PHC. Key Points Knowledge of student-run clinics (SRCs) as learning environments within standard primary health care (PHC) is limited. We report
Fröberg, Maria; Leanderson, Charlotte; Fläckman, Birgitta; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Björklund, Karin; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Stenfors, Terese
To explore how a student-run clinic (SRC) in primary health care (PHC) was perceived by students, patients and supervisors. A mixed methods study. Clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher evaluation scale (CLES + T) assessed student satisfaction. Client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) assessed patient satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with supervisors. Gustavsberg PHC Center, Stockholm County, Sweden. Students in medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology and their patients filled in questionnaires. Supervisors in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy were interviewed. Mean values and medians of CLES + T and CSQ-8 were calculated. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. A majority of 199 out of 227 student respondents reported satisfaction with the pedagogical atmosphere and the supervisory relationship. Most of the 938 patient respondents reported satisfaction with the care given. Interviews with 35 supervisors showed that the organization of the SRC provided time and support to focus on the tutorial assignment. Also, the pedagogical role became more visible and targeted toward the student's individual needs. However, balancing the student's level of autonomy and the own control over care was described as a challenge. Many expressed the need for further pedagogical education. High student and patient satisfaction reported from five disciplines indicate that a SRC in PHC can be adapted for heterogeneous student groups. Supervisors experienced that the SRC facilitated and clarified their pedagogical role. Simultaneously their need for continuous pedagogical education was highlighted. The SRC model has the potential to enhance student-centered tuition in PHC. Key Points Knowledge of student-run clinics (SRCs) as learning environments within standard primary health care (PHC) is limited. We report experiences from the perspectives of students, their patients and supervisors
Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne
Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors' self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. The Scientific Ethical Committee for the Capital Region of Denmark. Number: H-3-2010-101, date: 2010.09.29.
Spector, June T; Reul, Nicholas K
Purpose Supervisors in the healthcare sector have the potential to contribute to disability prevention in injured employees. Published data on the evaluation of return to work (RTW) interventions aimed at direct supervisors are scarce. We sought to determine the effect of a brief audiovisual supervisor training module on supervisor RTW attitudes and knowledge. Methods A parallel-group study, using equal randomization, comparing the training module intervention to usual practice in healthcare supervisors at a quaternary care hospital was conducted. Differences between groups in changes in RTW attitude and knowledge survey question scores between baseline and 3 months were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Benjamini-Hochberg-Yekutieli procedure was used to control for false discovery rate and generate adjusted p values. Results Forty supervisors were allocated to the intervention group and 41 to the usual practice group. Attitude and knowledge scores for most questions improved between baseline and immediately after intervention administration. Comparing intervention (n = 33) and usual practice groups (n = 37), there was a trend toward greater increase between baseline and 3 months follow-up in agreement that the supervisor can manage the RTW process (U = 515, adjusted p value = 0.074) and in confidence that the supervisor can answer employees' questions (U = 514, adjusted p value = 0.074) in the intervention group, although these findings were not statistically significant. Conclusions The training intervention may have provided the initial tools for supervisors to navigate the RTW process in collaboration with others in the RTW community of practice. A larger study with longer follow-up is needed to confirm results.
Aro, Ilari; Koizumi, Hiroyoshi; Manzella, Pietro
The CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries In 1996, members of WGIP discussed various ways in which regulatory inspectors look at and evaluate how licenses are given to control room operators and shift supervisors in the Member countries. As a result of these discussions it was proposed to put together a short comparison report on this issue. The CNRA approved work on this at its annual meeting that year. This CNRA/WGIP study concentrates on the regulatory inspection of control room operator competence and authorisation. As noted in the text, fourteen Member countries supplied input by responding to the questionnaire. This report presents a comparison of inspection practices in participating OECD countries relating to control room operator and shift supervisor licenses. The report has been derived from answers to a questionnaire on the basis of guidance given in Appendix 1.1 with the detailed answers being given in Appendix 1. Key questions for this comparison were 'What are the regulatory or licensee requirements for holding and up-keeping a license or authorisation' and 'How does the regulatory body inspect the training and competence of shift teams and individual operators'. The main conclusion from the comparison is that the general practice within the participating countries for ensuring the competence of operators is broadly similar although regulatory practices differ markedly. For example, the regulatory bodies in some countries are actively involved in the examination and licensing process of individual operators whereas other regulatory bodies
Martínez Marín, María Enriqueta
En la presente investigación se analizó la influencia de la capacitación en el liderazgo de supervisores para la motivación de logro de su personal a cargo. Participaron 30 supervisores y 160 de personal operativo, de ambos géneros, personal de una empresa de servicios. Mediante selección aleatoria se dividió en dos grupos a los supervisores y se determinó como grupo A al que recibió capacitación en liderazgo y como grupo B al que recibió capacitación en seguridad ...
Davis, Kierrynn; Brownie, Sonya; Doran, Frances; Evans, Sue; Hutchinson, Marie; Mozolic-Staunton, Beth; Provost, Stephen; van Aken, Rosalie
The worldwide academic workforce is ageing. At the same time, health and human services workforces are expanding. The preparation of educators to fill gaps in expertise and to position the health sciences for future growth is an urgent need. The findings from a recent action learning project that aimed to enhance the professional growth and development of higher degree researcher student supervisors in a School of Health and Human Sciences are presented. Seven early career researchers and the facilitator met for two hours every two to three weeks over 4 months between April and July 2010, in a rural and regional university in New South Wales, Australia. The processes initiated were a combination of experiential knowledge, referral to relevant published reports, use of an effective supervision checklist, and critical conversations. Learning outcomes centered on higher degree management and supervision pedagogy, communities of practice, knowledge translation, and the establishment of a research culture. The contextual barriers and implications of the methodology and learning outcomes for the professional development of health and human science practitioners, researchers and educators is also discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Brunetto, Yvonne; Shacklock, Kate; Teo, Stephen; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Nelson, Silvia
To examine the relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX), workplace learning options (teamwork, training and development), empowerment and organisational commitment, for nurses in Australia, England and Brazil. The supervisor-employee relationship is fundamental to management theory and practice within the work context of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Survey-based, self-report data were collected from 1350 nurses in 23 acute-care hospitals during 2011. Significant relationships were found between key Social Exchange Theory antecedents (LMX and teamwork) and outcomes (organisational commitment) for nurses in Australia and England, but not in Brazil. As expected, the path between teamwork and organisational commitment was significant in the three countries. The findings affirm the importance of LMX as a management tool affecting employee outcomes in OECD countries. In contrast, LMX cannot be assumed to play an important role within a context that operates a dual employment structure coupled with a culture accepting of 'Jeitinho' workplace relationships. Informal workplace relationships - 'Jeitinho' (similar to the Chinese 'guanxi') may be worthy of examination within BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries such as Brazil. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
José María Armingol
Full Text Available Traffic accidents are still one of the main health problems in the World. A number of measures have been applied in order to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities in roads, i.e., implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS based on image processing. In this paper, a real time speed supervisor based on road sign recognition that can work both in urban and non-urban environments is presented. The system is able to recognize 135 road signs, belonging to the danger, yield, prohibition obligation and indication types, and sends warning messages to the driver upon the combination of two pieces of information: the current speed of the car and the road sign symbol. The core of this paper is the comparison between the two main methods which have been traditionally used for detection and recognition of road signs: template matching (TM and neural networks (NN. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches will be shown and commented. Additionally we will show how the use of well-known algorithms to avoid illumination issues reduces the amount of images needed to train a neural network.
Full Text Available Sometimes the different versions of a story should not be reduced to a single "truth," although it is often the role of researchers to do just that. Duoethnography is a methodology that allows multiple views of the same event(s to be examined, each from within its own context, without the expectation of a final resolution. In this article we use a duoethnographical approach to explore the supervisor-doctoral student dynamic that occurred during the production of a creative thesis from within a science-focused faculty. We experiment with the idea that duoethnography can assist us to negotiate the power relations of pedagogy in telling the story of our relationship, without the need to privilege one voice over another. The article has a dual focus: to inform supervision practices, and to show how we went about the process of "doing" duoethnography. It is (represented as a series of conversations, (reconstituted from many messy interactions that took place over a period of three months in 2012. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501153
Jesús H. Montes de Oca
Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" in competence assertive communication skills and teamwork. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pre-test - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors of a private company, 13 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. A type of purposive sample was used. The results suggest a positive impact of the program to significantly increase competition achievement assertive communication (U = 3.5, Z = 4.58, *** P <.000, just as in effective dialogue dimensions (U = 8.0, feedback (U = 10.0, conflict resolution (U= 7.0 and non-verbal communication (U = 4.0, the skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were effective dialogue and nonverbal communication. In the other, the increase was lower. Regarding competition teamwork (U = 0.00, Z = 4.837, *** P <.000, just as in the dimensions (U = 9.0, Goal Achievement (U = 15.0, democratic environment (U= 12.0 and decision making (U = 7.0. The skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were the subject property, democratic environment and goal achievement. Minor increase in decision-making for managing consensus.
Lu, Hui; Chen, Hong; Du, Wei; Long, Ruyin
Ethical culture construction is beneficial to maximize policy following behavior (PFB) and avoid accidents of coal miners in an economic downturn. This paper examines the congruence between coal mine ethical culture values (ECVs) and miners' moral values (MVs) and the relationship with PFB. To shed light on this relationship, supervisor moral values (SMVs) act as a key moderator. We build on the initial structure of values to measure ECVs, MVs, and SMVs. At the same time, available congruence was defined to describe the relationship between the two values. Drawing upon a survey of 267 miners in Chinese large state-owned coal mining enterprises, results revealed that ECVs-MVs congruence had a linear relationship with intrinsic PFB (IPFB) and a non-linear relationship with extrinsic PFB. These findings demonstrate that SMVs had a moderating effect on the relationship between ECVs-MVs congruence and extrinsic PFB. Thus, we continued to calculate the available congruence scope in tested enterprises. Furthermore, this study gives relative management proposals and suggestions to improve miners' moral standards and to reduce coal mine accidents.
This study investigated the extent to which supervisors use feedback from outside sources in making performance judgments. A simulation was conducted in which participants with organizational supervisory experience made an initial performance judgment about a profiled employee. Participants then received additional information that was discrepant from their initial judgment (positive or negative) from one of two sources (the profiled employee himself or one of his peers). The direction of the discrepant information and its source interacted in determining final ratings, such that, participants were more likely to use discrepant information to alter their performance judgments in a consistent direction when the source was a peer than when the source was the employee himself. Furthermore, participants' opinions about the usefulness of peer information for performance judgments moderated this interaction. Specifically, participants who believed that information from an employee's peers was useful, were more likely to use discrepant information provided by a peer when making final performance judgments than were participants who did not believe that information from an employee's peers was useful. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Wall, Sarah; Austin, Wendy
Healthcare practitioners make many important ethical decisions in their day-to-day practices. Questions arising in daily practice require practitioners to make prudent, balanced and good decisions, which are most effectively made interpersonally and reflectively. It is commonly assumed that the team-based structure of healthcare delivery can provide practitioners with the support needed to address ethical questions in their practice, especially if the team involves multidisciplinary collaboration. A phenomenological study was conducted in which the impact of the team and the larger organization on practitioners' experiences of dealing with moral challenges was uncovered. Various mental healthcare professionals shared their experiences of ethically challenging situations in their practices and described the ways in which their teammates and supervisors affected how they faced these troubling situations. These findings allow us to see that there is considerable room for healthcare managers, many of whom are nurses, to facilitate supportive, ethical environments for healthcare professionals. An understanding of the essential experience of practising ethically allows for an appreciation of the significance of the team's role in supporting it and enables healthcare managers to target support for ethical healthcare work.
Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.
Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425
Adriana Benedita Soares de Lima
Full Text Available This research investigated the role of the Education Advisor and School Management in the Metropolitan Region of Paraiba Valley in order to identifymalfunctions in administrative and pedagogical processes that prevent the effective student learning. In this case study were conducted diagnostic surveys school processes, relying on administrative tools and information and communication technologies. They were proposed and implemented with the researched tools that enable greater efficiency in the performance of these professionals in the management of schools with the development of a strategic planning and Improvement Project execution using information and communication technologies (ICT. The methodology was based on a qualitative approach and involved the literature. The scenarios of the research were two schools under the jurisdiction of Taubate Educational Board and the subjects surveyed were supervisors, principals, teachers, coordinators and staff of these schools. administrative and technological tools were used: Current Reality Tree, the Improvement and Project Worksheet Matrices (SPM.
Full Text Available This paper presents a logic-based supervisor controller designed for trackers for a 1MW HCPV demo plant in Taiwan. A sun position sensor on the tracker is used to detect the sun position, as the sensor is sensitive to the intensity of sun light. The signal output of the sensor is partially affected by the cloud, which has a hard control position with the traditional PID control. Therefore we have used logic-based supervisor (LBS control which permits switching the PID control to sun trajectory under sunny or cloudy conditions. To verify the stability of the proposed control, an experiment was performed and the results show that the proposed control can efficiently achieve stabilization of the trackers of the 1MW HCPV demo plant.
