WorldWideScience

Sample records for supervised treatment interruptions

  1. Assessment of treatment interruption among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Bhgath Gorityala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB is a rising peril of the TB control in India caused mostly by incomplete treatment. Aim: The aim was to assess the treatment interruption among pulmonary TB (PTB patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 9 months among PTB patients. Patients admitted with active pulmonary Koch′s and history of anti-TB treatment (ATT for 1-month or more from any source and who returns to treatment after not taking ATT consecutively for 2 months or more were included in the study. The data were collected from the patients or their caretakers to obtain the source of treatment given previously before default, number of treatment interruptions, phase and reasons for treatment interruption treatment. Results: A total of 107 defaulters were identified during the study period. In the present study, 62.6% of the patients interrupted treatment only once, 55.34% of the patient′s early continuation (3-4 months treatment, and 47.66% of the patient′s only one reason for the treatment interruptions during the course of the treatment. The most common reason for the treatment interruptions were felt well with TB treatment (29.53% followed by side effects (16.06%, lack of money (8.29%, and other reasons. Conclusion: The study revealed that most of the defaulters were in the age group between 35 and 60 years, male gender, illiterates, daily wage labor, and married. The treatment interruptions were minimized by putting the efforts to improve direct supervision; pretreatment counseling and retrieve treatment interrupters were recommended.

  2. HIV models for treatment interruption: Adaptation and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Andreas; Crane, Martin; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has become commonplace for treating HIV infections, although a cure remains elusive, given reservoirs of replicating latently-infected cells, which are resistant to normal treatment regimes. Treatment interruptions, whether ad hoc or structured, are known to cause a rapid increase in viral production to detectable levels, but numerous clinical trials remain inconclusive on the dangers inherent in this resurgence. In consequence, interest in examining interruption strategies has recently been rekindled. This overview considers modelling approaches, which have been used to explore the issue of treatment interruption. We highlight their purpose and the formalisms employed and examine ways in which clinical data have been used. Implementation of selected models is demonstrated, illustrative examples provided and model performance compared for these cases. Possible extensions to bottom-up modelling techniques for treatment interruptions are briefly discussed.

  3. Optimal treatment interruptions control of TB transmission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Jonner; Suparwati, Titik; Kawuwung, Westy B.

    2018-03-01

    A tuberculosis model which incorporates treatment interruptions of infectives is established. Optimal control of individuals infected with active TB is given in the model. It is obtained that the control reproduction numbers is smaller than the reproduction number, this means treatment controls could optimize the decrease in the spread of active TB. For this model, controls on treatment of infection individuals to reduce the actively infected individual populations, by application the Pontryagins Maximum Principle for optimal control. The result further emphasized the importance of controlling disease relapse in reducing the number of actively infected and treatment interruptions individuals with tuberculosis.

  4. Neurocognition and quality of life after reinitiating antiretroviral therapy in children randomized to planned treatment interruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Melvin, Diane; Amador, Jose T. R.; Childs, Tristan; Medin, Gabriela; Boscolo, Valentina; Compagnucci, Alexandra; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Montero, Samuel; Gibb, Diana M.; Aboulker, J. -P.; Babiker, A.; Belfrage, E.; Bernardi, S.; Bologna, R.; Burger, D.; Butler, K.; Castelli-Gattinara, G.; Castro, H.; Clayden, P.; Compagnucci, A.; Cressey, T.; Darbyshire, J. H.; Debré, M.; de Groot, R.; della Negra, M.; Di Biagio, A.; de Rossi, A.; Duicelescu, D.; Faye, A.; Giaquinto, C.; Giacomet, V.; Gibb, D. M.; Grosch-Wörner, I.; Hainault, M.; Klein, N.; Lallemant, M.; Levy, J.; Lyall, H.; Marczynska, M.; Marques, L.; Mardarescu, M.; Mellado Peña, M. J.; Nadal, D.; Nastouli, E.; Naver, L.; Niehues, T.; Peckham, C.; Pillay, D.; Popieska, J.; Ramos Amador, J. T.; Rojo Conejo, P.; Rosado, L.; Rosso, R.; Rudin, C.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Sharland, M.; Stevanovic, M.; Thorne, C.; Tovo, P. A.; Tudor-Williams, G.; Turkova, A.; Valerius, N.; Volokha, A.; Walker, A. S.; Welch, S.; Wintergerst, U.; Aboulker, J. P.; Burger, D. M.; Green, H.; Harper, L.; Mofenson, L.; Moye, J.; Saïdi, Y.; Cressey, T. R.; Jacqz-Aigrain, E.; Khoo, S.; Regazzi, M.; Tréluyer, J. M.; Ngo-Giang-Huong, N.; Muñoz Fernandez, M. A.; Hill, C.; Lepage, P.; Pozniak, A.; Vella, S.; Chêne, G.; Vesikari, T.; Hadjou, G.; Léonardo, S.; Riault, Y.; Bleier, J.; Buck, L.; Duong, T.; Farrelly, L.; Forcat, S.; Harrison, L.; Horton, J.; Johnson, D.; Montero, S.; Taylor, C.; Chalermpantmetagul, S.; Peongjakta, R.; Khamjakkaew, W.; Than-in-at, K.; Chailert, S.; Jourdain, G.; Le Coeur, S.; Floret, D.; Costanzo, P.; Le Thi, T. T.; Monpoux, F.; Mellul, S.; Caranta, I.; Boudjoudi, N.; Firtion, G.; Denon, M.; Charlemaine, E.; Picard, F.; Hellier, E.; Heuninck, C.; Damond, F.; Alexandre, G.; Tricoire, J.; Antras, M.; Lachendowier, C.; Nicot, F.; Krivine, A.; Rivaux, D.; Notheis, G.; Strotmann, G.; Schlieben, S.; Rampon, O.; Boscolo, V.; Zanchetta, M.; Ginocchio, F.; Viscoli, C.; Martino, A.; Pontrelli, G.; Baldassar, S.; Concato, C.; Mazza, A.; Rossetti, G.; Dobosz, S.; Oldakowska, A.; Popielska, J.; Kaflik, M.; Stanczak, J.; Stanczack, G.; Dyda, T.; Kruk, M.; González Tomé, M. I.; Delgado García, R.; Fernandez Gonzalez, M. T.; Medin, G.; Mellado Peña, M. José; Martín Fontelos, P.; Garcia Mellado, M. I.; Medina, A. F.; Ascencion, B.; Garcia Bermejo, I.; Navarro Gomez, D. M. L.; Saavedra, J.; Prieto, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Muñoz-Fernandez, M. A.; Garcia Torre, A.; de José Gómez, M. I.; García Rodriguez, M. C.; Moreno Pérez, D.; Núñez Cuadros, E.; Asensi-Botet, F.; Otero Reigada, C.; Pérez Tamarit, M. D.; Vilalta, R.; Molina Moreno, J. M.; Rainer, Truninger; Schupbach, J.; Rutishauser, M.; Bunupuradah, T.; Butterworth, O.; Phasomsap, C.; Prasitsuebsai, W.; Chuanjaroen, T.; Jupimai, T.; Ubolyam, S.; Phanuphak, P.; Puthanakit, T.; Pancharoen, C.; Mai, Chaing; Kanjanavanit, S.; Namwong, T.; Punsakoon, W.; Payakachat, S.; Chutima, D.; Raksasang, M.; Foster, C.; Hamadache, D.; Campbell, S.; Newbould, C.; Monrose, C.; Abdulla, A.; Walley, A.; Melvin, D.; Patel, D.; Kaye, S.; Seery, P.; Rankin, A.; Wildfire, A.; Novelli, V.; Shingadia, D.; Moshal, K.; Flynn, J.; Clapson, M.; Allen, A.; Spencer, L.; Rackstraw, C.; Ward, B.; Parkes, K.; Depala, M.; Jacobsen, M.; Poulsom, H.; Barkley, L.; Miah, J.; Lurie, P.; Keane, C.; McMaster, P.; Phipps, M.; Orendi, J.; Farmer, C.; Liebeschuetz, S.; Sodeinde, O.; Wong, S.; Bostock, V.; Heath, Y.; Scott, S.; Gandhi, K.; Lewis, P.; Daglish, J.; Miles, K.; Summerhill, L.; Subramaniam, B.; Weiner, L.; Famiglietti, M.; Rana, S.; Yu, P.; Roa, J.; Puga, A.; Haerry, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption on neurocognition and quality of life (QoL) are important for managing unplanned interruptions and planned interruptions in HIV cure research. Design: Children previously randomized to continuous (continuous ART, n =

  5. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Schmuecking, Michael; Aebersold, Daniel; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations

  6. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  7. Treatment interruptions: Statistics, causes and management in service radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando Sanchez, A.; Milanes Gaillet, A. I.; Eugui Martinez, R.; Crespo Diaz, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the clinical maximum administer the prescribed dose at a given time, treatment interruptions are unavoidable in practice. In tumors quickly reproduce no evidence that the prolongation thereof entails loss of tumor control. It has tracked two of these conditions: squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) and lung cancer (NSCLC) over 2011 and 2012 to evaluate both the number of stops treatment as the reason for them and its management. (Author)

  8. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V; Somboonwit, Charurut; Llibre, Josep M; Palfreeman, Adrian; Chini, Maria; Lundgren, Jens D

    2013-01-02

    To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow-up analyses of stored plasma samples demonstrated increased activation of both inflammatory and coagulation pathways after stopping ART. SMART patients from sites that determined platelets routinely. Platelet counts were retrospectively collected from 2206 patients from visits at study entry, and during follow-up. D-dimer levels were measured at study entry, month 1, and 2. Platelet levels decreased in the drug conservation group following randomization, but remained stable in the viral suppression group [median (IQR) decline from study entry to month 4: -24 000/μl (-54 000 to 4000) vs. 3000 (-22 000 to 24 000), respectively, P conservation vs. the viral suppression arm (unadjusted drug conservation/viral suppression [HR (95%CI) = 1.8 (1.2-2.7)]. The decline in platelet count among drug conservation participants on fully suppressive ART correlated with the rise in D-dimer from study entry to either month 1 or 2 (r = -0.41; P = 0.02). Among drug conservation participants who resumed ART 74% recovered to their study entry platelet levels. Interrupting ART increases the risk of thrombocytopenia, but reinitiation of ART typically reverses it. Factors contributing to declines in platelets after interrupting ART may include activation of coagulation pathways or HIV-1 replication itself. The contribution of platelets in HIV-related procoagulant activity requires further study.

  9. The effect of interruptions and prolonged treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Chua, Daniel T.T.; Choy, Damon T.K.; Au, Gordon K.H.; Wu, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of interruptions and prolonged overall treatment time in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the significance of timing of interruption was investigated. Methods and Materials: Treatment records of 229 patients treated with continuous course (CC) and 567 patients treated with split course (SC) radiotherapy for nonmetastatic NPC were reviewed. Overall treatment time without inclusion of time for boost was calculated. Treatment that extended 1 week beyond scheduled time was considered prolonged. Outcome in patients who completed treatment 'per schedule' were compared with those who had 'prolonged' treatment. Because of known patient selection bias between CC and SC, patients on the two schedules were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis was performed for patients on SC. Total number of days of interruption, age, sex, T and N stage, and the use of boost were tested for the whole SC group. Analysis on the effect of timing of interruption was performed in a subgroup of 223 patients on SC who had a single unplanned interruption. Timing of interruption, either before or after the fourth week for the unplanned interruption, was tested in addition to the other variables in multivariate analysis for this subgroup of SC. Results: Twenty-seven (11.8%) patients on CC and 96 (16.9%) patients on SC had prolonged treatment. Patients on SC who had prolonged treatment had significantly poorer loco-regional control rate and disease free survival when compared with those who completed radiotherapy per schedule (p = 0.0063 and 0.001, respectively, with adjustment for stage). For CC, the effect of prolonged treatment on outcome was not significant. The small number of events for patients on CC probably account for the insignificant finding. The number of days of interruption was confirmed as prognostic factor, independent of T and N stages, for loco-regional control and disease-free survival in multivariate analysis for SC. The hazard rate for loco

  10. Chemoradiotherapy in patients with anal cancer: Impact of length of unplanned treatment interruption on outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Andreas; Meier Zu Eissen, Juergen; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate feasibility and effectiveness of definitive chemoradiotherapy without split-course technique in anal cancer patients. From 1993 to 2003, 81 patients were treated; 13 were excluded due to various chemotherapeutic regimes, thus 68 patients were analysed. In case of acute grade 3 toxicities, treatment was halted until improvement or resolution independent of dose. Short interruption was defined as completing treatment without exceeding eight cumulative treatment days beyond scheduled plan, other patients were considered to have had prolonged interruption. Median follow-up was 46 months. Median overall treatment time was 53 days corresponding to an interruption of eight cumulative treatment days. Thirty-five patients (51%) had treatment interruption of <8 days. No acute grade 4 toxicities were observed; one fatality occurred during treatment due to ileus-like symptoms according to acute grade 5 toxicity. Comparing patients with short vs. prolonged interruption 5-year actuarial rates for local control were 85% vs. 81% (p{approx}0.605) and for colostomy-free survival 85% vs. 87% (p{approx}0.762), respectively. Chemoradiotherapy with short individualised treatment interruptions seems to be feasible with acceptable acute or late toxicities. Treatment is highly effective in terms of local control and colostomy-free survival.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid signs of neuronal damage after antiretroviral treatment interruption in HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeks Steven G

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurofilament is a major structural component of myelinated axons. Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations of the light chain of the neurofilament protein (NFL can serve as a sensitive indicator of central nervous system (CNS injury. To assess whether interrupting antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection might have a deleterious effect on the CNS, we measured NFL levels in HIV-infected subjects interrupting therapy. We identified subjects who had CSF HIV RNA concentrations below 50 copies/mL at the time combination antiretroviral therapy was interrupted, and for whom CSF samples were available before and after the interruption. Results A total of 8 subjects were studied. The median (range CSF NFL level at baseline was Conclusion These findings suggest that resurgence of active HIV replication may result in measurable, albeit subclinical, CNS injury. Further studies are needed to define the frequency and pathobiological importance of the increase in CSF NFL.

  12. HIV reservoirs and immune surveillance evasion cause the failure of structured treatment interruptions: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Mancini

    Full Text Available Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.

  13. RTtxGap: An android radiobiological tool for compensation of radiotherapy treatment interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, A L; Mohamad, M; Bhavaraju, V M K; Idris, N R Nik; Abdullah, R

    2016-01-01

    Treatment interruption is not uncommon in radiotherapy. Common reasons for treatment interruption include machine breakdown, holidays and patient severe radiation reactions. Here RTtxGap, an Android application to assist calculations of compensation for treatment gap, is reported. It uses linear quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the biological effective dose (BED) that is used to solve for treatment gap compensations. Solutions are calculated using BED equation, with consideration for tissue proliferation. The accuracy of results has been verified using LQL Equiv software to be accurate within 1%. Five treatment interruption examples were used to illustrate the capability of the software to calculate the treatment compensation schedules. Solving these examples also illustrates the general consensus regarding compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions, which ultimately involves balancing the BEDs of tumour and organ at risk. In addition to compensation for treatment gap, RTtxGap can also be used to calculate equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction (EQD2), to modify treatment schedule and to calculate alternative dose prescriptions having the same isoeffect. (paper)

  14. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow...

  15. Immunological Analysis of Treatment Interruption After Early Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, Ingrid M. M.; Pogany, Katalin; Westerlaken, Geertje H. A.; Borghans, José A. M.; Miedema, Frank; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Kroon, Frank P.; Lange, Joep M. A.; Brinkman, Kees; Prins, Jan M.; van Baarle, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    We longitudinally evaluated HIV-specific T-cell immunity after discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). After treatment interruption (TI), some individuals could maintain a low plasma viral load ( <15,000 copies/mL), whereas others could not (>50,000 copies/mL). Before HAART

  16. Effects of unplanned treatment interruptions on HIV treatment failure– results from TAHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kerr, Stephen J.; Ng, Oon Tek; Lee, Man Po; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Yunihastuti, Evy; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Ditangco, Rossana; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Sim, Benedict L. H.; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Wong, Wingwai; Kantipong, Pacharee; Zhang, Fujie; Choi, Jun Yong; Pujari, Sanjay; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Oka, Shinichi; Mustafa, Mahiran; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Petersen, Boondarika; Law, Matthew; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Treatment interruptions (TI) of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are known to lead to unfavourable treatment outcomes but do still occur in resource-limited settings. We investigated the effects of TI associated with adverse events (AEs) and non-AE-related reasons, including their durations, on treatment failure after cART resumption in HIV-infected individuals in Asia. Methods Patients initiating cART between 2006-2013 were included. TI was defined as stopping cART for >1 day. Treatment failure was defined as confirmed virological, immunological or clinical failure. Time to treatment failure during cART was analysed using Cox regression, not including periods off treatment. Co-variables with p30 days were associated with failure (31-180 days HR=2.66, 95%CI (1.70-4.16); 181-365 days HR=6.22, 95%CI (3.26-11.86); and >365 days HR=9.10, 95% CI (4.27-19.38), all pfailure. If TI is unavoidable, its duration should be minimised to reduce the risk of failure after treatment resumption. PMID:26950901

  17. A proposed figure of merit for the assessment of unscheduled treatment interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, R.G.; Sinclair, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are, as yet, no standard radiobiological methods for devising compensation for unscheduled interruptions to fractionated radiotherapy. For the foreseeable future it is likely that the concept of biologically effective dose (BED) will play an important role in the intercomparison of treatment regimes, and in the examination of the options available for dealing with unscheduled treatment interruptions. However, comparison of the BEDs associated with different treatment options does not provide an intuitively obvious indication of the magnitude of any associated differences in biological effect - an important consideration in the case of those treatments which are designed to deliver near-tolerance doses. This article reviews the implications which derive from this complication, and discusses the desirable properties of possible ''one-number'' treatment scoring systems which could utilize the BEDs of both tumour and the critical normal tissue. One possible form of such a scoring parameter is suggested, and applied to some clinical examples. (author)

  18. Does compliance with amblyopia management improve following supervised occlusion treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghrably, I A; Longville, D; Gnanaraj, L

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate improvement in compliance following supervised occlusion therapy for amblyopia in children who had failed to respond to outpatient treatment. Retrospective review of the visual outcome of 30 children who were admitted to an ophthalmology ward for 1-day intensive supervised occlusion. These children had documented poor compliance and previously failed to respond to the outpatient occlusion treatment. During their stay a trained ophthalmology nurse educated parents regarding amblyopia and the benefits of occlusion therapy. Visual acuity (VA) of the amblyopic and fellow eyes was recorded on admission, discharge, and at each subsequent visit. The compliance was recorded from parent's history and also indirectly by noticing improvement in vision. The mean supervised occlusion was 7.4 hours (range 4-12 hours). The compliance with occlusion therapy improved in 23 children (77%) after discharge. The mean duration of occlusion after discharge improved to 4 hours (range 1-12 hours). The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 4-24 months). Though there was no dramatic improvement in VA at discharge there was a statistically significant improvement in VA between admission and last recorded VA (pocclusion following discharge, 21 (91%) gained at least one line of acuity in their amblyopic eye on the last assessment of their VA and five of them achieved 6/12. Of the seven children who did not comply with occlusion following discharge, only one patient gained one line improvement in his amblyopic eye. This study shows that supervised occlusion treatment and parental education was effective in children who had initially failed traditional outpatient treatment.

  19. Response to planned treatment interruptions in HIV infection varies across childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, immunological and virological consequences of CD4-guided antiretroviral therapy (ART) planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) compared with continuous therapy in children with chronic HIV infection in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS 11 trial......) or PTI (56). In PTI, ART was restarted if confirmed CD4% was less than 20% or more than 48 weeks had been spent off ART. The primary outcome was Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C event, death or CD4% less than 15% (and CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/microl for children aged 7......-term follow-up in Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS 11 trial are ongoing. Further research into the role of treatment interruption in children is required, particularly, as guidelines now recommend early ART for all infected infants....

  20. The Juggling Act of Supervision in Community Mental Health: Implications for Supporting Evidence-Based Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Jungbluth, Nathaniel; Meza, Rosemary; Thompson, Kelly; Berliner, Lucy

    2017-11-01

    Supervisors are an underutilized resource for supporting evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in community mental health. Little is known about how EBT-trained supervisors use supervision time. Primary aims were to describe supervision (e.g., modality, frequency), examine functions of individual supervision, and examine factors associated with time allocation to supervision functions. Results from 56 supervisors and 207 clinicians from 25 organizations indicate high prevalence of individual supervision, often alongside group and informal supervision. Individual supervision serves a wide range of functions, with substantial variation at the supervisor-level. Implementation climate was the strongest predictor of time allocation to clinical and EBT-relevant functions.

  1. Tuberculosis outcomes in Taipei: factors associated with treatment interruption for 2 months and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C-Y; Lee, J-J; Yu, M-C; Enarson, D A; Lin, T-P; Luh, K-T

    2009-01-01

    All individuals reported as being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among citizens of Taipei City, Taiwan, in 2003. To investigate risk factors associated with treatment interruption for at least 2 consecutive months and death. The outcome of PTB cases was determined by consulting medical charts. Of 1127 PTB patients registered, 824 (73.1%) were successfully treated, 189 (16.8%) died, 65 (5.8%) interrupted treatment, 17 (1.5%) were still on treatment 15 months after commencing treatment and 32 (2.8%) failed. The only significant factor associated with treatment interruption was visits to other health facilities after commencing tuberculosis (TB) treatment. TB patients had a standardised mortality ratio of 8.7 (95%CI 7.5-10.0). Factors significantly associated with death were age (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR] 1.06. 95%CI 1.05-1.08), sputum culture not performed/unknown (adjHR 2.07, 95%CI 1.47-2.92), and comorbidity with respiratory disease (adjHR 1.68, 95%CI 1.24-2.27), infectious disease (adjHR 2.80, 95%CI 2.07-3.78), renal disease (adjHR 2.58, 95%CI 1.82-3.66) or cancer (adjHR 3.31, 95%CI 2.35-4.65), compared with other patients. Visits to other health facilities were associated with interruption of treatment for at least 2 months. A high proportion of deaths was due to old age and comorbidity.

  2. Completion of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for AVM treatment after unplanned interruption-technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Hari S; Santanam, Lakshmi; Vellimana, Ananth K; Drzymala, Robert E; Tsien, Christina I; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2018-02-17

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery is an established technique for non-urgent treatment of various intracranial pathologies. Intra-procedural dislodgement of the stereotactic frame is an uncommon occurrence that could lead to abortion of ongoing treatment and necessitate more invasive treatment strategies. In this case report, we describe a novel method for resumption of Gamma Knife treatment after an unplanned intra-procedural interruption. The case example involves a radiosurgical treatment of a Spetzler-Martin grade I arteriovenous malformation. Our technique involves integration of scans and coordinate systems from two imaging sessions using the composite isodose line to resolve translational differences, thereby limiting delivery of remaining shots to the untreated region of the lesion. MRI follow-up at 13 months showed a reduction in the nidus size with no evidence of any radiation injury to the surrounding brain parenchyma. We believe this technique will allow care teams to effectively salvage interrupted Gamma Knife procedures and reduce progression to more invasive treatment options.

  3. BED-time charts and their application to the problems of interruptions in external beam radiotherapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Judith A.; Oates, Jason P.; Dale, Roger G.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The use of radiobiological modelling to examine the likely consequences of interruptions to radiotherapy schedules and to assess various compensatory measures. Methods and Materials: An effect-time graphical display, the BED-time chart, has been developed using the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. This is used to examine the effects on tumour and normal tissues of treatment interruption scenarios representative of clinical situations. The mathematical criteria governing successful salvage have also been drafted and applied to typical situations. Results: The successful salvage of an interrupted treatment is dependent on a number of interacting factors and the method presented here can be used to examine the trade-offs that exist. Although the mathematics may be complex, it is shown that the dilemmas posed by an interrupted treatment may be more easily appreciated with reference to BED-time charts. These may therefore have a useful role as a teaching aid for portraying a wider variety of radiotherapy problems and also in the documentation of interruptions to treatment and the measures taken to compensate for them. Conclusions: Interruptions to radiotherapy regimes are undesirable and compensatory measures need to be initiated as soon as possible after the gap, with a view to completing the amended treatment within the originally prescribed treatment time. Adequate compensation is particularly difficult for long gaps and gaps which occur towards the end of the scheduled treatment. Modelling exercises can help establish guidelines on the available windows of opportunity

  4. Using forecast modelling to evaluate treatment effects in single-group interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2018-05-11

    Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is an evaluation methodology in which a single treatment unit's outcome is studied serially over time and the intervention is expected to "interrupt" the level and/or trend of that outcome. ITSA is commonly evaluated using methods which may produce biased results if model assumptions are violated. In this paper, treatment effects are alternatively assessed by using forecasting methods to closely fit the preintervention observations and then forecast the post-intervention trend. A treatment effect may be inferred if the actual post-intervention observations diverge from the forecasts by some specified amount. The forecasting approach is demonstrated using the effect of California's Proposition 99 for reducing cigarette sales. Three forecast models are fit to the preintervention series-linear regression (REG), Holt-Winters (HW) non-seasonal smoothing, and autoregressive moving average (ARIMA)-and forecasts are generated into the post-intervention period. The actual observations are then compared with the forecasts to assess intervention effects. The preintervention data were fit best by HW, followed closely by ARIMA. REG fit the data poorly. The actual post-intervention observations were above the forecasts in HW and ARIMA, suggesting no intervention effect, but below the forecasts in the REG (suggesting a treatment effect), thereby raising doubts about any definitive conclusion of a treatment effect. In a single-group ITSA, treatment effects are likely to be biased if the model is misspecified. Therefore, evaluators should consider using forecast models to accurately fit the preintervention data and generate plausible counterfactual forecasts, thereby improving causal inference of treatment effects in single-group ITSA studies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Replacing a failed mini-implant with a miniplate to prevent interruption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Hwa; Choo, Hyeran; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Giannuzzi, Lucille A; Ngan, Peter

    2011-06-01

    When mini-implants fail during orthodontic treatment, there is a need to have a backup plan to either replace the failed implant in the adjacent interradicular area or wait for the bone to heal before replacing the mini-implant. We propose a novel way to overcome this problem by replacement with a miniplate so as not to interrupt treatment or prolong treatment time. The indications, advantages, efficacy, and procedures for switching from a mini-implant to a miniplate are discussed. Two patients who required replacement of failed mini-implants are presented. In the first patient, because of the proximity of the buccal vestibule to the mini-implant, it was decided to replace the failed mini-implant by an I-shaped C-tube miniplate. In the second patient, radiolucencies were found around the failed mini-implants, making the adjacent alveolar bone unavailable for immediate placement of another mini-implant. In addition, the maxillary sinus pneumatization was expanded deeply into the interradicular spaces; this further mandated an alternative placement site. One failed mini-implant was examined under a scanning electron microscope for bone attachment. Treatment was completed in both patients after replacement with miniplates without interrupting the treatment mechanics or prolonging the treatments. Examination under the scanning electron microscope showed partial bone growth into the coating pores and titanium substrate interface even after thorough cleaning and sterilization. Replacement with a miniplate is a viable solution for failed mini-implants during orthodontic treatment. The results from microscopic evaluation of the failed mini-implant suggest that stringent guidelines are needed for recycling used mini-implants. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiretroviral treatment interruptions induced by the Kenyan postelection crisis are associated with virological failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Marita; Diero, Lameck; Kemboi, Emmanuel; Mambo, Fidelis; Rono, Mary; Injera, Wilfred; Delong, Allison; Schreier, Leeann; Kaloustian, Kara W; Sidle, John; Buziba, Nathan; Kantor, Rami

    2013-10-01

    Antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) cause suboptimal clinical outcomes. Data on TIs during social disruption are limited. We determined effects of unplanned TIs after the 2007-2008 Kenyan postelection violence on virological failure, comparing viral load (VL) outcomes in HIV-infected adults with and without conflict-induced TI. Two hundred and one patients were enrolled, median 2.2 years after conflict and 4.3 years on treatment. Eighty-eight patients experienced conflict-related TIs and 113 received continuous treatment. After adjusting for preconflict CD4, patients with TIs were more likely to have detectable VL, VL >5,000 and VL >10,000. Unplanned conflict-related TIs are associated with increased likelihood of virological failure.

  7. Structured intermittent interruption of chronic HIV infection treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy: effects on leptin and TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, M Montes de Oca; Pérez-Cano, R; Garcia-Juárez, R; Martín-Aspas, A; del Alamo, C Fernández Gutiérrez; Girón-González, J A

    2006-04-01

    The changes in nutritional parameters and adipocytokines after structured intermittent interruption of highly active antiretroviral treatment of patients with chronic HIV infection are analyzed. Twenty-seven patients with chronic HIV infection (median CD4+ T cell count/microl: nadir, 394; at the beginning of structured interruptions, 1041; HIV viral load: nadir, 41,521 copies/ml; at the beginning of structured interruptions triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor and its soluble receptors I and II were determined. After the three cycles of intermittent interruptions of therapy, no significant differences in CD4+ T cell count/microl, viral load, or serum concentrations of cholesterol or triglycerides with reference to baseline values were found. A near-significant higher fatty mass (skinfold thicknesses, at the end, 121 mm, at the beginning, 100 mm, p = 0.100), combined with a significant increase of concentration of leptin (1.5 vs. 4.7 ng/ml, p = 0,044), as well as a decrease in serum concentrations of soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor (TNFRI, 104 vs. 73 pg/ml, p = 0.022; TNFRII 253 vs. 195 pg/ml, p = 0.098) were detected. Structured intermittent interruption of highly active antiretroviral treatment of patients with chronic HIV infection induces a valuable positive modification in markers of lipid turnover and adipose tissue mass.

  8. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschampl, Cynthia A; Garnick, Deborah W; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care-continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries.

  9. Within-host selection of drug resistance in a mouse model of repeated interrupted treatment of Plasmodium yoelii infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuralitha, Suci; Siregar, Josephine E; Syafruddin, Din; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study within-host selection of resistant parasites, an important factor in the development of resistance to anti-malarial drugs, a mouse model of repeated interrupted malaria treatment (RIT) has been developed. The characteristics of within host selection of resistance to atovaquone

  10. Increased short-term risk of thrombo-embolism or death after interruption of warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raunsø, Jakob; Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2012-01-01

    AimsIt is presently unknown whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of thrombo-embolic adverse events after interruption of warfarin treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and timing of thrombo-embolism after warfarin treatment interruption.Method...

  11. Within-host selection of drug resistance in a mouse model of repeated interrupted treatment of Plasmodium yoelii infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nuralitha, Suci; Siregar, Josephine E; Syafruddin, Din; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study within-host selection of resistant parasites, an important factor in the development of resistance to anti-malarial drugs, a mouse model of repeated interrupted malaria treatment (RIT) has been developed. The characteristics of within host selection of resistance to atovaquone and pyrimethamine in Plasmodium yoelii was examined in such a model. METHODS: Treatment of P. yoelii infected mice, with atovaquone or pyrimethamine, was started at parasitaemia level of 3-5%, inter...

  12. Correlates of Unstructured Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ≥1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count or initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, TIs were defined as a patient-initiated interruption in treatment ≥90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15%) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0% of participants were male, 27.5% were of Aboriginal ethnicity and the median age was 46 (interquartile range (IQR): 40–52). In multivariable logistic regression, TIs were significantly associated with current illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.68); perception of overall health (aOR: 1.64 95% CI: 1.05–2.55); being unemployed (aOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.16–4.23); and younger age at interview (aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44–0.75, per 10 year increment). Addressing socioeconomic barriers to treatment retention is vital for supporting the continuous engagement of patients in care. PMID:24781638

  13. Further Evaluation of Response Interruption and Redirection as Treatment for Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Erin N.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S.; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)--motor RIRD and vocal RIRD--were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were…

  14. The situation of generation, treatment and supervision of common industrial solid wastes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shumin

    2018-02-01

    From the point of view of location and sources, an analysis is done for the generation, utilization, treatment and storage of common industrial solid wastes in China. Based on the current situations, suggestions are given to the treatment and supervision polices in China for the utilization of common industrial solid wastes.

  15. Results of antiretroviral treatment interruption and intensification in advanced multi-drug resistant HIV infection from the OPTIMA trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Holodniy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidance is needed on best medical management for advanced HIV disease with multidrug resistance (MDR and limited retreatment options. We assessed two novel antiretroviral (ARV treatment approaches in this setting.We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized open label controlled trial in patients with a CD4 count≤300 cells/µl who had ARV treatment (ART failure requiring retreatment, to two options (a re-treatment with either standard (≤4 ARVs or intensive (≥5 ARVs ART and b either treatment starting immediately or after a 12-week monitored ART interruption. Primary outcome was time to developing a first AIDS-defining event (ADE or death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. From 2001 to 2006, 368 patients were randomized. At baseline, mean age was 48 years, 2% were women, median CD4 count was 106/µl, mean viral load was 4.74 log(10 copies/ml, and 59% had a prior AIDS diagnosis. Median follow-up was 4.0 years in 1249 person-years of observation. There were no statistically significant differences in the primary composite outcome of ADE or death between re-treatment options of standard versus intensive ART (hazard ratio 1.17; CI 0.86-1.59, or between immediate retreatment initiation versus interruption before re-treatment (hazard ratio 0.93; CI 0.68-1.30, or in the rate of non-HIV associated serious adverse events between re-treatment options.We did not observe clinical benefit or harm assessed by the primary outcome in this largest and longest trial exploring both ART interruption and intensification in advanced MDR HIV infection with poor retreatment options.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00050089.

  16. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Pinkevych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days. This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in

  17. The effect of interrupted anti-retroviral treatment on the reconstitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To ascertain the effect of interrupted ART on reconstitution of CD4+ and CD8+ T sub-sets in TB patients. Methods: Participants with HIV (CD4>350 cells/μL) and TB were recruited under a larger phase 3 open label randomised controlled clinical trial. The CD45RO and CD62L markers were measured on CD4+ ...

  18. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  19. Increased short-term risk of thrombo-embolism or death after interruption of warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunsø, Jakob; Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Charlot, Mette Gitz; Olsen, Anne-Marie S; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Nielsen, Jørn Dalsgaard; Dominguez, Helena; Gadsbøll, Niels; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2012-08-01

    It is presently unknown whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of thrombo-embolic adverse events after interruption of warfarin treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and timing of thrombo-embolism after warfarin treatment interruption. A retrospective, nationwide cohort study of all patients in Denmark treated with warfarin after a first hospitalization with AF in the period 1997-2008. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of thrombo-embolic events and all-cause mortality were calculated using the Poisson regression analyses. In total, 48 989 AF patients receiving warfarin treatment were included. Of these, 35 396 patients had at least one episode of warfarin treatment interruption. In all, 8255 deaths or thrombo-embolic events occurred during treatment interruption showing an initial clustering of events with 2717, 835, 500, and 427 events occurring during 0-90, 91-180, 181-270, and 271-360 days after treatment interruption, respectively. Correspondingly, the crude incidence rates were 31.6, 17.7, 12.3, and 11.4 events per 100 patient-years. In a multivariable analysis, the first 90-day interval of treatment interruption was associated with a markedly higher risk of death or thrombo-embolism (IRR 2.5; 95% confidence interval 2.3-2.8) vs. the interval of 271-360 days. In patients with AF, an interruption of warfarin treatment is associated with a significantly increased short-term risk of death or thrombo-embolic events within the first 90 days of treatment interruption.

  20. Training with O (Observing) and T (Treatment) Teams in Live Supervision: Reflections in the Looking Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Janine; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes process that six counselor trainees and two supervisors used with treatment and observation teams to examine their own coevolution as a therapeutic system using the Milan model of family therapy and Ericksonian hypnotherapy. Concludes with a discussion of advantages and pitfalls of this type of dual supervision. (Author/ABL)

  1. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training versus attention-control massage treatment in patients with faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Anja; Dahn, Inge; Due, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    supplements is recommended as first-line treatment for faecal incontinence. Despite this, the effect of pelvic floor muscle training for faecal incontinence is unclear. No previous trials have investigated the efficacy of supervised pelvic floor muscle training in combination with conservative treatment...... treatment and conservative treatment. The primary outcome is participants' rating of symptom changes after 16 weeks of treatment using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement Scale. Secondary outcomes are the Vaizey Incontinence Score, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, the Fecal Incontinence...

  2. Low Non-structured Antiretroviral Therapy Interruptions in HIV-Infected Persons Who Inject Drugs Receiving Multidisciplinary Comprehensive HIV Care at an Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Mojal, Sergio; Roquer, Albert; Samos, Pilar; Luque, Sonia; Martinez, Diana; Martires, Paula Karen; Torrens, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Continuous HIV treatment is necessary to ensure successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of patient-initiated non-structured treatment interruptions in HIV-infected persons who inject drugs and who received a multidisciplinary comprehensive program, including medical HIV care, drug-dependence treatment and psychosocial support, at a drug outpatient addiction center. Non-structured treatment interruptions were defined as ≥30 consecutive days off cART without medical indication. During a median follow-up of 53.8 months, 37/132 (28 %) patients experienced the first non-structured treatment interruptions. The cumulative probability of cART interruption at 5 years was 31.2 % (95 % CI 22.4-40.0). Current drug use injection ≥1/day (HR 14.77; 95 % CI 5.90-36.96) and cART naive patients (HR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.14-0.93) were predictive factors for non-structured treatment interruptions. HIV care provided at a drug addiction center is a useful strategy to sustain continuous cART, however, drug abstinence is essential for the long-term maintenance of cART.