Adel Mazloumi; Seyed Hamid Reza Hosseini; Abdolsamad Ahmadvand; Zeinab Kazemi
Background & Objectives: According to previous researches, workers' participation in issues affecting their working condition is the key to success in ergonomics interventions in working environments. Therefore, the present study was performed to increase active particapitation of supervisors in production line and also to identify and assess ergonomics risks and presenting modification actions (Kaizen) by themselves in Pars Khodro automobile manufacturing company. Methods: A manual regar...
Lu, Hui; Liu, Xia; Chen, Hong; Long, Ruyin
This study examines the relationship among the employees-organization pro-environmental values fit (E-O PEVs fit), supervisors' PEVs and employees' pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). Informed by the PEB, organizational values and employee-organization fit literature, we propose and test hypotheses that under egoistic, altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, E-O PEVs fit versus non-fit have significant effects on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB, identifying supervisors' PEVs as a moderator. An empirical investigation indicates that the effect of E-O PEVs fit on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB varies as the value orientation differs. More specifically, under the context of altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, if the organizational PEVs do not match the employees' PEVs, especially when the former exceeds the latter, employees' PEB will rise as the organizational PEVs increase. As for egoistic value orientation, when organizational PEVs exceed employees' PEVs, not only will public-sphere PEB stop decreasing and tend to stabilize, but also private-sphere PEB will rise to a slight degree. Furthermore, compared with altruistic and biospheric values dimensions, supervisors who promote egoistic PEVs will have a more significant effect on the relationship between global E-O PEVs fit and employees' PEB. Finally, we suggest that the goals of an organization and its supervisors need to be combined within the actual situation of Chinese corporations to truly implement corporate green practices by balancing the profit goal and the environmental goal.
Background General Practitioner (GP) Supervisors have a key yet poorly defined role in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars who provide healthcare to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during their training placements. Given the markedly poorer health of Indigenous Australians, it is important that GP training and supervision of Registrars includes assessment and teaching which address the well documented barriers to accessing health care. Methods A simulated consultation between a GP Registrar and an Aboriginal patient, which illustrated inadequacies in communication and cultural awareness, was viewed by GP Supervisors and Medical Educators during two workshops in 2012. Participants documented teaching points arising from the consultation which they would prioritise in supervision provided to the Registrar. Content analysis was performed to determine the type and detail of the planned feedback. Field notes from workshop discussions and participant evaluations were used to gain insight into participant confidence in cross cultural supervision. Results Sixty four of 75 GPs who attended the workshops participated in the research. Although all documented plans for detailed teaching on the Registrar’s generic communication and consultation skills, only 72% referred to culture or to the patient’s Aboriginality. Few GPs (8%) documented a plan to advise on national health initiatives supporting access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A lack of Supervisor confidence in providing guidance on cross cultural consulting with Aboriginal patients was identified. Conclusions The role of GP Supervisors in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars consulting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients could be strengthened. A sole focus on generic communication and consultation skills may lead to inadequate consideration of the health disparities faced by Indigenous peoples and of the need to ensure Registrars utilise
S. Umamaheswari; Jayasree Krishnan
The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retentio...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students who withdrew from their program had experienced insufficient supervision. This led the Research Education Committee at the University of Copenhagen to recommend that supervisors further develop their supervision competence. The aim of this study was to explore PhD supervisors’ self-reported needs and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. Methods A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Results Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that, due to their extensive experience with supervision, they had no need to participate in such a programme. The analysis revealed seven overall themes to be included in the course. The clinical context offers PhD supervisors additional challenges that include the following sub-themes: patient recruitment, writing the first article, agreements and scheduled appointments and two main groups of students, in addition to the main themes. Conclusions The PhD supervisors reported the clear need and desire for a competence enhancement programme targeting the supervision of PhD students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Supervision in the clinical context appeared to require additional competence. Trial registration The Scientific Ethical Committee
Abbott, Penelope; Reath, Jennifer; Gordon, Elaine; Dave, Darshana; Harnden, Chris; Hu, Wendy; Kozianski, Emma; Carriage, Cris
General Practitioner (GP) Supervisors have a key yet poorly defined role in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars who provide healthcare to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people during their training placements. Given the markedly poorer health of Indigenous Australians, it is important that GP training and supervision of Registrars includes assessment and teaching which address the well documented barriers to accessing health care. A simulated consultation between a GP Registrar and an Aboriginal patient, which illustrated inadequacies in communication and cultural awareness, was viewed by GP Supervisors and Medical Educators during two workshops in 2012. Participants documented teaching points arising from the consultation which they would prioritise in supervision provided to the Registrar. Content analysis was performed to determine the type and detail of the planned feedback. Field notes from workshop discussions and participant evaluations were used to gain insight into participant confidence in cross cultural supervision. Sixty four of 75 GPs who attended the workshops participated in the research. Although all documented plans for detailed teaching on the Registrar's generic communication and consultation skills, only 72% referred to culture or to the patient's Aboriginality. Few GPs (8%) documented a plan to advise on national health initiatives supporting access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A lack of Supervisor confidence in providing guidance on cross cultural consulting with Aboriginal patients was identified. The role of GP Supervisors in promoting the cultural competence of GP Registrars consulting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients could be strengthened. A sole focus on generic communication and consultation skills may lead to inadequate consideration of the health disparities faced by Indigenous peoples and of the need to ensure Registrars utilise health supports designed to decrease the
Although yearly confidential conversations between a supervisor and an employee have been recommended as a means for improving leadership, evidence on the actual effects of these conversations has been lacking. The present study therefore investigated whether confidential conversations improve perceptions of goal clarity, sufficiency of feedback and innovativeness, and elicit satisfaction with the supervisor's leadership style within the hospital setting. Nine wards were divided into one experimental group (3 wards) and two control groups (3 + 3 wards). A questionnaire on goal clarity, feedback, innovativeness and satisfaction was administered twice to every group (1st measurement: r = 186, 2nd measurement: n = 163). The experimental group began confidential conversations after the first measurement, control group 1 entered into conversations during both measurements, and control group 2 did not enter into conversations at the time of either measurement. Confidential conversations improved perceived feedback. In both measurements, the sufficiency of feedback was reported to be significantly better in the groups having conversations than in the other groups. In addition, there was a significant positive change in the perceived sufficiency of feedback in the experimental group but not in the other groups. Confidential conversations did not affect the perceptions of goal clarity and innovativeness or elicit satisfaction with the supervisor's management style.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors use the theory of communicative action (Habermas, 1984-6 to analyse problematic relationships that can occur between supervisors and PhD students, between co-supervisors and between the students themselves. In a situation where power is distributed unequally, instrumental and strategic action on the part of either party can complicate and disturb efficacious relationships. We use Flanagan’s critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954 to analyse twenty-five incidents that are told from a supervisor perspective and twentyfive from a PhD student perspective. The analysis reveals that a large proportion of incidents involved power struggles. Other categories include lack of professional or emotional support and poor communication. Rational dialogue based on Habermasian principles might have avoided many of these problems. The analysis concludes with some practical suggestions as to how the use of communicative action theory and critical incident technique can improve supervision, supervision training and the PhD process.
Ravangard, Ramin; Yasami, Shamim; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Farhadi, Payam
Nurses are the largest group and an important part of the providers in the health care systems that who a key role in hospitals. Any defect and deficiency in their work can result in irreversible outcomes. This study aimed to determine the effect of supervisors' support and mediating factors on the job performance (JOBPER) of 400 nurses working in the teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, using structural equation modeling. The results showed that the supervisor's support had a significant negative effect on work-family conflict (t = -2.57) and a positive effect on organizational commitment (t = 4.03); Work-family conflict had a significant positive effect on job stress (t = 11.24) and a negative effect on organizational commitment (t = -3.35) and JOBPER (t = -2.29). Family-work conflict had a positive effect on job stress (t = 4.48) and a negative effect on organizational commitment (t = -2.54). Finally, job stress had a negative effect (t = -3.30), and organizational commitment showed a positive effect (t = 5.96) on the studied nurses' JOBPER. According to the results, supervisor's support could influence JOBPER through reducing work-family conflict and increasing organizational commitment. Therefore, to improve the nurses' JOBPER in the hospitals, some strategies are recommended.
Full Text Available Las consecuencias negativas del conflicto de relación en las organizaciones son ampliamente conocidas. Sin embargo, se han llevado a cabo escasas investigaciones sobre los posibles moderadores que podrían atenuar sus efectos perjudiciales. El presente estudio trata de suplir este vacío examinando el enriquecimiento trabajo-familia y el apoyo del supervisor como moderadores del conflicto de relación. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 288 empleados y empleadas de pequeñas y medianas empresas de Andalucía (España. Consistentes con la evidencia previa, los resultados demuestran una fuerte y negativa asociación entre el conflicto de relación y la satisfacción en el trabajo. Sin embargo, el enriquecimiento trabajo-familia y el apoyo del supervisor revelaron que juegan un papel clave en amortiguar este efecto, de tal modo que para los empleados que perciben un supervisor que les apoya y un ambiente de trabajo enriquecedor, las consecuencias negativas del conflicto de relación sobre la satisfacción en el trabajo no son tan dañinas.
Edward WONG SEK KHIN
Full Text Available Effective communication within an organization as part of CSR benchmarking factor that helps align employee expectations facilitates problem solving, builds cooperative relationships and channels employee efforts to achieve common goals. This paper seeks to determine how CSR benchmarking factors of the organizational environment (such as management style, organizational structure and workplace culture affect the effectiveness of intra-organizational communication and to examine the moderating effect of supervisor – subordinate guanxi. Data for the study was collected using self-administered questionnaires from working respondents in Kuala Lumpur in Selangor State, Malaysia. This study found that a more participative management style, less formalized organizational structure of SMEs and a healthier workplace culture are positively related to intra-organizational communication effectiveness. It was also discovered that the supervisor – subordinate relationship known as guanxi, has a positive moderating effect on all three relationships between management style, organizational structure and workplace culture with intra-organizational communication effectiveness. This study concludes that an organization’s management attitude towards employee participation, formalization of structure and healthiness of culture play important roles in encouraging effective communication and close supervisor – subordinate guanxi and further promotes communication, in addition to the mentioned environmental conditions.
Eby, Lillian T; Butts, Marcus M; Hoffman, Brian J; Sauer, Julia B
Although mentoring has documented relationships with employee attitudes and outcomes of interest to organizations, neither the causal direction nor boundary conditions of the relationship between mentoring and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has been fully explored. On the basis of Social Learning Theory (SLT; Bandura, 1977, 1986), we predicted that mentoring received by supervisors would causally precede OCBs, rather than employee OCBs resulting in the receipt of more mentoring from supervisors. Results from cross-lagged data collected at 2 points in time from 190 intact supervisor-employee dyads supported our predictions; however, only for OCBs directed at individuals (OCB-Is) and not for OCBs directed at the organization (OCB-Os). Further supporting our theoretical rationale for expecting mentoring to precede OCBs, we found that coworker support operates as a substitute for mentoring in predicting OCB-Is. By contrast, no moderating effects were found for perceived organizational support. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications for mentoring and OCB research, as well as practical suggestions for enhancing employee citizenship behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
KOSSEK, ELLEN ERNST; PICHLER, SHAUN; BODNER, TODD; HAMMER, LESLIE B.
This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work–family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work–family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work–family support, also k...
Suharnomo; Raja Johnpray Paguh
This study was conducted to explore the relationship between work-family supportive supervisor, career competencies, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Data were collected from a sample of 162 respondents who worked as a nurse at hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine and estimate the relationship between the constructs. The study results indicate that work-family supportive supervisor has a positive and significant impact on career c...
Martínez Corts, Inés; Benítez González, Miriam; Andrade Boz, Marina; Munduate Jaca, María Lourdes; Medina Díaz, Francisco José
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between two types of interpersonal conflict at work (relationship and task conflict) and job satisfaction in the context of small business, focusing on the buffering role that different sources of social support (supervisors and co-workers) may play in this relationship. Adopting such a contingent perspective our main findings show that, first, supervisor support buffers the link between relationship conflict and job satisfaction while co-...
Vance, Gillian H S; Burford, Bryan; Shapiro, Ethan; Price, Richard
Little is known about how best to implement portfolio-based learning in medical school. We evaluated the introduction of a formative e-portfolio-based supervision pilot for final year medical students by seeking views of students, supervisors and graduates on use and educational effects. Students and supervisors were surveyed by questionnaire, with free text comments invited. Interviews were held with new graduates in their first Foundation Programme placement. Most students used the e-portfolio (54%) and met with their supervisor (62%) 'once or twice' only. Students had more negative views: 22% agreed that the pilot was beneficial, while most supervisors thought that e-portfolio (72%) and supervision (86%) were a 'good idea'. More students reported supervision meetings benefited learning (49%) and professional development (55%) than the e-portfolio did (16%; 28%). Only 47% of students felt 'prepared' for future educational processes, though graduates noted benefits for navigating and understanding e-portfolio building and supervision. Factors limiting engagement reflected 'burden', while supervision meetings and early experience of postgraduate processes offered educational value. Final year students have negative attitudes to a formative e-portfolio, though benefits for easing the educational transition are recognised by graduates. Measures to minimize time, repetition and redundancy of processes may encourage use. Engagement is influenced by the supervisor relationship and educational value may be best achieved by supporting supervisors to develop strategies to facilitate, and motivate self-directed learning processes in undergraduates.
KOSSEK, ELLEN ERNST; PICHLER, SHAUN; BODNER, TODD; HAMMER, LESLIE B.
This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work–family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work–family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work–family support, also known as family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP); and supervisor work–family support. Results show work–family-specific constructs of supervisor support and organization support are more strongly related to work–family conflict than general supervisor support and organization support, respectively. We then test a mediation model assessing the effects of all measures at once and show positive perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor indirectly relate to work–family conflict via organizational work–family support. These results demonstrate that work–family-specific support plays a central role in individuals’ work–family conflict experiences. PMID:21691415
Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Pichler, Shaun; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B
This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work-family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work-family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work-family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work-family support, also known as family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP); and supervisor work-family support. Results show work-family-specific constructs of supervisor support and organization support are more strongly related to work-family conflict than general supervisor support and organization support, respectively. We then test a mediation model assessing the effects of all measures at once and show positive perceptions of general and work-family-specific supervisor indirectly relate to work-family conflict via organizational work-family support. These results demonstrate that work-family-specific support plays a central role in individuals' work-family conflict experiences.
Petitta, Laura; Probst, Tahira M; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Ghezzi, Valerio
Despite increasing attention to contextual effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and employee safety compliance, no study has yet explored the conjoint influence exerted simultaneously by organizational safety climate and safety culture. The present study seeks to address this literature shortcoming. We first begin by briefly discussing the theoretical distinctions between safety climate and culture and the rationale for examining these together. Next, using survey data collected from 1342 employees in 32 Italian organizations, we found that employee-level supervisor enforcement, organizational-level safety climate, and autocratic, bureaucratic, and technocratic safety culture dimensions all predicted individual-level safety compliance behaviors. However, the cross-level moderating effect of safety climate was bounded by certain safety culture dimensions, such that safety climate moderated the supervisor enforcement-compliance relationship only under the clan-patronage culture dimension. Additionally, the autocratic and bureaucratic culture dimensions attenuated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and compliance. Finally, when testing the effects of technocratic safety culture and cooperative safety culture, neither safety culture nor climate moderated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance. The results suggest a complex relationship between organizational safety culture and safety climate, indicating that organizations with particular safety cultures may be more likely to develop more (or less) positive safety climates. Moreover, employee safety compliance is a function of supervisor safety leadership, as well as the safety climate and safety culture dimensions prevalent within the organization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Modern port terminals are equipped with various localtransport systems, which have the main task to transport cargobetween local storehouses and transport resources (ships,trains, trucks in the fastest and most efficient way, and at thelowest possible cost. These local transport systems consist offully automated transport units (AGV- automatic guided vehiclewhich are controlled by the computer system. The portcomputer system controls the fully automated transport units inthe way to avoid possible deadlocks and collisions betweenthem. However, beside the fully automated local transportunits, there are human operated transport units (fork-lifttrucks, cranes etc. which cross the path oftheAGVfrom timeto time. The collision of human operated transp011 unit andA GV is possible due to human inattention. To solve this problem,it is necesswy to design a supe1vismy control system thatcoordinates and controls both human driven transport unit andA G V In other words, the human-machine interactions need tobe supen·ised. The supen•ising system can be realized in the waythat the port terminal is divided into zones. Vehicle movementsare supen•ised by a video system which detects the moving ofparticular l'ehicles as a discrete event. Based on detected events,dangerous moving of certain vehicles is blocked by the supe1visi11gsystem. The paper considers the design of collision preventionsupen•isor by using discrete event dynamic themy. The portterminal is modeled by using ordi1za1y Petri nets. The design ofcollision prevention supe1visor is cmTied out by using the P-inl'ariantmethod. The verification of the supervisor is done bycomputer simulation.
Mariño, R; Ghanim, A; Morgan, M; Barrow, S
This study explored clinical supervisor's (CS) views and experiences of dental students' cultural competence (CC) at the Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Australia. Additionally, this study explored CS insights into how CC could be taught. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were organised with consenting CS. Interview topics included the following: the importance of CC, communication and rapport, the role of culture in oral health and the need for curriculum enhancement. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed to identify key areas using NVivo software. A total of 12 CS participated in this study. CS acknowledged the importance of CC and felt that it was important for good patient management. CS's definition of CC focused primarily on language and communication skills. CS felt that dental students were generally able to manage culturally diverse patients. However, CS indicated that additional training in this area would be beneficial. Concerns were raised about the students' ability to establish good rapport and communication, with CS highlighting areas such as misuse of interpreters and use of jargon. CS felt that clinical experience, confidence and a positive attitude are effective tools for overcoming cultural barriers. Furthermore, some CS also felt that cultural competency was a skill that is learnt through experience. For most CS, cultural competence was an important part of the clinician-patient exchange which would benefit from enhanced curriculum. They also highlighted areas where transcultural education could be improved. The majority of CS believed dental students managed culturally diverse patients well. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ana M. Lucia-Casademunt
Full Text Available Parents returning to work after the arrival of a new son or daughter is an important question for understanding the trajectory of people's lives and professional careers amid current debates about gender equality and work-life balance (WLB. Interestingly, current research concludes that general WLB practices at the workplace may be necessary in the specific case of women returning to work after childbirth because of the particular maternal and infant factors involved. However, WLB practices as a flexible arrangement may work against women because they may be viewed as a lack of organizational commitment. Therefore, research on this topic could benefit from considering supervisor support as a complement of such practices, but previous research has analyzed WLB and supervisor support separately and scarcely. To fill this gap in the literature, we use two sub-samples of 664 female employees and 749 male employees with children under the age of one from 27 European countries participating in the 6th European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2015 to study the impact of perceived WLB on European women's perceived well-being after childbirth, in contrast with previous literature. We also analyze the impact of perceived supervisor support (SS and its interaction with perceived WLB on women's well-being after childbirth, and explore differences with men after childbirth, a collective underexplored by the literature. We find significant gender differences on the relative impact of WLB, SS, and their interaction on perceived job well-being. Our results have important implications for human resource practices in organizations. In particular, they suggest that gendered WLB practices should be encouraged, and stress the relevance of the human factor over human resource practices in addressing the difficulties that women returning to work face after childbirth.
Lucia-Casademunt, Ana M.; García-Cabrera, Antonia M.; Padilla-Angulo, Laura; Cuéllar-Molina, Deybbi
Parents returning to work after the arrival of a new son or daughter is an important question for understanding the trajectory of people's lives and professional careers amid current debates about gender equality and work-life balance (WLB). Interestingly, current research concludes that general WLB practices at the workplace may be necessary in the specific case of women returning to work after childbirth because of the particular maternal and infant factors involved. However, WLB practices as a flexible arrangement may work against women because they may be viewed as a lack of organizational commitment. Therefore, research on this topic could benefit from considering supervisor support as a complement of such practices, but previous research has analyzed WLB and supervisor support separately and scarcely. To fill this gap in the literature, we use two sub-samples of 664 female employees and 749 male employees with children under the age of one from 27 European countries participating in the 6th European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2015) to study the impact of perceived WLB on European women's perceived well-being after childbirth, in contrast with previous literature. We also analyze the impact of perceived supervisor support (SS) and its interaction with perceived WLB on women's well-being after childbirth, and explore differences with men after childbirth, a collective underexplored by the literature. We find significant gender differences on the relative impact of WLB, SS, and their interaction on perceived job well-being. Our results have important implications for human resource practices in organizations. In particular, they suggest that gendered WLB practices should be encouraged, and stress the relevance of the human factor over human resource practices in addressing the difficulties that women returning to work face after childbirth. PMID:29467695
Williams, Lauren Therese; Grealish, Laurie; Jamieson, Maggie
Background Clinicians need to be supported by universities to use credible and defensible assessment practices during student placements. Web-based delivery of clinical education in student assessment offers professional development regardless of the geographical location of placement sites. Objective This paper explores the potential for a video-based constructivist Web-based program to support site supervisors in their assessments of student dietitians during clinical placements. Methods This project was undertaken as design-based research in two stages. Stage 1 describes the research consultation, development of the prototype, and formative feedback. In Stage 2, the program was pilot-tested and evaluated by a purposeful sample of nine clinical supervisors. Data generated as a result of user participation during the pilot test is reported. Users’ experiences with the program were also explored via interviews (six in a focus group and three individually). The interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis conducted from a pedagogical perspective using van Manen’s highlighting approach. Results This research succeeded in developing a Web-based program, “Feed our Future”, that increased supervisors’ confidence with their competency-based assessments of students on clinical placements. Three pedagogical themes emerged: constructivist design supports transformative Web-based learning; videos make abstract concepts tangible; and accessibility, usability, and pedagogy are interdependent. Conclusions Web-based programs, such as Feed our Future, offer a viable means for universities to support clinical supervisors in their assessment practices during clinical placements. A design-based research approach offers a practical process for such Web-based tool development, highlighting pedagogical barriers for planning purposes. PMID:25803172
Lucia-Casademunt, Ana M; García-Cabrera, Antonia M; Padilla-Angulo, Laura; Cuéllar-Molina, Deybbi
Parents returning to work after the arrival of a new son or daughter is an important question for understanding the trajectory of people's lives and professional careers amid current debates about gender equality and work-life balance (WLB). Interestingly, current research concludes that general WLB practices at the workplace may be necessary in the specific case of women returning to work after childbirth because of the particular maternal and infant factors involved. However, WLB practices as a flexible arrangement may work against women because they may be viewed as a lack of organizational commitment. Therefore, research on this topic could benefit from considering supervisor support as a complement of such practices, but previous research has analyzed WLB and supervisor support separately and scarcely. To fill this gap in the literature, we use two sub-samples of 664 female employees and 749 male employees with children under the age of one from 27 European countries participating in the 6th European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2015) to study the impact of perceived WLB on European women's perceived well-being after childbirth, in contrast with previous literature. We also analyze the impact of perceived supervisor support (SS) and its interaction with perceived WLB on women's well-being after childbirth, and explore differences with men after childbirth, a collective underexplored by the literature. We find significant gender differences on the relative impact of WLB, SS, and their interaction on perceived job well-being. Our results have important implications for human resource practices in organizations. In particular, they suggest that gendered WLB practices should be encouraged, and stress the relevance of the human factor over human resource practices in addressing the difficulties that women returning to work face after childbirth.
Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) commonly present in general practice. They often experience significant disability and have difficulty accessing appropriate care. Many feel frustrated and helpless. Doctors also describe feeling frustrated and helpless when managing these patients. These shared negative feelings can have a detrimental effect on the therapeutic relationship and on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore how novice and experienced GPs manage patients with MUS and how these skills are taught and learned in GP training. A constructivist grounded theory study with 24 general practice registrars and supervisors in GP training practices across Australia. Registrars lacked a framework for managing patients with MUS. Some described negative feelings towards patients that were uncomfortable and confronting. Registrars also were uncertain about their clinical role: where their professional responsibilities began and ended. Supervisors utilised a range of strategies to address the practical, interpersonal and therapeutic challenges associated with the care of these patients. Negative feelings and a lack of diagnostic language and frameworks may prevent registrars from managing these patients effectively. Some of these negative feelings, such as frustration, shame and helplessness, are shared between doctors and patients. Registrars need assistance to identify and manage these difficult feelings so that consultations are more effective. The care of these patients also raises issues of professional identity, roles and responsibilities. Supervisors can assist their registrars by proactively sharing models of the consultation, strategies for managing their own feelings and frustrations, and ways of understanding and managing the therapeutic relationship in this difficult area of practice.
Full Text Available The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. It also found that organization’s career development provision alone is not enough and need to be modified according to the employer’s expectation. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.
Asena ALTIN GÜLOVA
Full Text Available One of the increasingly momentous topics in organisation studies is emotional labor. The direction towards which emotional labor affects the job involvement of service workers has also been studied and stated that this direction might change based on the choice of labor behaviour. The concept of "supervisor support" refers to the close, intimate and understanding attitude of the superior to the subordinates. As a result of the study conducted on student affairs office employees of three state universities in the Aegean Region (n=127 a positive significant relationship among three emotional labor behaviour and job involvement was discerned and an increase in parallel with supervisory support was displayed.