  3. Effect of analytical treatment interruption and reinitiation of antiretroviral therapy on HIV reservoirs and immunologic parameters in infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarridge, Katherine E; Blazkova, Jana; Einkauf, Kevin; Petrone, Mary; Refsland, Eric W; Justement, J Shawn; Shi, Victoria; Huiting, Erin D; Seamon, Catherine A; Lee, Guinevere Q; Yu, Xu G; Moir, Susan; Sneller, Michael C; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Chun, Tae-Wook

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission in infected individuals are under active investigation. Considering the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals experience plasma viral rebound upon cessation of therapy, clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of curative strategies would likely require inclusion of ART interruption. However, it is unclear what impact short-term analytical treatment interruption (ATI) and subsequent reinitiation of ART have on immunologic and virologic parameters of HIV-infected individuals. Here, we show a significant increase of HIV burden in the CD4+ T cells of infected individuals during ATI that was correlated with the level of plasma viral rebound. However, the size of the HIV reservoirs as well as immune parameters, including markers of exhaustion and activation, returned to pre-ATI levels 6-12 months after the study participants resumed ART. Of note, the proportions of near full-length, genome-intact and structurally defective HIV proviral DNA sequences were similar prior to ATI and following reinitiation of ART. In addition, there was no evidence of emergence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations within intact HIV proviral DNA sequences following reinitiation of ART. These data demonstrate that short-term ATI does not necessarily lead to expansion of the persistent HIV reservoir nor irreparable damages to the immune system in the peripheral blood, warranting the inclusion of ATI in future clinical trials evaluating curative strategies.

  4. Correlates of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-11-01

    Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ≥1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count and initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, a TI was defined as a patient-initiated gap in treatment ≥90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15.2 %) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0 % of participants were male, 27.5 % were of Aboriginal ancestry and the median age was 46 (interquartile range 40-52). In multivariable logistic regression, TIs were significantly associated with current illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.68, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.68); perception of overall health (aOR 1.64 95 % CI 1.05-2.55); being unemployed (aOR: 2.22, 95 % CI 1.16-4.23); and younger age at interview (aOR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.44-0.75, per 10 year increase). Addressing socioeconomic barriers to treatment retention is vital for supporting the continuous engagement of patients in care.

  5. Ethics of treatment interruption trials in HIV cure research: addressing the conundrum of risk/benefit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail E; Peay, Holly L; Kroon, Eugene; Cadigan, Rosemary Jean; Meagher, Karen; Jupimai, Thidarat; Gilbertson, Adam; Fisher, Jill; Ormsby, Nuchanart Q; Chomchey, Nitiya; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Rennie, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Though antiretroviral therapy is the standard of care for people living with HIV, its treatment limitations, burdens, stigma and costs lead to continued interest in HIV cure research. Early-phase cure trials, particularly those that include analytic treatment interruption (ATI), involve uncertain and potentially high risk, with minimal chance of clinical benefit. Some question whether such trials should be offered, given the risk/benefit imbalance, and whether those who choose to participate are acting rationally. We address these questions through a longitudinal decision-making study nested in a Thai acute HIV research cohort. In-depth interviews revealed central themes about decisions to join. Participants felt they possessed an important identity as members of the acute cohort, viewing their bodies as uniquely suited to both testing and potentially benefiting from HIV cure approaches. While acknowledging risks of ATI, most perceived they were given an opportunity to interrupt treatment, to test their own bodies and increase normalcy in a safe, highly monitored circumstance. They were motivated by potential benefits to themselves, the investigators and larger acute cohort, and others with HIV. They believed their own trial experiences and being able to give back to the community were sufficient to offset participation risks. These decisions were driven by the specific circumstances experienced by our participants. Judging risk/benefit ratios without appreciating these lived experiences can lead to false determinations of irrational decision- making. While this does not minimise vital oversight considerations about risk reduction and protection from harm, it argues for inclusion of a more participant-centered approach. PMID:29127137

  6. Ethics of treatment interruption trials in HIV cure research: addressing the conundrum of risk/benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail E; Peay, Holly L; Kroon, Eugene; Cadigan, Rosemary Jean; Meagher, Karen; Jupimai, Thidarat; Gilbertson, Adam; Fisher, Jill; Ormsby, Nuchanart Q; Chomchey, Nitiya; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Rennie, Stuart

    2018-04-01

    Though antiretroviral therapy is the standard of care for people living with HIV, its treatment limitations, burdens, stigma and costs lead to continued interest in HIV cure research. Early-phase cure trials, particularly those that include analytic treatment interruption (ATI), involve uncertain and potentially high risk, with minimal chance of clinical benefit. Some question whether such trials should be offered, given the risk/benefit imbalance, and whether those who choose to participate are acting rationally. We address these questions through a longitudinal decision-making study nested in a Thai acute HIV research cohort.In-depth interviews revealed central themes about decisions to join. Participants felt they possessed an important identity as members of the acute cohort, viewing their bodies as uniquely suited to both testing and potentially benefiting from HIV cure approaches. While acknowledging risks of ATI, most perceived they were given an opportunity to interrupt treatment, to test their own bodies and increase normalcy in a safe, highly monitored circumstance. They were motivated by potential benefits to themselves, the investigators and larger acute cohort, and others with HIV. They believed their own trial experiences and being able to give back to the community were sufficient to offset participation risks.These decisions were driven by the specific circumstances experienced by our participants. Judging risk/benefit ratios without appreciating these lived experiences can lead to false determinations of irrational decision- making. While this does not minimise vital oversight considerations about risk reduction and protection from harm, it argues for inclusion of a more participant-centered approach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Compromised local control due to treatment interruptions and late treatment breaks in early glottic cancer: Population-based outcomes study supporting need for intensified treatment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groome, Patti A.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Mackillop, William J.; Jackson, Lynda D.; Schulze, Karleen M.Math.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Warde, Padraig R.; Schneider, Ken M.; Mackenzie, Robert G.; Hodson, D. Ian; Hammond, J. Alex; Gulavita, Sunil P.P.; Eapen, Libni J.; Dixon, Peter F. M.B.; Bissett, Randy J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This population-based study describes the treatment of early glottic cancer in Ontario, Canada and assesses whether treatment variations were associated with treatment effectiveness. Methods and Materials: We studied 491 T1N0 and 213 T2N0 patients. Data abstracted from charts included age, sex, stage, treatment details, disease control, and survival. Results: The total dose ranged from 50 to 70 Gy, and the daily dose ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 Gy. In 90%, treatment duration was between 25 and 50 days. Field sizes, field reductions, beam arrangement, and beam energy varied. Late treatment breaks occurred in 13.6% of T1N0 and 27.1% of T2N0 cases. Local control was comparable to other reports for T1N0 (82% at 5 years), but was only 63.2% in T2N0. Variables associated with local failure in T1N0 were age less than 49 years (relative risk [RR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-6.90) and >3 treatment interruption days (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.00-5.91). In T2N0, these were field reduction (RR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.23-4.42) and late treatment breaks (RR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.09-4.41). Conclusion: Some aspects of treatment for early glottic cancer were associated with worse local control. Problems with protracted treatment are of particular concern, underscoring the need for randomized studies to intensify radiotherapy

  8. Pinnacle Scripts: Clearing automated treatment in external radiotherapy after unscheduled interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover Perez, C. I.; Alaman Sanchez, C.; Osorio Ceballos, J. L.; Real Nunez, R. del; Almansa Lopez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stops not foreseen during the usual course of radiotherapy treatment affect the quality of the same. The calculation of dosage compensation is the tool that have physicists and radiation therapists in order to mitigate the effect of these disruptions and achieve an effective treatment. (Author)

  9. 'Lost to follow up': rethinking delayed and interrupted HIV treatment among married Swazi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini-Simelane, Thandeka T T; Moyer, Eileen

    2017-03-01

    Through various campaigns and strategies, more women are being tested for HIV in countries with a high prevalence of the virus. Despite the ready availability of treatment at government clinics in sub-Saharan African countries like Swaziland, women consistently report difficulty in maintaining access to treatment. Drawing on two individual case studies selected from a larger study of the so-called leaky cascade in Swaziland, we illustrate the protracted journeys married women undertake to initiate treatment. We demonstrate how women manoeuvre tactically after diagnosis, highlight factors that influence their decisions related to initiating treatment, and detail the actors involved in the decision-making process. Our research shows the persistence of structural factors that inhibit access, including economic constraints, gender inequality and patriarchal social norms. Patients referred as ‘lost to follow up’ are in many cases actively pursuing treatment within a context that includes the biomedical health system, but also extends well beyond it. We argue that the phrase ‘lost to follow up’ conceals the complex social navigation required by women to initiate and maintain access to treatment. Further, we suggest that many of the logistical challenges of monitoring and tracking people with HIV can be better addressed by taking into account the structural and social aspects of delayed treatment initiative.

  10. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  11. Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Treatment of Brain Metastasis Without Interruption of Systemic Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Colette J.; Kummerlowe, Megan N.; Redmond, Kristin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Rigamonti, Daniele [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Lim, Michael K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kleinberg, Lawrence R., E-mail: kleinla@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, outcomes, and toxicities of concurrent delivery of systemic therapy with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for treatment of brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 193 patients treated at our institution with SRS without prior whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for brain metastases between 2009 and 2014. Outcome metrics included administration of concurrent systemic therapy, myelosuppression, neurotoxicity, and survival. Results: One hundred ninety-three patients with a median age of 61 years underwent a total of 291 SRS treatments. Thirty-seven percent of SRS treatments were delivered concurrently with systemic therapy, of which 46% were with conventional myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and 54% with targeted and immune therapy agents. Myelosuppression was minimal after treatment with both systemic therapy and SRS, with 14% grade 3-4 toxicity for lymphopenia and 4-9% for leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Neurotoxicity was also minimal after combined therapy, with no grade 4 and <5% grade 3 toxicity, 34% dexamethasone requirement, and 4% radiation necrosis, all similar to treatments with SRS alone. Median overall survival was similar after SRS alone (14.4 months) versus SRS with systemic therapy (12.9 months). In patients with a new diagnosis of primary cancer with brain metastasis, early treatment with concurrent systemic therapy and SRS correlated with improved survival versus SRS alone (41.6 vs 21.5 months, P<.05). Conclusions: Systemic therapy can be safely given concurrently with SRS for brain metastases: our results suggest minimal myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Concurrent therapy is an attractive option for patients who have both intracranial and extracranial metastatic disease and may be particularly beneficial in patients with a new diagnosis of primary cancer with brain metastasis.

  12. ‘Lost to follow up’ : Rethinking delayed and interrupted HIV treatment among married Swazi women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlamini-Simelane, T.T.T.; Moyer, E.

    2017-01-01

    Through various campaigns and strategies, more women are being tested for HIV in countries with a high prevalence of the virus. Despite the ready availability of treatment at government clinics in sub-Saharan African countries like Swaziland, women consistently report difficulty in maintaining

  13. Community mapping of sex work criminalization and violence: impacts on HIV treatment interruptions among marginalized women living with HIV in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Deering, Kathleen; Amram, Ofer; Guillemi, Silvia; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2017-09-01

    Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions. Analyses were restricted to 66 ART-exposed women who contributed 208 observations and 83 ART interruption events. In adjusted multivariable models, heightened density of displacement due to policing independently correlated with HIV treatment interruptions (AOR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.04); density of legal restrictions (AOR: 1.30, 95%CI: 0.97-1.76) and a combined measure of criminalization/violence (AOR: 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) were marginally correlated. The social geography of sex work criminalization may undermine access to essential medicines, including HIV treatment. Interventions to promote 'enabling environments' (e.g. peer-led models, safer living/working spaces) should be explored, alongside policy reforms to ensure uninterrupted treatment access.

  14. Influences of Cross-Border Mobility on Tuberculosis Diagnoses and Treatment Interruption Among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiss, Robert; Garfein, Richard S.; Lozada, Remedios; Burgos, Jose Luis; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Moser, Kathleen S.; Zuniga, Maria Luisa; Rodwell, Timothy C.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify correlates of reported lifetime diagnoses of TB among injection drug users in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. Methods. Injection drug users in Tijuana were recruited into a prospective cohort study during 2006 and 2007. We used weighted multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of TB diagnoses. Results. Of the 1056 participants, 103 (9.8%) reported a history of TB, among whom 93% received anti-TB medication and 80% were diagnosed in the United States. Treatment was prematurely halted among 8% of patients; deportation from the United States was the cause of half of these treatment interruptions. History of travel to (odds ratio [OR] = 6.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 27.20) or deportation from (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.12) the United States and incarceration (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.06, 4.58) were independently associated with a reported lifetime diagnosis of TB. Conclusions. Mobility and migration are important factors in identifying and treating TB patients diagnosed in the US–Mexico border region. Strengthening capacity on both sides of the border to identify, monitor, and treat TB is a priority. PMID:19542040

  15. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy – A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tabatabai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective: To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design: This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients’ knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results: A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.1±11.3 years with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147, which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients’ health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions

  16. Medically supervised water-only fasting in the treatment of borderline hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhamer, Alan C; Lisle, Douglas J; Sultana, Peter; Anderson, Scott V; Parpia, Banoo; Hughes, Barry; Campbell, T Colin

    2002-10-01

    Hypertension-related diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in industrially developed societies. Surprisingly, 68% of all mortality attributed to high blood pressure (BP) occurs with systolic BP between 120 and 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP below 90 mm Hg. Dietary and lifestyle modifications are effective in the treatment of borderline hypertension. One such lifestyle intervention is the use of medically supervised water-only fasting as a safe and effective means of normalizing BP and initiating health-promoting behavioral changes. Sixty-eight (68) consecutive patients with borderline hypertension with systolic BP in excess of 119 mm Hg and diastolic BP less than 91 mm Hg were treated in an inpatient setting under medical supervision. The treatment program consisted of a short prefasting period (approximately 1-2 days on average) during which food consumption was limited to fruits and vegetables followed by medically supervised water-only fasting (approximately 13.6 days on average). Fasting was followed by a refeeding period (approximately 6.0 days on average). The refeeding program consisted of a low-fat, low-sodium, plant-based, vegan diet. Approximately 82% of the subjects achieved BP at or below 120/80 mm Hg by the end of the treatment program. The mean BP reduction was 20/7 mm Hg, with the greatest decrease being observed for subjects with the highest baseline BP. A linear regression of BP decrease against baseline BP showed that the estimated BP below which no further decrease would be expected was 96.0/67.0 mm Hg at the end of the fast and 99.2/67.3 mm Hg at the end of refeeding. These levels are in agreement with other estimates of the BP below which stroke events are eliminated, thus suggesting that these levels could be regarded as the "ideal" BP values. Medically supervised water-only fasting appears to be a safe and effective means of normalizing BP and may assist in motivating health-promoting diet and lifestyle changes.

  17. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation: influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, L.; Voet, H. van der; Nijs, R. de; Horenblas, S.; Hart, A.A.M.; Bartelink, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and eventually quantify a possible influence of tumor proliferation during the external radiation course on local control in muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption has retrospectively been analyzed in a series of 379 patients with nonmetastasized, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All patients received external beam radiotherapy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1990. Total dose varied between 50 and 75 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy and a median of 60.4 Gy. Overall treatment time varied between 20 and 270 days with a mean of 49 days and a median of 41 days. Number of fractions varied between 17 and 36 with a mean of 27 and a median of 26. Two hundred and forty-four patients had a continuous radiation course, whereas 135 had an intended split course or an unintended treatment interruption. Median follow-up was 22 months for all patients and 82 months for the 30 patients still alive at last follow-up. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression has been used to identify prognostic treatment factors with respect to local recurrence as sole first recurrence. Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients experienced a local recurrence and 120 of these occurred before regional or distant metastases. The actuarial local control rate was 40.3% at 5 years and 32.3% at 10 years. In a multivariate analysis total dose showed a significant association with local control (p 0.0039), however in a markedly nonlinear way. In fact only those patients treated with a dose below 57.5 Gy had a significant higher bladder relapse rate, whereas no difference in relapse rate was found among patients treated with doses above 57.5 Gy. This remained the case even after adjustment for overall treatment time and all significant tumor and patient characteristics. The Normalized Tumor Dose (NTD) (α/β = 10) and NTD (

  18. Treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib and associated healthcare costs: a retrospective analysis among managed care patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkow, Theodore; Henk, Henry J; Thomas, Simu K; Feng, Weiwei; Baladi, Jean-Francois; Goldberg, George A; Hatfield, Alan; Cortes, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Identify treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib; examine the clinical and patient characteristics related to treatment interruptions and non-adherence; and estimate the association between treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib and healthcare costs for US managed care patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). This retrospective analysis utilised electronic healthcare claims data from a US managed care provider. Adult patients with CML (as determined by International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] diagnosis code) were identified who began treatment with imatinib from 1 June 2001 through 31 March 2004. Treatment interruptions (i.e. failure to refill imatinib within 30 days from the run-out date of the prior prescription) were identified during the 12-month follow-up period. Medication possession ratio (MPR), calculated as total days' supply of imatinib divided by 365, was also examined. Healthcare costs (i.e. paid amounts for all prescription medications and medical services received, including health plan and patient liability) were examined in three ways: (i) total healthcare costs; (ii) total healthcare costs exclusive of imatinib costs; and (iii) total medical costs. All costs were converted to US dollars (2004 values) using the medical component of the Consumer Price Index. MPR was modelled using ordinary least squares regression. Presence of treatment interruptions was modelled using logistic regression. The association between MPR and healthcare costs was estimated using a generalised linear model specified with a gamma error distribution and a log link. All models included adjustment for age, gender, number of concomitant medications, starting dose of imatinib and cancer complexity. A total of 267 patients were identified. Average age was approximately 50 years, and 43% were women. Mean MPR was 77.7%, with 31% of patients having a treatment interruption. However, all of these

  19. Treatment interruptions: Statistics, causes and management in service radiotherapy; Interrupciones de tratamiento: estadistica, causa y manejo en un servicio de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando Sanchez, A.; Milanes Gaillet, A. I.; Eugui Martinez, R.; Crespo Diaz, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the clinical maximum administer the prescribed dose at a given time, treatment interruptions are unavoidable in practice. In tumors quickly reproduce no evidence that the prolongation thereof entails loss of tumor control. It has tracked two of these conditions: squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) and lung cancer (NSCLC) over 2011 and 2012 to evaluate both the number of stops treatment as the reason for them and its management. (Author)

  20. Tuberculosis treatment delivery in high burden settings: does patient choice of supervision matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kironde, S; Meintjies, M

    2002-07-01

    The Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. To determine the effect of patient choice of treatment delivery option on the treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) patients in a high burden setting under actual programme conditions. Cohort study involving 769 new and retreatment TB patients recruited from 45 randomly selected clinics. Patients were interviewed and subsequent follow-up was done through regular visits to the clinics to check progress through formal health records. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between the treatment outcome of new patients (70% successful) and re-treatment patients (54% successful). Direct observation of treatment (DOT) was found to have no effect on the treatment outcome of new patients (P = 0.875), but re-treatment patients were found to fare better with than without DOT (OR 14.2, 95% CI 4.18-53.14, P < 0.001). The results obtained for new patients are similar to those of two recent randomised controlled trials on DOT. This study revealed that for new patients, undue emphasis on universal DOT might be unnecessary. It would perhaps be more beneficial to target supervision at those patients who are most likely to benefit from it (i.e., re-treatment patients). This is of particular relevance in high burden, resource-limited settings where universal DOT for all TB patients is generally unfeasible.

  1. Supervised and non-supervised Nordic walking in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a single blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendix Tom

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active approaches including both specific and unspecific exercise are probably the most widely recommended treatment for patients with chronic low back pain but it is not known exactly which types of exercise provide the most benefit. Nordic Walking - power walking using ski poles - is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe that has been shown to improve cardiovascular metabolism. Until now, no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to back pain. Methods A total of 151 patients with low back and/or leg pain of greater than eight weeks duration were recruited from a hospital based outpatient back pain clinic. Patients continuing to have pain greater than three on the 11-point numeric rating scale after a multidisciplinary intervention were included. Fifteen patients were unable to complete the baseline evaluation and 136 patients were randomized to receive A Nordic walking supervised by a specially trained instructor twice a week for eight weeks B One-hour instruction in Nordic walking by a specially trained instructor followed by advice to perform Nordic walking at home as much as they liked for eight weeks or C Individual oral information consisting of advice to remain active and about maintaining the daily function level that they had achieved during their stay at the backcenter. Primary outcome measures were pain and disability using the Low Back Pain Rating Scale, and functional limitation further assessed using the Patient Specific Function Scale. Furthermore, information on time off work, use of medication, and concurrent treatment for their low back pain was collected. Objective measurements of physical activity levels for the supervised and unsupervised Nordic walking groups were performed using accelerometers. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results No mean differences were found between the three groups in

  2. Supervised and non-supervised Nordic walking in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a single blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Active approaches including both specific and unspecific exercise are probably the most widely recommended treatment for patients with chronic low back pain but it is not known exactly which types of exercise provide the most benefit. Nordic Walking - power walking using ski poles - is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe that has been shown to improve cardiovascular metabolism. Until now, no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to back pain. Methods A total of 151 patients with low back and/or leg pain of greater than eight weeks duration were recruited from a hospital based outpatient back pain clinic. Patients continuing to have pain greater than three on the 11-point numeric rating scale after a multidisciplinary intervention were included. Fifteen patients were unable to complete the baseline evaluation and 136 patients were randomized to receive A) Nordic walking supervised by a specially trained instructor twice a week for eight weeks B) One-hour instruction in Nordic walking by a specially trained instructor followed by advice to perform Nordic walking at home as much as they liked for eight weeks or C) Individual oral information consisting of advice to remain active and about maintaining the daily function level that they had achieved during their stay at the backcenter. Primary outcome measures were pain and disability using the Low Back Pain Rating Scale, and functional limitation further assessed using the Patient Specific Function Scale. Furthermore, information on time off work, use of medication, and concurrent treatment for their low back pain was collected. Objective measurements of physical activity levels for the supervised and unsupervised Nordic walking groups were performed using accelerometers. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results No mean differences were found between the three groups in relation to any of the outcomes

  3. Supervising PTCA treatment with a scheme of steps combination SPECT 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Tian Jiahe; Peng Yong; Zhou Wen; Gai Luyue; Sun Zhijun; Su Yuwen; Liu Xiaohu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To set up a useful supervising method around PTCA treatment. Methods: A scheme of steps combination SPECT 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial imaging was devised. 87 patients with coronary artery disease were selected into the study. 3-step imaging, exercise, rest and intravenous infusion of nitroglycerine (NTG) imaging, was performed at 1 week before PTCA. 2-step imaging, exercise and rest imaging, was performed 1-2 weeks after PTCA. All of the indexes obtained from steps combination imaging before and after PTCA were contrasted with each other in pairs. Results: 1) Compared with outcome of clinical assessing, the imaging after PTCA could correctly assess PTCA outcome. 2) The myocardial defects showed in 3-step imaging before PTCA appeared to be ameliorated after PTCA and the amelioration showed in exercise imaging was more evident than that in rest imaging. The myocardial perfusion state revealed by NTG imaging was similar to that revealed by rest imaging after PTCA. 3) The 3-step imaging findings correlated with PTCA outcome, the best correlation was found between indexes of myocardial defect changes showed by NTG and exercise imaging and indexes of PTCA outcome (r = 0.9470, P 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging scheme is a very useful supervising method around PTCA. 2-step imaging after PTCA could assess outcome correctly, and 3-step imaging before it could predict outcome correctly, too

  4. Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaba, Mary; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Wooditch, Alese; Kiss, Marissa; Murphy, Amy; Kumari, Suneeta; Taxman, Faye; Altice, Frederick; Lawson, William B; Springer, Sandra A

    2018-01-15

    Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of mood disorders among justice involved opioid-dependent populations. The current study enrolled 258 treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals under community-based criminal justice supervision (e.g., probation, parole) screened from the larger parent study, Project STRIDE, a seek/test/treat randomized control trial (RCT) examining HIV and opioid use treatment. During baseline, individuals were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and screened for bipolar disorder using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) tool. Overall, 78 (30%) participants screened positive for moderate to severe depression and 54 (21%) screened positive for bipolar disorder. Participants self-reported mood disorders at higher rates than they screened positive for these conditions. Participants screening positive for these conditions experienced significantly greater family, legal, and medical problems on the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite) than those who did not screen positive. Incidence of a lifetime suicide attempt was found to be associated with a positive screen for both mood disorders. Prescribed psychotropic treatment utilization was similar among those who screened positive for depression or bipolar disorder with approximately 38% reporting taking medication. Findings suggest universal mood disorder screening to improve comprehensive psychiatric care and treatment of opioid-dependent justice-involved individuals.

  5. Kollegial supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Dibbern; Petersson, Erling

    Publikationen belyser, hvordan kollegial supervision i en kan organiseres i en uddannelsesinstitution......Publikationen belyser, hvordan kollegial supervision i en kan organiseres i en uddannelsesinstitution...

  6. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  7. Efficacy of a hyperglycemia treatment program in a Vascular Surgery Department supervised by Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimari, Francisca; González, Cintia; Ramos, Analía; Chico, Ana; Cubero, José M; Pérez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the strategy and efficacy of a hyperglycemia treatment program supervised by Endocrinology. All patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized at the vascular surgery department over a 12 month period were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics and hyperglycemia treatment during hospitalization, at discharge and 2-6 month after discharge were collected. Glycemic control was assessed using capillary blood glucose profiles and HbA1c at admission and 2-6 months post-discharge. A total of 140 hospitalizations of 123 patients were included. The protocol to choose the insulin regimen was applied in 96.4% of patients (22.8% correction dose, 23.6% basal-correction dose and 50% basal-bolus-correction dose [BBC]). Patients with BBC had higher HbA1c (7.7±1.5% vs. 6.7 ±0.8%; P<.001) and mean glycemia on the first day of hospitalization (184.4±59.2 vs. 140.5±31.4mg/dl; P<.001). Mean blood glucose was reduced to 162.1±41.8mg/dl in the middle and 160.8±43.3mg/dl in the last 24h of hospitalization in patients with BBC (P=.007), but did not change in the remaining patients. In 22.1% patients with treatment changes performed at discharge, HbA1c decreased from 8.2±1.6 to 6.8±1.6% at 2-6 months post-discharge (P=.019). The hyperglycemia treatment protocol applied by an endocrinologist in the hospital, allows the identification of the appropriate therapy and the improvement of the glycemic control during hospitalization and discharge, supporting its efficacy in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective Clinical Supervision in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs and Counselor Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff-Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Sauer, Julia B

    2013-01-01

    When mental health counselors have limited and/or inadequate training in substance use disorders (SUDs), effective clinical supervision (ECS) may advance their professional development. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether ECS is related to the job performance of SUD counselors. Data were obtained in person via paper-and-pencil surveys from 392 matched SUD counselor-clinical supervisor dyads working in 27 SUD treatment organizations across the United States. ECS was rated by counselors and measured with five multi-item scales (i.e., sponsoring counselors' careers, providing challenging assignments, role modeling, accepting/confirming counselors' competence, overall supervisor task proficiency). Clinical supervisors rated counselors' job performance, which was measured with two multi-item scales (i.e., task performance, performance within supervisory relationship). Using mixed-effects models, we found that most aspects of ECS are related to SUD counselor job performance. Thus, ECS may indeed enhance counselors' task performance and performance within the supervisory relationship, and, as a consequence, offset limited formal SUD training.

  9. Interrupt Handlers in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan; Schoeberl, Martin; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    An important part of implementing device drivers is to control the interrupt facilities of the hardware platform and to program interrupt handlers. Current methods for handling interrupts in Java use a server thread waiting for the VM to signal an interrupt occurrence. It means that the interrupt...... is handled at a later time, which has some disadvantages. We present constructs that allow interrupts to be handled directly and not at a later point decided by a scheduler. A desirable feature of our approach is that we do not require a native middleware layer but can handle interrupts entirely with Java...... code. We have implemented our approach using an interpreter and a Java processor, and give an example demonstrating its use....

  10. Not all are lost: interrupted laboratory monitoring, early death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU in a large South African treatment program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aima A Ahonkhai

    Full Text Available Many HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings are plagued by high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU. Most studies have not distinguished between those who briefly interrupt, but return to care, and those more chronically lost to follow-up.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 11,397 adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in 71 Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference/Catholic Relief Services HIV treatment clinics between January 2004 and December 2008. We distinguished among patients with early death, within the first 7 months on ART; patients with interruptions in laboratory monitoring (ILM, defined as missing visits in the first 7 months on ART, but returning to care by 12 months; and those LTFU, defined as missing all follow-up visits in the first 12 months on ART. We used multilevel logistic regression models to determine patient and clinic-level characteristics associated with these outcomes.In the first year on ART, 60% of patients remained in care, 30% missed laboratory visits, and 10% suffered early death. Of the 3,194 patients who missed laboratory visits, 40% had ILM, resuming care by 12 months. After 12 months on ART, patients with ILM had a 30% increase in detectable viremia compared to those who remained in care. Risk of LTFU decreased with increasing enrollment year, and was lowest for patients who enrolled in 2008 compared to 2004 [OR 0.49, 95%CI 0.39-0.62].In a large community-based cohort in South Africa, nearly 30% of patients miss follow-up visits for CD4 monitoring in the first year after starting ART. Of those, 40% have ILM but return to clinic with worse virologic outcomes than those who remain in care. The risk of chronic LTFU decreased with enrollment year. As ART availability increases, interruptions in care may become more common, and should be accounted for in addressing program LTFU.

  11. Effects of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium-treatment in the InGaN/GaN quantum well on green light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Ma, Zi-Guang; Chen, Hong; Wu, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Yang, Hao-Jun; Zhao, Bin; He, Miao; Zheng, Shu-Wen; Li, Shu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium (TMIn)-treatment in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on green light-emitting diode (LED) is investigated. A comparison of conventional LEDs with the one fabricated with our method shows that the latter has better optical properties. Photoluminescence (PL) full-width at half maximum (FWHM) is reduced, light output power is much higher and the blue shift of electroluminescence (EL) dominant wavelength becomes smaller with current increasing. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced interface roughness of MQW and more uniformity of indium distribution in MQWs by the interruptions with TMIn-treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204360 and 61210014), the Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014B050505020, 2015B010114007, and 2014B090904045), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20134407110008), the Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016201604030027), and the Zhongshan Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B3FC0003).

  12. Antiretroviral treatment interruption and loss to follow-up in two HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia: implications for 'test and treat' prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca; Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1-6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1-7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7-2.2) from 2006 (pfood restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion, since 2006, 7.8% of patients had significant time off treatment, which has the potential to compromise any 'test and treat' policy as during the interruption viral load will rebound and increase the risk of transmission.

  13. Acute toxicity and treatment interruption related to electron and photon craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients treated at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric L.; Allen, Pamela; Wu, Catherine; Ater, Joann; Kuttesch, John; Maor, Moshe H.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of acute toxicity and treatment interruption associated with electron and photon craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in children treated with or without chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study involving a computerized search of the radiotherapy database at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center identified a total of 79 eligible patients ≤18 years old who had received electron (n=46) or photon (n=33) CSI from October 1980 to March 2000. Acute toxicity was graded according to the 1998 National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Chemotherapy sequencing was categorized as before or after CSI or no chemotherapy. The incidences of weight loss and skin toxicity were recorded and differences in treatment interruption and hematologic values with respect to modality used (electron vs. photon), age (≤6 or >6 years), and sequencing of chemotherapy were compared using chi-square tests. Results: The median age of the electron group was lower than that of the photon group (6.7 years and 11.7 years, respectively). The two groups were otherwise well matched in terms of median spinal dose (31.1 vs. 33.3 Gy), fraction size (1.57 vs. 1.63 Gy), and total treatment time (32.4 vs. 30.7 days). Only 2 patients in each group (photon and electron) had a treatment break (>3 days). The mean number of days interrupted was 0.94 (photon) and 1.1 (electron) (p=0.72). The electron and photon groups were well balanced in terms of receiving pre-CSI chemotherapy (37% vs. 41%, p=0.776). Chemotherapy given before radiotherapy vs. after or not at all was associated with an increased incidence of Grade 3-4 leukopenia (76% vs. 49%, p=0.02), thrombocytopenia (90% vs. 10%, p=0), and neutropenia (50% vs. 15%, p=0.005). A younger age was associated with Grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (29% vs. 8.7%, p=0.034), and decreased hemoglobin (29% vs. 6.5%, p=0.014). The incidence of leukocyte depression of Grade 3-4 toxicity was 62% in the electron

  14. "We Need to Deploy Them Very Thoughtfully and Carefully": Perceptions of Analytical Treatment Interruptions in HIV Cure Research in the United States-A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Evans, David; Dee, Lynda; Sylla, Laurie; Taylor, Jeff; Skinner, Asheley; Weiner, Bryan J; Greene, Sandra B; Rennie, Stuart; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to control HIV in the absence of antiretroviral therapy are needed to cure HIV. However, such strategies will require analytical treatment interruptions (ATIs) to determine their efficacy. We investigated how U.S. stakeholders involved in HIV cure research perceive ATIs. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews with three groups of stakeholders: 12 people living with HIV, 11 clinician-researchers, and 13 policy-makers/bioethicists. Qualitative data revealed several themes. First, there was little consensus on when ATIs would be ethically warranted. Second, the most frequent perceived hypothetical motivators for participating in research on ATIs were advancing science and contributing to society. Third, risks related to viral rebound were the most prevalent concerns related to ATIs. Stakeholders suggested ways to minimize the risks of ATIs in HIV cure research. Increased cooperation between scientists and local communities may be useful for minimizing risk. Further ethics research is necessary.

  15. Causes of unplanned interruption of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegues, Sylvia Suelotto; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; Segreto, Roberto Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the occurrence and causes of unplanned interruption of radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Retrospective study developed in the Division of Radiotherapy of Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz in Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, with data collected from 560 dossiers of patients submitted to radiotherapy in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2005. Chi-squared and Student t tests were utilized in the data analysis, and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Interruption of treatment was identified in 350 cases, corresponding to 62.5% of the patients. The reasons for treatment interruption were the following: preventive device maintenance (55%), patient's own private reasons (13%), adverse reactions to the treatment or to combined radiotherapy/chemotherapy (6%), clinical worsening (3%), two or more combined reasons (23%). The interruption time interval ranged between 1 and 24 days (mean 1.4 day). One-day interruption was mostly due to preventive device maintenance (84.4%); two-five-day interruption was due to combined reasons (48.28%). Conclusion: The most frequent cause of interruption was preventive device maintenance, with maximum two-day time interval. (author)

  16. Thymic Output and CD4 T-Cell Reconstitution in HIV-Infected Children on Early and Interrupted Antiretroviral Treatment: Evidence from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Lewis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesEarly treatment of HIV-infected children and adults is important for optimal immune reconstitution. Infants’ immune systems are more plastic and dynamic than older children’s or adults’, and deserve particular attention. This study aimed to understand the response of the HIV-infected infant immune system to early antiretroviral therapy (ART and planned ART interruption and restart.MethodsData from HIV-infected children enrolled the CHER trial, starting ART aged between 6 and 12 weeks, were used to explore the effect of ART on immune reconstitution. We used linear and non-linear regression and mixed-effects models to describe children’s CD4 trajectories and to identify predictors of CD4 count during early and interrupted ART.ResultsEarly treatment arrested the decline in CD4 count but did not fully restore it to the levels observed in HIV-uninfected children. Treatment interruption at 40 or 96 weeks resulted in a rapid decline in CD4 T-cells, which on retreatment returned to levels observed before interruption. Naïve CD4 T-cell count was an important determinant of overall CD4 levels. A strong correlation was observed between thymic output and the stable CD4 count both before and after treatment interruption.ConclusionEarly identification and treatment of HIV-infected infants is important to stabilize CD4 counts at the highest levels possible. Once stabilized, children’s CD4 counts appear resilient, with good potential for recovery following treatment interruption. The naïve T-cell pool and thymic production of naive cells are key determinants of children’s CD4 levels.

  17. Post-treatment HIV-1 controllers with a long-term virological remission after the interruption of early initiated antiretroviral therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Sáez-Cirión

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART reduces HIV-associated morbidities and mortalities but cannot cure the infection. Given the difficulty of eradicating HIV-1, a functional cure for HIV-infected patients appears to be a more reachable short-term goal. We identified 14 HIV patients (post-treatment controllers [PTCs] whose viremia remained controlled for several years after the interruption of prolonged cART initiated during the primary infection. Most PTCs lacked the protective HLA B alleles that are overrepresented in spontaneous HIV controllers (HICs; instead, they carried risk-associated HLA alleles that were largely absent among the HICs. Accordingly, the PTCs had poorer CD8+ T cell responses and more severe primary infections than the HICs did. Moreover, the incidence of viral control after the interruption of early antiretroviral therapy was higher among the PTCs than has been reported for spontaneous control. Off therapy, the PTCs were able to maintain and, in some cases, further reduce an extremely low viral reservoir. We found that long-lived HIV-infected CD4+ T cells contributed poorly to the total resting HIV reservoir in the PTCs because of a low rate of infection of naïve T cells and a skewed distribution of resting memory CD4+ T cell subsets. Our results show that early and prolonged cART may allow some individuals with a rather unfavorable background to achieve long-term infection control and may have important implications in the search for a functional HIV cure.