Memmel, Christoph; Wehn, Carsten
The Value at Risk of a portfolio differs from the sum of the Values at Risk of the portfolio's components. In this paper, we analyze the problem of how a single economic risk figure for the Value at Risk of a hypothetical portfolio composed of different commercial banks might be obtained for a supervisor. Using the daily profits and losses and the daily Value at Risk figures of twelve German banks for the period from 2001 to 2003, we estimate the Value at Risk of the entire portfolio. We assu...
Jenkins, Louis; Mash, Bob; Derese, Anselme
In South Africa the submission of a portfolio of learning has become a national requirement for assessment of family medicine training. A national portfolio has been developed, validated and implemented. The aim of this study was to explore registrars' and supervisors' experience regarding the portfolio's educational impact, acceptability, and perceived usefulness for assessment of competence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 purposively selected registrars and supervisors from all eight South African training programmes. The portfolio primarily had an educational impact through making explicit the expectations of registrars and supervisors in the workplace. This impact was tempered by a lack of engagement in the process by registrars and supervisors who also lacked essential skills in reflection, feedback and assessment. The acceptability of the portfolio was limited by service delivery demands, incongruence between the clinical context and educational requirements, design of the logbook and easy availability of the associated tools. The use of the portfolio for formative assessment was strongly supported and appreciated, but was not always happening and in some cases registrars had even organised peer assessment. Respondents were unclear as to how the portfolio would be used for summative assessment. The learning portfolio had a significant educational impact in shaping work-place based supervision and training and providing formative assessment. Its acceptability and usefulness as a learning tool should increase over time as supervisors and registrars become more competent in its use. There is a need to clarify how it will be used in summative assessment.
Jen, Chin-Kang; Chou, Li-Fang; Lin, Chu-Yen; Tsai, Ming-Che
With a collectivist cultural perspective, we examined the positive effects of employees' perceptions of a familial climate on loyalty to supervisors, the mediation of loyalty between perception of a familial climate and job performance, and the moderation of employees' filial behaviour on the relationship between perception of a familial climate and loyalty. The participants consisted of 247 supervisor-and-subordinate dyads in Taiwan. The results supported our hypotheses. Through the mechanisms of family behaviour transference, social identification and supervisor-subordinate exchange, perception of an organizational familial climate enhanced loyalty to supervisors. Furthermore, loyalty to supervisors mediated the relationship between perception of a familial climate and job performance. Filial behaviour moderated the relationship between perception of a familial climate and loyalty; thus, the relationship of perception of a familial climate and loyalty was stronger for employees with low levels of filial behaviour and weaker for employees with high levels of filial behaviour. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications for future research and management practices.
Weigl, Matthias; Stab, Nicole; Herms, Isabel; Angerer, Peter; Hacker, Winfried; Glaser, Jürgen
To investigate the moderating effects of work overload and supervisor support on the emotional exhaustion-depressive state relationship. Burnout and depression are prevalent in human service professionals and have a detrimental impact on clients. Work overload and supervisor support are two key job demands and job resources, whose role and interplay for the development and maintenance of burnout and depression are not fully understood yet. Two consecutive cross-sectional surveys: survey 1 investigated 111 hospital nursing professionals and survey 2 examined 202 day care professionals. Data collection was completed in 2010. After controlling for general well-being and sociodemographic characteristics, nurses' emotional exhaustion was associated with increased depressive state in both samples. We found a meaningful three-way interaction: our results show consistently that the relationship between emotional exhaustion and depressive state was strongest for nurses with high work overload and low supervisor support. Additionally, nurses with low work overload and low supervisor support were also found to have stronger associations between emotional exhaustion and depressive state. The findings indicate that nurses' reported supervisor support exerts its buffering effect on the burnout-depression link differentially and serves as an important resource for nurses dealing with high self-reported work stress. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
José Villanueva García
Full Text Available Las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF, emitidas por el International Accounting Standards Board (IASB y los US-GAAP, son hoy el referente global en convergencia hacia un estándar global. Las NIIF se utilizan fundamentalmente en los mercados de capitales, si bien carecen de una superestructura que garantice un sistema contable de elevada calidad. La Unión Europea, en su nueva propuesta de reglamento de auditoría para Entidades de Interés Público (EIP, da un gran protagonismo a los supervisores bursátiles como controladores de una adecuada aplicación de estas normas en la confección de los estados financieros. En este contexto, el objetivo que persigue el presente trabajo es contrastar la labor del supervisor bursátil español a este respecto, durante los años 2005-2010. Estudiamos, en primer lugar, el grado de incumplimiento detectado en las NIIF y, en segundo, contrastamos la posible influencia de distintos atributos de gobierno corporativo y algunas magnitudes corporativas sobre los apercibimientos que reciben las empresas cotizadas españolas, por parte de la Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores (CNMV.
Brunetto, Yvonne; Shriberg, Art; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Shacklock, Kate; Newman, Stefanie; Dienger, Joy
Using Social Exchange Theory, this study examines links between supervisor-nurse relationships, teamwork, psychological wellbeing and turnover intentions for nurses in the USA. Nurses in the USA comprise the biggest workforce of any country in the world. However, nurses continue to be in short supply even with an aggressive campaign to attract foreign nurses. The shortage of qualified registered nurses has negative implications for patient care and mortality because it affects problem-solving and teamwork as a result of poor communication among nurses. The study uses a cross-sectional design and 730 completed surveys were obtained using a self-report strategy. The findings indicate that supervisor-nurse relationships, teamwork and wellbeing explain almost half of nurses' commitment to their hospital and their intentions to leave. Further, there was evidence of a generational effect in that Baby Boomer nurses perceived higher levels of wellbeing and commitment, and lower intention to leave. These findings suggest that management must focus on improving the quality of workplace relationship as a first step in retaining skilled nurses. It may be time for management to embed performance indicators for all levels of management, linked to ensuring effective workplace relationships. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ford, Michael T; Wang, Yanxia; Jin, Jiafei; Eisenberger, Robert
Gratitude and anger represent 2 fundamental moral emotions in response to help or harm. Research suggests that individuals perceive organizations to have humanlike qualities and thus hold them responsible for helpful or harmful treatment. Given this line of reasoning, we hypothesized that workers direct gratitude toward their organizations in response to supportive treatment and anger toward their organizations in response to unsupportive treatment. Gratitude and anger, in turn, were expected to influence daily extrarole behavior. After developing short measures of organization-directed anger and gratitude in 2 pilot studies, we tested these hypotheses in a daily diary study of 54 workers providing 421 daily reports. Results indicate that perceived organizational support was related to chronic gratitude and anger, which is stable from day to day, and chronic gratitude was in turn related to chronic differences in organizational citizenship behavior. Episodic anger and gratitude, which vary daily, were related to daily supervisor interactional justice and helping behavior, respectively, and in turn predicted daily episodic variance in organizational citizenship and counterproductive work behavior. These findings suggest that the moral emotions of gratitude and anger toward the organization are indicators of employee affective well-being and play a mediating role in the effects of organizational and supervisor supportiveness on employee performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Hyun Jeong Kim
Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the moderating roles of perceived supervisor, coworker, and organizational support in the relationship between emotional labor and job performance in the airline service context. A sample of flight attendants working for one major airline company in South Korea participated in this study. The flight attendants’ official job performance data were provided by the airline company. For data analyses, a series of hierarchical moderated regression analyses were employed. The results showed differential moderation effects of the three sources of support at work. Specifically, the positive relationship between deep acting and job performance was strengthened by perceived supervisor and coworker support. The negative relationship between surface acting and job performance was exacerbated by perceived supervisor support, indicating the reverse buffering effect. Perceived organizational support showed only main effects on employee performance with no moderation effects.
Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism.
Full Text Available Introduction: In the education system in the country, thesis works as a way to solve research problems and thesis presentation is based as part of the research. To improve the quality of dissertations, it is essential to have an accurate evaluation of the objectives, practical process, process and efficiency of the course by supervisors, graduates and students. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the view point of senior and graduated students and supervisor teachers of Mashhad dental school about thesis.Materials & Methods: Forty eight supervisors, 40 students and 50 graduates from Mashhad dental school participated in this cross sectional descriptive study in the year 2010. Three questionnaires, which proved to be valid and reliable, were used for data collection. Results were analyzed according to the frequency distribution of variable and average of description. Common questions were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 95%.Results: The data indicated that the effect of thesis presentation on the activities leading to production and basic science and increase in professional knowledge and skills were average while it was very effective in teaching research methods. Students, graduates and supervisors together agreed on the completion of a joint research project in the early years of school and covering an education subject about thesis goals. Supervisors estimated the effect of thesis result in community to be more than that of the graduates (P=0.03. In addition, supervisors had less agreement on thesis as a voluntary course compared to students and graduates (P=0.01.Conclusion: Based on findings of this study, because of the great amount of budget and time spent on thesis, it is better to optimize the presented results and recommendations in this regard. It also seems that the greatest impact on improving the process would be created through revising the rules, creating supportive organizations actively and
Supervisão em serviços-escola de psicologia no Brasil: perspectivas dos supervisores e estagiários = Supervision in Brazilian psychology university services: supervisors and residents’ perspectives = Supervisión en servicios-escuela de psicología en el Brazil: perspectivas de los supervisores y los pasantes
Oliveira, Margareth da Silva
Full Text Available Embora nos últimos 20 anos tenha havido um aumento do interesse pela caracterização da clientela e descrição do funcionamento dos serviços-escola de Psicologia, pouca atenção tem sido dada ao processo de supervisão que ocorre nesses centros. A supervisão no contexto clínico tem como característica fundamental contemplar, ao mesmo tempo, aspectos relativos ao aprendizado e aspectos relacionados à relação terapêutica. Neste trabalho, foi utilizado um instrumento que avaliava a supervisão de acordo com os fatores empatia, aprimoramento do aprendizado e compreensão. O questionário, desenvolvido em duas versões, foi respondido online por 126 supervisores e 238 estagiários de Psicologia de diversas regiões do país. Verificou-se que a supervisão é, de forma geral, bem avaliada tanto por supervisores como por supervisionandos, embora existam algumas discrepâncias significativas na visão dos dois grupos
Ferreira, Jane Helena Irizawa Dias
A atuação gerencial e suas competências têm sido tema freqüente de estudos na literatura acadêmica, porém, a maioria das pesquisas versa o desenvolvimento gerencial em níveis estratégicos de atuação. Nesse estudo, destaca-se a gerência operacional no setor da construção civil representada por supervisores de obras, reconhecidamente com grande experiência e conhecimento tácito dos processos produtivos. Com formação escolar semelhante a dos demais trabalhadores operacionais, estes supervisores ...
Norri-Sederholm, Teija; Paakkonen, Heikki; Kurola, Jouni; Saranto, Kaija
In prehospital emergency medical services, one of the key factors in the successful delivery of appropriate care is the efficient management and supervision of the area's emergency medical services units. Paramedic field supervisors have an important role in this task. One of the key factors in the daily work of paramedic field supervisors is ensuring that they have enough of the right type of information when co-operating with other authorities and making decisions. However, a gap in information sharing still exists especially due to information overload. The aim of this study was to find out what type of critical information paramedic field supervisors need during multi-authority missions in order to manage their emergency medical services area successfully. The study also investigated both the flow of information, and interactions with the paramedic field supervisors and the differences that occur depending on the incident type. Ten paramedic field supervisors from four Finnish rescue departments participated in the study in January-March 2012. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews based on three progressive real-life scenarios and a questionnaire. Data were analysed using deductive content analysis. Data management and analysis were performed using Atlas.ti 7 software. Five critical information categories were formulated: Incident data, Mission status, Area status, Safety at work, and Tactics. Each category's importance varied depending on the incident and on whether it was about information needed or information delivered by the paramedic field supervisors. The main communication equipment used to receive information was the authority radio network (TETRA). However, when delivering information, mobile phones and TETRA were of equal importance. Paramedic field supervisors needed more information relating to area status. Paramedic field supervisors communicate actively with EMS units and other authorities such as Emergency Medical Dispatch
Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to reveal perception about the service regions of the primary education supervisors working in the five regions all around Turkey which are determined by the Ministry of Education, concidering the geographical situation, economical and social development level, transportation condition and service necessities. The primary education supervisors in the research, who were classified in accordance with the service regions they worked, were continuing thier “ guiding and on the job training, Inspecting and Evaluation, Investigating ind Inquisition” services, they put forward their opinions about the “strong and weak sides, opportunities and threats” which they confronted in their service regions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes
Hunskaar, Steinar; Breivik, Jarle; Siebke, Maje; Tømmerås, Karin; Figenschau, Kristian; Hansen, John-Bjarne
Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes access to PhD courses before the
Parker, Stephen; Suetani, Shuichi; Motamarri, Balaji
The importance of clinical supervision is emphasised in psychiatric training programs. Despite this, the purpose and processes of supervision are often poorly defined. There is limited guidance available for trainees about their role in making supervision work. This paper considers the nature of supervision in psychiatric training and provides practical advice to help supervisees take active steps to make supervision work. In obtaining value from supervision, the active role of the supervisee in seeking feedback, finding value in criticism and building autonomy is emphasised. Additionally, the importance of exploring what value a supervisor can offer and maintaining realistic expectations is considered. Trainees can benefit from taking an active role in planning and managing their supervision to maximise their learning.
Raffing, Rie; Jensen, Thor Bern; Tønnesen, Hanne
Background: Quality of supervision is a major predictor for successful PhD projects. A survey showed that almost all PhD students in the Health Sciences in Denmark indicated that good supervision was important for the completion of their PhD study. Interestingly, approximately half of the students...... and wishes regarding the content of a new program in supervision, with a special focus on the supervision of PhD students in medical fields. Methods: A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and 20 PhD supervisors from the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences at the Faculty of Health...... and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen were interviewed. Empirical data were analysed using qualitative methods of analysis. Results: Overall, the results indicated a general interest in improved competence and development of a new supervision programme. Those who were not interested argued that...
Yeates, Giles; Rowberry, Michelle; Dunne, Stephen; Goshawk, Michelle; Mahadevan, Mythreyi; Tyerman, Ruth; Salter, Mandy; Hillier, Martin; Berry, Alister; Tyerman, Andy
Social cognition and executive functioning difficulties following acquired brain injury have been linked to negative employment outcomes, such as demotion and loss of vocational roles. These are very counter-intuitive and challenging difficulties for other employees and work supervisors who have little or no brain injury knowledge, whose perceptions of play a key role in their responses to these difficulties and the final outcome of such problems for vocational status. This study aimed to study the relationship between social cognition and executive functioning difficulties and the perceptions of work supervisors' appraisal of survivor interpersonal behaviour and social skills in the workplace. The performance of 73 survivors of acquired brain injury (47% TBI, 38% CVA, 15% other ABI type; 73% male; mean age 45.44 years, range 19-64 years; mean time since injury 6.36 years, range 10.5-31.33 years), currently in a vocational rehabilitation placement) on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and social cognition was measured. Informant ratings on the Social Skills Factor subscale from the Work Personality Profile (WPP, Bolton & Roessler, 1986) were used as the primary outcome measure, a vocational functioning questionnaire assessing social and presentational aspects of workplace behaviour. The raters were non-clinical workplace informants acting in a supervisory role (supervisory placement providers and job coaches). Correlational analysis identified significant associations between the WPP and survivor goal-orientated planning and implementation, mentalising ability, recognition of positive and negative emotions, and recognition of simple sarcasm (all significant at p executive functioning explained 32 % of the variance in the WPP ratings (F (2, 52) = 12.15, p executive functioning and social cognition difficulties for the perceptions and appraisal of work colleagues, consistent with other studies that have identified negative vocational outcomes
Cabral, Linda; Strother, Heather; Muhr, Kathy; Sefton, Laura; Savageau, Judith
Mental health peer specialists develop peer-to-peer relationships of trust with clients to improve their health and well-being, functioning in ways similar to community health workers. Although the number of peer specialists in use has been increasing, their role in care teams is less defined than that of the community health worker. This qualitative study explored how the peer specialist role is defined across different stakeholder groups, the expectations for this role and how the peer specialist is utilised and integrated across different types of mental health services. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups conducted in Massachusetts with peer specialists (N = 44), their supervisors (N = 14) and clients (N = 10) between September 2009 and January 2011. A consensus coding approach was used and all data outputs were reviewed by the entire team to identify themes. Peer specialists reported that their most important role is to develop relationships with clients and that having lived mental health experience is a key element in creating that bond. They also indicated that educating staff about the recovery model and peer role is another important function. However, they often felt a lack of clarity about their role within their organisation and care team. Supervisors valued the unique experience that peer specialists bring to an organisation. However, without a defined set of expectations for this role, they struggled with training, guiding and evaluating their peer specialist staff. Clients reported that the shared lived experience is important for the relationship and that working with a peer specialist has improved their mental health. With increasing support for person-centred integrated healthcare delivery models, the demand for mental health peer specialist services will probably increase. Therefore, clearer role definition, as well as workforce development focused on team orientation, is necessary for peer specialists to be fully integrated
Arman; Thalib, Syamsul Bachri; Manda, Darman
This study aims at analyzing the effect of the competence of school supervisors and school principals on work motivation and performance of Junior High School teachers in Maros Regency. This research was a quantitative research by using survey approach. This approach was used because it is adjusted to the nature and assumptions of the study in…
Suharnomo; Johnpray, Paguh Raja
This study was conducted to explore the relationship between work-family supportive supervisor, career competencies, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Data were collected from a sample of 162 respondents who worked as a nurse at hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine and estimate the relationship between the constructs. The study results indicate that work-family supportive supervisor has a positive and significant impact on career competencies, career competencies have a positive and significant impact on job involvement, and on job satisfaction. Work-family supportive supervisor has a positive and significant impact on job involvement and on job satisfaction. A total of 162 respondents with a percentage of 96.30% women showed that women need good support and policies in achieving a balance between work and family. Finally, this study highlights the importance of work-family supportive supervisor and career competencies for improving job involvement and job satisfaction. This study provides insights on how the human resources department can retain qualified staff and develop employee satisfaction.
Las Heras, M.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Jong, J. de; Rofcanin, Y.
Drawing on theories of perspective-taking and i-deals, this study explores the impact of supervisors' own caregiving responsibilities for elders and parental status on subordinates' schedule i-deals. Moreover, we investigate the extent to which schedule i-deals mediate the relationship between
Wisse, B.; Sleebos, E.
Previous work has focused on the potential maladaptive consequences of the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) in organizational contexts. This research builds upon this work, examining the influence of supervisor position power on the relationship
Full Text Available The paper addresses two main points: the deficiencies of the past regulatory design and the additional dangers coming from financial reforms that increase the regulatory powers of supervisors. The first point is briefly dealt with reference to past experience and alternative theoretical approaches. For the second point I argue that a prudential regulatory design necessarily leaves large discretionary powers to supervisors, who use them to shape the effective direction impressed to regulation. The current crisis has shown that the force of its first impact much depended on how supervisors had formerly utilised their discretion. Recent reforms and proposals are not changing the basic design of prudential regulation, while give additional regulatory powers to supervisors. If, as a consequence, we will experience in the short-run some regulatory uncertainty, lobbying pressures and international regulatory arbitrage will most probably guide the final result towards few additional regulatory costs and an unchanged systemic fragility. As an alternative we could go back to the methodology, not the specific design, of the Glass-Steagall Act, shaping the financial system by means of structural rules aided by few simple prudential ones.
Occupational Survey Report on Automotive Mechanics: Task Data from Workers and Supervisors Indicating Job Relevance and Training Criticalness. [Interim Report]. Research and Development Series No. 110.
Ammerman, Harry L.; Pratzner, Frank C.
The study was conducted to develop methods for using timely, firsthand occupational task information on automotive mechanics in order to identify critical performance requirements that warrant formal training. The methodology used is described in detail. A Task Inventory Questionnaire was completed by 18 auto mechanics and 12 supervisors in each…
Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the relationship between work-family supportive supervisor, career competencies, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Data were collected from a sample of 162 respondents who worked as a nurse at hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to examine and estimate the relationship between the constructs. The study results indicate that work-family supportive supervisor has a positive and significant impact on career competencies, career competencies have a positive and significant impact on job involvement, and on job satisfaction. Work-family supportive supervisor has a positive and significant impact on job involvement and on job satisfaction. A total of 162 respondents with a percentage of 96.30% women showed that women need good support and policies in achieving a balance between work and family. Finally, this study highlights the importance of work-family supportive supervisor and career competencies for improving job involvement and job satisfaction. This study provides insights on how the human resources department can retain qualified staff and develop employee satisfaction.
Ketelaar, S M; Schaafsma, F G; Geldof, M F; Boot, C R L; Kraaijeveld, R A; Shaw, W S; Bültmann, U; Twisk, J; Anema, J R
Purpose A multifaceted implementation strategy was targeted at supervisors to encourage them to apply a participatory approach (PA) in dealing with employees' work functioning problems due to health concerns. This paper assesses the effect on employees' perceived social norms regarding the use of
Rajesh, J. Irudhaya; Suganthi, L.
Social support of supervisors and colleagues is thought to enable people to cope better with the demanding work situations. More specifically, supportive, supervisory communication has been found to reduce uncertainty, promote discussion, build self-esteem, clarify role expectations and inculcate meaning in the job among employees. In an attempt…
Smith, J. E.; And Others
This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with costing, balance sheets, and budgetary control. The first section, "Matters of Cost" by J. E. and J. F. Smith, deals with the following topics: profits and productivity, principles of costing, cost control and cost reduction, fixed and…
Perez, Lindsay Ryder
The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine if and to what extent a relationship existed between teacher-perceived emotional intelligence (EI) of immediate supervisors and teachers' level of job satisfaction. It was not known how these two variables related to each other, which was identified as a small piece of a much…
文章探讨了上级非伦理领导对领导—成员交换和下级非伦理领导的影响。借鉴资源消耗理论的相关文献，将领导—成员交换作为上级非伦理领导和下级非伦理领导之间的中介变量，将道德认同作为调节变量，并因此提出一个中介调节模型。研究结果表明：（1）下级领导施行职场非伦理领导行为源于其对领导—成员交换关系的感知；（2）下级领导道德认同感的高低会调节上级非伦理领导和下级非伦理领导之间的关系，道德认同感低的下级领导更容易转移压力和施行非伦理领导行为。%This study examines the impact of supervisors' unethical leadership on leader-member exchange and primary supervisors' unethical leadership. Drawing on resource drain theory, we propose a moderated mediation model with leader-member exchange as the mediator and moral identity as the moderator of the relationship be-tween supervisors' unethical leadership on primary supervisors' unethical leadership. The results indicated that:(1) Primary supervisors resort to do unethical leadership behavior in the workplace due to their feelings of leader-member exchange. (2) The moral identity of primary supervisors negatively moderates the positive relation-ship between supervisors' unethical leadership on primary supervisor' unethical leadership, the presence of low moral identity makes the adverse impact of primary supervisors' unethical leadership even worse.
Uduma, Ogenna; Galligan, Marie; Mollel, Henry; Masanja, Honorati; Bradley, Susan; McAuliffe, Eilish
A systematic and structured approach to the support and supervision of health workers can strengthen the human resource management function at the district and health facility levels and may help address the current crisis in human resources for health in sub-Saharan Africa by improving health workers' motivation and retention. A supportive supervision programme including (a) a workshop, (b) intensive training and (c) action learning sets was designed to improve human resource management in districts and health facilities in Tanzania. We conducted a randomised experimental design to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Data on the same measures were collected pre and post the intervention in order to identify any changes that occurred (between baseline and end of project) in the capacity of supervisors in intervention a + b and intervention a + b + c to support and supervise their staff. These were compared to supervisors in a control group in each of Tanga, Iringa and Tabora regions (n = 9). A quantitative survey of 95 and 108 supervisors and 196 and 187 health workers sampled at baseline and end-line, respectively, also contained open-ended responses which were analysed separately. Supervisors assessed their own competency levels pre- and post-intervention. End-line samples generally scored higher compared to the corresponding baseline in both intervention groups for competence activities. Significant differences between baseline and end-line were observed in the total scores on 'maintaining high levels of performance', 'dealing with performance problems', 'counselling a troubled employee' and 'time management' in intervention a + b. In contrast, for intervention a + b + c, a significant difference in distribution of scores was only found on 'counselling a troubled employee', although the end-line mean scores were higher than their corresponding baseline mean scores in all cases. Similar trends to those in the supervisors' reports are seen in
Duke, Dawn C; Denicolo, Pam M
Over the past two decades, there has been a flurry of government papers and policy reports worldwide calling for increased number and diversity of doctoral researchers and a broadening of the curriculum to meet the developing needs of respective national 'knowledge-driven' economies. This has been followed by position papers and best practice examples of employability skills development in boundary-crossing doctoral programmes, especially in response to these initiatives. However, there is a disassociation between this ample literature expounding the new doctorate with its broader remit, inclusivity and production of 'industry-ready' graduates and the comparatively sparse literature on the doctoral candidates' experiences of their programmes and career readiness. Within this review, we briefly outline international government initiatives and examples of the responses by Life Science and Biomedical doctoral programmes to address these various challenges. Furthermore, we explore the recent literature on the lived experience of doctoral researchers by examining their perception of the recent changes to the research context to make recommendations for universities and supervisors on how to better support an ever more diverse doctoral population for a wide range of career opportunities. Examples of how doctoral researchers themselves can make the best of currently available opportunities are also provided. © FEMS 2017.