  18. Impact of imatinib interruption and duration of prior hydroxyurea on the treatment outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Abdelgawad Edesa

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Duration of prior hydroxyurea had no impact on response or progression free survival, while patients regular on imatinib had statistically significant difference with respect to major molecular response, complete molecular response and progression free survival compared to those who had periods of drug interruption, thus we need more governmental support to supply the drug without interruption to improve the outcome of therapy.

  19. Interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths: a study protocol for cluster randomised trials evaluating alternative treatment strategies and delivery systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon J; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Halliday, Katherine E; Njenga, Sammy M; Mcharo, Carlos; Gichuki, Paul M; Wasunna, Beatrice; Kihara, Jimmy H; Njomo, Doris; Alusala, Dorcas; Chiguzo, Athuman; Turner, Hugo C; Teti, Caroline; Gwayi-Chore, Claire; Nikolay, Birgit; Truscott, James E; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Balabanova, Dina; Griffiths, Ulla K; Freeman, Matthew C; Allen, Elizabeth; Pullan, Rachel L; Anderson, Roy M

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and that new treatment strategies are required. This study seeks to answer the question: is it possible to interrupt the transmission of STH, and, if so, what is the most cost-effective treatment strategy and delivery system to achieve this goal? Two cluster randomised trials are being implemented in contrasting settings in Kenya. The interventions are annual mass anthelmintic treatment delivered to preschool- and school-aged children, as part of a national SBD programme, or to entire communities, delivered by community health workers. Allocation to study group is by cluster, using predefined units used in public health provision-termed community units (CUs). CUs are randomised to one of three groups: receiving either (1) annual SBD; (2) annual community-based deworming (CBD); or (3) biannual CBD. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of hookworm infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Secondary outcomes are prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, intensity of species infections and treatment coverage. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, worm burden and proportion of unfertilised eggs will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semistructured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of the Kenya Medical Research Institute and National Ethics Review Committee, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The study has a

  20. Supervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Lior; Maimon, Oded

    This chapter summarizes the fundamental aspects of supervised methods. The chapter provides an overview of concepts from various interrelated fields used in subsequent chapters. It presents basic definitions and arguments from the supervised machine learning literature and considers various issues, such as performance evaluation techniques and challenges for data mining tasks.

  1. Group supervision for general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galina Nielsen, Helena; Sofie Davidsen, Annette; Dalsted, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Group supervision is a sparsely researched method for professional development in general practice. The aim of this study was to explore general practitioners' (GPs') experiences of the benefits of group supervision for improving the treatment of mental disorders. METHODS: One long-establish......AIM: Group supervision is a sparsely researched method for professional development in general practice. The aim of this study was to explore general practitioners' (GPs') experiences of the benefits of group supervision for improving the treatment of mental disorders. METHODS: One long...... considered important prerequisites for disclosing and discussing professional problems. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that participation in a supervision group can be beneficial for maintaining and developing GPs' skills in dealing with patients with mental health problems. Group supervision...... influenced other areas of GPs' professional lives as well. However, more studies are needed to assess the impact of supervision groups....

  2. A hepatitis E outbreak caused by a temporary interruption in a municipal water treatment system, Baripada, Orissa, India, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Susanta K; Baral, Prameela; Hutin, Yvan J; Rao, T Venkat; Murhekar, Manoj; Gupte, Mohan D

    2010-01-01

    In January 2004, we investigated a cluster of acute hepatitis in Baripada, Orissa, India. Between January and March 2004, 538 cases (definition: fever with loss of appetite and jaundice) were reported (attack rate: 263 per 100 000, 5 deaths, case fatality rate: 0.93%). Forty-seven of 48 sera were positive for IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus. Cases peaked in February 2004 and decreased rapidly, suggesting a common source outbreak. Five neighbourhoods supplied by a common water supply were most affected. Ninety-one percent of the 538 cases and 30% of 538 unaffected controls reported drinking water from one source (odds ratio 31, 95% CI 27-48). The neighbourhood's water was pumped directly from a river and had not been treated during a 10-day period in early January (1 month before the peak of the outbreak) because of a strike at the treatment plant. This large hepatitis E outbreak was associated with drinking untreated raw river water. Measures must be in place to check the quality of municipal water and to ensure essential services in case of strikes.

  3. On randomly interrupted diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczka, J.

    1993-01-01

    Processes driven by randomly interrupted Gaussian white noise are considered. An evolution equation for single-event probability distributions in presented. Stationary states are considered as a solution of a second-order ordinary differential equation with two imposed conditions. A linear model is analyzed and its stationary distributions are explicitly given. (author). 10 refs

  4. Whither Supervision?

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Waite

    2006-01-01

    This paper inquires if the school supervision is in decadence. Dr. Waite responds that the answer will depend on which perspective you look at it. Dr. Waite suggests taking in consideration three elements that are related: the field itself, the expert in the field (the professor, the theorist, the student and the administrator), and the context. When these three elements are revised, it emphasizes that there is not a consensus about the field of supervision, but there are coincidences related...

  5. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  6. Interruption Practice Reduces Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    miscalculations (Koppel et al., 2005). There are cases where the user (medical staff, MD, Nurse , etc.) forgets to complete the PCS which is to log off or...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 58, 1 vol. pp. 265-269, 2014. 14. ABSTRACT...2000). The effects of interruptions in work activ- ity: Field and laboratory results. Applied Ergonomics , 31(5), 537– 543. González, V. M., & Mark, G

  7. A staged approach evaluation of remotely supervised myofeedback treatment (RSMT) in women with neck-shoulder pain due to computer work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Huijgen, Barbara C.H.; Schaake, Leendert; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    Remotely supervised myofeedback treatment (RSMT) is a relatively new intervention aimed at reducing neck-shoulder pain and disabilities. Subjects are equipped with a garment that can be worn under the clothes during daily work. Dry surface electrodes incorporated in this garment measure muscle

  8. Whither Supervision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Waite

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires if the school supervision is in decadence. Dr. Waite responds that the answer will depend on which perspective you look at it. Dr. Waite suggests taking in consideration three elements that are related: the field itself, the expert in the field (the professor, the theorist, the student and the administrator, and the context. When these three elements are revised, it emphasizes that there is not a consensus about the field of supervision, but there are coincidences related to its importance and that it is related to the improvement of the practice of the students in the school for their benefit. Dr. Waite suggests that the practice on this field is not always in harmony with what the theorists affirm. When referring to the supervisor or the skilled person, the author indicates that his or her perspective depends on his or her epistemological believes or in the way he or she conceives the learning; that is why supervision can be understood in different ways. About the context, Waite suggests that there have to be taken in consideration the social or external forces that influent the people and the society, because through them the education is affected. Dr. Waite concludes that the way to understand the supervision depends on the performer’s perspective. He responds to the initial question saying that the supervision authorities, the knowledge on this field, the performers, and its practice, are maybe spread but not extinct because the supervision will always be part of the great enterprise that we called education.

  9. Impact of imatinib interruption and duration of prior hydroxyurea on the treatment outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edesa, Wael Abdelgawad; Abdel-malek, Raafat Ragaey

    2015-06-01

    Optimal response requires that patients should be maintained on the drug continuously. To evaluate the influence of imatinib interruption and prior hydroxyurea use on the outcome of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Between January 2010 and November 2013, patients with chronic phase who received imatinib at the Kasr Al-ainy Center of Clinical Oncology were included. Sixty patients were included in this study, thirty three patients (55%) received imatinib upfront, while 27 (45%) received imatinib post hydroxyurea. Imatinib was not given regularly in 50% of patients. In terms of response, only major molecular response and complete molecular response were statistically significant in favor of patients who were receiving imatinib regularly compared to those who had interruption (phydroxyurea. The median progression free survival was 30.3 months (95% CI 24.3-36.3). Among the group of patients who received imatinib regularly, progression free survival was longer (p=0.049), there was no difference between those who received prior hydroxyurea versus those who did not (p=0.67). Duration of prior hydroxyurea had no impact on response or progression free survival, while patients regular on imatinib had statistically significant difference with respect to major molecular response, complete molecular response and progression free survival compared to those who had periods of drug interruption, thus we need more governmental support to supply the drug without interruption to improve the outcome of therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning about interruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandrup, Morten

    ‘Interruption’ is a well described phenomenon within health-care. This study describes a field study in which nurses at a surgical ward desired to gain insights to what they experienced as interruptions from phone calls of the coordinating nurse. Employing an effects-driven approach data about...... the frequency and types of phone calls was collected using a tailored experience sampling tool. The data as well as the data became a way for the nurses to learn about the problem and use it as a stepping stone for discussing possible solutions....

  11. The Effects of Interruptions on Oncologists' Patient Assessment and Medication Ordering Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Trbovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions are causal factors in medication errors. Although researchers have assessed the nature and frequency of interruptions during medication administration, there has been little focus on understanding their effects during medication ordering. The goal of this research was to examine the nature, frequency, and impact of interruptions on oncologists' ordering practices. Direct observations were conducted at a Canadian cancer treatment facility to (1 document the nature, frequency, and timing of interruptions during medication ordering, and (2 quantify the use of coping mechanisms by oncologists. On average, oncologists were interrupted 17 % of their time, and were frequently interrupted during safety-critical stages of medication ordering. When confronted with interruptions, oncologists engaged/multitasked more often than resorting to deferring/blocking. While some interruptions are necessary forms of communication, efforts must be made to reduce unnecessary interruptions during safety-critical tasks, and to develop interventions that increase oncologists' resiliency to inevitable interruptions.

  12. Comparison of effects of Cyriax physiotherapy, a supervised exercise programme and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light) for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Cyriax physiotherapy, a supervised exercise programme, and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology and rehabilitation centre. This study was carried out with 75 patients who had lateral epicondylitis. They were allocated to three groups by sequential allocation. Group A (n = 25) was treated with Cyriax physiotherapy. A supervised exercise programme was given to group B (n = 25). Group C (n = 25) received polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light). All patients received three treatments per week for four weeks. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and function using a visual analogue scale and pain-free grip strength at the end of the four-week course of treatment (week 4), one month (week 8), three months (week 16) and six months (week 28) after the end of treatment. The supervised exercise programme produced the largest effect in the reduction of pain and in the improvement of function at the end of the treatment (PBioptron light) may be suitable.

  13. The relationship between social support, treatment interruption and treatment outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Xiaolin

    2018-04-24

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been a major threat for successful TB control. We examined the relationship between social support and treatment outcomes in MDR-TB patients and evaluated barriers to social support. Retrospective cohort study with MDR-TB patients enrolled in the Global Fund program between 1 January 2009 and 30 June 2014 in Zhejiang, China. We reviewed all MDR-TB patients' diagnoses and treatment outcomes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 community health workers and 10 patients. Pathway analysis was employed to examine the association between social support and treatment outcomes, and the mediating effect of medication adherence on their relationship. Of 218 participants, 144 (66%) were successfully treated and 59 (27%) had poor treatment adherence. Directly observed therapy (DOT) had an indirect positive effect on treatment success, mediating through medication adherence (β.=0.541, p=0.008; β =0.538, p<0.001). Financial support had both a direct (β.=0.769, p<0.001) and an indirect positive effect on treatment success, which was mediated by a self-reported social support scale (β.=0.541, p=0.008; β =0.538, p<0.001). The interviews indicated poor performance of DOT. Patients often suffered from substantial stigma, but were not provided with psychological support. DOT and financial support were effective strategies for improving successful treatment outcomes in MDR-TB patients, but they were delivered not considering patients' perspectives. There is an urgent need for consistent and specific psychological support for MDR-TB patients in their communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of imatinib interruption and duration of prior hydroxyurea on the treatment outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edesa, W.A.; Abdel-malek, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimal response requires that patients should be maintained on the drug continuously. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of imatinib interruption and prior hydroxyurea use on the outcome of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Materials and methods: Between January 2010 and November 2013, patients with chronic phase who received imatinib at the Kasr Al-ainy Center of Clinical Oncology were included. Results: Sixty patients were included in this study, thirty three patients (55%) received imatinib upfront, while 27 (45%) received imatinib post hydroxyurea. Imatinib was not given regularly in 50% of patients. In terms of response, only major molecular response and complete molecular response were statistically significant in favor of patients who were receiving imatinib regularly compared to those who had interruption (ρ < 0.001, ρ < 0.001, respectively) , while there was no difference in patients stratified according to prior hydroxyurea. The median progression free survival was 30.3 months (95% CI 24.3–36.3). Among the group of patients who received imatinib regularly, progression free survival was longer (ρ = 0.049), there was no difference between those who received prior hydroxyurea versus those who did not (ρ = 0.67). Conclusion: Duration of prior hydroxyurea had no impact on response or progression free survival, while patients regular on imatinib had statistically significant difference with respect to major molecular response, complete molecular response and progression free survival compared to those who had periods of drug interruption, thus we need more governmental support to supply the drug without interruption to improve the outcome of therapy

  15. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training versus attention-control massage treatment in patients with faecal incontinence: Statistical analysis plan for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussing, Anja; Dahn, Inge; Due, Ulla; Sørensen, Michael; Petersen, Janne; Bandholm, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Faecal incontinence affects approximately 8-9% of the adult population. The condition is surrounded by taboo; it can have a devastating impact on quality of life and lead to major limitations in daily life. Pelvic floor muscle training in combination with information and fibre supplements is recommended as first-line treatment for faecal incontinence. Despite this, the effect of pelvic floor muscle training for faecal incontinence is unclear. No previous trials have investigated the efficacy of supervised pelvic floor muscle training in combination with conservative treatment and compared this to an attention-control massage treatment including conservative treatment. The aim of this trial is to investigate if 16 weeks of supervised pelvic floor muscle training in combination with conservative treatment is superior to attention-control massage treatment and conservative treatment in patients with faecal incontinence. Randomised, controlled, superiority trial with two parallel arms. 100 participants with faecal incontinence will be randomised to either (1) individually supervised pelvic floor muscle training and conservative treatment or (2) attention-control massage treatment and conservative treatment. The primary outcome is participants' rating of symptom changes after 16 weeks of treatment using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement Scale. Secondary outcomes are the Vaizey Incontinence Score, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, a 14-day bowel diary, anorectal manometry and rectal capacity measurements. Follow-up assessment at 36 months will be conducted. This paper describes and discusses the rationale, the methods and in particular the statistical analysis plan of this trial.

  16. Evidence-based treatment and supervision practices for co-occurring mental and substance use disorders in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roger H; Young, M Scott; Rojas, Elizabeth C; Gorey, Claire M

    2017-07-01

    Over seven million persons in the United States are supervised by the criminal justice system, including many who have co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (CODs). This population is at high risk for recidivism and presents numerous challenges to those working in the justice system. To provide a contemporary review of the existing research and examine key issues and evidence-based treatment and supervision practices related to CODs in the justice system. We reviewed COD research involving offenders that has been conducted over the past 20 years and provide an analysis of key findings. Several empirically supported frameworks are available to guide services for offenders who have CODs, including Integrated Dual Disorders Treatment (IDDT), the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Evidence-based services include integrated assessment that addresses both sets of disorders and the risk for criminal recidivism. Although several evidence-based COD interventions have been implemented at different points in the justice system, there remains a significant gap in services for offenders who have CODs. Existing program models include Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT), day reporting centers, specialized community supervision teams, pre- and post-booking diversion programs, and treatment-based courts (e.g., drug courts, mental health courts, COD dockets). Jail-based COD treatment programs provide stabilization of acute symptoms, medication consultation, and triage to community services, while longer-term prison COD programs feature Modified Therapeutic Communities (MTCs). Despite the availability of multiple evidence-based interventions that have been implemented across diverse justice system settings, these services are not sufficiently used to address the scope of treatment and supervision needs among offenders with CODs.

  17. Interrupting Mythic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnell Secomb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available If nation is increasingly perceived as a less than honourable institution formed through war, invasion and geo-political territorialisation, and government is widely denounced as the site of political intrigue and the means of subjectification of citizen–voters, community appears to escape this critique and to be viewed as an idyllic formation based on bonds of affinity. However, this romancing of community is disrupted by trans-cultural and sub-cultural formations that expose the fantasy of a harmonious, homogenous community. While community is often conceived as arising organically from familial, tribal or cultural similarity, or as constituted through a common history and shared cultural institutions, this totalising conception of community is interrupted by the demands of difference and heterogeneity and by a questioning of the idyll of community authenticated in myths of archaic origin.

  18. Surgical treatment of interrupted aortic arch associated with ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus in patients over one year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Bin; Fan, Xiangming; Su, Junwu; Zhang, Jing; He, Yan; Liu, Yinglong

    2014-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1.5% of infants with congenital heart disease. Neonatal repair of IAA is required to avoid irreversible pulmonary vascular lesion. However, in China, patients with IAA associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) over one year of age are common. So we investigated the outcome of surgical treatment of IAA with VSD and PDA in patients over one year of age. From January 2009 to December 2012, 19 patients with IAA have undergone complete single-stage repair. The patients' mean age was 4.4 years, ranging 1 to 15 years; and their mean weight was 12.8 kg, ranging 4.2 to 36.0 kg. Fifteen IAA were type A, four were type B. Preoperative cardiac catheterization data were available from all patients. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured. The measurements of postoperative pulmonary artery pressure were taken in the operating room at the end of the case. All patients underwent echocardiographic examinations before discharged from the hospital. In addition, cardiac catheterization and echocardiographic examinations were performed during follow-up. Selective brain perfusion through the innominate artery during aortic arch reconstruction was used in all patients. Mean follow-up was (1.6±0.8) years. There were two hospital deaths (2/19, 11%). One patient died of pulmonary hypertension crisis, and another died of postoperative low cardiac output. Five cases had other main postoperative complications but no postoperative neurologic complications. Seventeen survivors were followed up, and there were no late deaths or reoperation. Mean cross-clamp duration was (85±22) minutes and selective brain perfusion duration was (34±11) minutes. Two patients required delayed sternal closure at two days postoperatively. Intensive care unit and hospital stays were (9±8) days and (47±24) days, respectively. Pressure gradients across

  19. Effects of interruption of irradiation on Harwell Red Perspex (PMMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayet Tebourbi, Mohamed anouar abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    Harwell Red Perspex PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate) is a dosimeter very much used in the industrial treatments by Radiations ionizing. The purpose of this work is to test the response of this dosimeter for radiation processes having undergone one or more interruptions. This experimental study based on the development of a factorial experimental design on two levels showed that the response of this dosimeter increases for the interrupted treatments. The value of the estimated amount of response increase is all the more significant as the temperature during the interruption is high. Also it made possible to determine a mathematical model binding the value of the amount posted to the factors of influence: Temperature, target amount, a number of interruptions and duration of each interruption.

  20. Supervised and non-supervised Nordic walking in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a single blind randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Morsø, Lars; Bendix, Tom

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active approaches including both specific and unspecific exercise are probably the most widely recommended treatment for patients with chronic low back pain but it is not known exactly which types of exercise provide the most benefit. Nordic Walking - power walking using ski poles...... - is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe that has been shown to improve cardiovascular metabolism. Until now, no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to back pain. METHODS: A total of 151 patients with low back and/or leg...... pain of greater than eight weeks duration were recruited from a hospital based outpatient back pain clinic. Patients continuing to have pain greater than three on the 11-point numeric rating scale after a multidisciplinary intervention were included. Fifteen patients were unable to complete...

  1. Vacuum interrupters used for the interruption of high dc currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conventional ac vacuum interrupters are being used to interrupt currents in pulsed energy storage systems. They have been tested with dc currents of up to 37 kA. The limit to the current which can be successfully interrupted has been measured as a function of various parameters. Among these are (1) the size of the interrupter, (2) the magnitude of the counterpulse current, (3) the nature and flux rating of the saturable reactor used, and (4) the kind of ''snubber'' circuit used. Fragmentary data have also been collected on electrode erosion rates and on mechanical failure of the bellows. A description is given of the circuits used in these tests and of the results found for a representative selection of the commercially available domestic interrupters. More recently efforts have been made to increase the values found for the maximum interruptible current. The techniques used have included connecting interrupters in parallel and operating them in an impressed axial magnetic field. The results of this work are discussed

  2. Interruption and defaulting of multidrug therapy against leprosy: population-based study in Brazil's Savannah Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Heukelbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low adherence to multidrug therapy against leprosy (MDT is still an important obstacle of disease control, and may lead to remaining sources of infection, incomplete cure, irreversible complications, and multidrug resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We performed a population-based study in 78 municipalities in Tocantins State, central Brazil, and applied structured questionnaires on leprosy-affected individuals. We used two outcomes for assessment of risk factors: defaulting (not presenting to health care center for supervised treatment for >12 months; and interruption of MDT. In total, 28/936 (3.0% patients defaulted, and 147/806 (18.2% interrupted MDT. Defaulting was significantly associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 3.43; 0.98-9.69; p = 0.03; moving to another residence after diagnosis (OR = 2.90; 0.95-5.28; p = 0.04; and low family income (OR = 2.42; 1.02-5.63: p = 0.04. Interruption of treatment was associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 1.95; 0.98-3.70; p = 0.04; difficulty in swallowing MDT drugs (OR = 1.66; 1.03-2.63; p = 0.02; temporal non-availability of MDT at the health center (OR = 1.67; 1.11-2.46; p = 0.01; and moving to another residence (OR = 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.40; p = 0.03. Logistic regression identified temporal non-availability of MDT as an independent risk factor for treatment interruption (adjusted OR = 1.56; 1.05-2.33; p = 0.03, and residence size as a protective factor (adjusted OR = 0.89 per additional number of rooms; 0.80-0.99; p = 0.03. Residence size was also independently associated with defaulting (adjusted OR = 0.67; 0.52-0.88; p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Defaulting and interruption of MDT are associated with some poverty-related variables such as family income, household size, and migration. Intermittent problems of drug supply need to be resolved, mainly on the municipality level. MDT producers should consider oral drug formulations that may

  3. Security system signal supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chritton, M.R.; Matter, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs

  4. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. Mentoring, coaching and supervision

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Samantha; Dyer, Mary; Barker, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers the purpose of coaching, mentoring and supervision in early childhood eduaction and care. It examines a number of different approaches and considers the key skills required for effective coaching, mentoring and supervision.

  6. Antibiotic treatment interruption of suspected lower respiratory tract infections based on a single procalcitonin measurement at hospital admission--a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, K B; Søgaard, O S; Wejse, C

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that procalcitonin (PCT) is a safe marker for the discrimination between bacterial and viral infection, and that PCT-guided treatment may lead to substantial reductions in antibiotic use. The present objective was to evaluate the effect of a single PCT measurement...... to either PCT-guided treatment or standard treatment. Antibiotic treatment duration in the PCT group was based on the serum PCT value at admission. The cut-off point for recommending antibiotic treatment was PCT > or =0.25 microg/L. Physicians could overrule treatment guidelines. The mean duration...... of hospital stay was 5.9 days in the PCT group vs. 6.7 days in the control group (p 0.22). The mean duration of antibiotic treatment during hospitalization in the PCT group was 5.1 days on average, as compared to 6.8 days in the control group (p 0.007). In a subgroup analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  7. 40 CFR 35.935-8 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision. 35.935-8 Section 35.935-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-8 Supervision. In the case of any project involving Step 3,...

  8. Optimal preventive bank supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...

  9. A Supervision of Solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Vikki

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates an approach to therapeutic supervision informed by a philosophy of solidarity and social justice activism. Called a "Supervision of Solidarity", this approach addresses the particular challenges in the supervision of therapists who work alongside clients who are subjected to social injustice and extreme marginalization. It…

  10. Legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Legislative and supervision-related framework (reviews of structure of supervisory bodies; legislation; state supervision in the nuclear safety area, and state supervision in the area of health protection against radiation are given); (2) Operator's responsibility

  11. Protocol for the specialist supervised individualised multifactorial treatment of new clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes in general practice (IDA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob Volmer; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the protocol for a multifactorial intervention study designed to test whether individualised treatment, based on pathophysiological phenotyping and individualised treatment goals, improves type 2 diabetes (T2D) outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a prospective...

  12. Current interruption by density depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1985-04-01

    Using a one-dimensional electrostatic particle code, we examine processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. Our simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure (''ion-acoustic layer'') which spawns a series of ion-acoustic ''solitons'' and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities

  13. Procedural Error and Task Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    interruption. A cognitive model we discuss below explains this effect in terms of increases in performance speed having the effect of compressing memory for...performance, and pilot data suggest that the task can distinguish between cognitive processes that are impaired by sleep deprivation and those that are...David Z. Hambrick Technical contact: Erik M. Altmann Michigan State University Department of Psychology 316 Physics Rd, Room 298A East Lansing

  14. Early counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Interruption of dc currents using counterpulse techniques is investigated with vacuum interrupters and a novel approach in which the counterpulse is applied before contact separation. Important increases have been achieved in this way in the maximum interruptible current and large reductions in contact erosion. The factors establishing these new limits are presented and ways are discussed to make further improvements to the maximum interruptible current

  15. Effects of Interruptibility-Aware Robot Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Silva, Andrew; Feigh, Karen; Chernova, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    As robots become increasingly prevalent in human environments, there will inevitably be times when a robot needs to interrupt a human to initiate an interaction. Our work introduces the first interruptibility-aware mobile robot system, and evaluates the effects of interruptibility-awareness on human task performance, robot task performance, and on human interpretation of the robot's social aptitude. Our results show that our robot is effective at predicting interruptibility at high accuracy, ...

  16. Good supervision and PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    This field study was conducted at the Faculty of Social Sciences at Aalborg University with the intention to investigate how students reflect on their experiences with supervision in a PBL environment. The overall aim of this study was to inform about the continued work in strengthening supervision...... at this faculty. This particular study invited Master level students to discuss: • How a typical supervision process proceeds • How they experienced and what they expected of PBL in the supervision process • What makes a good supervision process...

  17. Similar decreases in local tumor control are calculated for treatment protraction and for interruptions in the radiotherapy of carcinoma of the larynx in four centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Chris; Robertson, A. Gerald; Hendry, Jolyon H.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Duncan, William B.; MacDougall, R. Hugh; Kerr, Gillian R.; O'Sullivan, B.; Keane, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Data on patients with cancer of the larynx are analyzed using statistical models to estimate the effect of gaps in the treatment time on the local control of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Patients from four centers, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Manchester, and Toronto, with carcinoma of the larynx and treated by radiotherapy were followed up and the disease-free period recorded. In all centers the end point was control of the primary tumor after irradiation alone. The local control rates at ≥2 years, P c , were analyzed by log linear models, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the disease-free period. Results: T stage, nodal involvement, and site of the tumor were important determinants of the disease-free interval, as was the radiation schedule used. Elongation of the treatment time by 1 day, or a gap of 1 day, was associated with a decrease in P c of 0.68% per day for P c = 0.80, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.28, 1.08)%. An increase of 5 days was associated with a 3.5% reduction in P c from 0.80 to 0.77. At P c = 0.60 an increase of 5 days was associated with an 7.9% decrease in P c . The time factor in the Linear Quadratic model, γ/α, was estimated as 0.89 Gy/day, 95% confidence interval (0.35, 1.43) Gy/day. Conclusions: Any gaps (public holidays are the majority) in the treatment schedule have the same deleterious effect on the disease free period as an increase in the prescribed treatment time. For a schedule, where dose and fraction number are specified, any gap in treatment is potentially damaging

  18. Early counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    Interruption of dc currents using counterpulse techniques is investigated with vacuum interrupters and a novel approach in which the counterpulse is applied before contact separation. Important increases have been achieved in this way in the maximum interruptible current as well as large reductions in contact erosion. The factors establishing these new limits are presented and ways are discussed to make further improvements

  19. Feasible, Efficient and Necessary, without Exception – Working with Sex Workers Interrupts HIV/STI Transmission and Brings Treatment to Many in Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Richard; Wheeler, Tisha; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Dallabetta, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Overview High rates of partner change in sex work—whether in professional, ‘transactional’ or other context—disproportionately drive transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Several countries in Asia have demonstrated that reducing transmission in sex work can reverse established epidemics among sex workers, their clients and the general population. Experience and emerging research from Africa reaffirms unprotected sex work to be a key driver of sexual transmission in different contexts and regardless of stage or classification of HIV epidemic. This validation of the epidemiology behind sexual transmission carries an urgent imperative to realign prevention resources and scale up effective targeted interventions in sex work settings, and, given declining HIV resources, to do so efficiently. Eighteen articles in this issue highlight the importance and feasibility of such interventions under four themes: 1) epidemiology, data needs and modelling of sex work in generalised epidemics; 2) implementation science addressing practical aspects of intervention scale-up; 3) community mobilisation and 4) the treatment cascade for sex workers living with HIV. Conclusion Decades of empirical evidence, extended by analyses in this collection, argue that protecting sex work is, without exception, feasible and necessary for controlling HIV/STI epidemics. In addition, the disproportionate burden of HIV borne by sex workers calls for facilitated access to ART, care and support. The imperative for Africa is rapid scale-up of targeted prevention and treatment, facilitated by policies and action to improve conditions where sex work takes place. The opportunity is a wealth of accumulated experience working with sex workers in diverse settings, which can be tapped to make up for lost time. Elsewhere, even in countries with strong interventions and services for sex workers, an emerging challenge is to find ways to sustain them in the face of

  20. Feasible, Efficient and Necessary, without Exception - Working with Sex Workers Interrupts HIV/STI Transmission and Brings Treatment to Many in Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Richard; Wheeler, Tisha; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Dallabetta, Gina

    2015-01-01

    High rates of partner change in sex work-whether in professional, 'transactional' or other context-disproportionately drive transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Several countries in Asia have demonstrated that reducing transmission in sex work can reverse established epidemics among sex workers, their clients and the general population. Experience and emerging research from Africa reaffirms unprotected sex work to be a key driver of sexual transmission in different contexts and regardless of stage or classification of HIV epidemic. This validation of the epidemiology behind sexual transmission carries an urgent imperative to realign prevention resources and scale up effective targeted interventions in sex work settings, and, given declining HIV resources, to do so efficiently. Eighteen articles in this issue highlight the importance and feasibility of such interventions under four themes: 1) epidemiology, data needs and modelling of sex work in generalised epidemics; 2) implementation science addressing practical aspects of intervention scale-up; 3) community mobilisation and 4) the treatment cascade for sex workers living with HIV. Decades of empirical evidence, extended by analyses in this collection, argue that protecting sex work is, without exception, feasible and necessary for controlling HIV/STI epidemics. In addition, the disproportionate burden of HIV borne by sex workers calls for facilitated access to ART, care and support. The imperative for Africa is rapid scale-up of targeted prevention and treatment, facilitated by policies and action to improve conditions where sex work takes place. The opportunity is a wealth of accumulated experience working with sex workers in diverse settings, which can be tapped to make up for lost time. Elsewhere, even in countries with strong interventions and services for sex workers, an emerging challenge is to find ways to sustain them in the face of declining global resources.

  1. Nocodazole treatment interrupted Brucella abortus invasion in RAW 264.7 cells, and successfully attenuated splenic proliferation with enhanced inflammatory response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Huy, Tran Xuan Ngoc; Min, Wongi; Lee, Hu Jang; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2017-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important and widespread zoonosis worldwide responsible for serious economic losses and considerable public health burden. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effect of a microtubule-inhibitor, nocodazole, on B. abortus infection in murine macrophages and in a mouse model. Nocodazole activated macrophages and directly inhibited the growth of Brucella in a dose-dependent manner. Nocodazole increased adhesion but reduced invasion and intracellular growth of Brucella in macrophages although it did not affect co-localization of Brucella with LAMP-1. In addition, nocodazole negatively affected actin polymerization, and weakly activated ERK and p38α but significantly activated JNK in non-infected cells. After subsequent infection, nocodazole weakly inhibited activation of ERK and p38α. For the in vivo tests, nocodazole -treated mice displayed elevated levels of IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-10 while Brucella-infected nocodazole -treated mice showed high levels of TNF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, IL-10 and IL-6 as compared to controls. Furthermore, nocodazole treatment reduced inflammation and Brucella proliferation in the spleens of mice. These findings highlight the potential use of nocodazole for the control of brucellosis although further investigations are encouraged to validate its therapeutic use in animal hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 33-GVA interrupter test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.; Honig, E.M.; Warren, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of commercial ac circuit breakers for dc switching operations requires that they be evaluated to determine their dc limitations. Two 2.4-GVA facilities have been constructed and used for this purpose at LASL during the last several years. In response to the increased demand on switching technology, a 33-GVA facility has been constructed. Novel features incorporated into this facility include (1) separate capacitive and cryogenic inductive energy storage systems, (2) fiber-optic controls and optically-coupled data links, and (3) digital data acquisition systems. Facility details and planned tests on an experimental rod-array vacuum interrupter are presented

  3. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  4. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melanie; Heath, Sonya L; Sweeton, Bentley; Williams, Kathy; Cunningham, Pamela; Keele, Brandon F; Sen, Sharon; Palmer, Brent E; Chomont, Nicolas; Xu, Yongxian; Basu, Rahul; Hellerstein, Michael S; Kwa, Suefen; Robinson, Harriet L

    2016-01-01

    GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine (GOVX-B11), was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI). Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  5. Supervision in banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Šmída, David

    2012-01-01

    The aim of submitted thesis Supervision in banking is to define the nature and the importance of banking supervision, to justify its existence and to analyze the applicable mechanisms while the system of banking regulation and supervision in this thesis is primarily examined in the European context, with a focus on the Czech Republic. The thesis is divided into five main chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the financial system and the importance of banks in this system, it defines the c...

  6. MULTIPERIOD BANKING SUPERVISION

    OpenAIRE

    KARL-THEODOR EISELE; PHILIPPE ARTZNER

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on a general method for multiperiod prudential supervision of companies submitted to hedgeable and non-hedgeable risks. Having treated the case of insurance in an earlier paper, we now consider a quantitative approach to supervision of commercial banks. The various elements under supervision are the bank’s current amount of tradeable assets, the deposit amount, and four flow processes: future trading risk exposures, deposit flows, flows of loan repayments and of deposit re...

  7. Rethinking Educational Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Burhanettin DÖNMEZ; Kadir BEYCİOĞLU

    2009-01-01

    The history of educational (school) supervision has been influenced by the history of the interaction of intellectual movements in politics, society, philosophy and industrial movements. The purpose of this conceptual and theoretical study is to have a brief look at the concept of educational supervision with related historical developments in the field. The paper also intends to see the terms and issues critically, and to conceptualize some issues associated with educational supervision in...

  8. Evaluering af kollegial supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Line Bjerre Folsgaard; Bager, Lene Tortzen; Jørgensen, Mette Eg

    2015-01-01

    Videoen er en evaluering af arbejdet med en metodisk tilgang til kollegial supervision på VIA Ergoterapeutuddannelsen gennem et par år. Evalueringen sætter fokus på selve metoden, der er anvendt til kollegial supervision. Derudover er der fokus på erfaringer og udbytte af at arbejde systematisk med...... kollegial supervision blandt undervisere på VIA Ergoterapeutuddannelsen....

  9. Collective academic supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Supervision of students is a core activity in higher education. Previous research on student supervision in higher education focus on individual and relational aspects in the supervisory relationship rather than collective, pedagogical and methodical aspects of the planning of the supervision...... process. This article fills these gaps by discussing potentials and challenges in “Collective Academic Supervision”, a model for supervision at the Master of Education in Guidance at Aarhus University in Denmark. The pedagogical rationale behind the model is that students’ participation and learning...

  10. 'Keeping healthy in the backseat': How motherhood interrupted HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores how motherhood in newly delivered HIV-infected mothers in Kenya interrupted their antiretroviral treatment (ART). Qualitative interviews were performed with 26 mothers on ART in a rural or urban area. The data were organised and interpreted using content analysis. The study found that adherence to ...

  11. Real-Time Predictions of Reservoir Size and Rebound Time during Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Trials for HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Hill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the efficacy of novel reservoir-reducing treatments for HIV is challenging. The limited ability to sample and quantify latent infection means that supervised antiretroviral therapy (ART interruption studies are generally required. Here we introduce a set of mathematical and statistical modeling tools to aid in the design and interpretation of ART-interruption trials. We show how the likely size of the remaining reservoir can be updated in real-time as patients continue off treatment, by combining the output of laboratory assays with insights from models of reservoir dynamics and rebound. We design an optimal schedule for viral load sampling during interruption, whereby the frequency of follow-up can be decreased as patients continue off ART without rebound. While this scheme can minimize costs when the chance of rebound between visits is low, we find that the reservoir will be almost completely reseeded before rebound is detected unless sampling occurs at least every two weeks and the most sensitive viral load assays are used. We use simulated data to predict the clinical trial size needed to estimate treatment effects in the face of highly variable patient outcomes and imperfect reservoir assays. Our findings suggest that large numbers of patients-between 40 and 150-will be necessary to reliably estimate the reservoir-reducing potential of a new therapy and to compare this across interventions. As an example, we apply these methods to the two "Boston patients", recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants who experienced large reductions in latent infection and underwent ART-interruption. We argue that the timing of viral rebound was not particularly surprising given the information available before treatment cessation. Additionally, we show how other clinical data can be used to estimate the relative contribution that remaining HIV+ cells in the recipient versus newly infected cells from the donor made to the

  12. Researching online supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren S. E.; Mathiasen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Online supervision and the use of digital media in supervisory dialogues is a fast increasing practice in higher education today. However, the concepts in our pedagogical repertoire often reflect the digital tools used for supervision purposes as either a prolongation of the face-to-face contact...

  13. Clinical Supervision in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2011-01-01

    Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) has only few questions on supervision. To rectify this limitation, a recent Danish version of the DPCCQ included two new sections on supervision, one focusing on supervisees and another on supervisors and their supervisory training. This paper presents our initial findings...

  14. Evolution in banking supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    2000-01-01

    Banking supervision must keep pace with technical innovations in the banking industry. The international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision currently is reviewing public comments on its proposed new method for judging whether a bank maintains enough capital to absorb unexpected losses. This Economic Commentary explains how existing standards became obsolete and describes the new plan.

  15. Forskellighed i supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Birgitte; Beck, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Indtryk og tendenser fra den anden danske konference om supervision, som blev holdt på Københavns Universitet i oktober 2008......Indtryk og tendenser fra den anden danske konference om supervision, som blev holdt på Københavns Universitet i oktober 2008...

  16. Networks of Professional Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Ryba, Ken

    2013-01-01

    An ecological analysis of the supervisory activity of 31 New Zealand school psychologists examined simultaneously the theories of school psychology, supervision practices, and the contextual qualities that mediated participants' supervisory actions. The findings indicated that the school psychologists worked to achieve the supervision goals of…

  17. Period of an Interrupted Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley E.

    2002-11-01

    While demonstrating a classic conservation-of-energy problem to my AP Physics students, I became curious about the periodic motion that ensued for certain initial conditions. The original problem consists of releasing a mass at the end of a string from an initial position horizontal to the plane of a table. The string comes in contact with a peg some distance below the point where the string is attached at the top. One is asked to find what minimum fraction of the string's length should the peg be placed to have the mass complete a circle about the peg. However, when the mass is released from much lower heights, the system undergoes periodic motion that can be thought of as an interrupted pendulum.

  18. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  19. Supervision som undervisningsform i voksenspecialundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, René

    2000-01-01

    Supervision som undervisningsform i voksenspecialundervisningen. Procesarbejde i undervisning af voksne.......Supervision som undervisningsform i voksenspecialundervisningen. Procesarbejde i undervisning af voksne....

  20. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Thompson

    Full Text Available GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA boost vaccine (GOVX-B11, was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI. Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for at least 6 months were enrolled. Median age was 38 years, median pre-ART HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  1. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  2. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2018-04-08

    Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC) is a well-established image representation model especially suited for image restoration tasks. In this work, we extend the applicability of this model by proposing a supervised approach to convolutional sparse coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements to be discriminative. Experimental results show that using supervised convolutional learning results in two key advantages. First, we learn more semantically relevant filters in the dictionary and second, we achieve improved image reconstruction on unseen data.

  3. Rethinking Educational Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin DÖNMEZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of educational (school supervision has been influenced by the history of the interaction of intellectual movements in politics, society, philosophy and industrial movements. The purpose of this conceptual and theoretical study is to have a brief look at the concept of educational supervision with related historical developments in the field. The paper also intends to see the terms and issues critically, and to conceptualize some issues associated with educational supervision in practice. In the paper, the issues are discussed and a number of suggestions are addressed for debate.

  4. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  5. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements

  6. Supervision and group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2004-01-01

     An important aspect of the problem based and project organized study at Aalborg University is the supervision of the project groups. At the basic education (first year) it is stated in the curriculum that part of the supervisors' job is to deal with group dynamics. This is due to the experience...... that many students are having difficulties with practical issues such as collaboration, communication, and project management. Most supervisors either ignore this demand, because they do not find it important or they find it frustrating, because they do not know, how to supervise group dynamics...... as well as at Aalborg University. The first visible result has been participating supervisors telling us that the course has inspired them to try supervising group dynamics in the future. This paper will explore some aspects of supervising group dynamics as well as, how to develop the Aalborg model...

  7. Supervision af psykoterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUPERVISION AF PSYKOTERAPI indtager en central position i uddannelsen og udviklingen af psykoterapeuter. Trods flere lighedspunkter med psykoterapi, undervisning og konsultation er psykoterapisupervision et selvstændigt virksomhedsområde. Supervisor må foruden at være en trænet psykoterapeut kende...... supervisionens rammer og indplacering i forhold til organisation og samfund. En række kapitler drejer sig om supervisors opgaver, roller og kontrolfunktion, supervision set fra supervisandens perspektiv samt betragtninger over relationer og processer i supervision. Der drøftes fordele og ulemper ved de...... forskellige måder, hvorpå en sag kan fremlægges. Bogens første del afsluttes med refleksioner over de etiske aspekter ved psykoterapisupervision. Bogens anden del handler om de særlige forhold, der gør sig gældende ved supervision af en række specialiserede behandlingsformer eller af psykoterapi med bestemte...

  8. Psykoterapi og supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet beskriver supervisionen funktioner i forhold til psykoterapi. Supervision af psykoterapi henviser i almindelighed til, at en psykoterapeut konsulterer en ofte mere erfaren kollega (supervisor) med henblik på drøftelse af et konkret igangværende psykoterapeutisk behandlingsforløb. Formålet...... er at fremme denne fagpersons (psykoterapeutens) faglige udvikling samt sikre kvaliteten af behandlingen.kan defineres som i. Der redegøres for, hvorfor supervision er vigtig del af psykoterapeutens profession samt vises, hvorledes supervision foruden den faglige udvikling også er vigtigt redskab i...... psykoterapiens kvalitetssikring. Efter at have drøftet nogle etiske forhold ved supervision, fremlægges endelig nogle få forskningsresultater vedr. psykoterapisupervision af danske psykologer....

  9. Implementation of Instructional Supervision in Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Supervision is critical in the development of any educational program in both developed and ... Clinical Supervision, Collegial Supervision, Self-directive supervision, Informal Supervision etc.

  10. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  11. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Mehta, Vivek; Blough, David; Tock, Lauri; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  12. On psychoanalytic supervision as signature pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2014-04-01

    What is signature pedagogy in psychoanalytic education? This paper examines that question, considering why psychoanalytic supervision best deserves that designation. In focusing on supervision as signature pedagogy, I accentuate its role in building psychoanalytic habits of mind, habits of hand, and habits of heart, and transforming theory and self-knowledge into practical product. Other facets of supervision as signature pedagogy addressed in this paper include its features of engagement, uncertainty, formation, and pervasiveness, as well as levels of surface, deep, and implicit structure. Epistemological, ontological, and axiological in nature, psychoanalytic supervision engages trainees in learning to do, think, and value what psychoanalytic practitioners in the field do, think, and value: It is, most fundamentally, professional preparation for competent, "good work." In this paper, effort is made to shine a light on and celebrate the pivotal role of supervision in "making" or developing budding psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists. Now over a century old, psychoanalytic supervision remains unparalleled in (1) connecting and integrating conceptualization and practice, (2) transforming psychoanalytic theory and self-knowledge into an informed analyzing instrument, and (3) teaching, transmitting, and perpetuating the traditions, practice, and culture of psychoanalytic treatment.

  13. Basic interrupt and command structures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    Interrupt and command structures of a real-time system are described through specific examples. References to applications of a real-time system and programing development references are supplied. (auth)

  14. Intelligent multivariate process supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visuri, Pertti.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis addresses the difficulties encountered in managing large amounts of data in supervisory control of complex systems. Some previous alarm and disturbance analysis concepts are reviewed and a method for improving the supervision of complex systems is presented. The method, called multivariate supervision, is based on adding low level intelligence to the process control system. By using several measured variables linked together by means of deductive logic, the system can take into account the overall state of the supervised system. Thus, it can present to the operators fewer messages with higher information content than the conventional control systems which are based on independent processing of each variable. In addition, the multivariate method contains a special information presentation concept for improving the man-machine interface. (author)

  15. The Effects of Interruption Task Complexity and Interruptions on Student Multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Jiun Yi

    2013-01-01

    Students commonly multitask while studying. The ubiquitous use of laptops and computers has facilitated this phenomenon and even changed the nature of multitasking in studying environments. Interruptions have an undeniable presence in these everyday studying environments and there are growing concerns about their potential to disrupt both performance and the learning process. Since interruptions are unavoidable, it is useful to identify the features that make some interruptions more disruptiv...

  16. Experiments with vacuum interrupters used for large dc-current interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1977-10-01

    Vacuum interrupters have been tested in circuits similar to those used in theta-pinch and Tokamak fusion devices. The effects on performance of auxiliary circuit components and axial magnetic fields have been determined, and limits to lifetime caused by mechanical and electrical wear have been measured. Results show that the upper reliable limit of interruption is independent of the auxiliary components but quite dependent on interrupter size and on the axial field

  17. Understanding Emergency Medicine Physicians Multitasking Behaviors Around Interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Ratwani, Raj M

    2018-06-11

    Interruptions can adversely impact human performance, particularly in fast-paced and high-risk environments such as the emergency department (ED). Understanding physician behaviors before, during, and after interruptions is important to the design and promotion of safe and effective workflow solutions. However, traditional human factors based interruption models do not accurately reflect the complexities of real-world environments like the ED and may not capture multiple interruptions and multitasking. We present a more comprehensive framework for understanding interruptions that is composed of three phases, each with multiple levels: Interruption Start Transition, Interruption Engagement, and Interruption End Transition. This three-phase framework is not constrained to discrete task transitions, providing a robust method to categorize multitasking behaviors around interruptions. We apply this framework in categorizing 457 interruption episodes. 457 interruption episodes were captured during 36 hours of observation. The interrupted task was immediately suspended 348 (76.1%) times. Participants engaged in new self-initiated tasks during the interrupting task 164 (35.9%) times and did not directly resume the interrupted task in 284 (62.1%) interruption episodes. Using this framework provides a more detailed description of the types of physician behaviors in complex environments. Understanding the different types of interruption and resumption patterns, which may have a different impact on performance, can support the design of interruption mitigation strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Kontraktetablering i supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Karen Vibeke; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Kapitlet behandler kontraktetablering i supervision, et element, der ofte er blevet negligeret eller endog helt forbigået ved indledningen af supervisionsforløb. Sikre aftaler om emner som tid, sted, procedurer for fremlæggelse, fortrolighed, ansvarsfordeling og evaluering skaber imidlertid trygh...

  19. Man-machine supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmain, J.

    2005-01-01

    Today's complexity of systems where man is involved has led to the development of more and more sophisticated information processing systems where decision making has become more and more difficult. The operator task has moved from operation to supervision and the production tool has become indissociable from its numerical instrumentation and control system. The integration of more and more numerous and sophisticated control indicators in the control room does not necessary fulfill the expectations of the operation team. It is preferable to develop cooperative information systems which are real situation understanding aids. The stake is not the automation of operators' cognitive tasks but the supply of a reasoning help. One of the challenges of interactive information systems is the selection, organisation and dynamical display of information. The efficiency of the whole man-machine system depends on the communication interface efficiency. This article presents the principles and specificities of man-machine supervision systems: 1 - principle: operator's role in control room, operator and automation, monitoring and diagnosis, characteristics of useful models for supervision; 2 - qualitative reasoning: origin, trends, evolutions; 3 - causal reasoning: causality, causal graph representation, causal and diagnostic graph; 4 - multi-points of view reasoning: multi flow modeling method, Sagace method; 5 - approximate reasoning: the symbolic numerical interface, the multi-criteria decision; 6 - example of application: supervision in a spent-fuel reprocessing facility. (J.S.)

  20. Etiske betragtninger ved supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Agerskov, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    Kapitlet præsenterer nogle etiske betragtninger ved supervision. Mens der længe har eksisteret etiske retningslinjer for psykoterapeutisk arbejde, har der overraskende nok manglet tilsvarende vejledninger på supervisionsområdet. Det betyder imidlertid ikke, at de ikke er relevante. I kapitlet gøres...

  1. Effectiveness of Group Supervision versus Combined Group and Individual Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee; Altekruse, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of different types of supervision (large group, small group, combined group, individual supervision) with counseling students (N=64). Analyses revealed that all supervision formats resulted in similar progress in counselor effectiveness and counselor development. Participants voiced a preference for individual…

  2. The Effects of Career Interruptions on Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Brett; Lewis, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of 5,837 Australians showed that (1) women had longer career interruptions; (2) regardless of number of interruptions, men had higher wages; (3) longer interruptions had a negative effect on reentry wages; and (4) 1985-88 growth in wages for males was enhanced by increased numbers and length of interruptions, with the opposite…

  3. The vision in supervision: transference-countertransference dynamics and disclosure in the supervision relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, W J

    1997-01-01

    The centrality of the supervision experience in the development of the supervisee's personal and professional capacities is addressed. The supervision relationship and process are explored in light of the potential effects of transference-countertransference configurations of supervisor and supervisee. Parallels between supervision and treatment are highlighted. The importance of developing and utilizing the capacity for reflectivity is reviewed, as is the impact of supervisee nondisclosure to supervisor. The direct use of countertransference experiences in the context of supervision is explored, and the centrality of self-disclosure is highlighted. It is recommended that supervisor and supervisee remain receptive to exploring these experiences in the service of developing a shared subjective sense of the patient, of increasing the supervisee's capacity to treat his or her patient, and of providing the supervisee with a novel, growth-enhancing relationship.

  4. Markets and pricing for interruptible electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedra, T.W.; Varaiya, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a market for interruptible, or callable, forward contracts for electric power, in which the consumer grants the power supplier the right to interrupt a given unit of load in return for a price discount. The callable forward contracts are traded continuously until the time of use. This allows recourse for those customers with uncertain demand, while risk-averse consumers can minimize their price risk by purchasing early. Callable forward contracts are simple in form, and can be directly incorporated into the utility's economic dispatch procedure

  5. The technical supervision interface

    CERN Document Server

    Sollander, P

    1998-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) is currently using 30 different applications for the remote supervision of the technical infrastructure at CERN. These applications have all been developed with the CERN made Uniform Man Machine Interface (UMMI) tools built in 1990. However, the visualization technology has evolved phenomenally since 1990, the Technical Data Server (TDS) has radically changed our control system architecture, and the standardization and the maintenance of the UMMI applications have become important issues as their number increases. The Technical Supervision Interface is intended to replace the UMMI and solve the above problems. Using a standard WWW-browser for the display, it will be inherently multi-platform and hence available for control room operators, equipment specialists and on-call personnel.

  6. Improving Banking Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Mayes, David G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains how banking supervision within the EU, and in Finland in particular, can be improved by the implementation of greater market discipline and related changes. Although existing EU law, institutions, market structures and practices of corporate governance restrict the scope for change, substantial improvements can be introduced now while there is a window of opportunity for change. The economy is growing H5ly and the consequences of the banking crises of the early 1990s have ...

  7. Supervision in Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Vafaï , Kouroche

    2012-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/bandeau-haut/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2012.84 - ISSN : 1955-611X; To control, evaluate, and motivate their agents, firms employ supervisors. As shown by empirical investigations, biased evaluation by supervisors linked to collusion is a persistent feature of firms. This paper studies how deceptive supervision affects agency relationships. We consider a three-leve...

  8. Ethics in education supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÖZMEN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Supervision in education plays a crucial role in attaining educational goals. In addition to determining the present situation, it has a theoretical and practical function regarding the actions to be taken in general and the achievement of teacher development in particular to meet the educational goals in the most effective way. For the education supervisors to act ethically in their tasks while achieving this vital mission shall facilitate them to build up trust, to enhance the level of collaboration and sharing, thus it shall contribute to organizational effectiveness. Ethics is an essential component of educational supervision. Yet, it demonstrates rather vague quality due to the conditions, persons, and situations. Therefore, it is a difficult process to develop the ethical standards in institutions. This study aims to clarify the concept of ethics, to bring up its importance, and to make recommendations for more effective supervisions from the aspect of ethics, based on the literature review, some research results, and sample cases reported by teachers and supervisors.

  9. Interactive or interruptive? Instant messaging at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of instant messaging (IM) technology at work is controversial, due to the interruptions it may cause and the difficulties associated with quantifying its benefits for individuals, teams and organizations. In this study, we investigate the use and impact of IM tools in the workplace. Based on

  10. Stress Outcomes of Four Types of Perceived Interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Keaton A; Potter, Sean M; Telford, Britany N

    2018-03-01

    Objective We sought to define and measure four types of perceived interruptions and to examine their relationships with stress outcomes. Background Interruptions have been defined and measured in a variety of inconsistent ways. No study has simultaneously examined the subjective experience of all types of interruptions. Method First, we provide a synthesized definition and model of interruptions that aligns interruptions along two qualities: origin and degree of multitasking. Second, we create and validate a self-report measure of these four types of perceived interruptions within two samples (working undergraduate students and working engineers). Last, we correlate this measure with self-reported psychological and physical stress outcomes. Results Our results support the four-factor model of interruptions. Results further support the link between each of the four types of interruptions (intrusions, breaks, distractions, and a specific type of ruminations, discrepancies) and stress outcomes. Specifically, results suggest that distractions explain a unique portion of variance in stress outcomes above and beyond the shared variance explained by intrusions, breaks, and discrepancies. Conclusion The synthesized four-factor model of interruptions is an adequate representation of the overall construct of interruptions. Further, perceived interruptions can be measured and are significantly related to stress outcomes. Application Measuring interruptions by observation can be intrusive and resource intensive. Additionally, some types of interruptions may be internal and therefore unobservable. Our survey measure offers a practical alternative method for practitioners and researchers interested in the outcomes of interruptions, especially stress outcomes.

  11. Resistance to group clinical supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Delgado, Cynthia; Traynor, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has traditiona......This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has...... traditionally been theorized as a supervisee's maladaptive coping with anxiety in the supervision process. The aim of the present study was to examine resistance to group clinical supervision by interviewing nurses who did not participate in supervision. In 2015, we conducted semistructured interviews with 24...... Danish mental health nursing staff members who had been observed not to participate in supervision in two periods of 3 months. Interviews were audio-recorded and subjected to discourse analysis. We constructed two discursive positions taken by the informants: (i) 'forced non-participation', where...

  12. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  13. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  14. Advanced Music Therapy Supervision Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    supervision training excerpts live in the workshop will be offered. The workshop will include demonstrating a variety of supervision methods and techniques used in A) post graduate music therapy training programs b) a variety of work contexts such as psychiatry and somatic music psychotherapy. The workshop......The presentation will illustrate training models in supervision for experienced music therapists where transference/counter transference issues are in focus. Musical, verbal and body related tools will be illustrated from supervision practice by the presenters. A possibility to experience small...

  15. Learning Dynamics in Doctoral Supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie

    investigates learning opportunities in supervision with multiple supervisors. This was investigated through observations and recording of supervision, and subsequent analysis of transcripts. The analyses used different perspectives on learning; learning as participation, positioning theory and variation theory....... The research illuminates how learning opportunities are created in the interaction through the scientific discussions. It also shows how multiple supervisors can contribute to supervision by providing new perspectives and opinions that have a potential for creating new understandings. The combination...... of different theoretical frameworks from the perspectives of learning as individual acquisition and a sociocultural perspective on learning contributed to a nuanced illustration of the otherwise implicit practices of supervision....

  16. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  17. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark

    1993-01-01

    The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative "feedback" hypothesis consistent with the same facts is that women experience labor market discrimination and respond with career interruptions and specialization in household production. This paper explores the relationship between self-reported discrimina...

  18. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  19. Interrupting long periods of sitting: good STUFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutten Geert M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour is in itself a health risk, regardless of the daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Therefore, sedentary behaviour should be targeted as important health behaviour. It is known that even relatively small changes of health behaviour often require serious efforts from an individual and from people in their environment to become part of their lifestyle. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy behaviours should ideally be simple, easy to perform and easily available. Since sitting is likely to be highly habitual, confrontation with an intervention should almost automatically elicit a reaction of getting up, and thus break up and reduce sitting time. One important prerequisite for successful dissemination of such an intervention could be the use of a recognisable term relating to sedentary behaviour, which should have the characteristics of an effective brand name. To become wide spread, this term may need to meet three criteria: the “Law of the few”, the “Stickiness factor”, and the “Power of context”. For that purpose we introduce STUFF: Stand Up For Fitness. STUFF can be defined as “interrupting long sitting periods by short breaks”, for instance, interrupting sitting every 30 min by standing for at least five minutes. Even though we still need evidence to test the health-enhancing effects of interrupted sitting, we hope that the introduction of STUFF will facilitate the testing of the social, psychological and health effects of interventions to reduce sitting time.

  20. Accreditation to supervise research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauclaire, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    After a recall of his academic research works, an indication of all his publications and of his teaching and research supervising activities, and a summary of his scientific activity, the author proposes an overview of his research works which addressed the study of radio-tracers for nuclear medicine, and the study of the 2,6 dimethyl beta cyclodextrin. These both topics are then more precisely presented and discussed. For the first one, the author notably studied iodine radiochemistry, and the elaboration of new compounds for dopamine recapturing visualization (development of radio-pharmaceutical drug marked with technetium). For the second one, the author reports the use of modified cyclodextrins for the transport of lipophilic radio-tracers

  1. Medical supervision of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santani, S.B.; Nandakumar, A.N.; Subramanian, G.

    1982-01-01

    The basic elements of an occupational medical supervision programme for radiation workers are very much the same as those relevant to other professions with some additional special features. This paper cites examples from literature and recommends measures such as spot checks and continuance of medical supervision even after a radiation worker leaves this profession. (author)

  2. Tværfaglig supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tværfaglig supervision dækker over supervision af forskellige faggrupper. Det er en kompleks disciplin der stiller store krav tl supervisor. Bogens første del præsenterer fire faglige supervisionsmodeller: En almen, en psykodynamisk, en kognitiv adfærdsterapeutisk og en narrativ. Anden del...

  3. Assessment of Counselors' Supervision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Ali; Sürücü, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate elementary and high school counselors' supervision processes and efficiency of their supervision. The interview method was used as it was thought to be better for realizing the aim of the study. The study group was composed of ten counselors who were chosen through purposeful sampling method. Data were…

  4. Supervision Duty of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat YILMAZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Supervision by school administrators is becoming more and more important. The change in the roles ofschool administrators has a great effect on that increase. At present, school administrators are consideredmore than as technical directors, but as instructional leaders. This increased the importance of schooladministrators’ expected supervision acts. In this respect, the aim of this study is to make a conceptualanalysis about school administrators’ supervision duties. For this reason, a literature review related withsupervision and contemporary supervision approaches was done, and the official documents concerningsupervision were examined. As a result, it can be said that school administrators’ supervision duties havebecome very important. And these duties must certainly be carried out by school administrators.

  5. Nursing supervision for care comprehensiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieli Dias Pedreschi Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To reflect on nursing supervision as a management tool for care comprehensiveness by nurses, considering its potential and limits in the current scenario. Method: A reflective study based on discourse about nursing supervision, presenting theoretical and practical concepts and approaches. Results: Limits on the exercise of supervision are related to the organization of healthcare services based on the functional and clinical model of care, in addition to possible gaps in the nurse training process and work overload. Regarding the potential, researchers emphasize that supervision is a tool for coordinating care and management actions, which may favor care comprehensiveness, and stimulate positive attitudes toward cooperation and contribution within teams, co-responsibility, and educational development at work. Final considerations: Nursing supervision may help enhance care comprehensiveness by implying continuous reflection on including the dynamics of the healthcare work process and user needs in care networks.

  6. Social construction : discursive perspective towards supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Naujanienė, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of publication is to discuss the development of supervision theory in relation with social and social work theory and practice. Main focus in the analysis is done to social constructionist ideas and its’ relevance to supervision practice. The development of supervision is related with supervision practice. Starting in 19th century supervision from giving practical advices supervision came to 21st century as dialog based on critical and philosophical reflection. Different theory and pr...

  7. Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total energy expenditure of three different durations of physical activity within a 30-minute sedentary period and to examine the potential benefits of interrupting sedentary behavior with physical activity for weight control. Methods Participants completed four consecutive 30-minute bouts of sedentary behavior (reading, working on the computer, or doing other desk activities with and without interruptions of walking at a self-selected pace. Bout one contained no walking interruptions. Bout two contained a 1-minute walking period. Bout three contained a 2-minute walking period. Bout four contained a 5-minute walking period. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed. Result Twenty males and females (18-39 years completed this study. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc testing showed that significantly more energy was expended during each 30 minute sedentary bout with a walking break than in the 30 minute sedentary bout (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that making small changes, such as taking a five minute walking break every hour could yield beneficial weight control or weight loss results. Therefore, taking breaks from sedentary time is a potential outlet to prevent obesity and the rise of obesity in developed countries.

  8. Online supervision at the university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Jensen, Gry Sandholm

    2015-01-01

    supervision proves unhelpful when trying to understand how online supervision and feedback is a pedagogical phenomenon in its own right, and irreducible to the face-to-face context. Secondly we show that not enough attention has been given to the way different digital tools and platforms influence...... pedagogy we forge a new concept of “format supervision” that enables supervisors to understand and reflect their supervision practice, not as caught in the physical-virtual divide, but as a choice between face-to-face and online formats that each conditions the supervisory dialogue in their own particular...

  9. Local supervision of solariums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Norway, new regulations on radiation protection and application of radiation came into force on the first of January 2004. Local authorities may now perform the supervision of solariums. There are over 500 solar studios in Norway, with over 5000 solariums accessible to the public. An unknown number of solariums are in private homes, on workplaces, and in hotels and fitness studios. Norway currently has the highest frequency of skin cancer in Europe. The frequency of mole cancer has increased sixfold during the last 30 years, and 200 people die each year of this type of cancer. The Nordic cancer registers estimate that 95 per cent of the skin cancer incidences would have been avoided by limiting sunbathing. It is unknown how many cases are due to the use of solariums. But several studies indicate increased risk of mole cancer caused by solariums. It was found in previous inspection of 130 solariums that only 30 per cent had correct tubes and lamps. Only one solarium satisfied all the requirements of the regulations. But this has since improved. With the new regulations, all solarium businesses offering cosmetic solariums for sale, renting out or use have an obligation to submit reports to the Radiation Protection Authority

  10. The accuracy evaluation according to dose delivery interruption and restart for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hyung; Bae, Sun Myung; Kwak, Jung Won; Kang, Tae Young; Bck, Geum Mun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The accurate movement of gantry rotation, collimator and correct application of dose rate are very important to approach the successful performance of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), because it is tightly interlocked with a complex treatment plan. The interruption and restart of dose delivery, however, are able to occur on treatment by various factors of a treatment machine and treatment plan. If unexpected problems of a treat machine or a patient interrupt the VMAT, the movement of treatment machine for delivering the remaining dose will be restarted at the start point. In this investigation, We would like to know the effect of interruptions and restart regarding dose delivery at VMAT. Treatment plans of 10 patients who had been treated at our center were used to measure and compare the dose distribution of each VMAT after converting to a form of digital image and communications in Medicine (DICOM) with treatment planning system (Eclipse V 10.0, Varian, USA). We selected the 6 MV photon energy of Trilogy (Varian, USA) and used OmniPro I'mRT system (V 1.7b, IBA dosimetry, Germany) to analyze the data that were acquired through this measurement with two types of interruptions four times for each case. The door interlock and the beam-off were used to stop and then to restart the dose delivery of VMAT. The gamma index in OmniPro I'mRT system and T-test in Microsoft Excel 2007 were used to evaluate the result of this investigation. The deviations of average gamma index in cases with door interlock, beam-off and without interruption on VMAT are 0.141, 0.128 and 0.1. The standard deviations of acquired gamma values are 0.099, 0.091, 0.071 and The maximum gamma value in each case is 0.413, 0.379, 0.286, respectively. This analysis has a 95-percent confidence level and the P-value of T-test is under 0.05. Gamma pass rate (3%, 3 mm) is acceptable in all of measurements. As a result, We could make sure that the interruption of this investgation are not

  11. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  12. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA SUPERVISION AMONG TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Nenasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the act test based bronchial asthma supervision evaluation among teenagers and defines the interrelation of the objective and subjective asthma supervision parameters. The researchers examined 214 male teenagers aged from 16 to 18, suffering from the bronchial asthma, who were sent to the allergy department to verify the diagnosis. Bronchial asthma supervision evaluation was assisted by the act test. The research has showed that over a half (56% of teenagers, suffering from mild bronchial asthma, mention its un control course, do not receive any adequate pharmacotherapy and are consequently a risk group in terms of the bronchial asthma exacerbation. Act test results correlate with the functional indices (fev1, as well as with the degree of the bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which is one of the markers of an allergic inflammation in the lower respiratory passages.Key words: bronchial asthma supervision, act test, teenagers.

  13. The effectiveness of banking supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, EP; Obasi, U

    2009-01-01

    Banking supervision is an essential aspect of modern financial systems, seeking crucially to monitor risk-taking by banks so as to protect depositors, the government safety net and the economy as a whole against systemic bank failure and its consequences. In this context, this paper seeks to explore the relationship between risk indicators for individual banks and the different approaches to banking supervision adopted around the world. This is the first work to make use of the currently avai...

  14. Analysis of Smartphone Interruptions on Academic General Internal Medicine Wards. Frequent Interruptions may cause a 'Crisis Mode' Work Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Alon; Wu, Robert C

    2017-01-04

    Hospital-based medical services are increasingly utilizing team-based pagers and smartphones to streamline communications. However, an unintended consequence may be higher volumes of interruptions potentially leading to medical error. There is likely a level at which interruptions are excessive and cause a 'crisis mode' climate. We retrospectively collected phone, text messaging, and email interruptions directed to hospital-assigned smartphones on eight General Internal Medicine (GIM) teams at two tertiary care centres in Toronto, Ontario from April 2013 to September 2014. We also calculated the number of times these interruptions exceeded a pre-specified threshold per hour, termed 'crisis mode', defined as at least five interruptions in 30 minutes. We analyzed the correlation between interruptions and date, site, and patient volumes. A total of 187,049 interruptions were collected over an 18-month period. Daily weekday interruptions rose sharply in the morning, peaking between 11 AM to 12 PM and measuring 4.8 and 3.7 mean interruptions/hour at each site, respectively. Mean daily interruptions per team totaled 46.2 ± 3.6 at Site 1 and 39.2 ± 4.2 at Site 2. The 'crisis mode' threshold was exceeded, on average, 2.3 times/day per GIM team during weekdays. In a multivariable linear regression analysis, site (β6.43 CI95% 5.44 - 7.42, ptime.

  15. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervised recruitment. 656.21 Section 656.21... Supervised recruitment. (a) Supervised recruitment. Where the Certifying Officer determines it appropriate, post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application or...

  16. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  17. Task Interruption: Resumption Lag and the Role of Cues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altmann, Erik M; Trafton, J. G

    2004-01-01

    ...), indicating a substantial disruptive effect. To probe the nature of the disruption, they examined the role of external cues associated with the interrupted task and found that cues available immediately before an interruption facilitate performance immediately afterwards, thus reducing the resumption lag. This "cue-availability" effect suggests that people deploy preparatory perceptual and memory processes, apparently spontaneously, to mitigate the disruptive effects of task interruption.

  18. Development of a tool computer to compensate for interruptions of treatment and radiobiological comparisons Tr in external radiotherapy; Desarrollo de una herramienta informatica para la compensacion de interrupciones de tratamiento y comparaciones radiobiologicas en radioterapia externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Sena Espinel, E.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Delgado Apaaricio, J. M.; Martin Rincon, C.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.

    2013-07-01

    Outages unscheduled in the course of external beam radiation treatments, and the loss of probability of tumour control (TCP), which make it necessary to have a tool that allows the adjustment of the compensation of the absorbed dose required to keep the biological effect on the tumor, controlling the possible impact on the organ at risk. In order to perform this radiobiological quickly setting has been developed a software application that also allows comparison of treatments with different subdivisions from the point of view of radiobiological. (Author)

  19. Diagnosis of aortic interruption by CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirani, Shapour; Soleymanzadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch, which might be accompanied with other coexisting cardiovascular anomalies. Many cases with IAA are diagnosed at their neonatal and newborn period but in rare cases the diagnosis is not established until adulthood. The patients may have no clinical symptoms but the signs of heart failure will gradually appear and may cause death. The development of imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has dramatically changed the diagnostics. Here we report a 20-year-old young man with IAA associated with sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SVD) and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) referred to our hospital

  20. Pulsed interrupter and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joel Lawton; Kratz, Robert

    2015-06-09

    Some embodiments provide interrupter systems comprising: a first electrode; a second electrode; a piston movably located at a first position and electrically coupled with the first and second electrodes establishing a closed state, the piston comprises an electrical conductor that couples with the first and second electrodes providing a conductive path; an electromagnetic launcher configured to, when activated, induce a magnetic field pulse causing the piston to move away from the electrical coupling with the first and second electrodes establishing an open circuit between the first and second electrodes; and a piston control system comprising a piston arresting system configured to control a deceleration of the piston following the movement of the piston induced by the electromagnetic launcher such that the piston is not in electrical contact with at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode when in the open state.

  1. Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supervision in Danish Psychiatry: Training the Next Generation of Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lasse M; Foli-Andersen, Nina J

    2017-02-01

    Psychotherapy training is mandatory for physicians to qualify as psychiatrists in Denmark. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapy has increased, and psychotherapy is increasingly included in international treatment guidelines. The authors investigated how psychiatrists in training in Denmark evaluate the opportunities to practice psychotherapy in their training and the quality of the supervision they receive in psychotherapy training, particularly for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The authors conducted a survey regarding psychotherapy training and CBT supervision among psychiatrists in training at Danish psychiatric specialist training courses. They investigated respondents' interest and experience in psychotherapy and respondents' views on the relevance and feasibility of performing psychotherapy and receiving supervision in their psychiatry training. Eighty-eight percent of the psychiatrists in training found psychotherapy to be a relevant part of their training; however, 77 % found it difficult to find time to practice psychotherapy and 44 % felt that practicing psychotherapy was a strain on their employer. Thirty-six percent and 53 %, respectively, had difficulties securing psychodynamic and CBT supervision. In CBT supervision, more than 60 % reported supervision that appeared to be below the expected CBT supervision standard and often so much below it might not qualify as CBT supervision. There is a need to focus on how to better integrate psychotherapy and supervision in the Danish psychiatric training program. Good CBT supervision may be lacking, and a way to ensure high-quality supervision is required.

  2. A SURVEY OF SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Sadarangani *, Dr. Anjali Jivani

    2016-01-01

    Semi Supervised Learning involves using both labeled and unlabeled data to train a classifier or for clustering. Semi supervised learning finds usage in many applications, since labeled data can be hard to find in many cases. Currently, a lot of research is being conducted in this area. This paper discusses the different algorithms of semi supervised learning and then their advantages and limitations are compared. The differences between supervised classification and semi-supervised classific...

  3. Predicting Treatment Response to Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with the Use of Supervised Machine Learning-An Artificial Intelligence Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajian, Aaron; Murali, Nikitha; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Laage-Gaupp, Fabian Max; Nezami, Nariman; Duncan, James S; Schlachter, Todd; Lin, MingDe; Geschwind, Jean-François; Chapiro, Julius

    2018-06-01

    To use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical patient data to create an artificial intelligence (AI) framework for the prediction of therapeutic outcomes of transarterial chemoembolization by applying machine learning (ML) techniques. This study included 36 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial chemoembolization. The cohort (age 62 ± 8.9 years; 31 men; 13 white; 24 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0, 10 status 1, 2 status 2; 31 Child-Pugh stage A, 4 stage B, 1 stage C; 1 Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0, 12 stage A, 10 stage B, 13 stage C; tumor size 5.2 ± 3.0 cm; number of tumors 2.6 ± 1.1; and 30 conventional transarterial chemoembolization, 6 with drug-eluting embolic agents). MR imaging was obtained before and 1 month after transarterial chemoembolization. Image-based tumor response to transarterial chemoembolization was assessed with the use of the 3D quantitative European Association for the Study of the Liver (qEASL) criterion. Clinical information, baseline imaging, and therapeutic features were used to train logistic regression (LR) and random forest (RF) models to predict patients as treatment responders or nonresponders under the qEASL response criterion. The performance of each model was validated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Both LR and RF models predicted transarterial chemoembolization treatment response with an overall accuracy of 78% (sensitivity 62.5%, specificity 82.1%, positive predictive value 50.0%, negative predictive value 88.5%). The strongest predictors of treatment response included a clinical variable (presence of cirrhosis) and an imaging variable (relative tumor signal intensity >27.0). Transarterial chemoembolization outcomes in patients with HCC may be predicted before procedures by combining clinical patient data and baseline MR imaging with the use of AI and ML techniques. Copyright © 2018 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human semi-supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan R; Rogers, Timothy T; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    Most empirical work in human categorization has studied learning in either fully supervised or fully unsupervised scenarios. Most real-world learning scenarios, however, are semi-supervised: Learners receive a great deal of unlabeled information from the world, coupled with occasional experiences in which items are directly labeled by a knowledgeable source. A large body of work in machine learning has investigated how learning can exploit both labeled and unlabeled data provided to a learner. Using equivalences between models found in human categorization and machine learning research, we explain how these semi-supervised techniques can be applied to human learning. A series of experiments are described which show that semi-supervised learning models prove useful for explaining human behavior when exposed to both labeled and unlabeled data. We then discuss some machine learning models that do not have familiar human categorization counterparts. Finally, we discuss some challenges yet to be addressed in the use of semi-supervised models for modeling human categorization. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Challenges for Better thesis supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Laleh; Sayarifard, Azadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Yunesian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Conduction of thesis by the students is one of their major academic activities. Thesis quality and acquired experiences are highly dependent on the supervision. Our study is aimed at identifing the challenges in thesis supervision from both students and faculty members point of view. This study was conducted using individual in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). The participants were 43 students and faculty members selected by purposive sampling. It was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data analysis was done concurrently with data gathering using content analysis method. Our data analysis resulted in 162 codes, 17 subcategories and 4 major categories, "supervisory knowledge and skills", "atmosphere", "bylaws and regulations relating to supervision" and "monitoring and evaluation". This study showed that more attention and planning in needed for modifying related rules and regulations, qualitative and quantitative improvement in mentorship training, research atmosphere improvement and effective monitoring and evaluation in supervisory area.