Abedi, G; Molazadeh-Mahali, Q A; Mirzaian, B; Nadi-Ghara, A; Heidari-Gorji, A M
Todays people are spending most of their time life in their workplace therefore investigation for job satisfaction related factors is necessities of researches. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of manager's personality traits on employee job satisfaction. The present study is a descriptive and causative-comparative one utilized on a statistical sample of 44 managers and 119 employees. It was examined and analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics of Student's t -test (independent T), one-way ANOVA, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Findings showed that the managers and supervisors with personality traits of extraversion, eagerness to new experiences, adaptability, and dutifulness had higher subordinate employee job satisfaction. However, in the neurotic trait, the result was different. The results showed that job satisfaction was low in the aspect of neurosis. Based on this, it is suggested that, before any selection in managerial and supervisory positions, candidates receive a personality test and in case an individual has a neurotic trait, appropriate interference takes place both in this group and the employees' one.
AUTHOR|(CDS)2097518; Karsmakers, Peter
Farhadi, Payam; Sharifian, Roxana; Feili, Ardalan; Shokrpour, Nasrin
This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of supervisor support (SUPPORT), work-family conflict (W-FCON), family-work conflict (F-WCON), and job stress (JSTRESS) on a number of selected consequences using data collected from nurses and nurse axillaries in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Fars province (south of Iran). The results demonstrated that W-FCON and F-WCON exerted a significant positive influence on JSTRESS. Contrary to the study hypothesis, the results did not provide any empirical support for the significant negative relationship between W-FCON, F-WCON, and JSTRESS with family satisfaction (FSAT). The findings further revealed that higher JSTRESS led to lower life satisfaction (LSAT). As expected, high levels of FSAT resulted in increased LSAT. However, this study failed to find significant negative relationships between conflicts in the work-family interface and LSAT. The results also revealed that JSTRESS was not significantly associated with LSAT. Consonant with the study hypotheses, W-FCON, F-WCON, and JSTRESS were found to be significant for turnover intentions, whereas LSAT did not. Implications for managers and future research directions are presented.
Yragui, Nanette L; Demsky, Caitlin A; Hammer, Leslie B; Van Dyck, Sarah; Neradilek, Moni B
The present study examined the moderating effects of family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) on the relationship between two types of workplace aggression (i.e., patient-initiated physical aggression and coworker-initiated psychological aggression) and employee well-being and work outcomes. Data were obtained from a field sample of 417 healthcare workers in two psychiatric hospitals. Hypotheses were tested using moderated multiple regression analyses. Psychiatric care providers' perceptions of FSSB moderated the relationship between patient-initiated physical aggression and physical symptoms, exhaustion and cynicism. In addition, FSSB moderated the relationship between coworker-initiated psychological aggression and physical symptoms and turnover intentions. Based on our findings, family-supportive supervision is a plausible boundary condition for the relationship between workplace aggression and well-being and work outcomes. This study suggests that, in addition to directly addressing aggression prevention and reduction, family-supportive supervision is a trainable resource that healthcare organizations should facilitate to improve employee work and well-being in settings with high workplace aggression. This is the first study to examine the role of FSSB in influencing the relationship between two forms of workplace aggression: patient-initiated physical and coworker- initiated psychological aggression and employee outcomes.
Full Text Available Two field studies were undertaken to investigate the nature of the relationship between justice perceptions and feedback reactions. Previous work suggests that the relationship between procedural justice and feedback reactions is mediated by the quality of the relationship with the supervisor. However, there are also good theoretical reasons to hypothesise that the relationship between justice perceptions and feedback reactions is moderated by relationship quality. Across two field studies, we found support for both mediated and moderated relationships. Results of the moderator analyses showed that the positive relationship between justice perceptions and feedback reactions was more pronounced for subordinates in a low-quality relationship with their supervisor. The present results provide useful suggestions for enhancing feedback reactions in organisations.
Li, Andrew; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bagger, Jessica
We draw on the cross-domain model of work-family conflict and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between disability caregiving demands and the psychological well-being of employed caregivers. Using a sample of employed disability caregivers from a national survey, we found that the relationship between caregiving demands and family-to-work conflict was stronger when employees experienced high levels of strain from family. Additionally, we found high levels of family to-work conflict were subsequently associated with decreases in life satisfaction and increases in depression, but only when perceived supervisor support was low. Overall, our findings suggest an indirect relationship between caregiving demands and psychological well-being that is mediated by family-to-work conflict and is conditional on family strain and perceived supervisor support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Yang, Tianan; Shen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Deng, Jianwei; Chen, Qian; See, Lai-Chu
We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = -0.10; p employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees.
Yang, Tianan; Shen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Deng, Jianwei; Chen, Qian; See, Lai-Chu
We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p job stress (β = −0.10; p job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001) but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees. PMID:26703705
Linton, Steven J.; Boersma, Katja; Traczyk, Michal; Shaw, William; Nicholas, Michael
Purpose There is a clear need for interventions that successfully prevent the development of disability due to back pain. We hypothesized that an intervention aimed at both the worker and the workplace could be effective. Hence, we tested the effects of a new early intervention, based on the misdirected problem solving model, aimed at both workers at risk of long-term impairments and their workplace. Methods Supervisors of volunteers with back pain, no red flags, and a high score on a screen ...
Caron, Maryse; Durand, Marie-José; Tremblay, Dominique
Purpose Supervisors are known to be key actors in ensuring the success of absent employees in their return-to-work process. However, to date, little is known about the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during this process. The objective of this study was to describe the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during their return-to-work process. Method A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with breast cancer survivors (n = 10) who had returned to work after treatment and were still at work more than 18 months later. Each interview was audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim for qualitative thematic content analysis using a semi-open codification framework. Results Participants identified three main practices put in place by their supervisors to support them and which they perceived as particularly helpful during the return-to-work process: (1) maintaining communication during their period of absence; (2) working with them to structure their return-to-work process before their actual return; and (3) allowing them flexibility in their schedule for a certain period, particularly at the beginning of the return-to-work process. Breast cancer survivors also identified an omission in the practice of employers: lack of follow-up over time. Conclusion Knowledge about the practices perceived as helpful by breast cancer survivors during their return-to-work process lays the groundwork for the eventual development of services to help breast cancer survivors in their return to work.
Sewell, Justin L; Boscardin, Christy K; Young, John Q; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S
Cognitive load theory, focusing on limits of the working memory, is relevant to medical education; however, factors associated with cognitive load during procedural skills training are not well characterized. The authors sought to determine how features of learners, patients/tasks, settings, and supervisors were associated with three types of cognitive load among learners performing a specific procedure, colonoscopy, to identify implications for procedural teaching. Data were collected through an electronically administered survey sent to 1,061 U.S. gastroenterology fellows during the 2014-2015 academic year; 477 (45.0%) participated. Participants completed the survey immediately following a colonoscopy. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, the authors identified sets of features associated with intrinsic, extraneous, and germane loads. Features associated with intrinsic load included learners (prior experience and year in training negatively associated, fatigue positively associated) and patient/tasks (procedural complexity positively associated, better patient tolerance negatively associated). Features associated with extraneous load included learners (fatigue positively associated), setting (queue order positively associated), and supervisors (supervisor engagement and confidence negatively associated). Only one feature, supervisor engagement, was (positively) associated with germane load. These data support practical recommendations for teaching procedural skills through the lens of cognitive load theory. To optimize intrinsic load, level of experience and competence of learners should be balanced with procedural complexity; part-task approaches and scaffolding may be beneficial. To reduce extraneous load, teachers should remain engaged, and factors within the procedural setting that may interfere with learning should be minimized. To optimize germane load, teachers should remain engaged.
Gillet, Nicolas; Colombat, Philippe; Michinov, Estelle; Pronost, Anne-Marie; Fouquereau, Evelyne
To test a model linking procedural justice, supervisor autonomy support, need satisfaction, organizational support, work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. Research in industrial and organizational psychology has shown that procedural justice and supervisor autonomy support lead to positive outcomes. However, very little research related to this subject has been conducted in healthcare settings. Moreover, few studies have examined mechanisms that could account for these positive relationships. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Convenience sampling was used and a sample of 500 nurses working in haematology, oncology and haematology/oncology units in France was surveyed in 2011. The final sample consisted of 323 nurses (64.6% response rate). The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modelling. Procedural justice and supervisor autonomy support significantly and positively influenced need satisfaction and perceived organizational support, which in turn positively predicted work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. Organizations could deliver training programmes for their managers aimed at enhancing the use of fair procedures in allocating outcomes and developing their autonomy-supportive behaviours to improve nurses' work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Jannesari, Milad; Wang, Zhongming; McCall, Jacob; Zheng, Boyang
This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and their host-country nationals (HCNs) colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them. PMID:29225587
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the magnitude of the contribution of communication intensity in the assignment of the responsibility attitude of the Supervisor at the Ministry of Religious Affairs Office at Medan. Hypothesis proposed; the intensity of communication in the assignment contributed significantly to the attitude of the Supervisory responsibility in the Ministry of Religious affairs Medan. The population of this study is all supervisors in the Ministry of Religious Affairs at Medan. Samples determined by Stratified Proportional Random Sampling Technique, obtained by 30 people. The instrument is designed with questionnaire form for communication intensity variable in assignment and responsibility attitude of Supervisor at Ministry of Religious Affairs at Medan. Two main conditions that must be owned by a data collection tool, they are; validity and reliability. Instrument validity was tested through content validity which was tested to 25 respondents outside the research sample. Instrument reliability was analyzed by Alpha Cronbach. The results of data analysis showed that the intensity of communication in the assignment has a significant contribution to the attitude of the Supervisory Board of Education in the City of Medan for 14.50% with a correlation coefficient of 0.381.
Full Text Available We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649. The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p < 0.001. Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p < 0.001. Co-worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.10; p < 0.001 and presenteeism (β = −0.11; p < 0.001. Supervisor support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001 but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees.
Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.
Barnett, Stephen; Jones, Sandra C; Bennett, Sue; Iverson, Don; Bonney, Andrew
General practice training is a community of practice in which novices and experts share knowledge. However, there are barriers to knowledge sharing for general practioner (GP) registrars, including geographic and workplace isolation. Virtual communities of practice (VCoP) can be effective in overcoming these barriers using social media tools. The present study examined the perceived usefulness, features and barriers to implementing a VCoP for GP training. Following a survey study of GP registrars and supervisors on VCoP feasibility, a qualitative telephone interview study was undertaken within a regional training provider. Participants with the highest Internet usage in the survey study were selected. Two researchers worked independently conducting thematic analysis using manual coding of transcriptions, later discussing themes until agreement was reached. Seven GP registrars and three GP supervisors participated in the study (average age 38.2 years). Themes emerged regarding professional isolation, potential of social media tools to provide peer support and improve knowledge sharing, and barriers to usage, including time, access and skills. Frequent Internet-using GP registrars and supervisors perceive a VCoP for GP training as a useful tool to overcome professional isolation through improved knowledge sharing. Given that professional isolation can lead to decreased rural work and reduced hours, a successful VCoP may have a positive outcome on the rural medical workforce.
B.M. Oliver; G.A. Ritter; G.S. Klinger; J. Abrefah; L.R. Greenwood; P.J. MacFarlan; S.C. Marschman
The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium spent nuclear fuels in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the fifth of those tests conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element (6603M) which had been stored underwater in the Hanford 100 Area K-West basin from 1983 until 1996. This fuel element was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments which were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0. The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections on the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0. Discussion of the results is given in Section 6.0.
Oliver, B.M.; Ritter, G.A.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Greenwood, L.R.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Marschman, S.C.
The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium spent nuclear fuels in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 8.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the fifth of those tests conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element (6603M) which had been stored underwater in the Hanford 100 Area K-West basin from 1983 until 1996. This fuel element was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments which were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The system used for the drying test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0. The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. Inspections on the fuel element before and after the test are provided in Section 4.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 5.0. Discussion of the results is given in Section 6.0
Looijenga, Jantina Helena
Het onderzoek naar de oudste runeninscripties van het Europese continent, Engeland en Denemarken voerde onderzoekster van Liverpool aan de Ierse Zee naar Constanza aan de Zwarte Zee; van Zürich naar Bergen; van Parijs naar Stockholm. In dit enorme gebied kende men reeds bij het begin van de vroege
Looijenga, Jantina Helena
Het onderzoek naar de oudste runeninscripties van het Europese continent, Engeland en Denemarken voerde onderzoekster van Liverpool aan de Ierse Zee naar Constanza aan de Zwarte Zee; van Zürich naar Bergen; van Parijs naar Stockholm. In dit enorme gebied kende men reeds bij het begin van de vroege middeleeuwen het runenschrift (rond 500 AD). Ergens in dit gebied moet een kern gelegen hebben, waar het begon - vermoedelijk in de eerste eeuw AD. Het localiseren van dat oorsprongsgebied begon me ...