  6. Cultural Humility in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Watkins, C Edward; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Ramos, Marciana J

    2016-01-01

    As a core component of multicultural orientation, cultural humility can be considered an important attitude for clinical supervisees to adopt and practically implement. How can cultural humility be most meaningfully incorporated in supervision? In what ways can supervisors stimulate the development of a culturally humble attitude in our supervisees? We consider those questions in this paper and present a model for addressing cultural humility in clinical supervision. The primary focus is given to two areas: (a) modeling and teaching of cultural humility through interpersonal interactions in supervision, and (b) teaching cultural humility through outside activities and experiences. Two case studies illustrating the model are presented, and a research agenda for work in this area is outlined.

  7. The efficiency of government supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetzold, H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1970, fires as events initiating plant failure were included in the accident analyses of nuclear power plant design concepts. In the meantime, they have been expressed in more precise terms and incorporated into the bodies of nuclear technical rules and regulations. Following a suggestion by the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Ministry for the Environment, the efficiency of government supervision has been examined for the example of fire protection measures or the site of Phillipsburg with one BWR and one PWR plant in operation. The result of the examination indicated that pragmatic approaches and the establishment of key areas of supervision could further enhance the efficiency of government supervision under Section 19 of the German Atomic Energy Act and achieve improvements in plant safety. (orig.) [de

  8. Interrupter and hybrid-switch testing for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.; Warren, R.W.; Honig, E.M.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Bellamo, P.; Cassel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses recent and ongoing switch testing for fusion devices. The first part describes testing for the TFTR ohmic-heating circuit. In this set of tests, which simulated the stresses produced during a plasma initiation pulse, circuit breakers were required to interrupt a current of 24 kA with an associated recovery voltage of 25 kV. Two interrupter systems were tested for over 1000 operations each, and both appear to satisfy TFTR requirements. The second part discusses hybrid-switch development for superconducting coil protection. These switching systems must be capable of carrying large currents on a continuous basis as well as performing interruption duties. The third part presents preliminary results on an early-counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters. Implementation of this technique has resulted in large increases in interruptible current as well as a marked reduction in contact erosion

  9. ECB Banking Supervision and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Lannoo, Karel

    2014-01-01

    With publication of the results of its Comprehensive Assessment at the end of October 2014, the European Central Bank has set the standard for its new mandate as supervisor. But this was only the beginning. The heavy work started in early November, with the day-to-day supervision of the 120 most significant banks in the eurozone under the Single Supervisory Mechanism. The centralisation of the supervision in the eurozone will pose a number of challenges for the ECB in the coming months and ye...

  10. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-10-07

    Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10-12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001-2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. From 2007-2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children Venezuela.

  11. Man-machine supervision; Supervision homme-machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montmain, J. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2005-05-01

    Today's complexity of systems where man is involved has led to the development of more and more sophisticated information processing systems where decision making has become more and more difficult. The operator task has moved from operation to supervision and the production tool has become indissociable from its numerical instrumentation and control system. The integration of more and more numerous and sophisticated control indicators in the control room does not necessary fulfill the expectations of the operation team. It is preferable to develop cooperative information systems which are real situation understanding aids. The stake is not the automation of operators' cognitive tasks but the supply of a reasoning help. One of the challenges of interactive information systems is the selection, organisation and dynamical display of information. The efficiency of the whole man-machine system depends on the communication interface efficiency. This article presents the principles and specificities of man-machine supervision systems: 1 - principle: operator's role in control room, operator and automation, monitoring and diagnosis, characteristics of useful models for supervision; 2 - qualitative reasoning: origin, trends, evolutions; 3 - causal reasoning: causality, causal graph representation, causal and diagnostic graph; 4 - multi-points of view reasoning: multi flow modeling method, Sagace method; 5 - approximate reasoning: the symbolic numerical interface, the multi-criteria decision; 6 - example of application: supervision in a spent-fuel reprocessing facility. (J.S.)

  12. Clinical Supervision of International Supervisees: Suggestions for Multicultural Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahram

    2018-01-01

    An increase of international students in various settings has been noted in a range of disciplines including counseling and other mental health professions. The author examined the literature on international counseling students related to their experiences in counseling training, particularly in supervision. From the counseling literature, five…

  13. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  14. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Supervision af psykoterapi via Skype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Grünbaum, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    that although face-to-face meetings are to be preferred, today’s technology means that supervision via videoconference like Skype™ is better than just being acceptable. Thus, it offers a good alternative to face-to-face encounters, and in certain ways it even seems to boost the growth of the supervisees...

  16. Line supervision of alarm communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chritton, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explain the role and application of alarm communication link supervision in security systems such as for nuclear facilities. The vulnerabilities of the various types of alarm communication links will be presented. Throughout the paper, an effort has been made to describe only those technologies commercially available and to avoid speculative theoretical solutions

  17. Consultative Instructor Supervision and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations vary greatly in how they monitor training instructors. The methods used in monitoring vary greatly. This article presents a systematic process for improving instructor skills that result in better teaching and better learning, which results in better-prepared employees for the workforce. The consultative supervision and evaluation…

  18. Improving supervision: a team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" outlines an interactive team supervision strategy as a means of improving family planning service quality and enabling staff to perform to their maximum potential. Such an approach to supervision requires a shift from a monitoring to a facilitative role. Because supervisory visits to the field are infrequent, the regional supervisor, clinic manager, and staff should form a team to share ongoing supervisory responsibilities. The team approach removes individual blame and builds consensus. An effective team is characterized by shared leadership roles, concrete work problems, mutual accountability, an emphasis on achieving team objectives, and problem resolution within the group. The team supervision process includes the following steps: prepare a visit plan and schedule; meet with the clinic manager and staff to explain how the visit will be conducted; supervise key activity areas (clinical, management, and personnel); conduct a problem-solving team meeting; conduct a debriefing meeting with the clinic manager; and prepare a report on the visit, including recommendations and follow-up plans. In Guatemala's Family Planning Unit, teams identify problem areas on the basis of agreement that a problem exists, belief that the problem can be solved with available resources, and individual willingness to accept responsibility for the specific actions identified to correct the problem.

  19. Opioid interruptions, pain, and withdrawal symptoms in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Sarah E; Liu, Sophia; Hung, William W; Boockvar, Kenneth S

    2014-11-01

    Interruptions in opioid use have the potential to cause pain relapse and withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this study were to observe patterns of opioid interruption during acute illness in nursing home residents and examine associations between interruptions and pain and withdrawal symptoms. Patients from 3 nursing homes in a metropolitan area who were prescribed opioids were assessed for symptoms of pain and withdrawal by researchers blinded to opioid dosage received, using the Brief Pain Inventory Scale and the Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale, respectively, during prespecified time periods. The prespecified time periods were 2 weeks after onset of acute illness (eg, urinary tract infection), and 2 weeks after hospital admission and nursing home readmission, if they occurred. Opioid dosing was recorded and a significant interruption was defined as a complete discontinuation or a reduction in dose of >50% for ≥1 day. The covariates age, sex, race, comorbid conditions, initial opioid dose, and initial pain level were recorded. Symptoms pre- and post-opioid interruptions were compared and contrasted with those in a group without opioid interruptions. Sixty-six patients receiving opioids were followed for a mean of 10.9 months and experienced a total of 104 acute illnesses. During 64 (62%) illnesses, patients experienced any reduction in opioid dosing, with a mean (SD) dose reduction of 63.9% (29.9%). During 39 (38%) illnesses, patients experienced a significant opioid interruption. In a multivariable model, residence at 1 of the 3 nursing homes was associated with a lower risk of interruption (odds ratio = 0.073; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.597; P pain score (difference -0.50 [2.66]; 95% CI, -3.16 to 2.16) and withdrawal score (difference -0.91 [3.12]; 95% CI, -4.03 to 2.21) after the interruption as compared with before interruption. However, when compared with patients without interruptions, patients with interruptions experienced larger increases in pain scores

  20. Viral resuppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal

    2008-01-01

    the NRTIs, or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous interruption of all antiretrovirals was discouraged. Resuppression rates 4-8 months after reinitiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within 2 months of the treatment...... regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered or switched interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs.......BACKGROUND: Interruption of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use...

  1. The time-course of recovery from interruption during reading: eye movement evidence for the role of interruption lag and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James E; Cauchard, Fabrice; Weger, Ulrich W

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined how interruptions impact reading and how interruption lags and the reader's spatial memory affect the recovery from such interruptions. Participants read paragraphs of text and were interrupted unpredictably by a spoken news story while their eye movements were monitored. Time made available for consolidation prior to responding to the interruption did not aid reading resumption. However, providing readers with a visual cue that indicated the interruption location did aid task resumption substantially in Experiment 2. Taken together, the findings show that the recovery from interruptions during reading draws on spatial memory resources and can be aided by processes that support spatial memory. Practical implications are discussed.

  2. Scintigraphic supervision of osteitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigault, L.; Sureau, B.; Wioland, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    On the assumption that isotopic examinations of the bone metabolism and especially the scintigraphic method could give valuable results in the observation of osteitis patients treated with antibiotics, four cases of this disease were selected and followed regularly every three or four months for at least a year. Several bone scintigraphs were carried out with a scintillation camera after intraveinous injection of technetium-labelled pyrophosphate and the hyperfixation variations of the osteitis centre are given as a function of time. It is shown that bone scintigraphy gives an exact picture of the dimensions and morphology of lesions caused by an osteitis centre and above all, if repeated, enables the development of the infected region to be estimated. It seems that the healing of osteitis can be judged from scintigraphic evidence. Scintigraphy may be considered as a means to check the efficiency of an antibiotic treatment [fr

  3. Supervising Family Therapy Trainees in Primary Care Medical Settings: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd M.; Patterson, Jo Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify and describe four essential skills for effective supervision of family therapy trainees in primary care medical settings. The supervision skills described include: (1) Understand medical culture; (2) Locate the trainee in the treatment system; (3) Investigate the biological/health issues; and (4) Be…

  4. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9259-6] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and...

  5. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9834-9] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Oregon has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water...

  6. Multi combined Adlerian supervision in Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Gungor, Abdi

    2017-01-01

    For counselor professional and counselor education, supervision is an important process, in which more experienced professional helps and guides less experienced professional. To provide an effective and beneficial supervision, various therapy, development, or process based approaches and models have been developed. In addition, different eclectic models integrating more than one model have been developed. In this paper, as a supervision model, multi combined Adlerian supervision model is pro...

  7. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxwang@xjtu.edu.cn; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-08-07

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E{sup −3}, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  8. Multicultural Supervision: What Difference Does Difference Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Katie; Aros-O'Malley, Megan; Murrieta, Imelda

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural sensitivity and competency represent critical components to contemporary practice and supervision in school psychology. Internship and supervision experiences are a capstone experience for many new school psychologists; however, few receive formal training and supervision in multicultural competencies. As an increased number of…

  9. Moment constrained semi-supervised LDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This BNAIC compressed contribution provides a summary of the work originally presented at the First IAPR Workshop on Partially Supervised Learning and published in [5]. It outlines the idea behind supervised and semi-supervised learning and highlights the major shortcoming of many current methods...

  10. Skærpet bevidsthed om supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a historical survey of the initiatives which have taken place in european music therapy towards developing a deeper consciousness about supervision. Supervision as a disciplin in music therapy training, as a maintenance of music therapy profession and as a postgraduate...... training for examined music therapists. Definitions are presented and methods developed by working groups in european music therapy supervision are presented....

  11. Methods of Feminist Family Therapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Anne M.; Thomas, Volker; Johnson, Scott; Long, Janie K.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three supervision methods which emerged from a qualitative study of the experiences of feminist family therapy supervisors and the therapists they supervised: the supervision contract, collaborative methods, and hierarchical methods. Provides a description of the participants' experiences of these methods and discusses their fit with…

  12. 20 CFR 655.30 - Supervised recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervised recruitment. 655.30 Section 655.30... Workers) § 655.30 Supervised recruitment. (a) Supervised recruitment. Where an employer is found to have... failed to adequately conduct recruitment activities or failed in any obligation of this part, the CO may...

  13. 28 CFR 2.91 - Supervision responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision responsibility. 2.91 Section 2.91 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees § 2.91 Supervision responsibility. (a) Pursuan...

  14. Postgraduate research supervision in a socially distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate supervision is a higher education practice with a long history. Through the conventional "apprenticeship" model postgraduate supervision has served as an important vehicle of intellectual inheritance between generations. However, this model of supervision has come under scrutiny as a consequence of the ...

  15. 32 CFR 727.11 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision. 727.11 Section 727.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL LEGAL ASSISTANCE § 727.11 Supervision. The Judge Advocate General will exercise supervision over all legal assistance activities in the Department of the Navy. Subject to the...

  16. Supervision Experiences of New Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultsma, Shawn A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the supervision experiences of 11 new professional school counselors. They reported that their supervision experiences were most often administrative in nature; reports of clinical and developmental supervision were limited to participants whose supervisors were licensed as professional counselors. In addition,…

  17. 17 CFR 166.3 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision. 166.3 Section 166.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CUSTOMER PROTECTION RULES § 166.3 Supervision. Each Commission registrant, except an associated person who has no supervisory duties, must diligently supervise the handling b...

  18. Optimistic semi-supervised least squares classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krijthe, Jesse H.; Loog, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The goal of semi-supervised learning is to improve supervised classifiers by using additional unlabeled training examples. In this work we study a simple self-learning approach to semi-supervised learning applied to the least squares classifier. We show that a soft-label and a hard-label variant ...

  19. Supervision of execution of dismantling; Supervision de ejecucion de desmantelamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, J.

    2015-07-01

    Enresa create and organizational structure that covers various areas involved in effective control of Decommissioning Project. One area is the Technical Supervision of Works Decommissioning Project, as Execution Department dependent Technical Management. In the structure, Execution Department acts as liaison between the project, disciplines involved in developing and specialized companies contracted work to achieve your intended target. Equally important is to ensure that such activities are carried out correctly, according to the project documentation. (Author)

  20. A National Survey of School Counselor Supervision Practices: Administrative, Clinical, Peer, and Technology Mediated Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Mason, Kimberly L.

    2012-01-01

    Supervision is vital for personal and professional development of counselors. Practicing school counselors (n = 1557) across the nation were surveyed to explore current supervision practices. Results indicated that 41.1% of school counselors provide supervision. Although 89% receive some type of supervision, only 10.3% of school counselors receive…

  1. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  2. Application of Contingency Theories to the Supervision of Student Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Julia D.

    1985-01-01

    This article examines selected approaches to student teacher supervision within the context of contingency theory. These include authentic supervision, developmental supervision, and supervision based on the student's level of maturity. (MT)

  3. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Reichert, M.U.; Kropf, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  4. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Kropf, P.G.; Reichert, M.U.; Chen, C.S.; Filipe, J.; Seruca, I.; Cordeiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  5. Instant Messaging Usage and Interruptions in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui‐Jung Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to explore IM interruption by relating it to media choices and purposes of IM use in the workplace. Two major media choice concepts were: media richness and social influence; while four purposes of IM use were: organization work, knowledge work, socializing, and boundary spanning activities. Data (N = 283 were collected via a combination of convenience and snowball sampling of “computer‐using workers” in Taiwan, based on the Standard Occupational Classification system published by the Taiwan government. Results indicated that media choice works better than purpose of IM use to explain IM interruption. Among them, social influence was the best predictor to IM interruption in the workplace. In addition, instant feedback and personalization provided by IM, and IM usage for the purposes of knowledge work and socializing, also relate to IM interruption in the workplace.

  6. Coping with interruptions in clinical nursing - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sussie; Brahe, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    phenomenological approach. METHODS: Observations were performed combined with semi-structured qualitative interviews. RESULTS: Managing interruptions depend on level of competence, working environment, dialogue and matching of expectations, collegial roles and implicit rules. Working procedures impact on how......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gain knowledge on how nurses' cope with interruptions in clinical practice. BACKGROUND: Interruptions may delay work routines and result in wasted time, disorganised planning and ineffective working procedures, affecting nurses' focus and overview in different ways. Research......: Culture work and matching of expectations are important to reflect on and discuss personal- and group behaviour caused by interruptions. We need to focus on the role of each nurse in the professional team, types of personality and unspoken rules. Professional competencies for example prioritising, keeping...

  7. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  8. Declarative modeling for process supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyval, L.

    1989-01-01

    Our work is a contribution to computer aided supervision of continuous processes. It is inspired by an area of Artificial Intelligence: qualitative physics. Here, supervision is based on a model which continuously provides operators with a synthetic view of the process; but this model is founded on general principles of control theory rather than on physics. It involves concepts such as high gain or small time response. It helps in linking temporally the evolution of various variables. Moreover, the model provides predictions of the future behaviour of the process, which allows action advice and alarm filtering. This should greatly reduce the famous cognitive overload associated to any complex and dangerous evolution of the process

  9. Shame, the scourge of supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Perret

    2017-07-01

    • How can the supervisor deal with it? My motivation in writing this article is born from my personal experience with shame. It inhibited my thinking, my spontaneity, my creativity, and therefore limited my personal and professional development. Freeing myself allowed me to recover liberty, energy and legitimacy. I gained in professional competence and assertiveness within my practice as supervisor. My purpose in writing this article is that we, as supervisors, reflect together on how we look at the process of shame in our supervision sessions.  Citation - APA format: Perret, V. (2017. Shame, the scourge of supervision. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 8(2, 41-48.

  10. Approximator: Predicting Interruptibility in Software Development with Commodity Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Andersen, Kristian S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the presence and availability of a remote colleague is key in coordination in global software development but is not easily done using existing computer-mediated channels. Previous research has shown that automated estimation of interruptibility is feasible and can achieve a precision....... These early but promising results represent a starting point for designing tools with support for interruptibility capable of improving distributed awareness and cooperation to be used in global software development....

  11. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU; Vasile ILIE

    2013-01-01

    The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences ca...

  12. Medical supervision of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The first part of this volume describes the effects of radiation on living organism, both at the overall and at the molecular level. Special attention is paid to the metabolism and toxicity of radioactivity substances. The second part deals with radiological exposure, natural, medical and occupational. The third part provides data on radiological protection standards, and the fourth part addresses the health supervision of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, covering both physical and medical control.

  13. Coupled Semi-Supervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Additionally, specify the expected category of each relation argument to enable type-checking. Subsystem components and the KI can benefit from methods that...confirm that our coupled semi-supervised learning approaches can scale to hun- dreds of predicates and can benefit from using a diverse set of...organization yes California Institute of Technology vegetable food yes carrots vehicle item yes airplanes vertebrate animal yes videoGame product yes

  14. Supervision of execution of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, J.

    2015-01-01

    Enresa create and organizational structure that covers various areas involved in effective control of Decommissioning Project. One area is the Technical Supervision of Works Decommissioning Project, as Execution Department dependent Technical Management. In the structure, Execution Department acts as liaison between the project, disciplines involved in developing and specialized companies contracted work to achieve your intended target. Equally important is to ensure that such activities are carried out correctly, according to the project documentation. (Author)

  15. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  16. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  17. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  18. Tests of vacuum interrupters for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.; Parsons, M.; Honig, E.; Lindsay, J.

    1979-04-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton University requires the insertion of a resistor in an excited ohmic-heating coil circuit to produce a plasma initiation pulse (PIP). It is expected that the maximum duty for the switching system will be an interruption of 24 kA with an associated recovery voltage of 25 kV. Vacuum interrupters were selected as the most economical means to satisfy these requirements. However, it was felt that some testing of available systems should be performed to determine their reliability under these conditions. Two interrupter systems were tested for over 1000 interruptions each at 24 kA and 25 kV. One system employed special Westinghouse type WL-33552 interrupters in a circuit designed by LASL. This circuit used a commercially available actuator and a minimum size counterpulse bank and saturable reactor. The other used Toshiba type VGB2-D20 interrupters actuated by a Toshiba mechanism in a Toshiba circuit using a larger counterpulse bank and saturable reactor

  19. Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarlane, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    .... This report asserts that a single unifying definition of user-interruption and the accompanying practical taxonomy would be useful theoretical tools for driving effective investigation of this crucial...

  20. Interrupting behaviour: Minimizing decision costs via temporal commitment and low-level interrupts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Kevin; Dayan, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Ideal decision-makers should constantly assess all sources of information about opportunities and threats, and be able to redetermine their choices promptly in the face of change. However, perpetual monitoring and reassessment impose inordinate sensing and computational costs, making them impractical for animals and machines alike. The obvious alternative of committing for extended periods of time to limited sensory strategies associated with particular courses of action can be dangerous and wasteful. Here, we explore the intermediate possibility of making provisional temporal commitments whilst admitting interruption based on limited broader observation. We simulate foraging under threat of predation to elucidate the benefits of such a scheme. We relate our results to diseases of distractibility and roving attention, and consider mechanistic substrates such as noradrenergic neuromodulation.

  1. Interrupting behaviour: Minimizing decision costs via temporal commitment and low-level interrupts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lloyd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideal decision-makers should constantly assess all sources of information about opportunities and threats, and be able to redetermine their choices promptly in the face of change. However, perpetual monitoring and reassessment impose inordinate sensing and computational costs, making them impractical for animals and machines alike. The obvious alternative of committing for extended periods of time to limited sensory strategies associated with particular courses of action can be dangerous and wasteful. Here, we explore the intermediate possibility of making provisional temporal commitments whilst admitting interruption based on limited broader observation. We simulate foraging under threat of predation to elucidate the benefits of such a scheme. We relate our results to diseases of distractibility and roving attention, and consider mechanistic substrates such as noradrenergic neuromodulation.

  2. Interrupting behaviour: Minimizing decision costs via temporal commitment and low-level interrupts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Ideal decision-makers should constantly assess all sources of information about opportunities and threats, and be able to redetermine their choices promptly in the face of change. However, perpetual monitoring and reassessment impose inordinate sensing and computational costs, making them impractical for animals and machines alike. The obvious alternative of committing for extended periods of time to limited sensory strategies associated with particular courses of action can be dangerous and wasteful. Here, we explore the intermediate possibility of making provisional temporal commitments whilst admitting interruption based on limited broader observation. We simulate foraging under threat of predation to elucidate the benefits of such a scheme. We relate our results to diseases of distractibility and roving attention, and consider mechanistic substrates such as noradrenergic neuromodulation. PMID:29338004

  3. Nursing supervision for care comprehensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Silva, Jaqueline Alcântara Marcelino da; Alves, Larissa Roberta; Silva, Maria Ferreira da; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques

    2017-01-01

    To reflect on nursing supervision as a management tool for care comprehensiveness by nurses, considering its potential and limits in the current scenario. A reflective study based on discourse about nursing supervision, presenting theoretical and practical concepts and approaches. Limits on the exercise of supervision are related to the organization of healthcare services based on the functional and clinical model of care, in addition to possible gaps in the nurse training process and work overload. Regarding the potential, researchers emphasize that supervision is a tool for coordinating care and management actions, which may favor care comprehensiveness, and stimulate positive attitudes toward cooperation and contribution within teams, co-responsibility, and educational development at work. Nursing supervision may help enhance care comprehensiveness by implying continuous reflection on including the dynamics of the healthcare work process and user needs in care networks. refletir a supervisão de enfermagem como instrumento gerencial do enfermeiro para integralidade do cuidado, considerando suas potencialidades e limitações no cenário atual. estudo reflexivo baseado na formulação discursiva sobre a supervisão de enfermagem, apresentando conceitos e enfoques teóricos e/ou práticos. limitações no exercício da supervisão estão relacionadas à organização dos serviços de saúde embasada no modelo funcional e clínico de atenção, assim como possíveis lacunas no processo de formação do enfermeiro e sobrecarga de trabalho. Quanto às potencialidades, destaca-se a supervisão como instrumento de articulação de ações assistenciais e gerenciais, que pode favorecer integralidade da atenção, estimular atitudes de cooperação e colaboração em equipe, além da corresponsabilização e promoção da educação no trabalho. supervisão de enfermagem pode contribuir para fortalecimento da integralidade do cuidado, pressupondo reflexão cont

  4. Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the experiment…

  5. Supervision of sunbeds in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visuri, R.

    2003-01-01

    Sunbeds emitting ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation) are used for cosmetic tanning. UV radiation incontrovertibly causes skin diseases such as skin cancer and eye diseases. UV exposure from natural sun should be moderate and from sunbeds it should be avoided. The aim of the supervision of sunbeds and tanning facilities is to ensure that they comply with valid safety requirements. The basis for the requirements is that acute effects such as sunburns will not occur and the yearly UV dose would not increase excessively. (orig.)

  6. Supervision of sunbeds in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Non-ionizing Radiation Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    Sunbeds emitting ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation) are used for cosmetic tanning. UV radiation incontrovertibly causes skin diseases such as skin cancer and eye diseases. UV exposure from natural sun should be moderate and from sunbeds it should be avoided. The aim of the supervision of sunbeds and tanning facilities is to ensure that they comply with valid safety requirements. The basis for the requirements is that acute effects such as sunburns will not occur and the yearly UV dose would not increase excessively. (orig.)

  7. Self-Supervised Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2003-01-01

    Some progress has been made in a continuing effort to develop mathematical models of the behaviors of multi-agent systems known in biology, economics, and sociology (e.g., systems ranging from single or a few biomolecules to many interacting higher organisms). Living systems can be characterized by nonlinear evolution of probability distributions over different possible choices of the next steps in their motions. One of the main challenges in mathematical modeling of living systems is to distinguish between random walks of purely physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) and those of biological origin. Following a line of reasoning from prior research, it has been assumed, in the present development, that a biological random walk can be represented by a nonlinear mathematical model that represents coupled mental and motor dynamics incorporating the psychological concept of reflection or self-image. The nonlinear dynamics impart the lifelike ability to behave in ways and to exhibit patterns that depart from thermodynamic equilibrium. Reflection or self-image has traditionally been recognized as a basic element of intelligence. The nonlinear mathematical models of the present development are denoted self-supervised dynamical systems. They include (1) equations of classical dynamics, including random components caused by uncertainties in initial conditions and by Langevin forces, coupled with (2) the corresponding Liouville or Fokker-Planck equations that describe the evolutions of probability densities that represent the uncertainties. The coupling is effected by fictitious information-based forces, denoted supervising forces, composed of probability densities and functionals thereof. The equations of classical mechanics represent motor dynamics that is, dynamics in the traditional sense, signifying Newton s equations of motion. The evolution of the probability densities represents mental dynamics or self-image. Then the interaction between the physical and

  8. The mythology of anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Continuous anticoagulation therapy is used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and other embolic complications. When patients receiving anticoagulation therapy undergo dental surgery, a decision must be made about whether to continue anticoagulation therapy and risk bleeding complications or briefly interrupt anticoagulation therapy and increase the risk of developing embolic complications. Results from decades of studies of thousands of dental patients receiving anticoagulation therapy reveal that bleeding complications requiring more than local measures for hemostasis have been rare and never fatal. However, embolic complications (some of which were fatal and others possibly permanently debilitating) sometimes have occurred in patients whose anticoagulation therapy was interrupted for dental procedures. Although there is now virtually universal consensus among national medical and dental groups and other experts that anticoagulation therapy should not be interrupted for most dental surgery, there are still some arguments made supporting anticoagulation therapy interruption. An analysis of these arguments shows them to be based on a collection of myths and half-truths rather than on logical scientific conclusions. The time has come to stop anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental procedures. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of interruptible natural gas service: Winter 1989--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    During the extreme winter conditions experienced in December 1989, petroleum products showed dramatic price increases. Supply of certain products such as propane reached critical levels. Numerous factors contributed to the heating fuel situation, including well freeze-ups and refinery problems, as well as difficulties associated with delivery of the product. An area of concern identified in the ensuing debates was the impact of customer requirements for petroleum products resulting from curtailment of natural gas purchases under interruptible contracts. The lower rates associated with interruptible contracts make them an attractive choice for electric utilities. However, they require that the customer be prepared to obtain adequate fuel supplies in the event of curtailments. Electric utilities prepare for these contingencies with stocks of alternative fuels. Particularly in cold climates, interruptible has contracts are part of doing business. The extent and duration of the interruptions faced by customers relate principally to weather factors. Previous EIA studies investigated on a national level the causes of the dramatic price increases seen in petroleum product markets in the 1989--1990 heating season. This study is in response to a request from Senator Timothy Wirth, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation, to study in detail the impact of interruptible natural gas contracts as one of the factors cited as contributing to the price increases. A copy of the letter requesting the study is contained in Appendix A

  10. Current Risk Management Practices in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtens, Ilayna K; Crapanzano, Kathleen; Tynes, L Lee

    2017-12-01

    Psychotherapy competence is a core skill for psychiatry residents, and psychotherapy supervision is a time-honored approach to teaching this skill. To explore the current supervision practices of psychiatry training programs, a 24-item questionnaire was sent to all program directors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved adult psychiatry programs. The questionnaire included items regarding adherence to recently proposed therapy supervision practices aimed at reducing potential liability risk. The results suggested that current therapy supervision practices do not include sufficient management of the potential liability involved in therapy supervision. Better protections for patients, residents, supervisors and the institutions would be possible with improved credentialing practices and better documentation of informed consent and supervision policies and procedures. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  11. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulani, Fenika; Purwanto, Bernadinus M; Handoko, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000) abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000) was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about superviso...

  12. Human Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0143 HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Heath A. Ruff Ball...REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 09-16-08 – 03-22-13 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES 5a...Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles To support the vision of a system that enables a single operator to control multiple next-generation

  13. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at

  14. Semi-supervised clustering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis methods seek to partition a data set into homogeneous subgroups. It is useful in a wide variety of applications, including document processing and modern genetics. Conventional clustering methods are unsupervised, meaning that there is no outcome variable nor is anything known about the relationship between the observations in the data set. In many situations, however, information about the clusters is available in addition to the values of the features. For example, the cluster labels of some observations may be known, or certain observations may be known to belong to the same cluster. In other cases, one may wish to identify clusters that are associated with a particular outcome variable. This review describes several clustering algorithms (known as "semi-supervised clustering" methods) that can be applied in these situations. The majority of these methods are modifications of the popular k-means clustering method, and several of them will be described in detail. A brief description of some other semi-supervised clustering algorithms is also provided.

  15. Semi-supervised clustering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis methods seek to partition a data set into homogeneous subgroups. It is useful in a wide variety of applications, including document processing and modern genetics. Conventional clustering methods are unsupervised, meaning that there is no outcome variable nor is anything known about the relationship between the observations in the data set. In many situations, however, information about the clusters is available in addition to the values of the features. For example, the cluster labels of some observations may be known, or certain observations may be known to belong to the same cluster. In other cases, one may wish to identify clusters that are associated with a particular outcome variable. This review describes several clustering algorithms (known as “semi-supervised clustering” methods) that can be applied in these situations. The majority of these methods are modifications of the popular k-means clustering method, and several of them will be described in detail. A brief description of some other semi-supervised clustering algorithms is also provided. PMID:24729830

  16. Thinking aloud in the presence of interruptions and time constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer......Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions...... responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision...

  17. Application of customer-interruption costs for optimum distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Y.L.; Chung, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new methodology for obtaining optimum values of the integrated cost of utility investment with customer interruption in distribution planning for electric power systems by determining the reliability cost and worth of the distribution system. Reliability cost refers to investment cost of the utility in achieving a defined level of reliability. Reliability worth is the benefit gained by the utility customer from an increase of reliability. A computer program has been developed to determine comparative reliability indices for a typical distribution network. With the average interruption cost, outage duration, average disconnected load, cost data for distribution equipment, etc. being known, the relation between reliability cost, reliability worth and reliability at the specified load point are obtained. The optimum reliability of the distribution system is then determined from the minimum cost to the utility with customer interruption. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by several practical networks. (Author)

  18. Abusive Supervision and Subordinate Performance : Instrumentality Considerations in the Emergence and Consequences of Abusive Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Lam, Catherine K.; van der Vegt, Geert; Huang, X.; Miao, Q.

    Drawing from moral exclusion theory, this article examines outcome dependence and interpersonal liking as key boundary conditions for the linkage between perceived subordinate performance and abusive supervision. Moreover, it investigates the role of abusive supervision for subordinates' subsequent,

  19. Simulation-Based Testing of Pager Interruptions During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujka, Joseph A; Safcsak, Karen; Bhullar, Indermeet S; Havron, William S

    2018-01-30

    To determine if pager interruptions affect operative time, safety, or complications and management of pager issues during a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twelve surgery resident volunteers were tested on a Simbionix Lap Mentor II simulator. Each resident performed 6 randomized simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomies; 3 with pager interruptions (INT) and 3 without pager interruptions (NO-INT). The pager interruptions were sent in the form of standardized patient vignettes and timed to distract the resident during dissection of the critical view of safety and clipping of the cystic duct. The residents were graded on a pass/fail scale for eliciting appropriate patient history and management of the pager issue. Data was extracted from the simulator for the following endpoints: operative time, safety metrics, and incidence of operative complications. The Mann-Whitney U test and contingency table analysis were used to compare the 2 groups (INT vs. NO-INT). Level I trauma center; Simulation laboratory. Twelve general surgery residents. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in any of the operative endpoints as measured by the simulator. However, in the INT group, only 25% of the time did the surgery residents both adequately address the issue and provide effective patient management in response to the pager interruption. Pager interruptions did not affect operative time, safety, or complications during the simulated procedure. However, there were significant failures in the appropriate evaluations and management of pager issues. Consideration for diversion of patient care issues to fellow residents not operating to improve quality and safety of patient care outside the operating room requires further study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Wrist-Worn Thermohaptic Device for Graceful Interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Frank; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Thermal haptics is a potential system output modality for wearable devices that promises to function at the periphery of human attention. When adequately combined with existing attention-governing mechanisms of the human mind, it could be used for interrupting the human agent at a time when......-worn thermohaptic actuator for self-mitigating interruption. We then develop a prototype and perform an insightful pilot study. We frame our empirical thermohaptic experimental work in terms of Peripheral Interaction concepts and show how this new approach to Human-Computer Interaction relates to the Context...

  1. Empirical study of supervised gene screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shuangge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies provide a way of linking variations of phenotypes with their genetic causations. Constructing predictive models using high dimensional microarray measurements usually consists of three steps: (1 unsupervised gene screening; (2 supervised gene screening; and (3 statistical model building. Supervised gene screening based on marginal gene ranking is commonly used to reduce the number of genes in the model building. Various simple statistics, such as t-statistic or signal to noise ratio, have been used to rank genes in the supervised screening. Despite of its extensive usage, statistical study of supervised gene screening remains scarce. Our study is partly motivated by the differences in gene discovery results caused by using different supervised gene screening methods. Results We investigate concordance and reproducibility of supervised gene screening based on eight commonly used marginal statistics. Concordance is assessed by the relative fractions of overlaps between top ranked genes screened using different marginal statistics. We propose a Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, which measures reproducibility of individual genes under the supervised screening. Empirical studies are based on four public microarray data. We consider the cases where the top 20%, 40% and 60% genes are screened. Conclusion From a gene discovery point of view, the effect of supervised gene screening based on different marginal statistics cannot be ignored. Empirical studies show that (1 genes passed different supervised screenings may be considerably different; (2 concordance may vary, depending on the underlying data structure and percentage of selected genes; (3 evaluated with the Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, genes passed supervised screenings are only moderately reproducible; and (4 concordance cannot be improved by supervised screening based on reproducibility.

  2. 28 CFR 810.1 - Supervision contact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision contact requirements. 810.1 Section 810.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COMMUNITY SUPERVISION: ADMINISTRATIVE SANCTIONS § 810.1 Supervision contact requirements. If you are an offender under supervision by th...

  3. A model for dealing with parallel processes in supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Cajvert

    2011-03-01

    Supervision in social work is essential for successful outcomes when working with clients. In social work, unconscious difficulties may arise and similar difficulties may occur in supervision as parallel processes. In this article, the development of a practice-based model of supervision to deal with parallel processes in supervision is described. The model has six phases. In the first phase, the focus is on the supervisor’s inner world, his/her own reflections and observations. In the second phase, the supervision situation is “frozen”, and the supervisees are invited to join the supervisor in taking a meta-perspective on the current situation of supervision. The focus in the third phase is on the inner world of all the group members as well as the visualization and identification of reflections and feelings that arose during the supervision process. Phase four focuses on the supervisee who presented a case, and in phase five the focus shifts to the common understanding and theorization of the supervision process as well as the definition and identification of possible parallel processes. In the final phase, the supervisee, with the assistance of the supervisor and other members of the group, develops a solution and determines how to proceed with the client in treatment. This article uses phenomenological concepts to provide a theoretical framework for the supervision model. Phenomenological reduction is an important approach to examine and to externalize and visualize the inner words of the supervisor and supervisees. Een model voor het hanteren van parallelle processen tijdens supervisie Om succesvol te zijn in de hulpverlening aan cliënten, is supervisie cruciaal in het sociaal werk. Tijdens de hulpverlening kunnen impliciete moeilijkheden de kop opsteken en soortgelijke moeilijkheden duiken soms ook op tijdens supervisie. Dit worden parallelle processen genoemd. Dit artikel beschrijft een op praktijkervaringen gebaseerd model om dergelijke parallelle

  4. Utilizing technological innovations to enhance psychotherapy supervision, training, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeffrey E

    2011-06-01

    Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. Specific ethical challenges and pitfalls are discussed and recommendations are made for the ethical use of these technologies. Additionally, innovative practices from the seven articles in the special section that follows are highlighted and reviewed. These articles present a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy training, research, supervision, and treatment forward toward increased effectiveness. Recommendations for integrating these innovations into ongoing practices are provided and for additional research to build on the important work of the authors in this special section are provided.

  5. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    . In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation......Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used...... in their colours. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with qualitative and quantitative examples from the Caltech-101 data set and a real application of 3D pose estimation for robot grasping....

  6. Self-supervised dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, Michail

    2004-01-01

    A new type of dynamical systems which capture the interactions via information flows typical for active multi-agent systems is introduced. The mathematical formalism is based upon coupling the classical dynamical system (with random components caused by uncertainties in initial conditions as well as by Langevin forces) with the corresponding Liouville or the Fokker-Planck equations describing evolution of these uncertainties in terms of probability density. The coupling is implemented by information-based supervising forces which fundamentally change the patterns of probability evolution. It is demonstrated that the probability density can approach prescribed attractors while exhibiting such patterns as shock waves, solitons and chaos in probability space. Applications of these phenomena to information-based neural nets, expectation-based cooperation, self-programmed systems, control chaos using terminal attractors as well as to games with incomplete information, are addressed. A formal similarity between the mathematical structure of the introduced dynamical systems and quantum mechanics is discussed

  7. School Counselor Perceptions of Administrative Supervision Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddings, Geoffrey Creighton

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of school counselors regarding administrative supervision practices in K-12 public schools in South Carolina. Specifically, the goal was to gain insight into how school counselors view current building-level supervision practices in relation to Pajak's Twelve Dimensions of Supervisory Practice, as well as how…

  8. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  9. Applying Services Marketing Principles to Postgraduate Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to describe the application of two key service quality frameworks for improving the delivery of postgraduate research supervision. The services quality frameworks are used to identify key areas of overlap between services marketing practice and postgraduate supervision that can be used by the supervisor to improve research…

  10. Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

  11. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented

  12. Framing doctoral supervision as formative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie

    Doctoral supervision has been described through a number of models useful for understanding different aspects of supervision. None of these are all-encompassing, but each emphasizes a particular perspective, like the relationship, personal vs. structural support, process vs. product orientation. ...

  13. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

  14. State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

  15. 32 CFR 631.3 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supervision. 631.3 Section 631.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS General § 631.3 Supervision. The following will...

  16. 19 CFR 146.3 - Customs supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs supervision. 146.3 Section 146.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.3 Customs supervision. (a) Assignment of Customs officers. Customs officers will be...

  17. 21 CFR 640.62 - Medical supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical supervision. 640.62 Section 640.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.62 Medical supervision. A qualified licensed physician shall be on the...

  18. Asco 2044 nuclear power plant: supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabartes, J.

    2010-01-01

    Good supervision constitutes an efficient barrier to avoid the errors caused by inadequate work practices. In this sense, it is necessary to strengthen supervision to make sure that the work is carried out with adequate human performance, tending to avoid error and providing safety quality and efficiency at work. (Author).

  19. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 836.572 Section 836.572 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shal...

  20. Teacher Supervision Practices and Principals' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Daniel; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2015-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to determine the individual and collective teacher supervision practices of school principals and vice-principals in Québec (n = 39) who participated in a research-action study on pedagogical supervision. These practices were then analyzed in terms of the principals' sociodemographic and socioprofessional characteristics…

  1. 19 CFR 19.34 - Customs supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs supervision. 19.34 Section 19.34 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.34 Customs supervision. Port...

  2. 28 CFR 551.32 - Staff supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staff supervision. 551.32 Section 551.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Organizations § 551.32 Staff supervision. (a) The Warden shall appoint a staff member as the institution's Inmate Organization Manager (IO...

  3. 32 CFR 552.65 - Command supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Command supervision. 552.65 Section 552.65 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Solicitation on Military Reservations § 552.65 Command supervision. (a) All insurance...

  4. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The guide service will operate under the direction...

  5. 19 CFR 111.28 - Responsible supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsible supervision. 111.28 Section 111.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.28 Responsible supervision. (a) General. Every individual broker...

  6. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  7. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES General Provisions and Conditions § 284.9 Interruptible transportation service. (a...

  8. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-30

    May 30, 2014 ... Case Report doi:10.4102/sajr.v18i1.592 http://sajr.org.za. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior vena cava and hepatic venous collateral continuation: A case report. Authors: Farzanah I. Ismail1. Rule Human2. Anith Chacko1. Parmanand Naran2. Samia Ahmad1. Siraj Ellemdin2.

  9. User assistance for multitasking with interruptions on a mobile device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Issues users have with use of the web on a mobile device can be attributed to difficulties with the mobile interface. A major challenge that we address is improving the user experience for handling of interruptions and multitasking when using the web in a mobile context. The usability issues with a

  10. User Assistance for Multitasking with Interruptions on a Mobile Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Issues users have with use of the web on a mobile device can be attributed to difficulties with the mobile interface. A major challenge that we address is improving the user experience for handling of interruptions and multitasking when using the web in a mobile context. The usability issues with a

  11. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... energized. (f) Belt conveyors shall be equipped with control switches to automatically stop the driving motor in the event the belt is stopped, or abnormally slowed down. Note: Short transfer-type conveyors... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a...

  12. The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Received wisdom, some sociological theory and a handful of qualitative studies suggest that the "night shift" of caregiving work that interrupts sleep is a burden borne disproportionately by women. However, there is no broadly representative evidence to substantiate claims about who takes the night shift in contemporary American households.…

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RTOS AND PRIMITIVE INTERRUPT IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Purnomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking is one of the most challenging issues in the automation industry which is highly depended on the embedded system. There are two methods to perform multitasking in embedded system: RTOS and primitive interrupt. The main purpose of this research is to compare the performance of R¬TOS with primitive method while concurrently undertaking multiple tasks. The system, which is able to perform various tasks, has been built to evaluate the performance of both methods. There are four tasks introduced in the system: servo task, sensor task, LED task, and LCD task. The performance of each method is indicated by the success rate of the sensor task detection. Sensor task detection will be compared with the true value which is calculated and measured manually during observation time. Observation time was varied after several iterations and the data of the iteration are recorded for both RTOS and primitive interrupt methods. The results of the conducted experiments have shown that, RTOS is more accurate than interrupt method. However, the data variance of the primitive interrupt method is narrower than RTOS. Therefore, to choose a better method, an optimization is needed to be done and each product has its own standard.

  14. Reference ranges for interrupter resistance technique: the Asthma UK Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Stocks, J.; Beydon, N.; Lombardi, E.; Jones, M.; McKenzie, S.A.; Kivastik, J.; Arets, B.G.; Stanojevic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring interrupter resistance (R(int)) is an increasingly popular lung function technique and especially suitable for preschool children because it is simple, quick and requires only passive cooperation. A European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) Task Force recently

  15. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  16. Effective use of technology in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical supervision is integral to continuing professional development of health professionals. With advances in technology, clinical supervision too can be undertaken using mediums such as videoconference, email and teleconference. This mode of clinical supervision is termed as telesupervision. While telesupervision could be useful in any context, its value is amplified for health professionals working in rural and remote areas where access to supervisors within the local work environment is often diminished. While telesupervision offers innovative means to undertake clinical supervision, there remain gaps in the literature in terms of its parameters of use in clinical practice. This article outlines ten evidence-informed, practical tips stemming from a review of the literature that will enable health care stakeholders to use technology effectively and efficiently while undertaking clinical supervision. By highlighting the “how to” aspect, telesupervision can be delivered in the right way, to the right health professional, at the right time.

  17. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer

  19. Causes of interruption of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu P.; Tsang, Ngan M.; Tseng, Chen K.; Lin, Shinn Y.

    2000-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is now curable with early diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment. In the past several decades, few studies have investigated why some patients fail to complete the recommended full course of radiotherapy. A total of 3273 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated at the Radiation Oncology Department of Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in a span of 18 years from 1979 to 1996. Among these patients, 276 did not complete the full course of treatment of radiation therapy. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine the factors contributing to treatment interruption. Of the 276 patients whose treatment was interrupted, 120 (43.5%) were unable to endure the acute side effects of radiation therapy and were afraid of the possible complications resulting from the treatment; 57 (20.7%) had doubts about the diagnosis or had the subjective perception that the treatment offered would be ineffective in view of the severity of their disease; 50 (18.1%) resorted to folk prescriptions; 17 (6.2%) were faced with socioeconomic problems; 15 (5.4%) sought treatment at another hospital owing to transport considerations; 10 (3.6%) stopped radiation therapy and switched to chemotherapy for palliative management; seven (2.5%) resorted to praying, god worshipping and taking incense powder and magic elixirs because their families were against any established therapy. The acute side effects and complications caused by radiation therapy were the major factors influencing patients' decisions to discontinue treatment. This finding suggests that more attention should be paid to providing care with regard to the acute side effects of radiotherapy and to reinforcing pretreatment education. (author)

  20. Study and development of equipment supervision technique system and its management software for nuclear electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liying; Zou Pingguo; Zhu Chenghu; Lu Haoliang; Wu Jie

    2008-01-01

    The equipment supervision technique system, which standardized the behavior of supervision organizations in planning and implementing of equipment supervision, is built up based on equipment supervision technique documents, such as Quality Supervision Classifications, Special Supervision Plans and Supervision Guides. Furthermore, based on the research, the equipment supervision management information system is developed by Object Oriented Programming, which consists of supervision information, supervision technique, supervision implementation, quality statistics and analysis module. (authors)

  1. [Possibilities of supervision in medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2014-01-01

    In supervision, a doctor examines in interaction with the supervisor her/his work, work role and collaborative relationships with the aim to develop herself/himself and the associated work community. In clinical supervision, a doctor's way of acting in interactive relationships with the patients is examined through patient cases, based on the doctor's own experience. Supervision can be used to strengthen the physician identity, clarify the work role, assimilate and delve into clinical work, support professional development and working career, manage one's own work and coping at work, develop collaboration and team work, and support the work of medical directors.

  2. Supervision and inspection plans of plants activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Any idea of hierarchization between supervisor and supervised in inspection and supervision activities should necessarily be dismissed, and the independence of the supervisor when executing has tasks should be guaranteed. The inspection and supervision program enable the detection and resolution of materials and human problems alike. In addition, they are a solution to anticipate potential problems in the future, which results in a very significant reduction of industrial accidents and human errors, as well as better use and upkeep of equipment. With these programs we improve our management and our work, and without a doubt they help to strengthen the safety culture in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. (Author)

  3. Reversible harmless interruption of testicular blood supply in the ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vliet, J.; De Ruiter-Bootsma, A.L.; Oei, Y.H.; Hoekstra, A.; De Rooij, D.G.; Wensing, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    An effective method of interrupting testicular blood flow temporarily and repeatedly in the ram has been developed. Blockade of flow has been achieved mechanically by an inflatable occluder placed around the testicular artery at the level of the spermatic cord. The effect of the blockade on total testicular blood supply was investigated using Doppler flowmetry and a percutaneous Xenon-133 injection method. With both approaches, the blood flow changes after inflation or deflation of the occluders could be estimated satisfactorily. A substantial decrease of testicular blood flow was achieved in eight of the 10 testes with inflated occluders. However, there were indications that in the remaining two testes blockade of the arterial flow was not complete. After deflation of the occluders, blood flow was restored rapidly and completely in all testes. Macro- and microscopic examinations revealed no long-term damage to the testis after blood flow interruptions lasting 30 or 60 minutes

  4. Task and Interruption Management in Activity-Centric Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven

    to address these not in isolation, but by fundamentally reevaluating the current computing paradigm. To this end, activity-centric computing has been brought forward as an alternative computing paradigm, addressing the increasing strain put on modern-day computing systems. Activity-centric computing follows...... the scalability and intelligibility of current research prototypes. In this dissertation, I postulate that such issues arise due to a lack of support for the full set of practices which make up activity management. Most notably, although task and interruption management are an integral part of personal...... information management, they have thus far been neglected in prior activity-centric computing systems. Advancing the research agenda of activity-centric computing, I (1) implement and evaluate an activity-centric desktop computing system, incorporating support for interruptions and long-term task management...

  5. Cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoliang Liu; Lirong Cui; Yanqing Wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption. The repairman’s multiple vacations policy, the working vacations policy and the vacation interruption are considered simultaneously. The lifetime of components fol ows a phase-type (PH) distribution. The repair time in the regular repair period and the working vacation period fol ow other two PH distributions at different rates. For this sys-tem, the vector-valued Markov process governing the system is constructed. We obtain several important performance measures for the system in transient and stationary regimes applying matrix-analytic methods. Final y, a numerical example is given to il ustrate the results obtained.

  6. Reactor pressure elevation preventing device upon interruption of load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yasuo; Okukawa, Ryutaro.

    1996-01-01

    In a power load imbalance circuit of a steam turbine control device, a power load imbalance occurrence signal is outputted for a predetermined period of time upon occurrence of load interruption. A function for suppressing increase of number of rotation of a turbine due to load interruption is not disturbed, and the power load imbalance circuit is not operated at least after a primary peak where the number of rotation of the turbine is increased. Since a steam control valve flow rate demand signal and a turbine bypass valve flow rate demand signals are corporated subsequently to control the opening degree of the steam control valve and the turbine bypass valve, elevation of reactor pressure is always suppressed and maintained constant, as well as abrupt opening of the steam control valve due to cancel of the power load imbalance circuit when steam control valve opening demand is outputted can be prevented. (N.H.)

  7. Persistent truncus arteriosis associated with interruption of the aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, P H; Zollikofer, C; Castaneda-Zuniga, W; Formanek, A; Amplatz, K

    1980-09-01

    Five patients with a combination of truncus arteriosus and interruption of the aortic arch are reported. The combination of those defects significantly increases the surgical risk. This rare cardiac malformation can only be diagnosed radiographically. An aberrant right subclavian artery is present in 25% of patients. It is helpful in suspecting the diagnosis from plain films of the chest. The diagnosis can be made from a ventriculogram, but usually a truncogram is necessary to define the anatomy of the aortic arch.

  8. Radiogenetic and radiobiological indications for interruption of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.

    1976-11-01

    Taking into consideration the recent literature, and based on his own experience, the author deals with the question of interruption following radiation stress in early pregnancy. At fetal doses of above 10 R, induction of abortion is thought to be necessary. In the German Democratic Republic a central consultation service has been established at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection offering expert opinions on these problems. (author)

  9. Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the gardener to remember those plants (and whether they need to be removed), and so will not commit resources to remember that information . The overall...camera), the storyteller needed help much less often. This result suggests that when there is no one to help them remember the last thing they said...INV ITED P A P E R Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption Help from a robot, to allow a human storyteller to continue

  10. The Impact of Motion Induced Interruptions on Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    found that even participants presenting with minor physiological effects of motion experienced a decline in multitasking performance. Further, Yu...literature has investigated the impact of task based interruptions such as being inter- rupted by a phone call or writing an email . In these...Engineers Journal. 102 (2) 65-72. Matsangas, P. (2013). The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance

  11. Realistically Rendering SoC Traffic Patterns with Interrupt Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angiolini, Frederico; Mahadevan, Sharkar; Madsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    to generate realistic test traffic. This paper presents a selection of applications using interrupt-based synchronization; a reference methodology to split such applications in execution subflows and to adjust the overall execution stream based upon hardware events; a reactive simulation device capable...... of correctly replicating such software behaviours in the MPSoC design phase. Additionally, we validate the proposed concept by showing cycle-accurate reproduction of a previously traced application flow....

  12. Differentiating between adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia using airflow interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.; Rieves, Adam L.; McElveen, Kelsey A.B.; Ford, Charles N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To measure the laryngeal resistance (RL), subglottal pressure (Ps), and mean flow rate (MFR) of adductor (ADSD) and abductor (ABSD) spasmodic dysphonia patients using the airflow interrupter. Methods The RL of six ABSD and seven ADSD patients was measured using the airflow interrupter, a noninvasive device designed to measure MFR and Ps via mechanical balloon valve interruption. Subjects performed ten trials at each of two intensity levels, with each trial consisting of a sustained /a/ during which phonation was interrupted for 500 ms. Laryngeal resistance was calculated as subglottal pressure divided by airflow. Results Mean RL for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 24.78 cmH2O/l/s and 14.51 cmH2O/l/s, respectively (p = 0.04). Mean RL at 70 dB were 40.02 cmH2O/l/s and 15.84 cmH2O/l/s (p = 0.014). Ps for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 10.23 cmH2O and 8.32 cmH2O, respectively (p = 0.582). At the 70 dB level, Ps were 12.39 cmH2O and 11.78 cmH2O (p = 0.886). MFR for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 435 ml/s and 746 ml/s (p = 0.205). Mean MFR at 70 dB were 518 ml/s and 848 ml/s (p = 0.198). Conclusion Noninvasive measurements of RL may be useful for differentiating between ADSD and ABSD. This simple objective test which produces a quantitative output could be used to evaluate laryngeal function in patients with spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:19554636

  13. Accommodating interruptions: A grounded theory of young people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Social constructionism and supervision: experiences of AAMFT supervisors and supervised therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Heather J; Fine, Marshall

    2012-10-01

    A phenomenological research process was used to investigate the supervision experience for supervisors and therapists when supervisors use a social constructionist perspective. Participants of the one-to-one interviews were six AAMFT Approved Supervisors and six therapists providing counseling to individuals, couples and families. The findings suggest supervisors were committed to their self-identified supervision philosophy and intentionally sought out congruence between epistemology and practice. The shared experience of therapists indicates they associated desirable supervision experiences with their supervisors' social constructionist perspective. Our findings also indicated that supervisors' and therapists' understanding of social constructionism included the more controversial concepts of agency and extra-discursiveness. This research has taken an empirical step in the direction of understanding what the social constructionist supervision experience is like for supervisors and therapists. Our findings suggest a linkage between epistemology and supervision practice and a satisfaction with the supervision process. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. Using a Mixed Model to Explore Evaluation Criteria for Bank Supervision: A Banking Supervision Law Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Zhao, Hongrui; Wei, Yu-Min; Wang, Cheng-Kuang; Zheng, Yuxiang; Chang, Li-Chung; Wang, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Financial supervision means that monetary authorities have the power to supervise and manage financial institutions according to laws. Monetary authorities have this power because of the requirements of improving financial services, protecting the rights of depositors, adapting to industrial development, ensuring financial fair trade, and maintaining stable financial order. To establish evaluation criteria for bank supervision in China, this study integrated fuzzy theory and the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and proposes a fuzzy-DEMATEL model. First, fuzzy theory was applied to examine bank supervision criteria and analyze fuzzy semantics. Second, the fuzzy-DEMATEL model was used to calculate the degree to which financial supervision criteria mutually influenced one another and their causal relationship. Finally, an evaluation criteria model for evaluating bank and financial supervision was established. PMID:27992449

  16. Using a Mixed Model to Explore Evaluation Criteria for Bank Supervision: A Banking Supervision Law Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Bing Tsai

    Full Text Available Financial supervision means that monetary authorities have the power to supervise and manage financial institutions according to laws. Monetary authorities have this power because of the requirements of improving financial services, protecting the rights of depositors, adapting to industrial development, ensuring financial fair trade, and maintaining stable financial order. To establish evaluation criteria for bank supervision in China, this study integrated fuzzy theory and the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and proposes a fuzzy-DEMATEL model. First, fuzzy theory was applied to examine bank supervision criteria and analyze fuzzy semantics. Second, the fuzzy-DEMATEL model was used to calculate the degree to which financial supervision criteria mutually influenced one another and their causal relationship. Finally, an evaluation criteria model for evaluating bank and financial supervision was established.

  17. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  18. The interrupted properties of an extruded Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shun; Liu, Tianmo; He, Jiejun; Lu, Liwei; Zeng, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} twins on yield stress is reflected at low deformation. ► The recompressive yield stress equals to the stress when it is unloaded. ► The stress–strain curve of recompression seems like that without interruption. ► Twins generated in precompression could become thicker in recompression. -- Abstract: The current paper investigates the effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins identified by using electron backscattered diffraction on the interrupted properties of an extruded Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31) alloy. Compressive and recompressive tests are conducted along extrusion direction (ED). It is discovered that the yield strength of recompression is enhanced due to grain refinement by {101 ¯ 2} extension twins. The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins on the yield stress of recompression is mainly reflected at the stage of small deformation while the improvement of yield strength is mainly attributed to the pile-up and intersection of dislocations as large deformation occurs. Furthermore, the yield stress of recompression is identical to the interrupted stress of precompression. In situ observation reveals that some twins generated in precompression could also become thicker in the following recompression.

  19. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong; Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  20. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Wulani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000 abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000 was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about supervisor’s abusive behavior, and it was also assessed by experts. The results of this study indicated that abusive supervision was a 3-dimensional construct. There were anger-active abuse (6 items, humiliation-active abuse (4 items, and passive abuse (15 items. These scales have internal reliabilities of 0.947, 0.922, and 0.845, in sequence.

  1. The Cryogenic Supervision System in NSRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hsing-Chieh; Chiou, Wen-Song; Hsiao, Feng-Zone; Tsai, Zong-Da

    2005-01-01

    The helium cryogenic system in NSRRC is a fully automatic PLC system using the Siemens SIMATIC 300 controller. Modularization in both hardware and software makes it easy in the program reading, the system modification and the problem debug. Based on the Laview program we had developed a supervision system taking advantage of the Internet technology to get system's real-time information in any place. The functions of this supervision system include the real-time data accessing with more than 300 digital/analog signals, the data restore, the history trend display, and the human machine interface. The data is accessed via a Profibus line connecting the PLC system and the supervision system with a maximum baud rate 1.5 Mbit/s. Due to this supervision system, it is easy to master the status of the cryogenic system within a short time and diagnose the problem.

  2. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong [Physics Department, Stanford University,Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  3. Qualification of organizations for independent technical supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The requirements are established on trial for the qualification of an organization as an independent technical supervision organization in nuclear facilities, in activities related with quality assurance programs. (I.C.R.) [pt

  4. Factors defining face-to-face interruptions in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matysiak, A.J.; Markopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an on-going investigation on interruptions in the office caused by face-to-face interactions between knowledge workers. The study aims to identify opportunities for interactive solutions that will support both, the interrupters and the interrupted. The study involves contextual

  5. Individual Differences in Working-Memory Capacity and Task Resumption Following Interruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K.; Werner, Nicole E.; McKendrick, Ryan; Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is a time cost (i.e., a resumption lag) associated with resuming a task following an interruption and that the longer the duration of the interruption, the greater the time cost (i.e., resumption lag increases as interruption duration increases). The memory-for-goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002)…

  6. Is banking supervision central to central banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1997-01-01

    Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...

  7. The LHC string2 supervision system

    CERN Document Server

    Mayya, Y S; Sicard, Claude Henri

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the supervision system for the LHC Prototype Full-Cell also known as String 2. The supervision application is based on a commercial package targeted to industrial controls, but because of the complexity and the specifics of such a system, integration with custom components is necessary in order to merge the industrial requirements with the specificity of the accelerator controls.

  8. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  9. Nonadherence as 4-day Antiretroviral Therapy Interruptions: Do Depression and Race/Ethnicity Matter as Much in the Modern Antiretroviral Therapy Era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Johnson, Mallory O; Saberi, Parya

    2016-11-01

    HIV + White, Latino, and African Americans (N = 1131) completed a survey advertised on social media to re-examine the effect of depressive symptoms (via the Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9) and race/ethnicity on antiretroviral therapy nonadherence (defined as past 3-month, 4-day treatment interruption). An adjusted logistic regression showed a 15 % increase in odds for a treatment interruption per 1-unit increase on the PHQ-9. The effect of depressive symptoms on nonadherence was greater for Latinos (OR = 1.80, p depressive symptomatology.

  10. Successful Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala Focus, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Rizzo, Nidia; Richards, Jane; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Domínguez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Catú, Eduardo; Oliva, Orlando; Richards, Frank O.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum) were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin) within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (≥7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years) was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.9%). The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16) in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old) was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0–0.05%). Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0–0.01%). The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. Conclusions/Significance Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus. PMID:19333366

  11. Opportunities to Learn Scientific Thinking in Joint Doctoral Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    2015-01-01

    Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual supervision. While joint supervision has become widely…

  12. 28 CFR 2.207 - Supervision reports to Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision reports to Commission. 2.207 Section 2.207 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Supervised Releasees § 2.207 Supervision reports to Commission. A...

  13. [Supervised administration of Alzheimer's patients using information communication technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yasuha; Sakata, Yoshifumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Uemura, Kengo; Kihara, Takeshi; Kimura, Toru; Ino, Masashi; Tsuji, Teruyuki; Hayashi, Michiyuki; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2014-12-01

    Drug adherence is central to the treatment of dementia, which might reduce compliance due to memory loss, particularly among home-based patients with dementia. In order to improve drug adherence, we suggest the efficient and effective supervised administration by use of information communication technology(ICT). ICT makes face-to-face real-time communication possible, and it also enables picture sharing. Therefore, it might be useful to apply ICT to controlling and supervising medication for patients with dementia to improve drug adherence. Accordingly, we enrolled patients who were supposed to take a newly prescribed anti-dementia patch containing the choline esterase inhibitor rivastigmine(Rivastach®)and investigated the effect of ICT-based intervention for drug adherence, emotional change, and cognitive change, utilizing Skype, a free communication software program. Scheduled Skype interventions increased drug adherence ratio, levels of subjective satisfaction, and instrumental activities of daily living(IADL). Furthermore, we can provide patients and their caregivers with a feeling of safety through regular bidirectional communication, as patients can easily consult medical staff regarding the adverse effects of newly prescribed drugs. Instead of frequent visits to their primary physicians, ICT-based communications can be used as a substitute for supervision of medication, given the availability of the telecommunication system. By directly connecting the medical institution to the home, we expect that this ICT-based system will expand into the geriatric care field, including the care of elderly individuals living alone.

  14. Comparing Psychodynamic Teaching, Supervision, and Psychotherapy Over Videoconferencing Technology with Chinese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert M; Wang, Xiubing; Tune, Jane

    2015-12-01

    How do experts compare teaching, supervision, and treatment from a psychodynamic perceptive over the Internet with in-person work? Our methodology was based on the expert opinions of 176 teachers, supervisors, and therapists in the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) who use videoconferencing (VCON) with Chinese students. The results from our online survey indicate: (1), The longer teachers teach, the more effective they rate teaching over VCON; (2), Teaching, supervision, and treatment were all rated in the range of "slightly less effective" than in-person, with supervision rated significantly more effective than teaching and treatment over VCON; (3), When doing psychodynamic treatment over VCON the issues of symptom reduction, exploring mental life, working on transference, relational problems, resistance, privacy issues, countertransference, are all equally rated in the range of "slightly less effective" than in-person treatment; (4), The highest significantly rated indications for treatment over VCON are: "To offer high quality treatment to underserved or remote patients" and "When patient is house-bound or travel would be impractical"; and (5), The highest significantly rated contraindication for treatment over VCON is: "Patient needs close observation due to crisis or decompensation." Overall, this survey suggests that VCON teaching, supervision, and treatment from a psychodynamic perceptive is a worthwhile option when considering its unique contribution to extending services where needed.

  15. Multicultural supervision: lessons learned about an ongoing struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Abigail Tolhurst; Thomas, Volker; Kafescioglu, Nilufer; Karakurt, Gunnur; Lowe, Walter; Smith, William; Wittenborn, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of seven diverse therapists in a supervision course as they wrestled with the real-world application of multicultural supervision. Existing literature on multicultural supervision does not address the difficulties that arise in addressing multicultural issues in the context of the supervision relationship. The experiences of six supervisory candidates and one mentoring supervisor in addressing multicultural issues in supervision are explored. Guidelines for conversations regarding multicultural issues are provided. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. Supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingyan

    2013-01-01

    Through literature and documents, the basis, content and implementation of the supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities were defined. Such supervision was extensive and complicated with various tasks and overlapping duties, and had large social impact. Therefore, it was recommend to make further research on this supervision should be done, clarify and specify responsibilities of the executor of the supervision so as to achieve institutionalization, standardization and routinization of the supervision. (author)

  17. Asco 2044 nuclear power plant: supervision; Central nuclear Asco 2044: supervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabartes, J.

    2010-07-01

    Good supervision constitutes an efficient barrier to avoid the errors caused by inadequate work practices. In this sense, it is necessary to strengthen supervision to make sure that the work is carried out with adequate human performance, tending to avoid error ande provinding safety quality and efficiency at work. (Author).

  18. Ensemble learning with trees and rules: supervised, semi-supervised, unsupervised

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article, we propose several new approaches for post processing a large ensemble of conjunctive rules for supervised and semi-supervised learning problems. We show with various examples that for high dimensional regression problems the models constructed by the post processing the rules with ...

  19. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  20. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  1. Masking interrupts figure-ground signals in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Victor A F; Zipser, Karl; Spekreijse, Henk

    2002-10-01

    In a backward masking paradigm, a target stimulus is rapidly (figure-ground segregation can be recorded. Here, we recorded from awake macaque monkeys, engaged in a task where they had to detect figures from background in a pattern backward masking paradigm. We show that the V1 figure-ground signals are selectively and fully suppressed at target-mask intervals that psychophysically result in the target being invisible. Initial response transients, signalling the features that make up the scene, are not affected. As figure-ground modulations depend on feedback from extrastriate areas, these results suggest that masking selectively interrupts the recurrent interactions between V1 and higher visual areas.

  2. Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The effect of children and career interruptions on the family gap is analysed based on longitudinal data covering the years 1980-1995. The estimated model controls for unobserved time-constant heterogeneity. The results show that when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, the negative...... effect of children on mothers' wages disappear, but there are large differences between educational groups and the public and private sector. The main effect of children seems to be a loss of human capital accumulation during child-birth periods. Beside this, there is no indication that children have...

  3. Fast Interrupt Priority Management in Operating System Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    We present results for the Mach 3.0 microkernel operating system, although the technique is applicable to other kernel architectures, both micro and...protection in the Mach 3.0 microkernel for several different processor architectures. For example, on the Omron Luna88k, we observed a 50% reduction in...general interrupt mask raise/lower pair within the Mach 3.0 microkernel on a variety of architectures. DTIC QUALM i.N1’R%.*1IMD 5 k81tltC Avail andl

  4. Intuitive expertise in ICT graduate supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Jameson

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Intuitive expertise in the application of advanced interdisciplinary facilitation is the subject of this personal reflection on the graduate supervisory style of Professor David Squires in computers in education. This single-case reflective study examines the characteristics of effective supervision observed during masters and doctoral supervision at King's College in the years 1990-9. Interdisciplinarity in ICT graduate studies particularly requires a fluency of supervisory expertise in enabling supervisees to combine multiple complex perspectives from a number of fields of knowledge. Intuitive combinatory aspects of supervision are highlighted in this reflection on the role carried out by an academic expert in facilitating student success. This is examined from a perspective incorporating affective as well as intellectual elements, informed by characteristics identified in professional sports and performing arts coaching/mentoring. Key characteristics comprising a model of intuitive expertise in ICT graduate supervision were outlined. The resultant portrait aims to complement existing literature on graduate supervision, with reference to the field of ICTI computers in education relating to student hypermedia composition.

  5. Oceans apart, yet connected: Findings from a qualitative study on professional supervision in rural and remote allied health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducat, Wendy; Martin, Priya; Kumar, Saravana; Burge, Vanessa; Abernathy, LuJuana

    2016-02-01

    Improving the quality and safety of health care in Australia is imperative to ensure the right treatment is delivered to the right person at the right time. Achieving this requires appropriate clinical governance and support for health professionals, including professional supervision. This study investigates the usefulness and effectiveness of and barriers to supervision in rural and remote Queensland. As part of the evaluation of the Allied Health Rural and Remote Training and Support program, a qualitative descriptive study was conducted involving semi-structured interviews with 42 rural or remote allied health professionals, nine operational managers and four supervisors. The interviews explored perspectives on their supervision arrangements, including the perceived usefulness, effect on practice and barriers. Themes of reduced isolation; enhanced professional enthusiasm, growth and commitment to the organisation; enhanced clinical skills, knowledge and confidence; and enhanced patient safety were identified as perceived outcomes of professional supervision. Time, technology and organisational factors were identified as potential facilitators as well as potential barriers to effective supervision. This research provides current evidence on the impact of professional supervision in rural and remote Queensland. A multidimensional model of organisational factors associated with effective supervision in rural and remote settings is proposed identifying positive supervision culture and a good supervisor-supervisee fit as key factors associated with effective arrangements. © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. on behalf of National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Quality of clinical supervision and counselor emotional exhaustion: the potential mediating roles of organizational and occupational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M; Abraham, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Counselor emotional exhaustion has negative implications for treatment organizations as well as the health of counselors. Quality clinical supervision is protective against emotional exhaustion, but research on the mediating mechanisms between supervision and exhaustion is limited. Drawing upon data from 934 counselors affiliated with treatment programs in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network (CTN), this study examined commitment to the treatment organization and commitment to the counseling occupation as potential mediators of the relationship between quality clinical supervision and emotional exhaustion. The final ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model, which accounted for the nesting of counselors within treatment organizations, indicated that these two types of commitment were plausible mediators of the association between clinical supervision and exhaustion. Higher quality clinical supervision was strongly correlated with commitment to the treatment organization as well as commitment to the occupation of SUD counseling. These findings suggest that quality clinical supervision has the potential to yield important benefits for counselor well-being by strengthening ties to both their employing organization as well the larger treatment field, but longitudinal research is needed to establish these causal relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The triadic intersubjective matrix in supervision: the use of disclosure to work through painful affects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence J; Miller, Martin

    2002-08-01

    The use of the psychoanalyst's subjective reactions as a tool to better understand his/her patient has been a central feature of clinical thinking in recent decades. While there has been much discussion and debate about the analyst's use of countertransference in individual psychoanalysis, including possible disclosure of his/her feelings to the patient, the literature on supervision has been slower to consider such matters. The attention to parallel processes in supervision has been helpful in appreciating the impact of affects arising in either the analyst/patient or the supervisor/analyst dyads upon the analytic treatment and its supervision. This contribution addresses the ways in which overlapping aspects of the personalities of the supervisor, analyst and patient may intersect and create resistances in the treatment. That three-way intersection, described here as the triadic intersubjective matrix, is considered inevitable in all supervised treatments. A clinical example from the termination phase of a supervised analysis of an adolescent is offered to illustrate these points. Finally, the question of self-disclosure as an aspect of the supervisory alliance is also discussed.

  8. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome presenting as short stature: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nanik; Ali, Syed Ahsan; Hussain, Syed Zubair

    2014-12-19

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality of the pituitary that is responsible for anterior pituitary deficiency. It is characterized by a classic triad of interrupted pituitary stalk, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. Clinical presentation varies according to age. In adults it presents as short stature and anterior pituitary deficiency. Without early diagnosis and treatment, mortality and morbidity in these patients is high. Early diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease can prevent permanent short statue of the patient. We report the first case of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome from Pakistan. A 17-year-old Pakistani young man presented with short stature and underdeveloped secondary sexual characters. His siblings and parents were healthy, with normal height. An examination showed his blood pressure was 90/60 mmHg, and his height, weight, and body mass index were 142 cm, 34.5 kg, and 17.10 kg/m2, respectively. He had no hair growth on his face, axilla, or pubis. His testes were between 1 and 2 mL in size, with a 4 cm-at-stretch micropenis. His lab investigations showed that his thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was 8.58 uIU/mL (0.4 to 4.2), his free thyroid hormone level FT4 was 0.46 ng/dL (0.89 to 1.76), his prolactin was 21.1 ng/mL (3.0 to 14.7), and his baseline cortisol was 0.30 ug/dL (4.3 to 22.4). His cortisol level after 60 minutes of cosyntropin injection was 3.5 ug/dL (4.3 to 22.4), his insulin like growth factor IGF-1 was 31.56 ng/mL (247.3 to 481.7), his testosterone level was under 2.5 ng/dL (2 to 800), his follicle stimulating hormone FSH was 0.41 uIU/mL (0.0 to 10.0), and his leutinizing hormone LH was under 0.1 uIU/mL (1.2 to 7.8). His bone age was 10 years according to the Greulich and Pyle method, as shown by X-rays. The results from his pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan were consistent with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. We describe a young

  9. Re-thinking reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The paper presents a socio-cultural perspective on supervision in professional education, which challenges the current reflective paradigm and move the debate on reflection in supervision in professional education and learning towards a recognition of context, power dynamics and ideological...... of reflective practice has been formalized by regulatory bodies as a way to develop the professionalism of both individual professional practitioners as students through continuing professional developmental processes. Consequently, reflection is often used as a `tool´ for personal and professional development...... al., 2010). This conceptual paper presents a critical, socio-cultural perspective on the current paradigm or dogma of reflective practice within supervision in professional education and learning. The purpose I to challenge the dogma and critically to analyze and move the debate on reflection...