Mohammad Zare Zadeh
Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of services extremely depends on how personnel have contact and interaction with the clients. Moreover, the personnel’s attitudes and their behaviors with the clients significantly affect clients’ perception of quality of services and consequently influence their satisfaction as well as their absorption to the services of an institution. This study intends to investigate the supervisor’s attitude towards the effect of persons or the personal element (as one of the elements of the service marketing mix on choosing the hospital by the patients and their companions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the winter of 2012. The study participant involved 35 supervisors in Yazd educational hospitals of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences; Shahid Rahnemoun and Afshar. The research data were gleaned via a researcher-made questionnaire on factors of the marketing mix which its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Results revealed that supervisor’s belief in the increasing of market share of a hospital services in public hospitals are consist of: 1-Physical evidence 2- Service or product 3- People or persons 4- Efficiency and quality 5- Process 6- Distribution 7-Promotion or propagation and 8- Price. Therefore, the significance of the personnel role in absorption of a definite patient involves the third element in choosing the hospital by the patients. Conclusion: Based on this study, since the third factor in clients’ (patients, etc. choices of hospital are the personnel and persons who provide services, it is confirmed that in service-based organizations like hospitals, the most important elements of quality of services in retaining and absorbing new clients and surviving the organization are the personnel activities who has been connected with organization clients. Moreover, it is regarded as a vital factor in
Juan Luis Gandía Cabedo
Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo consiste en poner de manifiesto el papel que en los últimos años están desempeñando los organismos supervisores de los mercados de valores en el proceso de armonización contable internacional. Así, las mayores necesidades de financiación de ciertas empresas que podríamos denominar "transnacionales" y la creciente globalización del negocio bursátil, acrecientan el interés de los mercados de capitales porque las sociedades cotizadas depositen información financiera que sea comparable para sus usuarios internacionales. En este sentido, analizamos la viabilidad del acuerdo suscrito entre la 10SCO y el IASC en julio de 1995, teniendo en cuenta la estrategia propia adoptada por los mercados de capitales estadounidenses y el papel que como organismo normalizador desempeña en aquel país el FASB. Todo ello supone cambios sustanciales en el futuro de la armonización contable internacional. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role player by supervisory organizations of the stock markets in the process of international accounting harmonization. Thus, the increasing needs for financing experience by international corporations and the growing globalization of the stock market, increase the inte¬rest of the capital markets because the companies listing deposit financial information that it will be comparable for their international users. In this sense, we analyze the viability of the agreement subscribed among the IOSCO and the IASC in July of 1995, taking into account the own strategy adopted by American stock markets and the paper that as standard organization performs in that country the FASE. All this supposes changes essential in the future of the international accounting harmonization.
Kutz, D F; Marzocchi, N; Fattori, P; Cavalcanti, S; Galletti, C
A new method is presented based on trinary logic able to check the state of different control variables and synchronously record the physiological and behavioral data of behaving animals and humans. The basic information structure of the method is a time interval of defined maximum duration, called time slice, during which the supervisor system periodically checks the status of a specific subset of input channels. An experimental condition is a sequence of time slices subsequently executed according to the final status of the previous time slice. The proposed method implements in its data structure the possibility to branch like an if-else cascade and the possibility to repeat parts of it recursively like the while-loop. Therefore its data structure contains the most basic control structures of programming languages. The method was implemented using a real-time version of LabVIEW programming environment to program and control our experimental setup. Using this supervision system, we synchronously record four analog data channels at 500 Hz (including eye movements) and the time stamps of up to six neurons at 100 kHz. The system reacts with a resolution within 1 ms to changes of state of digital input channels. The system is set to react to changes in eye position with a resolution within 4 ms. The time slices, experimental conditions, and data are handled by relational databases. This facilitates the construction of new experimental conditions and data analysis. The proposed implementation allows continuous recording without an inter-trial gap for data storage or task management. The implementation can be used to drive electrophysiological experiments of behaving animals and psychophysical studies with human subjects.
Thompson, A.; Smythe, L.; Jones, M.
Introduction: The involvement of practitioners in the teaching and supervision of medical imaging technology students is central to students' learning. This article presents an overview of a learning partnership initiative, reinforced by an online platform to support students' learning and their medical imaging technologist supervisors' (MITs) teaching within a clinical learning environment in a New Zealand context. Methodology: Data were generated through a series of fourteen collaborative action research focus group meetings with MITs and student MITs. Results: The findings revealed that a robust relationship between a student and their MIT partner gave students an ‘anchor’ for learning and a sense of belonging. The online platform supported the relationship and provided an effective means for communication between students and their MIT partners. The relationship was not one-directional as it also supported the enhancement of MITs' practice. Conclusions: The recommendations from the study suggest learning partnerships between MITs and student MITs will be valuable in supporting teaching and learning respectively. MITs need to be better supported in their teaching role to enable them to make a greater investment in students' learning. A redistribution of funding for clinical education needs to be considered to support the MITs' central role in teaching medical imaging students. - Highlights: • Learning partnerships within a clinical setting support students' learning. • An online platform can provide online support when face-to-face support is not possible. • Learning partnerships can enhance MITs' practice.
This report is focussed on the important aspects of the training and retraining of nuclear power plant managers and supervisors. The functional levels of the onsite operating organization of nine nuclear power plants are described and analyzed in order to determine the comparability of management positions as well as the responsibilities of the job incumbents. Retraining requirements are suggested depending on position, responsibilities, and relevance to safety. The manager's role in case of emergencies leads to specific demands with regard to regular training to cope with inadequate core cooling and to mitigate accidents. (orig.) [de
Biemba, Godfrey; Chiluba, Boniface; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Silavwe, Vichaels; Lunze, Karsten; Mwale, Rodgers K; Russpatrick, Scott; Hamer, Davidson H
Effective community health management information systems (C-HMIS) are important in low-resource countries that rely heavily on community-based health care providers. Zambia currently lacks a functioning C-HMIS to provide real-time, community-based health information from community health workers (CHWs) to health center staff and higher levels of the health system. We developed a C-HMIS mobile platform for use by CHWs providing integrated community case management (iCCM) services and their supervisors to address challenges of frequent stock-outs and inadequate supportive supervision of iCCM-trained CHWs. The platform used simple feature mobile phones on which were loaded the District Health Information System version 2 (DHIS2) software and Java 2 platform micro edition (J2ME) aggregation and tracker applications. This project was implemented in Chipata and Chadiza districts, which supported previous mHealth programs and had cellular coverage from all 3 major network carriers in Zambia. A total of 40 CHWs and 20 CHW supervisors received mobile phones with data bundles and training in the mobile application, after which they implemented the program over a period of 5.5 months, from February to mid-July 2016. CHWs used the mobile phones to submit data on iCCM cases seen, managed, and referred, as well as iCCM medical and diagnostic supplies received and dispensed. Using their mobile phones, the supervisors tracked CHWs' reported cases with medicine consumption, sent CHWs feedback on their referrals, and received SMS reminders to set up mentorship sessions. CHWs were able to use the mobile application to send weekly reports to health center supervisors on disease caseloads and medical commodities consumed, to make drug and supply requisitions, and to send pre-referral notices to health centers. Health center staff used the mobile system to provide feedback to CHWs on the case outcomes of referred patients and to receive automated monthly SMS reminders to invite CHWs to
All radiation protection relevant activities subject to licencing or notifying include observation of legally allocated responsibilities. Responsible radiation protection supervisor is the licence owner in person. If the holder is a legal entity, that entity is responsible as such. The executives of the entity exercise the functions of a responsible radiation protection officer, or may delegate them to an authorized deputy. In this case, the yardstick of a possible liability may be changed. The liability of the responsible persons is determined by the general legal regulations. (orig.) [de
Min, Sang-Ki; Hwang, Hye-Seon; Jin, You-Rim; Lee, Eui-Jin; Lee, Soo-Jin
Transformational leadership means that supervisors try to support the members individually, and encourage them to find new methods and approaches. In this study, it was identified empirically that a supervisor's transformational leadership has a strong influence on the learning culture and learning transfer of nuclear R and D personnel. To develop the competency of R and D personnel, not only formal education programs but also informal learning such as workplace learning have been carried out in the nuclear R and D organization. In this situation, transformational leadership has an effect on willingness and behavior of nuclear R and D personnel on the formal and informal learning. Therefore, transformational leadership is crucial factor in the human resource development system. The leadership required by them is not a one-sided order, but rather individual consideration, charisma, and intellectual stimulation for their nuclear R and D members. As a point of nuclear training and education, it is necessary to consider the operation of leadership programs that strengthen the transformational leadership of the project managers.
Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio
In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment). (author)
为了探讨自恋型人格特质对导师制功能运转的影响，采用问卷形式调查了某“985工程”大学301位研究生的自恋水平及其指导经历，结果发现：研究生的自恋水平与指导关系维持的时间具有显著的负相关关系；而与负面指导经历呈显著的正相关关系；自恋与职业支持和心理支持也有显著的负相关关系；自恋作为调节变量，使得负面指导经历与疏远指导关系意向和关系质量间的正向与负向关系更为显著。研究结果启示我们要格外关注个性特征在指导关系发展中的作用。%A questionnaire‐based survey was made of 301 graduate students from a Program 985 university to investigate the effects of students' narcissistic personality traits on their relationship with supervisors . Results show that the level of narcissistic personality traits is negatively correlated with the length of students'relationship with supervisors and positively correlated with their negative experiences with supervisors;narcissistic personality is negatively correlated with psychological support or career support ;narcissistic personality as an adjustment variable intensifies both the positive and negative relationship between negative experiences with supervisors and intention to stay away from supervisors .Our findings suggest that importance should be attached to the effects of personality traits on the relationship between students and supervisors .
Juan Adolfo Brandt
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma modalidade de intervenção grupal para análise das relações dos supervisores com os membros de suas equipes nas organizações de trabalho públicas e privadas. Foi desenvolvida para aplicação fora das organizações, incluindo técnica, método e enquadre, além de discutir evidências de sofrimento psíquico e mecanismos de defesa e de propor reflexões sobre liderança e outras estratégias para gestão das relações.
Skarlicki, Daniel P; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D; Shao, Ruodan; Song, Young Ho; Wang, Mo
The multifoci perspective of justice proposes that individuals tend to target their (in)justice reactions toward the perceived source of the mistreatment. Empirical support for target-specific reactions, however, has been mixed. To explore theoretically relevant reasons for these discrepant results and address unanswered questions in the multifoci justice literature, the present research examines how different justice sources might interactively predict target-specific reactions, and whether these effects occur as a function of moral identity. Results from a sample of North American frontline service employees (N = 314, Study 1) showed that among employees with lower levels of moral identity, low supervisor justice exacerbated the association between low customer justice and customer-directed sabotage, whereas this exacerbation effect was not observed among employees with higher levels of moral identity. This 3-way interaction effect was replicated in a sample of South Korean employees (N = 265, Study 2). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Linton, Steven J; Boersma, Katja; Traczyk, Michal; Shaw, William; Nicholas, Michael
Purpose There is a clear need for interventions that successfully prevent the development of disability due to back pain. We hypothesized that an intervention aimed at both the worker and the workplace could be effective. Hence, we tested the effects of a new early intervention, based on the misdirected problem solving model, aimed at both workers at risk of long-term impairments and their workplace. Methods Supervisors of volunteers with back pain, no red flags, and a high score on a screen (Örebro Musculoskeletal Screening Questionnaire) were randomized to either an evidence based treatment as usual (TAU) or to a worker and workplace package (WWP). The WWP intervention included communication and problem solving skills for the patient and their immediate supervisor. The key outcome variables of work absence due to pain, health-care utilization, perceived health, and pain intensity were collected before, after and at a 6 month follow up. Results The WWP showed significantly larger improvements relative to the TAU for work absence due to pain, perceived health, and health-care utilization. Both groups improved on pain ratings but there was no significant difference between the groups. The WWP not only had significantly fewer participants utilizing health care and work absence due to pain, but the number of health care visits and days absent were also significantly lower than the TAU. Conclusions The WWP with problem solving and communication skills resulted in fewer days off work, fewer health care visits and better perceived health. This supports the misdirected problem solving model and indicates that screening combined with an active intervention to enhance skills is quite successful and likely cost-effective. Future research should replicate and extend these findings with health-economic analyses.