  10. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    , but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found......A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied...... hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub...

  11. Semi-supervised Learning for Phenotyping Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dligach, Dmitriy; Miller, Timothy; Savova, Guergana K

    2015-01-01

    Supervised learning is the dominant approach to automatic electronic health records-based phenotyping, but it is expensive due to the cost of manual chart review. Semi-supervised learning takes advantage of both scarce labeled and plentiful unlabeled data. In this work, we study a family of semi-supervised learning algorithms based on Expectation Maximization (EM) in the context of several phenotyping tasks. We first experiment with the basic EM algorithm. When the modeling assumptions are violated, basic EM leads to inaccurate parameter estimation. Augmented EM attenuates this shortcoming by introducing a weighting factor that downweights the unlabeled data. Cross-validation does not always lead to the best setting of the weighting factor and other heuristic methods may be preferred. We show that accurate phenotyping models can be trained with only a few hundred labeled (and a large number of unlabeled) examples, potentially providing substantial savings in the amount of the required manual chart review.

  12. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM ART INTERRUPTION ON LEVELS OF INTEGRATED HIV DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, Zachary; Sharaf, Radwa; VanBelzen, D Jake; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Connick, Elizabeth; Volberding, Paul; Skiest, Daniel J; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; O'Doherty, Una; Li, Jonathan Z

    2018-03-28

    Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) studies are required to evaluate strategies aimed at achieving ART-free HIV remission, but the impact of ATI on the viral reservoir remains unclear. We validated a DNA size selection-based assay for measuring levels of integrated HIV DNA and applied it to assess the effects of short-term ATI on the HIV reservoir. Samples from participants from four AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) ATI studies were assayed for integrated HIV DNA levels. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained for 12 participants with available samples pre-ATI and approximately 6 months after ART resumption. Four participants also had samples available during the ATI. The median duration of ATI was 12 weeks. Validation of the HIV Integrated DNA size-Exclusion (HIDE) assay was performed using samples spiked with unintegrated HIV DNA, HIV-infected cell lines, and participant PBMCs. The HIDE assay eliminated 99% of unintegrated HIV DNA species and strongly correlated with the established Alu- gag assay. For the majority of individuals, integrated DNA levels increased during ATI and subsequently declined upon ART resumption. There was no significant difference in levels of integrated HIV DNA between the pre- and post-ATI time points, with the median ratio of post:pre-ATI HIV DNA levels of 0.95. Using a new integrated HIV DNA assay, we found minimal change in the levels of integrated HIV DNA in participants who underwent an ATI followed by 6 months of ART. This suggests that short-term ATI can be conducted without a significant impact on levels of integrated proviral DNA in the peripheral blood. IMPORTANCE Interventions aimed at achieving sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission require treatment interruption trials to assess their efficacy. However, these trials are accompanied by safety concerns related to the expansion of the viral reservoir. We validated an assay that uses an automated DNA size-selection platform for quantifying levels of integrated

  13. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity.

  14. EEM{sup TM} wireless supervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilic, H. [Ericsson-Nikola Tesla d.d. Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-07-01

    By adding the GSM network to the communication level of Energy Management systems, energy operating centres (EOC) can offer wireless access to the supervised equipment. Furthermore EOC can profit from rapid service development in the GSM networks. With implementation of GPRS to the GSM network EOC can instantly offer wireless access to external IP based networks such as Internet and corporate Intranets. The author describes architecture and key characteristic of Ericsson EnergyMaster{sup TM} (EEM{sup TM}) system for Energy Management, how and where to implement wireless supervision, wireless access to IP addresses and also how to implement new services provided by the GSM network. (orig.)

  15. Availability analysis of supervised protective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontoleon, N.; Kontoleon, J.M.; Chrysochoides, N.G.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour in time of a nuclear reactor supervised protective system is modelled mathematically by a Markov process, continuous in time and with three discrete states. Failure and repair rates are assumed to be exponentially distributed. An analytical expression of system availability as a function of failure and repair rates as well as the inspection intervals and duration is derived. An optimization problem is then discussed in order to maximize system availability with respect to imposed cost constraints. Finally, an example of a supervised protective system with short inactive times is given, which may be found in many practical situations of modern protective systems. (author)

  16. Supervision af psykologkandidater i privat praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Birgitte

    et litteratur review over relevante temaer i supervisionslitteraturen samt overvejelser om læring i supervision. Afhandlingens empiriske resultater vil blive belyst og diskuteret med udgangspunkt i tilsvarende fænomener i supervisionslitteraturen. Resultaterne af undersøgelsen viser, at der er en...... række vigtige elementer ved supervision, der skal være opfyldt, hvis den skal opleves som udviklende og lærerig af praksiskandidaterne. Det er elementer som kontraktetablering, rådgivning og teoretisk refleksion, en tydelig teoretisk referenceramme samt støtte og anerkendelse fra supervisor. Det...

  17. Clinical supervision of nurses working with patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Ann R; Rossen, Eileen K

    2005-06-01

    Some nurses describe individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) as among the most challenging and difficult patients encountered in their practice. As a result, the argument has been made for nursing staff to receive clinical supervision to enhance therapeutic effectiveness and treatment outcomes for individuals with BPD. Formal clinical supervision can focus on the stresses of working in a demanding environment within the work place and enable nurses to accept accountability for their own practice and development (Pesut & Herman, 1999). A psychiatric-mental health clinical nurse specialist can provide individual and/or group supervision for the nursing staff, including education about patient dynamics, staff responses, and treatment team decisions. A clinical nurse specialist also can provide emotional support to nursing staff, which enhances job satisfaction, as they struggle to maintain professional therapeutic behavior with these individuals.

  18. Supervision and inspection plans of plants activities; Plan de inspeccion y supervision de actividades en planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Any idea of hierarchization between supervisor and supervised in inspection and supervision activities should necessarily be dismissed, and the independence of the supervisor when executing has tasks should be guaranteed. The inspection and supervision program enable the detection and resolution of materials and human problems alike. In addition, they are a solution to anticipate potential problems in the future, which results in a very significant reduction of industrial accidents and human errors, as well as better use and upkeep of equipment. With these programs we improve our management and our work, and without a doubt they help to strengthen the safety culture in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. (Author)

  19. Interruptions in emergency medicine: things are not always what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R

    2018-06-20

    We have all felt the cognitive disjuncture of being interrupted during an important task. Most ED physicians will readily proffer the high frequency and/or burden of interruptions during their work, and of the many observational studies of interruptions in healthcare EDs do indeed have high interruption rates[2]. In experimental psychology, where many of these ideas originated, there is plenty of evidence that interruptions negatively affect performance. Interruptions have been associated with reduced performance on complex tasks[3,4], increased sequence errors[5], increased task completion time and augmented annoyance and anxiety[6]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. 23 CFR 635.105 - Supervising agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.105 Supervising agency. (a) The STD has responsibility... work with its own forces or by contract; provided the following conditions are met and the Division... compliance with subpart B of this part. (2) When the work is to be performed under a contract awarded by a...

  1. Guidelines for enhancing clinical supervision: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... toesighouding behels, maar dat hulle nie die noodsaaklikheid om reflektiewe leer toe te pas tydens die proses van kliniese toesighouding aangedui het nie. Keywords: Clinical supervision, Reflective thinking and learning, Support, Guidance (Health SA Gesondheid: interdisciplinary research journal: 2003 8(4): 12-23) ...

  2. The Spiritual Genogram in Training and Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2001-01-01

    Describes the spiritual genogram, a blueprint of family members' multigenerational religious and spiritual affiliations, events, and conflicts. Used as a tool in both training and supervision, the spiritual genogram enables students and supervisees to make sense of their own religious and spiritual heritage and to explore the ways in which their…

  3. Experiences of Supervision at Practice Placement Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Diack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whilst placement supervision and clinical education programmes are of significant value in shaping the behaviours of undergraduate healthcare students, appropriate provisions which are efficacious to the learner are somewhat lacking, particularly for students studying on UK MPharm programmes. Objectives. To explore and explain the value of placement supervision to the personal development and employability of undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods. Students participated in a week long community pharmacy pilot programme, a result of a collaborative effort between the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences and a small consortium of community pharmacies. Students and stakeholders were asked to evaluate their experiences via separate questionnaires which had been developed to elicit views and attitudes. Key Findings. Feedback from students and stakeholders towards the experience was overwhelmingly positive with multiple benefits being reported. Of particular prominence was the emphasis in student feedback on the value of placement supervision to their professional and personal development. Findings were indicative of a development in clinical practice proficiencies, core skills, and improvement in decision-making practice. Conclusions. The benefits of clinical supervision to the professional and personal development of MPharm students are well documented, although attracting professional pharmacy supervisors is proving a problematic task for educational providers in the UK.

  4. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  5. Theory of Multiple Intelligences at Teacher Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Döş

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine views of teachers and supervisors related to the multiple intelligences in students’ learning that they took into consideration in the evaluation of teachers during lesson supervision. The study was conducted with 5 supervisors who work at Kahramanmaraş provincial directorate of national education and 10 teachers who work at primary schools in the centre of Kahramanmaraş in 2011-2012 year. Data was gathered with the help of interview form consisting of five open-ended questions. In the analysis of the data content analysis which is one of the qualitative research methods. According to the results of the analysis, it has been found that usage of multiple intelligences theory in the evaluation students’ learning during supervision enabled them to evaluate students’ learning in a more detailed way. It also made it possible for the supervisors to examine supervision evaluations at different levels. It was also mentioned that supervisions made according to multiple intelligence theory has some limitations.

  6. Research Supervision: The Research Management Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. W.; Smyth, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    We briefly make a case for re-conceptualising research project supervision/advising as the consideration of three inter-related areas: the learning and teaching process; developing the student; and producing the research project/outcome as a social practice. We use this as our theoretical base for an heuristic tool, "the research management…

  7. Exploring Diversity in Supervision and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Mary Claire; Grunstein, Sara; Tilmon, Shawniese

    2007-01-01

    Issues of diversity, such as culture, class, race, and ethnicity, affect all relationships. It can be difficult to explore these issues in supervision, but doing so is imperative to understanding and working effectively with each other and with families. This article explores the challenges associated with discussing issues of diversity, and…

  8. Practical Supervision: The First Line of Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkila, John; MacKay, Pamela

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered by first time library supervisors who have to learn not only their new professional jobs but also how to supervise others. A supervisory approach based on work checking is described, and the role that managers should play in assisting their supervisors to acquire necessary skills is outlined. (14 references) (CLB)

  9. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  10. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaultier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  11. 27 CFR 70.609 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision. 70.609 Section 70.609 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Losses Resulting From Disaster, Vandalism, or Malicious Mischief...

  12. 7 CFR 550.33 - Administrative supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative supervision. 550.33 Section 550.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Program Management § 550.33...

  13. Parallelprocesser og deres tilblivelse i supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2006-01-01

    Kapitlet beskæftiger sig med ”Parallelprocesser og deres tilblivelse i supervision”. Først indkredses parallelprocesbegrebet i dets mange variationer. Der er tale om et nøglebegreb i psykoanalytisk supervision, der overordnet set henviser til en relationel positionering eller tematik i...

  14. 7 CFR 70.12 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision. 70.12 Section 70.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  15. 9 CFR 354.13 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision. 354.13 Section 354.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 46.79 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision. 46.79 Section 46.79 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Disaster Loss Claims...

  17. Remote Video Supervision in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke; Bishop, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Supervision for beginning adapted physical education (APE) teachers and inservice general physical education teachers who are learning to work with students with disabilities poses a number of challenges. The purpose of this article is to describe a project aimed at developing a remote video system that could be used by a university supervisor to…

  18. Supporting Placement Supervision in Clinical Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Rebecca M.; Raymond, Jacqueline; Groeller, Herb; Rooney, Kieron; Crabb, Meagan; Watt, Kerrianne

    2015-01-01

    The continued engagement of the professional workforce as supervisors is critical for the sustainability and growth of work-integrated learning activities in university degrees. This study investigated factors that influence the willingness and ability of clinicians to continue to supervise clinical exercise physiology work-integrated learning…

  19. Performance Monitoring Applied to System Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertille Somon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automation is present in every aspect of our daily life and has some benefits. Nonetheless, empirical data suggest that traditional automation has many negative performance and safety consequences as it changed task performers into task supervisors. In this context, we propose to use recent insights into the anatomical and neurophysiological substrates of action monitoring in humans, to help further characterize performance monitoring during system supervision. Error monitoring is critical for humans to learn from the consequences of their actions. A wide variety of studies have shown that the error monitoring system is involved not only in our own errors, but also in the errors of others. We hypothesize that the neurobiological correlates of the self-performance monitoring activity can be applied to system supervision. At a larger scale, a better understanding of system supervision may allow its negative effects to be anticipated or even countered. This review is divided into three main parts. First, we assess the neurophysiological correlates of self-performance monitoring and their characteristics during error execution. Then, we extend these results to include performance monitoring and error observation of others or of systems. Finally, we provide further directions in the study of system supervision and assess the limits preventing us from studying a well-known phenomenon: the Out-Of-the-Loop (OOL performance problem.

  20. The effect of preventive oral care on treatment outcomes of a cohort of oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Marilia Oliveira; Elias, Marcela Ramos Abrahão; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Dourado Pinezi, Juliana Castro; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patient adherence to an oral preventive measures (OPM) protocol and its impact on cancer treatment outcomes. A retrospective cohort of oral cancer of 133 patients submitted to radiotherapy (RT) was selected, excluding those with metastasis. Patients were grouped according to their local tumor response after finishing RT (favorable or unfavorable) and adherence to an OPM (none, ≤6 months, and >6 months). OPM included education and counseling about adverse effects, elimination of infection foci, restorative procedures, fluoride therapy, oral rehydration, and maintenance and supervision of oral hygiene throughout treatment. Clinical and pathological characteristics were recorded, and patient outcomes (frequency of adverse effects, RT interruption, and overall survival) were analyzed. Patients with higher adherence to the OPM had greater occurrence of RT interruption as a consequence of symptoms (p = 0.01); however, these patients were more likely to complete the established RT protocol (p = 0.02). Overall survival (p = 0.01) was higher in the group with higher adherence. This study suggests that the implementation of oral preventive measures may contribute to improving the prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treatment by reducing the negative impact of oral complications.

  1. Improving Catastrophe Modeling for Business Interruption Insurance Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Huyck, Charles K

    2016-10-01

    While catastrophe (CAT) modeling of property damage is well developed, modeling of business interruption (BI) lags far behind. One reason is the crude nature of functional relationships in CAT models that translate property damage into BI. Another is that estimating BI losses is more complicated because it depends greatly on public and private decisions during recovery with respect to resilience tactics that dampen losses by using remaining resources more efficiently to maintain business function and to recover more quickly. This article proposes a framework for improving hazard loss estimation for BI insurance needs. Improved data collection that allows for analysis at the level of individual facilities within a company can improve matching the facilities with the effectiveness of individual forms of resilience, such as accessing inventories, relocating operations, and accelerating repair, and can therefore improve estimation accuracy. We then illustrate the difference this can make in a case study example of losses from a hurricane. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Early results of gate valve flow interruption blowdown tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary results of the USNRC/INEL high-energy BWR line break flow interruption testing are presented. Two representative nuclear valve assemblies were cycled under design basis Reactor Water Cleanup pipe break conditions to provide input for the technical basis for resolving the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Issue 87. The effects of the blowdown hydraulic loadings on valve operability, especially valve closure stem forces, were studied. The blowdown tests showed that, given enough thrust, typical gate valves will close against the high flow resulting from a line break. The tests also showed that proper operator sizing depends on the correct identification of values for the sizing equation. Evidence exists that values used in the past may not be conservative for all valve applications. The tests showed that improper operator lock ring installation following test or maintenance can invalidate in-situ test results and prevent the valve from performing its design function. 2 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Enhanced Interrupt Response Time in the nMPRA based on Embedded Real Time Microcontrollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAITAN, N. C.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In any real-time operating system, task switching and scheduling, interrupts, synchronization and communication between processes, represent major problems. The implementation of these mechanisms through software generates significant delays for many applications. The nMPRA (Multi Pipeline Register Architecture architecture is designed for the implementation of real-time embedded microcontrollers. It supports the competitive execution of n tasks, enabling very fast switching between them, with a usual delay of one machine cycle and a maximum of 3 machine cycles, for the memory-related work instructions. This is because each task has its own PC (Program Counter, set of pipeline registers and a general registers file. The nMPRA is provided with an advanced distributed interrupt controller that implements the concept of "interrupts as threads". This allows the attachment of one or more interrupts to the same task. In this context, the original contribution of this article is to presents the solutions for improving the response time to interrupts when a task has attached a large number of interrupts. The proposed solutions enhance the original architecture for interrupts logic in order to transfer control, to the interrupt handler as soon as possible, and to create an interrupt prioritization at task level.

  4. HVDC interrupter experiments for large Magnetic Energy Transfer and Storage (METS) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, C.E.; Haarman, R.A.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Weldon, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed fusion-test reactors will require energy storage systems of hundreds of megajoules with transfer times of the order of one millisecond. The size of the energy storage submodule (and hence, the overall system cost and complexity) is directly determined by the voltage and current limits of the switch used for the energy transfer. Experiments are being conducted on high voltage dc circuit breakers as a major part of the energy storage, pulsed power program. DC circuit interruption characteristics of a commercially available ac power vacuum interrupter are discussed. Preliminary data of interruption characteristics are reported for an interrupter developed specifically to match a present METS circuit requirement

  5. Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised Credit ... bank as regard to loan supervision was scored low as a result of low rate of loan recovery, ... strategy to recover outstanding debts and reduce interest charge on loans.

  6. Is it possible to strengthen psychiatric nursing staff's clinical supervision?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonge, Henrik; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To test the effects of a meta-supervision intervention in terms of participation, effectiveness and benefits of clinical supervision of psychiatric nursing staff. BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision is regarded as a central component in developing mental health nursing practices, but the evidence...... an intervention group (n = 40) receiving the meta-supervision in addition to attending usual supervision or to a control group (n = 43) attending usual supervision. METHODS: Self-reported questionnaire measures of clinical supervision effectiveness and benefits were collected at base line in January 2012...... and at follow-up completed in February 2013. In addition, a prospective registration of clinical supervision participation was carried out over 3 months subsequent to the intervention. RESULTS: The main result was that it was possible to motivate staff in the intervention group to participate significantly more...

  7. Caregivers' satisfaction and supervision of primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caregivers' satisfaction and supervision of primary health care services in Nnewi, ... made in the reduction of childhood health indicators in the previous decade, ... supervision of PHCs should also improve the quality of child health services.

  8. Supervisor's HEXACO personality traits and subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; de Vries, Reinout Everhard

    2017-01-01

    Abusive supervision is detrimental to both subordinates and organizations. Knowledge about individual differences in personality related to abusive supervision may improve personnel selection and potentially reduce the harmful effects of this type of leadership. Using the HEXACO personality

  9. Principals Performance of Supervision of Instructions in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a sample of 604 out of 1640 teachers using stratified ... supervision of instructions in the school since effective supervision improves ... and reduces incidence of students' involvement in examination malpractices.

  10. QUEST : Eliminating online supervised learning for efficient classification algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting

  11. Optimum supervision intervals and order of supervision in nuclear reactor protective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontoleon, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum inspection strategy of an m-out-of-n:G nuclear reactor protective system with nonidentical units is analyzed. A 2-out-of-4:G system is used to formulate a multi-variable optimization problem to determine (a) the optimum order of supervision of the units and (b) the optimum supervision intervals between units. The case of systems with identical units is a special case of the above. Numerical results are derived using a computer algorithm

  12. Development of well construction and workover supervising in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizov, A; Boyarko, G; Shenderova, I

    2014-01-01

    Despite long history of drilling supervising it still has a number of uncertainties. The period of rapid rise in supervising development at the beginning of the 90's changed in the 2000's. The necessity in the development of this sphere is obvious. The author describes the history of supervising, period of its market condition adaptation. The research also gives principles methods of supervising development and first steps for its position improvement

  13. Semi-supervised learning via regularized boosting working on multiple semi-supervised assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Wang, Shihai

    2011-01-01

    Semi-supervised learning concerns the problem of learning in the presence of labeled and unlabeled data. Several boosting algorithms have been extended to semi-supervised learning with various strategies. To our knowledge, however, none of them takes all three semi-supervised assumptions, i.e., smoothness, cluster, and manifold assumptions, together into account during boosting learning. In this paper, we propose a novel cost functional consisting of the margin cost on labeled data and the regularization penalty on unlabeled data based on three fundamental semi-supervised assumptions. Thus, minimizing our proposed cost functional with a greedy yet stagewise functional optimization procedure leads to a generic boosting framework for semi-supervised learning. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our algorithm yields favorite results for benchmark and real-world classification tasks in comparison to state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning algorithms, including newly developed boosting algorithms. Finally, we discuss relevant issues and relate our algorithm to the previous work.

  14. Objective coding of content and techniques in workplace-based supervision of an EBT in public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Lucid, Leah; Pullmann, Michael D; Harrison, Julie P; Berliner, Lucy; Thompson, Kelly; Deblinger, Esther

    2018-01-24

    Workplace-based clinical supervision as an implementation strategy to support evidence-based treatment (EBT) in public mental health has received limited research attention. A commonly provided infrastructure support, it may offer a relatively cost-neutral implementation strategy for organizations. However, research has not objectively examined workplace-based supervision of EBT and specifically how it might differ from EBT supervision provided in efficacy and effectiveness trials. Data come from a descriptive study of supervision in the context of a state-funded EBT implementation effort. Verbal interactions from audio recordings of 438 supervision sessions between 28 supervisors and 70 clinicians from 17 public mental health organizations (in 23 offices) were objectively coded for presence and intensity coverage of 29 supervision strategies (16 content and 13 technique items), duration, and temporal focus. Random effects mixed models estimated proportion of variance in content and techniques attributable to the supervisor and clinician levels. Interrater reliability among coders was excellent. EBT cases averaged 12.4 min of supervision per session. Intensity of coverage for EBT content varied, with some discussed frequently at medium or high intensity (exposure) and others infrequently discussed or discussed only at low intensity (behavior management; assigning/reviewing client homework). Other than fidelity assessment, supervision techniques common in treatment trials (e.g., reviewing actual practice, behavioral rehearsal) were used rarely or primarily at low intensity. In general, EBT content clustered more at the clinician level; different techniques clustered at either the clinician or supervisor level. Workplace-based clinical supervision may be a feasible implementation strategy for supporting EBT implementation, yet it differs from supervision in treatment trials. Time allotted per case is limited, compressing time for EBT coverage. Techniques that

  15. iCanADAPT Early protocol: randomised controlled trial (RCT) of clinician supervised transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) for depression and/or anxiety in early stage cancer survivors -vs- treatment as usual

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, M. J.; Newby, J. M.; Butow, P.; Kirsten, L.; Allison, K.; Loughnan, S.; Price, M. A.; Shaw, J.; Shepherd, H.; Smith, J.; Andrews, G.

    2017-01-01

    Background This RCT with two parallel arms will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention for the treatment of clinical depression and/or anxiety in early stage cancer survivors. Methods/design Early stage cancer survivors will be recruited via the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical research unit and randomised to an intervention (iCBT) group or a ?treatment as usual? (TAU) control group. The minimum sample size for...

  16. Oceans apart, yet connected: Findings from a qualitative study on professional supervision in rural and remote allied health services

    OpenAIRE

    Ducat, Wendy; Martin, Priya; Kumar, Saravana; Burge, Vanessa; Abernathy, LuJuana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Improving the quality and safety of health care in Australia is imperative to ensure the right treatment is delivered to the right person at the right time. Achieving this requires appropriate clinical governance and support for health professionals, including professional supervision. This study investigates the usefulness and effectiveness of and barriers to supervision in rural and remote Queensland. Design As part of the evaluation of the Allied Health Rural and Remote ...

  17. Counseling Supervision within a Feminist Framework: Guidelines for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degges-White, Suzanne E.; Colon, Bonnie R.; Borzumato-Gainey, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Feminist supervision is based on the principles of feminist theory. Goals include sharing responsibility for the supervision process, empowering the supervisee, attending to the contextual assumptions about clients, and analyzing gender roles. This article explores feminist supervision and guidelines for providing counseling supervision…

  18. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  19. Multiplicity in supervision relationships: A factor in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supervision has been identified as an important factor in the success of postgraduate students, even as the most significant variable and a large number of studies have been conducted to identify factors that contribute to supervision success. However the dependent variable in these studies – supervision success – has ...

  20. Educational Technology and Distance Supervision in Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Robert Milton; Hays, Danica G.; Pribesh, Shana L.; Wood, Chris T.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a nonexperimental descriptive design to examine the prevalence of distance supervision in counselor education programs, educational technology used in supervision, training on technology in supervision, and participants' (N = 673) perceptions of legal and ethical compliance. Program policies are recommended to guide the training…

  1. Supervision as transformative leadership in the context of university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses different models of supervision and promotion of Masters', Doctoral and PhD students. It argues that leadership is inherent in and underpins any model of supervision or promotion of students. The article advances a view that supervision and promotion of the said students should be transformative ...

  2. Organization and competences of nuclear supervision in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, M.

    1989-01-01

    Organization and tasks of nuclear supervision are presented. All supervised nuclear installations are listed. The rights of the president of the National Atomic Energy Agency and the chief inspector of nuclear supervision are given. Licensing and cooperation with the IAEA are described. (A.S.)

  3. 28 CFR 2.94 - Supervision reports to Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision reports to Commission. 2.94 Section 2.94 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees § 2.94 Supervision reports to Commissio...

  4. 46 CFR 131.420 - Manning and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning and supervision. 131.420 Section 131.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Sufficiency and Supervision of Crew of Survival Craft § 131.420 Manning and supervision. (a) There must be enough trained persons aboard each survival craf...

  5. To Be or Not to Be: Community Supervision Deja Vu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxman, Faye S.

    2008-01-01

    Supervision is an undervalued part of the correctional services. Over the last three decades, innovations have focused on increasing the number of contacts between the offender and the supervision employee, to little avail. A new generation of innovations is occurring in the supervision field that is directed at changing the interaction between…

  6. Development of the Artistic Supervision Model Scale (ASMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusuzoglu, Saduman; Dilekci, Umit

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop the Artistic Supervision Model Scale in accordance with the perception of inspectors and the elementary and secondary school teachers on artistic supervision. The lack of a measuring instrument related to the model of artistic supervision in the field of literature reveals the necessity of such study. 290…

  7. Projected estimators for robust semi-supervised classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijthe, J.H.; Loog, M.

    2017-01-01

    For semi-supervised techniques to be applied safely in practice we at least want methods to outperform their supervised counterparts. We study this question for classification using the well-known quadratic surrogate loss function. Unlike other approaches to semi-supervised learning, the

  8. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Water System Supervision Program. Texas has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), (2) the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection... Drinking Water Section (MC-155), Building F, 12100 Park 35 Circle, Austin, TX 78753; and United States...

  9. A work observation study of nuclear medicine technologists: interruptions, resilience and implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcos, George; Prgomet, Mirela; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    Errors by nuclear medicine technologists during the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals or at other times can cause patient harm and may reflect the impact of interruptions, busy work environments and deficient systems or processes. We aimed to: (a) characterise the rate and nature of interruptions technologists experience and (b) identify strategies that support safety. We performed 100 hours of observation of 11 technologists at a major public hospital and measured the proportions of time spent in eight categories of work tasks, location of task, interruption rate and type and multitasking (tasks conducted in parallel). We catalogued specific safety-oriented strategies used by technologists. Technologists completed 5227 tasks and experienced 569 interruptions (mean, 4.5 times per hour; 95% CI 4.1 to 4.9). The highest interruption rate occurred when technologists were in transit between rooms (10.3 per hour (95% CI 8.3 to 12.5)). Interruptions during radiopharmaceutical preparation occurred a mean of 4.4 times per hour (95% CI 3.3 to 5.6). Most (n=426) tasks were interrupted once only and all tasks were resumed after interruption. Multitasking occurred 16.6% of the time. At least some interruptions were initiated by other technologists to convey important information and/or to render assistance. Technologists employed a variety of verbal and non-verbal strategies in all work areas (notably in the hot-lab) to minimise the impact of interruptions and optimise the safe conduct of procedures. Although most were due to individual choices, some strategies reflected overt or subliminal departmental policy. Some interruptions appear beneficial. Technologists' self-initiated strategies to support safe work practices appear to be an important element in supporting a resilient work environment in nuclear medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The culture contributing to interruptions in the nursing work environment: An ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Susan G; Wiegand, Debra L

    2017-12-01

    To understand the occurrence of interruptions within the culture of the medical nursing unit work environment. Interruptions may lead to errors in nursing work. Little is known about how the culture of the nursing work environment contributes to interruptions. A micro-focused ethnographic study was conducted. Data collection involved extensive observation of a nursing unit, 1:1 observations of nurses and follow-up interviews with the nurses. Data were analysed from unstructured field notes and interview transcripts. The definitions of interruption and culture guided coding, categorising and identification of themes. A framework was developed that describes the medical nursing unit as a complex culture full of unpredictable, nonlinear changes that affect the entire interconnected system, often in the form of an interruption. The cultural elements contributing to interruptions included (i) the value placed on excellence in patient care and meeting personal needs, (ii) the beliefs that the nurses had to do everything by themselves and that every phone call was important, (iii) the patterns of changing patients, patient transport and coordination of resources and (iv) the normative practices of communicating and adapting. Interruptions are an integral part of the culture of a medical nursing unit. Uniformly decreasing interruptions may disrupt current practices, such as communication to coordinate care, that are central to nursing work. In future research, the nursing work environment must be looked at through the lens of a complex system. Interventions to minimise the negative impact of interruptions must take into account the culture of the nursing as a complex adaptive system. Nurses should be educated on their own contribution to interruptions and issues addressed at a system level, rather than isolating the interruption as the central issue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Using an Agent-oriented Framework for Supervision, Diagnosis and Prognosis Applications in Advanced Automation Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunem, Harald P-J; Thunem, Atoosa P-J; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a generic agent-oriented framework can be used in advanced automation environments, for systems analysis in general and supervision, diagnosis and prognosis purposes in particular. The framework’s background and main application areas are briefly described. Next......-oriented supervision, diagnosis and prognosis purposes are equally explained. Finally, the paper sums up by also addressing plans for further enhancement and in that respect integration with other tailor-made tools for joint treatment of various modeling and analysis activities upon advanced automation environments....

  12. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J; Møller, T; Quist, M; Rørth, M

    2009-02-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments.

  13. Supervised Learning for Dynamical System Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ahmed; Downey, Carlton; Gordon, Geoffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been substantial interest in spectral methods for learning dynamical systems. These methods are popular since they often offer a good tradeoff between computational and statistical efficiency. Unfortunately, they can be difficult to use and extend in practice: e.g., they can make it difficult to incorporate prior information such as sparsity or structure. To address this problem, we present a new view of dynamical system learning: we show how to learn dynamical systems by solving a sequence of ordinary supervised learning problems, thereby allowing users to incorporate prior knowledge via standard techniques such as L 1 regularization. Many existing spectral methods are special cases of this new framework, using linear regression as the supervised learner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by showing examples where nonlinear regression or lasso let us learn better state representations than plain linear regression does; the correctness of these instances follows directly from our general analysis.

  14. Supervised Learning for Visual Pattern Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nanning; Xue, Jianru

    This chapter presents an overview of the topics and major ideas of supervised learning for visual pattern classification. Two prevalent algorithms, i.e., the support vector machine (SVM) and the boosting algorithm, are briefly introduced. SVMs and boosting algorithms are two hot topics of recent research in supervised learning. SVMs improve the generalization of the learning machine by implementing the rule of structural risk minimization (SRM). It exhibits good generalization even when little training data are available for machine training. The boosting algorithm can boost a weak classifier to a strong classifier by means of the so-called classifier combination. This algorithm provides a general way for producing a classifier with high generalization capability from a great number of weak classifiers.

  15. Balancing Design Project Supervision and Learning Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2012-01-01

    experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...

  16. Supervision in social work NGOs in Bihor County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Marcela MARC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a qualitative research which aims at analyzing supervision in the social services provided by NGOs in Bihor County. We used the method of sociological investigation by means of interview and data collection was accomplished through the technique of individual semi-structured interview. The obtained responses demonstrate that individual supervision was mostly used and in most cases the professional supervisor was from outside the organization. The respondents considered that supervision reduces professional stress. The main problems encountered in the implementation of supervision are the lack of financial resources and the association of supervision with bureaucratic control.

  17. Diapason: an assistant system for supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudouneau, L.; Leyval, L.; Montmain, J.; Penalva, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Simulation and assisted diagnosis are the contributions DIAPASON provides to supervision. The reasonings are based on a qualitative model, a knowledge base and a set of constraints on the values of the process variables, all three issued from a single representation of the process. After an overview of the qualitative simulation, the on line interpretation of the latter and the heuristic diagnosis, the cooperation of these three units is pointed out [fr

  18. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  19. Internationalisation of banking and banking supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Speyer, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    The divergence between increasingly supranational financial markets on the one hand and still largely national supervisory structures on the other gives rise to tensions which reduce the effectiveness of the supervision. It lies in the interests of both the public and the private sector that the supervisory structures are commensurate with the risks in a global capital market. An extension of the framework of common minimum standards (at a high level!) and joint definitions and data standards...

  20. Real time interrupt handling using FORTRAN IV plus under RSX-11M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    A real-time data acquisition application for a linear accelerator is described. The important programming features of this application are use of connect to interrupt, a shared library, map to I/O page, and a shared data area. How you can provide rapid interrupt handling using these tools from FORTRAN IV PLUS is explained

  1. INFLUENCE OF INTERRUPTED PULMONARY LYMPH-DRAINAGE ON ANTIBODY-RESPONSES IN HILAR-STRIPPED LUNGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, FZ; WINTER, JB; WILDEVUUR, CRH; PROP, J

    1992-01-01

    Lung transplantation interrupts hilar lymphatics. This may have an impact on immune responses to antigens entering the lung because the antigens cannot reach the lung-associated lymph nodes where the immune response is generated. We investigated the interruption and regeneration of lymphatics and

  2. Trend of Antiretroviral therapy interruption in a clinic cohort of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over subsequent years with increasing expertise coupled with more patient education and public awareness it is expected that these interruptions would decline. We therefore determined the trend in ART interruptions in a clinic cohort of HIV-1 infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH).

  3. Combining social strategies and workload: a new design to reduce the negative effects of task interruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.A.J.; Lohse, M.; Winterboer, Andi; Groen, Frans C.A.; Evers, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Being interrupted by notifications and reminders is common while working. In this study we consider whether system politeness reduces (negative) effects of being interrupted by system requests. We carried out a 2 (polite vs. neutral system request) x 2 (high vs. low mental load) between-participants

  4. Changes in lipids and lipoprotein particle concentrations after interruption of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Fiona C; Duprez, Daniel A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2010-01-01

    The effect of interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on lipoprotein particle subclasses has not been studied. We examined short-term changes in lipids and lipoprotein particles among 332 HIV-infected individuals randomized to interrupt or continue ART in the "Strategies for Management...

  5. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason of... entry of ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same that infringe one or more of...

  6. 77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit... States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by... issued a general exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe the...

  7. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims...

  8. Protection of spermatogenisis during X-irradiation and chemotherapy by temporary blood flow interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van.

    1989-01-01

    In an animal model the possibility was tested to interrupt the blood flow to the testis temporarily and repeatedly. Subsequently, it was investigated whether blood flow interuption during irradiation or during cytostatic drug administration could limit the damage induced to the spermatogonial stem cells. The effect of repeatedly blood flow interruptions on spermatogenesis was evaluated. (author). 192 refs.; 15 figs.; 11 tabs

  9. Group supervision for healthcare professionals within primary care for patients with psychosomatic health problems: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, Jennifer; Cronqvist, Agneta

    2018-03-01

    In primary health care, efficacious treatment strategies are lacking for these patients, although the most prominent symptoms accounting for consultation in primary care often cannot be related to any biological causes. The aim was to explore whether group supervision from a specific phenomenological theory of psychosomatics could provide healthcare professionals treating patients with psychosomatic health issues within primary care a deeper understanding of these conditions and stimulate profession-specific treatment strategies. Our research questions were as follows: (i) What is the healthcare professionals' understanding of psychosomatics before and after the intervention? (ii) What are the treatment strategies for this group of patients before and after the intervention? The study was an explorative qualitative intervention pilot study. The six participants from a primary healthcare setting in a medium-sized city in Sweden participated in the study. A supervision group was formed, based on a mix of professions, age, gender and years of clinical experience. Supervision consisted of one 75-minutes meeting every month during the course of 6 months. Participants were interviewed before and after the supervision intervention. The study showed two distinct categories emerged from the data. One category of healthcare professionals espoused a psycho-educative approach, while the other lacked a cohesive approach. The supervision improved the second category of healthcare professionals' understanding of psychosomatics. The psycho-educative group did not change their understanding of psychosomatics, although they felt strengthened in their approach by the supervision. Profession-specific strategies were not developed. This pilot study indicates that a relatively short supervision intervention can aid clinicians in their clinical encounters with these patients; however, further research is necessary to ascertain the value of the specific phenomenologically based

  10. Informal sources of supervision in clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Barry A; Hazanov, Valery

    2014-11-01

    Although formal, assigned supervision is a potent source of learning and guidance for psychotherapy trainees, many beginning psychotherapists use other, informal sources of supervision or consultation for advice and support. Results of an online survey of beginning trainees (N = 146) indicate that other than their formally assigned supervisor, trainees most often consult with colleagues in their program, their own psychotherapist, and their significant other; that they're most likely to seek these other sources of help when they're feeling stuck or feel they've made a clinical mistake; that they do so because they need extra reassurance and suggestions; that they feel the advice given from these sources is helpful; and that they don't especially regret sharing this information. Several case examples are used to illustrate these points. Discussing clinical material with informal sources is, apparently, a great deal more common than typically acknowledged, and as such, has implications for training programs (including discussions of ethics) and formal supervision. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Race in Supervision: Let's Talk About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schen, Cathy R; Greenlee, Alecia

    2018-01-01

    Addressing race and racial trauma within psychotherapy supervision is increasingly important in psychiatry training. A therapist's ability to discuss race and racial trauma in psychotherapy supervision increases the likelihood that these topics will be explored as they arise in the therapeutic setting. The authors discuss the contextual and sociocultural dynamics that contributed to their own avoidance of race and racial trauma within the supervisory relationship. The authors examine the features that eventually led to a robust discussion of race and culture within the supervisory setting and identify salient themes that occurred during three phases of the conversation about race: pre-dialogue, the conversation, and after the conversation. These themes include building an alliance, supercompetence, avoidance, shared vulnerability, "if I speak on this, I own it," closeness versus distance, and speaking up. This article reviews the key literature in the field of psychiatry and psychology that has shaped how we understand race and racial trauma and concludes with guidelines for supervisors on how to facilitate talking about race in supervision.

  12. Deconstructing Risk Management in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jerome; Radden, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    In the ongoing controversy over how much regulation and standardization to impose on clinical practice and research, it is not surprising that the activity of psychotherapy supervision should be swept up in the drive for uniformity. The managers amongst us want to regulate and institutionalize all aspects of practice. In opposition, many clinicians resist the relentless march toward the safety of uniformity travel alongside managerial imposition of regulations. Psychotherapy supervision's method of a close apprenticeship relationship between supervisor and trainee and its focus on the process and ethics of professional interaction stand at the humanistic core of what is otherwise becoming an increasingly mechanistic model of providing care to persons with mental illness. Our commentary picks up on these themes as it reviews the work by Mehrtens et al about strengthening awareness of liability in psychiatry residency training programs. We argue that the practice of psychiatry is overburdened by documentation requirements. In imposing further record-keeping on psychotherapy supervision, we lose much more than we gain. We recommend that the supervisory process focus on the characterological virtues essential to functioning as an ethical therapist. We also argue that self-protective rules place restraints on possibilities for imaginative insights and innovations in psychotherapy. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  13. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  14. Anticipating Interruptions. Security and risk in a liberalized electricity infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, A.

    2013-11-01

    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged - those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define

  15. Supervised team management, with or without structured psychotherapy, in heavy users of a mental health service with borderline personality disorder: a two-year follow-up preliminary randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ferrero, Andrea; Pierò, Andrea; Cairo, Elisabetta; Rocca, Giuseppe; Simonelli, Barbara; Fassina, Simona; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2011-11-21

    Individuals affected by severe Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are often heavy users of Mental Health Services (MHS). Short-term treatments currently used in BPD therapy are useful to target disruptive behaviors but they are less effective in reducing heavy MHS use. Therefore, alternative short-term treatments, less complex than long-term psychodynamic psychotherapies but specifically oriented to BPD core problems, need to be developed to reduce MHS overuse. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding Sequential Brief Adlerian Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (SB-APP) to Supervised Team Management (STM) in BPD treatment compared to STM alone in a naturalistic group of heavy MHS users with BPD. Effectiveness was evaluated 6 times along a two-year follow-up. Thirty-five outpatients who met inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (STM = 17; SB-APP = 18) and then compared. Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and CGI-modified (CGI-M) for BPD, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R) were administered at T1, T3, T6, T12, T18 and T24. At T12 the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-S) was also completed. At the one-year follow-up, SB-APP group did not receive any additional individual psychological support. MHS team was specifically trained in BPD treatment and had regular supervisions. All patients improved on CGI, GAF, and STAXI scores after 6 and 12 months, independently of treatment received. SB-APP group showed better outcome on impulsivity, suicide attempts, chronic feelings of emptiness, and disturbed relationships. We found a good stabilization at the one year follow-up, even after the interruption of brief psychotherapy in the SB-APP group. Although STM for BPD applied to heavy MHS users was effective in reducing symptoms and improving their global functioning, adding a time-limited and focused psychotherapy was found to achieve a

  16. Supervised team management, with or without structured psychotherapy, in heavy users of a mental health service with borderline personality disorder: a two-year follow-up preliminary randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amianto Federico

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals affected by severe Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD are often heavy users of Mental Health Services (MHS. Short-term treatments currently used in BPD therapy are useful to target disruptive behaviors but they are less effective in reducing heavy MHS use. Therefore, alternative short-term treatments, less complex than long-term psychodynamic psychotherapies but specifically oriented to BPD core problems, need to be developed to reduce MHS overuse. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding Sequential Brief Adlerian Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (SB-APP to Supervised Team Management (STM in BPD treatment compared to STM alone in a naturalistic group of heavy MHS users with BPD. Effectiveness was evaluated 6 times along a two-year follow-up. Methods Thirty-five outpatients who met inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (STM = 17; SB-APP = 18 and then compared. Clinical Global Impression (CGI and CGI-modified (CGI-M for BPD, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI, and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R were administered at T1, T3, T6, T12, T18 and T24. At T12 the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-S was also completed. At the one-year follow-up, SB-APP group did not receive any additional individual psychological support. MHS team was specifically trained in BPD treatment and had regular supervisions. Results All patients improved on CGI, GAF, and STAXI scores after 6 and 12 months, independently of treatment received. SB-APP group showed better outcome on impulsivity, suicide attempts, chronic feelings of emptiness, and disturbed relationships. We found a good stabilization at the one year follow-up, even after the interruption of brief psychotherapy in the SB-APP group. Conclusions Although STM for BPD applied to heavy MHS users was effective in reducing symptoms and improving their global functioning, adding a time

  17. SemiBoost: boosting for semi-supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapragada, Pavan Kumar; Jin, Rong; Jain, Anil K; Liu, Yi

    2009-11-01

    Semi-supervised learning has attracted a significant amount of attention in pattern recognition and machine learning. Most previous studies have focused on designing special algorithms to effectively exploit the unlabeled data in conjunction with labeled data. Our goal is to improve the classification accuracy of any given supervised learning algorithm by using the available unlabeled examples. We call this as the Semi-supervised improvement problem, to distinguish the proposed approach from the existing approaches. We design a metasemi-supervised learning algorithm that wraps around the underlying supervised algorithm and improves its performance using unlabeled data. This problem is particularly important when we need to train a supervised learning algorithm with a limited number of labeled examples and a multitude of unlabeled examples. We present a boosting framework for semi-supervised learning, termed as SemiBoost. The key advantages of the proposed semi-supervised learning approach are: 1) performance improvement of any supervised learning algorithm with a multitude of unlabeled data, 2) efficient computation by the iterative boosting algorithm, and 3) exploiting both manifold and cluster assumption in training classification models. An empirical study on 16 different data sets and text categorization demonstrates that the proposed framework improves the performance of several commonly used supervised learning algorithms, given a large number of unlabeled examples. We also show that the performance of the proposed algorithm, SemiBoost, is comparable to the state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning algorithms.

  18. Two-dimensional electron density characterisation of arc interruption phenomenon in current-zero phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Yuki; Kamiya, Tomoki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Hidaka, Kunihiko

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional electron density imaging over free burning SF6 arcs and SF6 gas-blast arcs was conducted at current zero using highly sensitive Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensors in order to experimentally characterise electron density distributions for the success and failure of arc interruption in the thermal reignition phase. The experimental results under an interruption probability of 50% showed that free burning SF6 arcs with axially asymmetric electron density profiles were interrupted with a success rate of 88%. On the other hand, the current interruption of SF6 gas-blast arcs was reproducibly achieved under locally reduced electron densities and the interruption success rate was 100%.

  19. An Approach to Supervision for Doctoral and Entry-Level Group Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robyn; Bambacus, Elizabeth; Gibson, Donna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a supervision approach to experiential groups that replaces professors with doctoral students in the chain of supervision, enlists a faculty member to provide supervision of supervision to the doctoral students, and translates supervision theory to meet the unique needs of group counseling supervision.…

  20. Interrupting poliovirus transmission -- new solutions to an old problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, R Bruce; Maher, Chris

    2006-06-01

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, knowledge as to the nature of circulating polioviruses and the challenges to their interruption has increased tremendously, particularly during the period 2000-2005. By January 2006, however, the systematic application of the standard polio eradication strategies, combined with recent refinements, had reduced the number of countries with ongoing transmission of indigenous wild polioviruses to just four (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), the lowest ever in history. In addition, only 8 of the 22 areas that had been re-infected by wild poliovirus in 2003-2005 still required large-scale 'mop-up' activities and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were being readily addressed. This progress, despite new challenges late in the GPEI, was greatly facilitated by a range of solutions that included two new monovalent oral polio vaccines (mOPVs), new and robust international standards for polio outbreak response, and renewed political commitment across the remaining infected countries.

  1. [The utility of the interrupter technique in pediatric asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Akiko; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Arisaka, Osamu

    2002-11-01

    Interrupter respiratory resistance (Rint) is a new lung function test for measuring airway resistance. We investigated the utility of the Rint lung function test in pediatric patients with asthma. Thirty seven asthmatic patients with mild or moderate asthma attack (asthma group) and 9 healthy children (control group) were enrolled in the study, and the utility of the Ring test was compared with that of the PEF lung function test. Rint and PEF were measured after the inhalation of saline or beta(2) stimulant, and the values for the asthma and control groups were compared. The rint and PEF values did not change after the inhalation of saline, but both values improved after the inhalation of beta(2) stimulant in the asthma group. In the control group, the PEF and Rint values measured after saline or beta(2) stimulant were not significantly different. Rint measurements may be more useful than PEF tests for evaluating therapeutic responses to mild asthma attacks in children. These findings suggest that Rint is a useful respiratory function test for evaluating children with asthma.

  2. Interrupted time-series analysis: studying trends in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ricky H; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Pan, I-Wen; Lam, Sandi K

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Neurosurgery studies traditionally have evaluated the effects of interventions on health care outcomes by studying overall changes in measured outcomes over time. Yet, this type of linear analysis is limited due to lack of consideration of the trend's effects both pre- and postintervention and the potential for confounding influences. The aim of this study was to illustrate interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) as applied to an example in the neurosurgical literature and highlight ITSA's potential for future applications. METHODS The methods used in previous neurosurgical studies were analyzed and then compared with the methodology of ITSA. RESULTS The ITSA method was identified in the neurosurgical literature as an important technique for isolating the effect of an intervention (such as a policy change or a quality and safety initiative) on a health outcome independent of other factors driving trends in the outcome. The authors determined that ITSA allows for analysis of the intervention's immediate impact on outcome level and on subsequent trends and enables a more careful measure of the causal effects of interventions on health care outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ITSA represents a significant improvement over traditional observational study designs in quantifying the impact of an intervention. ITSA is a useful statistical procedure to understand, consider, and implement as the field of neurosurgery evolves in sophistication in big-data analytics, economics, and health services research.

  3. Gonadotrophic status in adolescents with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottembourg, Diane; Linglart, Agnès; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Lahlou, Najiba; Teinturier, Cécile; Bougnères, Pierre; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2008-07-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a frequent cause of GH deficiency (GHD) and is commonly associated with other PH deficiencies (PHDs). Although previous reports have correlated multiple PHDs with severe anatomical lesions, the status of the gonadotrophic axis has not yet been thoroughly analysed. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 patients (15 males, 12 females) with GHD and PSIS defined by MRI findings. The status of the gonadotrophic axis was evaluated in children who were at least 14.5 years (boys) or 13 years (girls). Out of 27 patients, five displayed spontaneous full pubertal development with normal hormonal values at the final evaluation, whereas 22 of 27 patients (81%) had complete (n = 18) or partial pubertal deficiency. Three girls had primary amenorrhoea with normal gonadotrophin values, raising the possibility of subtle disturbances of gonadotrophin pulsatility. Of the 21 patients with TSH or ACTH deficiency, 17 (81%) had complete gonadotrophin deficiency. Two of our six patients with apparently isolated GHD during childhood had gonadotrophin deficiency. Cryptorchidism was present at birth in six boys (40%). Of these six boys, one had normal pubertal development. Ten of 11 boys with micropenis at birth had gonadotrophin deficiency. Gonadotrophin deficiency is a common finding in adolescents with PSIS and is frequently associated with other PHDs. However its severity is variable, ranging from complete gonadotrophin deficiency to normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. The occurrence of gonadotrophin deficiency in 33% of children with apparently isolated GHD and PSIS has important implications for the counselling and follow-up of these patients.

  4. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éilish Duke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  5. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N  = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  6. Roads, interrupted dispersal, and genetic diversity in timber rattlesnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Brown, William S; Stechert, Randy; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2010-08-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often creates barriers to animal movement, transforming formerly contiguous habitat into a patchwork of habitat islands with low connectivity. Roadways are a feature of most landscapes that can act as barriers or filters to migration among local populations. Even small and recently constructed roads can have a significant impact on population genetic structure of some species, but not others. We developed a research approach that combines fine-scale molecular genetics with behavioral and ecological data to understand the impacts of roads on population structure and connectivity. We used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic variation within and among populations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) occupying communal hibernacula (dens) in regions bisected by roadways. We examined the impact of roads on seasonal migration, genetic diversity, and gene flow among populations. Snakes in hibernacula isolated by roads had significantly lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than snakes in hibernacula in contiguous habitat. Genetic-assignment analyses revealed that interruption to seasonal migration was the mechanism underlying these patterns. Our results underscore the sizeable impact of roads on this species, despite their relatively recent construction at our study sites (7 to 10 generations of rattlesnakes), the utility of population genetics for studies of road ecology, and the need for mitigating effects of roads.

  7. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...... and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction......Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease...

  8. Impact of supervised physiotherapeutic pelvic floor exercises for treating female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Raquel Diniz Zanetti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Urinary incontinence is a public health problem that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Stress incontinence is the most prevalent type. Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been used for treating it, although there is no consensus regarding their application. The aim of this study was to compare the results from treating female stress urinary incontinence with pelvic floor muscle exercises with or without physiotherapist supervision. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a randomized, prospective, controlled trial in the Urogynecology and Vaginal Surgery Sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Forty-four women were randomized to be treated for stress urinary incontinence with pelvic floor exercises for three consecutive months, into two groups: one with and the other without physiotherapist supervision. They were evaluated before and after treatment using a quality-of-life questionnaire, pad test, micturition diary and subjective evaluation. Descriptive analysis was used to evaluate the population. The homogeneity of the two groups was evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. The success of the two groups after treatment was evaluated using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The supervised group showed statistically greater improvement in the pad test, micturition diary and quality of life than did the control group. In the subjective evaluation, only 23.8% of the control group patients were satised with their treatment. In the supervised group, 66.8% of patients did not want any other treatment. CONCLUSION: Supervised pelvic floor muscle exercises presented better results in objective and subjective evaluations than did unsupervised exercises.

  9. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin ≥12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin ≥12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p 1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results

  10. Combination of supervised and semi-supervised regression models for improved unbiased estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-Garía, Jeronimo; Moriana-Varo, Carlos; Larsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the steady-state performance of semisupervised regression models adjusted using a modified RLS-like algorithm, identifying the situations where the new algorithm is expected to outperform standard RLS. By using an adaptive combination of the supervised and semisupervi......In this paper we investigate the steady-state performance of semisupervised regression models adjusted using a modified RLS-like algorithm, identifying the situations where the new algorithm is expected to outperform standard RLS. By using an adaptive combination of the supervised...

  11. Exploring paraprofessional and classroom factors affecting teacher supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard

    2018-02-01

    Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  13. Identifying biological pathway interrupting toxins using multi-tree ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Barta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry constantly seeks new ways to improve current methods that scientists use to evaluate environmental chemicals and develop new medicines. Various automated steps are involved in the process as testing hundreds of thousands of chemicals manually would be infeasible. Our research effort and the Toxicology in the 21st Century Data Challenge focused on cost-effective automation of toxicological testing, a chemical substance screening process looking for possible toxic effects caused by interrupting biological pathways. The computational models we propose in this paper successfully combine various publicly available substance fingerprinting tools with advanced machine learning techniques. In our paper, we explore the significance and utility of assorted feature selection methods as the structural analyzers generate a plethora of features for each substance. Machine learning models were carefully selected and evaluated based on their capability to cope with the high-dimensional high-variety data with multi-tree ensemble methods coming out on top. Techniques like Random forests and Extra trees combine numerous simple tree models and proved to produce reliable predictions on toxic activity while being nearly non-parametric and insensitive to dimensionality extremes. The Tox21 Data Challenge contest offered a great platform to compare a wide range of solutions in a controlled and orderly manner. The results clearly demonstrate that the generic approach presented in this paper is comparable to advanced deep learning and domain-specific solutions. Even surpassing the competition in some nuclear receptor signaling and stress pathway assays and achieving an accuracy of up to 94 percent.

  14. Preliminary observations of gate valve flow interruption tests, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary observations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Flexible Wedge Gate Valve Qualification and Flow Interruption Test Program, Phase 2. The program investigated the ability of selected boiling water reactor (BWR) process line valves to perform their containment isolation function at high energy pipe break conditions and other more normal flow conditions. The fluid and valve operating responses were measured to provide information concerning valve and operator performance at various valve loadings so that the information could be used to assess typical nuclear industry motor operator sizing equations. Six valves were tested, three 6-in. isolation valves representative of those used in reactor water cleanup systems in BWRs and three 10-in. isolation valves representative of those used in BWR high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) steam lines. The concern with these normally open isolation valves is whether they will close in the event of a downstream pipe break outside of containment. The results of this testing will provide part of the technical insights for NRC efforts regarding Generic Issue 87 (GI-87), Failure of the HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation, which includes concerns about the uncertainties in gate valve motor operator sizing and torque switch settings for these BWR containment isolation valves. As of this writing, the Phase 2 test program has just been completed. Preliminary observations made in the field confirmed most of the results from the Phase 1 test program. All six valves closing in high energy water, high energy steam, and high pressure cold water require more force to close than would be calculated using the typical variables in the standard industry motor operator sizing equations

  15. Self Cleaning HEPA Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylde, M.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research (Bergman et al 1997, Moore et al 1992) suggests that the then costs to the DOE, based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5,000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15,000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  16. Genetic classification of populations using supervised learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bridges

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many instances in genetics in which we wish to determine whether two candidate populations are distinguishable on the basis of their genetic structure. Examples include populations which are geographically separated, case-control studies and quality control (when participants in a study have been genotyped at different laboratories. This latter application is of particular importance in the era of large scale genome wide association studies, when collections of individuals genotyped at different locations are being merged to provide increased power. The traditional method for detecting structure within a population is some form of exploratory technique such as principal components analysis. Such methods, which do not utilise our prior knowledge of the membership of the candidate populations. are termed unsupervised. Supervised methods, on the other hand are able to utilise this prior knowledge when it is available.In this paper we demonstrate that in such cases modern supervised approaches are a more appropriate tool for detecting genetic differences between populations. We apply two such methods, (neural networks and support vector machines to the classification of three populations (two from Scotland and one from Bulgaria. The sensitivity exhibited by both these methods is considerably higher than that attained by principal components analysis and in fact comfortably exceeds a recently conjectured theoretical limit on the sensitivity of unsupervised methods. In particular, our methods can distinguish between the two Scottish populations, where principal components analysis cannot. We suggest, on the basis of our results that a supervised learning approach should be the method of choice when classifying individuals into pre-defined populations, particularly in quality control for large scale genome wide association studies.

  17. Genetic classification of populations using supervised learning.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bridges, Michael

    2011-01-01

    There are many instances in genetics in which we wish to determine whether two candidate populations are distinguishable on the basis of their genetic structure. Examples include populations which are geographically separated, case-control studies and quality control (when participants in a study have been genotyped at different laboratories). This latter application is of particular importance in the era of large scale genome wide association studies, when collections of individuals genotyped at different locations are being merged to provide increased power. The traditional method for detecting structure within a population is some form of exploratory technique such as principal components analysis. Such methods, which do not utilise our prior knowledge of the membership of the candidate populations. are termed unsupervised. Supervised methods, on the other hand are able to utilise this prior knowledge when it is available.In this paper we demonstrate that in such cases modern supervised approaches are a more appropriate tool for detecting genetic differences between populations. We apply two such methods, (neural networks and support vector machines) to the classification of three populations (two from Scotland and one from Bulgaria). The sensitivity exhibited by both these methods is considerably higher than that attained by principal components analysis and in fact comfortably exceeds a recently conjectured theoretical limit on the sensitivity of unsupervised methods. In particular, our methods can distinguish between the two Scottish populations, where principal components analysis cannot. We suggest, on the basis of our results that a supervised learning approach should be the method of choice when classifying individuals into pre-defined populations, particularly in quality control for large scale genome wide association studies.

  18. Supervision Vs Education Quality in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoel Ruber Mota Fonseca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective to interpret the voices of teachers supervising vs quality of education in primary education, as today, supervision entails progress and improvement in the performance of the duties of teachers in the learning environment is therefore, that through this content conflicts present information to achieve changes within educational institutions towards organizational efficiency and under supplied. In it, a qualitative paradigmatic approach as a methodological foundation that allows us to interpret educational supervision through delos social actors which is made up of managers, teachers and supervisors in the context of primary education, established likewise was necessary to collect the information through direct observation technique using as an interview script whose implementation was key informants comprised of a primary teacher education, a supervisor and from this the researcher, thus achieving the corresponding analysis according to the information provided for each, which allowed the development of argumentative skills teachers, establishing rules and procedures that provide guidelines for creating answers to the problem. For with following aims determined in the investigation, vital agents that help teachers to be highly competent in their daily practice, using teaching strategies that will enable success in the classroom, whose purpose is the achievement orientation and optimization in the process of teaching and student learning. In this sense, a reflection about the role it should play the supervisor to achieve educational quality is performed, demonstrating spaces mediation, integration, participation and collaboration with respect to the performance of the master whose aim is to be efficient and effective in its educational work of the educational system.

  19. Burnout in Chinese coal mine safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Feiyu; Zhu, Dandan; Qi, Hui; Long, Ruyin

    2015-01-01

    This study examines commonly-suffered job burnout as it relates to the practice of safety supervision in Chinese coal mine enterprises. Commonly-suffered job burnout is a form of job burnout caused by external factors. It is closely related to task characteristics rather than individual idiosyncrasies. To explore the causes of commonly-suffered job burnout, the special attributes (the integrated output attributes, conditional output attributes, and public goods attributes) of coal mine safety output and the inevitability of the invalidation of the bounded authority in safety supervision were analyzed in this study, which reveals the formation mechanism of commonly-suffered job burnout. Moreover, a confirmatory game model was constructed to analyze how the attributes of the safety output and bounded authority of safety supervision act on the safety output. The theoretical connotation of commonly-suffered job burnout was explained based on the job demands-resources theory. A comparative analysis of commonly-suffered job burnout and the job burnout that occurs in the traditional research object was also undertaken from the viewpoint of the job demands, which are determined by the characteristics of the work task and their corresponding coping resources. Policy suggestions were given based on interventions in commonly-suffered job burnout. -- Highlights: •We discuss commonly-suffered job burnout in Chinese coal enterprises. •We analyze the special attributes of coal mine safety output. •We explore two main causes of commonly-suffered job burnout. •We construct a game model to validate how the two causes act on safety output. •We put forward related policy suggestions

  20. Supervision of the vibration of rotating components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The aim of the investifation was to plead for the systematization and uniformity of surveillance and to form a source of information to the makers of instruments, suppliers of engines, consultants and others. Two essential topics are treated, namely rotor dynamics and measuring methods for vibration control. An inventory of damages and problems of rotating machinery is presented. Recommendations concerning various supervision programs of reactor safety, the importance of components, risk of missiles and erroreous operations are given along with instructions how to get hold of suitable instruments. Experience from nuclear power plants is said to be essential. Experimental activity at Ringhals and/or Forsmark power plant is proposed. (G.B.)

  1. Report for an accreditation to supervise research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacnet, Frederique

    2000-01-01

    After indications of his scientific publications, of his published posters, and of his activities of supervision of students and researchers, the author proposes an overview of his research works since 1987. His first works related biochemical and immuno-cyto-chemical characterisation of the neutral aminopeptidase (a marker in epithelial cells), and then (for his research thesis), to the study of membrane mechanisms during zinc intestinal absorption, and after that, to a study of divalent cation transport mechanisms. More recent works (1994-2000) addressed molecular mechanisms of water and solute transports by aqua-porins. Project on a medium term are presented. Published articles are proposed in appendix

  2. 75 FR 59799 - Office of Thrift Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on proposed and continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will submit the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. Today, OTS is soliciting public comments on its proposal to extend this information collection.

  3. Graph-based semi-supervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanya, Amarnag

    2014-01-01

    While labeled data is expensive to prepare, ever increasing amounts of unlabeled data is becoming widely available. In order to adapt to this phenomenon, several semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms, which learn from labeled as well as unlabeled data, have been developed. In a separate line of work, researchers have started to realize that graphs provide a natural way to represent data in a variety of domains. Graph-based SSL algorithms, which bring together these two lines of work, have been shown to outperform the state-of-the-art in many applications in speech processing, computer visi

  4. Effects of coaching supervision, mentoring supervision and abusive supervision on talent development among trainee doctors in public hospitals: moderating role of clinical learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anusuiya; Silong, Abu Daud; Uli, Jegak; Ismail, Ismi Arif

    2015-08-13

    Effective talent development requires robust supervision. However, the effects of supervisory styles (coaching, mentoring and abusive supervision) on talent development and the moderating effects of clinical learning environment in the relationship between supervisory styles and talent development among public hospital trainee doctors have not been thoroughly researched. In this study, we aim to achieve the following, (1) identify the extent to which supervisory styles (coaching, mentoring and abusive supervision) can facilitate talent development among trainee doctors in public hospital and (2) examine whether coaching, mentoring and abusive supervision are moderated by clinical learning environment in predicting talent development among trainee doctors in public hospital. A questionnaire-based critical survey was conducted among trainee doctors undergoing housemanship at six public hospitals in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Prior permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia to conduct the research in the identified public hospitals. The survey yielded 355 responses. The results were analysed using SPSS 20.0 and SEM with AMOS 20.0. The findings of this research indicate that coaching and mentoring supervision are positively associated with talent development, and that there is no significant relationship between abusive supervision and talent development. The findings also support the moderating role of clinical learning environment on the relationships between coaching supervision-talent development, mentoring supervision-talent development and abusive supervision-talent development among public hospital trainee doctors. Overall, the proposed model indicates a 26 % variance in talent development. This study provides an improved understanding on the role of the supervisory styles (coaching and mentoring supervision) on facilitating talent development among public hospital trainee doctors. Furthermore, this study extends the literature to better

  5. Cardiogenic shock due to coronary artery disease associated with interrupted aortic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Oliveira Dallan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema is a serious event. Its occurrence in association with interrupted aortic arch and coronary heart disease is rare. Recently, an old patient developed cardiogenic shock and acute pulmonary edema due to acute coronary insufficiency, associated with interrupted aortic arch. The coronary angiography revealed occlusion of the right coronary artery and 95% obstruction in the left main coronary artery, associated with interruption of the descending aorta. Coronary artery bypass graft was performed, without extracorporeal circulation, to the anterior descending coronary artery. We discuss the initial management, given the seriousness of the case.

  6. Algorithm Design of CPCI Backboard's Interrupts Management Based on VxWorks' Multi-Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingyuan; An, Qi; Yang, Junfeng

    2006-09-01

    This paper begins with a brief introduction of the embedded real-time operating system VxWorks and CompactPCI standard, then gives the programming interfaces of Peripheral Controller Interface (PCI) configuring, interrupts handling and multi-tasks programming interface under VxWorks, and then emphasis is placed on the software frameworks of CPCI interrupt management based on multi-tasks. This method is sound in design and easy to adapt, ensures that all possible interrupts are handled in time, which makes it suitable for data acquisition systems with multi-channels, a high data rate, and hard real-time high energy physics.

  7. Implementation of a Contingency Management-Based Intervention in a Community Supervision Setting: Clinical Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Adria J.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2011-01-01

    A cognitive-behaviorally based substance abuse treatment program was implemented within a community supervision setting. This program included a goals group that used a contingency management component and included the probation agent as a part of the treatment. In this article, the authors describe the contingency management component of the…

  8. An Assessment of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Knowledge Workers' Task Performance in E-Learning-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The modern workplace environment is filled with interruptions due to the necessity of coworkers to communicate with each other. Studies have revealed that interruptions can disrupt the ability of a knowledge worker to concentrate on a task, which can impact task performance (TP). Communication interruptions are due, in part, to the unavoidable…

  9. Projected estimators for robust semi-supervised classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krijthe, Jesse H.; Loog, Marco

    2017-01-01

    For semi-supervised techniques to be applied safely in practice we at least want methods to outperform their supervised counterparts. We study this question for classification using the well-known quadratic surrogate loss function. Unlike other approaches to semi-supervised learning, the procedure...... specifically, we prove that, measured on the labeled and unlabeled training data, this semi-supervised procedure never gives a lower quadratic loss than the supervised alternative. To our knowledge this is the first approach that offers such strong, albeit conservative, guarantees for improvement over...... the supervised solution. The characteristics of our approach are explicated using benchmark datasets to further understand the similarities and differences between the quadratic loss criterion used in the theoretical results and the classification accuracy typically considered in practice....

  10. Nurses’ perceptions on nursing supervision in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Francisco Farah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the perceptions of nurses on nursing supervision in the work process. Methods: this is a qualitative research, with a semi-structured interview, performed with 16 nurses. Data analysis was performed through content analysis. Results: two meanings topics emerged from the speeches of the participants: Nurses´ activities in Primary Health Care Units and Nurses´ perceptions about nursing supervision. In the first category, the actions listed were filling out forms and reports under the supervision of the nursing service. In the second category, supervision was perceived as a function of management and follow-up of the activities planned by the team, in opposition to the classical supervision concept, which is inspecting. Conclusion: nursing supervision has been configured for primary care nurses as an administrative function that involves planning, organization, coordination, evaluation, follow-up and support for the health team.

  11. Is supervision necessary? Examining the effects of internet-based CBT training with and without supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovshik, Sarah G; McManus, Freda; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Muse, Kate; Ougrin, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Internet-based training (IBT), with and without supervision, on therapists' (N = 61) cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) skills in routine clinical practice. Participants were randomized into 3 conditions: (1) Internet-based training with use of a consultation worksheet (IBT-CW); (2) Internet-based training with CBT supervision via Skype (IBT-S); and (3) "delayed-training" controls (DTs), who did not receive the training until all data collection was completed. The IBT participants received access to training over a period of 3 months. CBT skills were evaluated at pre-, mid- and posttraining/wait using assessor competence ratings of recorded therapy sessions. Hierarchical linear analysis revealed that the IBT-S participants had significantly greater CBT competence at posttraining than did IBT-CW and DT participants at both the mid- and posttraining/wait assessment points. There were no significant differences between IBT-CW and the delayed (no)-training DTs. IBT programs that include supervision may be a scalable and effective method of disseminating CBT into routine clinical practice, particularly for populations without ready access to more-traditional "live" methods of training. There was no evidence for a significant effect of IBT without supervision over a nontraining control, suggesting that merely providing access to IBT programs may not be an effective method of disseminating CBT to routine clinical practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation; Poste de supervision radioprotection viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaultier, E. [APVL Ingenierie- 6, bd Nobel - Equatop La Rabelais - 37540 Saint Cyr sur Loire (France)

    2009-07-01

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  13. Coupled dimensionality reduction and classification for supervised and semi-supervised multilabel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Coupled training of dimensionality reduction and classification is proposed previously to improve the prediction performance for single-label problems. Following this line of research, in this paper, we first introduce a novel Bayesian method that combines linear dimensionality reduction with linear binary classification for supervised multilabel learning and present a deterministic variational approximation algorithm to learn the proposed probabilistic model. We then extend the proposed method to find intrinsic dimensionality of the projected subspace using automatic relevance determination and to handle semi-supervised learning using a low-density assumption. We perform supervised learning experiments on four benchmark multilabel learning data sets by comparing our method with baseline linear dimensionality reduction algorithms. These experiments show that the proposed approach achieves good performance values in terms of hamming loss, average AUC, macro F 1 , and micro F 1 on held-out test data. The low-dimensional embeddings obtained by our method are also very useful for exploratory data analysis. We also show the effectiveness of our approach in finding intrinsic subspace dimensionality and semi-supervised learning tasks.

  14. Optimal Preventive Bank Supervision: Combining Random Audits and Continuous Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Belhaj; Nataliya Klimenko

    2012-01-01

    Early regulator interventions into problem banks are one of the key suggestions of Basel II. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: continuous regulator intervention and random audits. Random audit technologies differ as to quality and cost. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through...

  15. Risk-oriented banking supervision: understanding change of course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov K. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available in this article the existing model of national bank supervision, its substantial party are considered. By means of the legal analysis and comparative jurisprudence foreign models of bank supervision, the international standards of the «soft» right are investigated, the analysis of an opportunity and positive sides of change of approach of the operating bank supervision to substantial (risk-focused is made.

  16. Computer supervision of the core outlet sodium temperatures of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, C.

    1976-01-01

    Safety monitoring of the fast breeder test reactor at Kalpakkam (India) is achieved by a CDPS-on-line dual computer system which is dedicated to plant supervision. The on-line subsystem scans and supervises all the 170 core thermocouple signals every second. Organisation of the reactor core instruments, supervision of mean sodium outlet temperature and mean temperature drop across the core, detection of plugging of a fuel assembly are explained. (A.K.)

  17. The interruption of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti transmission by integrated chemotherapy in the Obongi focus, North Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakwo Thomson Luroni

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented the interruption of onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis (LF by integrated chemotherapy in Uganda. The study describes the interruption of transmission of the two diseases co-endemic in Obongi focus, north western Uganda. Base line data for Onchocerciasis and LF were collected in 1994 and 2006, respectively. Annual mass drug administration for onchocerciasis (Ivermectin and Lymphatic Filariasis (Ivermectin + albendazole was conducted for 20 and 6 years, respectively. Thereafter, assessments by skin snip, larval searches in rivers and human landing catches were performed. Children 65% was achieved in the six treatment rounds. Household ownership of ITN's and utilization was 96% and 72.4%., respectively.Parasitological examinations conducted for onchocerciasis among 807 adults and children, revealed a reduction in mf prevalence from 58% in 1994 to 0% in 2012. Entomological monitoring conducted at the two sites had no single Simulium damnosum fly caught. Serological analysis using Ov16 ELISA for onchocerciasis revealed that out of the 3,308 children <10 years old screened in 2013, only 3/3308 (0.091% positive cases were detected. All Ov16 positive children were negative when tested for patent infection by skin snip PCR. A reduction in LF microfilaria prevalence from 2.5% (n = 13/522 in 2006 to 0.0% (n = 602 in 2014 was observed. LF TAS1 conducted in 2015 among 1,532 children 6-7 years, all were negative for antigens of W. bancrofti.The results concluded that interruption of onchocerciasis and LF has been achieved.

  18. Interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year. None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community.

  19. Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

  20. Results of Evolution Supervised by Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a genetic algorithm is frequently assessed using a series of operators of evolution like crossover operators, mutation operators or other dynamic parameters. The present paper aimed to review the main results of evolution supervised by genetic algorithms used to identify solutions to agricultural and horticultural hard problems and to discuss the results of using a genetic algorithms on structure-activity relationships in terms of behavior of evolution supervised by genetic algorithms. A genetic algorithm had been developed and implemented in order to identify the optimal solution in term of estimation power of a multiple linear regression approach for structure-activity relationships. Three survival and three selection strategies (proportional, deterministic and tournament were investigated in order to identify the best survival-selection strategy able to lead to the model with higher estimation power. The Molecular Descriptors Family for structure characterization of a sample of 206 polychlorinated biphenyls with measured octanol-water partition coefficients was used as case study. Evolution using different selection and survival strategies proved to create populations of genotypes living in the evolution space with different diversity and variability. Under a series of criteria of comparisons these populations proved to be grouped and the groups were showed to be statistically different one to each other. The conclusions about genetic algorithm evolution according to a number of criteria were also highlighted.