Umamaheswari S, Jayasree Krishnan
Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource) managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their likelihood of leaving the company
Full Text Available Purpose: Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their
María Purificación PÉREZ GARCÍA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo mostramos cómo el ejercicio de una supervisión reflexiva estimula la reflexión en los alumnos tutorizados y en el propio supervisor durante el periodo de Practicum. Para comprobarlo, nos basamos en la metodología de estudio de caso, estudiando cuatro casos, compuestos, cada uno de ellos, por el supervisor y el alumno universitario. Practicaron un modelo de supervisión que requería poner en juego ciertas operaciones cognitivas, conducentes a estimular la reflexión. Las sesiones de trabajo fueron grabadas y la información obtenida, finalizada su puesta en práctica, se redujo recurriendo al análisis de contenido. A través del programa de análisis de datos AQUAD, aplicamos el análisis de Implicantes para descubrir cuáles eran los requisitos que favorecían la aparición de las acciones reflexivas (categorías/criterios. Se empleó el mapa conceptual como instrumento evaluador del incremento de la reflexión. La conclusión fue que si se supervisa de forma reflexiva, se estimulan determinadas operaciones cognitivas (acciones reflexivas y se aumenta la reflexividad en el alumno y en el supervisor.ABSTRACT: In this article, we show the importance of reflexive supervisión during the Prácticum (Student Teaching to encourage reflexivity in university students and in the supervisors themselves. We analyse four cases, each involving a supervisor and a university student. They were trained to apply a model of supervisión requiring cognitive processes that favour reflection. The work sessions were recorded. We conducted a content and implicants analysis using AQUAD. The results show that some reflexive actions such as «categories» and «criteria» were required for increasing reflection. We used a conceptual map to assess whether reflective supervisión increases reflection. The model was very successful and encouraged reflexivity in both the student and the supervisor.RÉSUMÉ: Dans cet article, on montre comment
Willemse, Bernadette M; de Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet
Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how specific job resources can buffer the adverse effects of high demands, and can even activate positive consequences of high demands. The present study tests the moderating (i.e. buffering and activating) effects of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support that are assumed by the hypotheses of the DCS Model. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted with an anonymous questionnaire. One hundred and thirty six living arrangements that provide nursing home care for people with dementia in the Netherlands. Fifteen healthcare workers per living arrangement. In total, 1147 people filled out the questionnaires (59% response rate). Hierarchical multilevel regression analyses were conducted to test the assumption that the effect of job demands on the dependent variables is buffered or activated the most when both decision authority and social support are high. This moderation is statistically represented by three-way interactions (i.e. demands×authority×support), while lower-order effects are taken into account (i.e. two-way interactions). The hypotheses are supported when three-way interaction effects are found in the expected direction. The dependent variables studied are job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment. The proposed buffering and activation hypotheses of the DCS Model were not supported in our study. Three-way interaction effects were found for emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, though not in the expected direction. In addition, two-way interaction effects were found for job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Decision authority was found to buffer the adverse effect of job demands and to activate
Individual employee's perceptions of " Group-level Safety Climate" (supervisor referenced) versus " Organization-level Safety Climate" (top management referenced): Associations with safety outcomes for lone workers.
Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; McFadden, Anna C; Rineer, Jennifer; Robertson, Michelle M
Research has shown that safety climate is among the strongest predictors of safety behavior and safety outcomes in a variety of settings. Previous studies have established that safety climate is a multi-faceted construct referencing multiple levels of management within a company, most generally: the organization level (employee perceptions of top management's commitment to and prioritization of safety) and group level (employee perceptions of direct supervisor's commitment to and prioritization of safety). Yet, no research to date has examined the potential interaction between employees' organization-level safety climate (OSC) and group-level safety climate (GSC) perceptions. Furthermore, prior research has mainly focused on traditional work environments in which supervisors and workers interact in the same location throughout the day. Little research has been done to examine safety climate with regard to lone workers. The present study aims to address these gaps by examining the relationships between truck drivers' (as an example of lone workers) perceptions of OSC and GSC, both potential linear and non-linear relationships, and how these predict important safety outcomes. Participants were 8095 truck drivers from eight trucking companies in the United States with an average response rate of 44.8%. Results showed that employees' OSC and GSC perceptions are highly correlated (r= 0.78), but notable gaps between the two were observed for some truck drivers. Uniquely, both OSC and GSC scores were found to have curvilinear relationships with safe driving behavior, and both scores were equally predictive of safe driving behavior. Results also showed the two levels of climate significantly interacted with one another to predict safety behavior such that if either the OSC or GSC scores were low, the other's contribution to safety behavior became stronger. These findings suggest that OSC and GSC may function in a compensatory manner and promote safe driving behavior even
Marita SÁNCHEZ MORENO
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un inventario acerca de las creencias y opiniones de los profesores que asumen papeles de ayuda, guía y orientación de profesores principiantes como parte importante de los programas de formación para estos profesores noveles. El Inventario nos permite conocer qué estilo de supervisión predomina en estos profesores mentores cuando trabajan con profesores que se encuentran en sus primeros años de docencia. El documento asume que los profesores mentores creen y actúan de acuerdo con una de las tres orientaciones de supervisión: Directiva, Colaborativa y No Directiva. El artículo describe el Inventario de Creencias del Supervisor así como el proceso de validación y los hallazgos obtenidos tras su aplicación a un grupo de profesores con experiencia que participaron en un curso de Formación en Estrategias de Supervisión.ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to offer an inventory of the beliefs and opinions of teachers who act as supervisors, guides and orientors for novice teachers as an important aspect in the training programs for such professionals. The inventory discloses the predominant supervisory styles of such mentor teachers when they are working with teachers in the first years of their duties. The work assumes that mentor teachers hold beliefs and act in accordance with one of three supervisory orientations: Directive, Collaborative and Non-Directive The paper describes the I.S.B. and the process of validation and the findings obtained after application to a group of teachers with experience who participated in a course on Training in Supervisory Strategies.RÉSUMÉ: L'objectif de ce travail est de dresser un inventaire -á l'intérieur des programmes de formation- des croyances et des opinions des professeurs assumant le role d'aide, de guide et d'orientation envers les professeurs débutants . I/inventaire nous permet de savoir quel type d'inspection predomine chez ees
Tarescavage, Anthony M; Brewster, JoAnne; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S
We examined associations between prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and posthire performance ratings for a sample of 131 male police officers. Substantive scale scores in this sample were meaningfully lower than those obtained by the test's normative sample and substantially range restricted, but scores were consistent with those produced by members of the police candidate comparison group (Corey & Ben-Porath). After applying a statistical correction for range restriction, we found several associations between MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores and supervisor ratings of job-related performance. Findings for scales from the emotional dysfunction and interpersonal functioning domains of the test were particularly strong. For example, scales assessing low positive emotions and social avoidance were associated with several criteria that may be affected by lack of engagement with one's environment and other people, including problems with routine task performance, decision making, assertiveness, conscientiousness, and social competence. Implications of these findings for assessment science and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Thanks to the rapid developments in science and technology in recent decades, especially in the past two decades, forensic sciences have been making invaluable contributions to criminal justice systems. With scientific evaluation of physical evidence, policing has become more effective in fighting crime and criminals. On the other hand, law enforcement personnel have made mistakes during the detection, protection, collection, and evaluation of physical evidence. Law enforcement personnel, especially patrol officers, have been criticized for ignoring or overlooking physical evidence at crime scenes. This study, conducted in a large American police department, was aimed to determine the perceptions of patrol officers, their supervisors and administrators, detectives, and crime scene technicians about the forensic science needs of patrol officers. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the perceptions of the said groups. More than half of the respondents perceived that 14 out of 16 areas of knowledge were important for patrol officers to have: crime scene documentation, evidence collection, interviewing techniques, firearm evidence, latent and fingerprint evidence, blood evidence, death investigation information, DNA evidence, document evidence, electronically recorded evidence, trace evidence, biological fluid evidence, arson and explosive evidence, and impression evidence. Less than half of the respondents perceived forensic entomology and plant evidence as important for patrol officers.
Garth, Belinda; Kirby, Catherine; Silberberg, Peter; Brown, James
Learning plans are a compulsory component of the training and assessment requirements of general practice (GP) registrars in Australia. There is a small but growing number of studies reporting that learning plans are not well accepted or utilised in general practice training. There is a lack of research examining this apparent contradiction. The aim of this study was to examine use and perceived utility of formal learning plans in GP vocational training. This mixed-method Australian national research project utilised online learning plan usage data from 208 GP registrars and semi-structured focus groups and telephone interviews with 35 GP registrars, 12 recently fellowed GPs, 16 supervisors and 17 medical educators across three Regional Training Providers (RTPs). Qualitative data were analysed thematically using template analysis. Learning plans were used mostly as a log of activities rather than as a planning tool. Most learning needs were entered and ticked off as complete on the same day. Learning plans were perceived as having little value for registrars in their journey to becoming a competent GP, and as a bureaucratic hurdle serving as a distraction rather than an aid to learning. The process of learning planning was valued more so than the documentation of learning planning. This study provides creditable evidence that mandated learning plans are broadly considered by users to be a bureaucratic impediment with little value as a learning tool. It is more important to support registrars in planning their learning than to enforce documentation of this process in a learning plan. If learning planning is to be an assessed competence, methods of assessment other than the submission of a formal learning plan should be explored.
Malik, Nishtha; Dhar, Rajib Lochan; Handa, Subhash Chander
Nurses play a dominant role in the healthcare sector. However, the working condition of nurses in India is far from satisfactory due to a variety of factors. This is further compounded by the lack of respect for nurses and their profession. Therefore, there is a need to examine factors that could mitigate this situation. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between authentic leadership and employee creativity, while determining the mediating effect of knowledge sharing behaviour and moderating effect of use of information technology on this association. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect the data. Macro process (Hayes) was used to examine the mediating role of knowledge sharing behaviour and the moderating role of use of information technology in the relationship between authentic leadership and employee creativity. Data was collected from 43 small- and medium-sized hospitals in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The participants in the present study were 405 nurses and their 81 supervisors from the above hospitals. Results indicate that authentic leadership is positively linked to the creativity of employees. Further, knowledge sharing behaviour is found to mediate the relationship between authentic leadership and employee creativity, while use of information technology acts as a moderator between knowledge sharing behaviour and employee creativity. The findings of this investigation can help healthcare managers understand the importance of knowledge creation and knowledge sharing among healthcare workers. This paper draws attention to the need for hospital administrators to establish an appropriate information technology infrastructure to effectively manage the knowledge pool of the organization. This study also highlights the importance of effective leadership style, namely authentic leadership, in positively influencing employee creativity in healthcare institutions, a service oriented industry. This study contributes to
Problem statement: In social open systems, there are basically two determinant of organizational behavior: "organizational" and "personal." The former is mostly related to the aim of the organization, the necessities of the work, whereas the latter is concerned with the traits of the employee. Various studies have focused on…
在景德镇设官监造,宋时已有,元代还成立了专门的官办监陶机构＂浮梁磁局＂。但是宋元时期监陶官的主要职责是收取地方瓷器生产税,设置目的是为了增加国家财政收入,这与明清时期御窑厂督陶官有很大不同。明清时期,朝廷在景德镇建立御窑厂,专门烧造宫廷用瓷,并委派官员督陶。督陶官作为御窑厂的直接负责人,在御器生产过程中担当着至关重要的角色,对景德镇瓷业乃至中国瓷业的发展有着重要影响。本文通过收集和整理大量的文献史料,对明清时期景德镇御窑厂督陶官及其督陶情况进行了全面梳理和比较分析,使读者对其有一个全面清晰的认识和更为深入的理解,填补了陶瓷史中这部分研究的缺漏。%The practice of assigning porcelain production supervisors in Jingdezhen started from Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty saw the founding of a porcelain production watchdog, namely, Fuliang Porcelain Bureau. However, the major responsibility of supervisors of Song and Yuan Dynasties was mainly to collect porcelain production taxes so as to increase the national revenue, which differed greatly from that of supervisors of Ming and Qing dynasties. During Ming and Qing Dynasties, the courts decreed to establish the Impedal Porcelain Factory in Jingdezhen to produce porcelain exclusively for imperial use and to assign supervisors for porcelain production. As the direct managers of the Imperial Porcelain Factory, these supervisors played a vital role in the production of porcelain for imperial use and in the development of the porcelain industry of Jingdezhen and that of China at large. This paper has collected and summarized a great many of documents and made a thorough and comparative analysis of all the supervisors of Ming and Qing Dynasties and their supervision so as to present readers a full, clear and better understanding of this field and to fill the gap of this field in the study
Full Text Available This qualitative study aimed to formulate a logic model describing the clinical supervision as an educational and programmatic activity. Data was collected by interviewing 10 clinical supervisors affiliated with a bachelor’s program in psychology and a master’s program in clinical psychology, offered by a privately-owned university located in Bogotá, Colombia. Answers were analyzed following the NCT method (noticing things, collecting things, thinking about things. Descriptors of resources, activities and results were obtained in addition to the identification of these critical issues: (1 a higher specialization of resources used in the master’s program; (2 the contribution of psychosocial projects at the bachelor’s level; (3 a differential implementation of activities oriented towards development of metacognition and reflection on the learning process; (4 type and quality of evidence collected by supervisors in relation to the supervisees’ learning outcomes, and (5 the need for designing and implementing observable indicators of skill and competence development. This logic model is an appropriate antecedent to the formulation of research questions that could be answered by conducting a further evaluation study of this program.